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Sample records for aff arbuscula aplysina

  1. Depth-related alkaloid variation in Mediterranean Aplysina sponges.

    PubMed

    Putz, Annika; Kloeppel, Anne; Pfannkuchen, Martin; Brümmer, Franz; Proksch, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Total amounts and patterns of bromoisoxazoline alkaloids of Aplysina sponges from Croatia (Mediterranean Sea) were analyzed along an underwater slope ranging from 1.8 to 38.5 m. Total amounts of alkaloids varied from sample to sample and showed no correlation with depth. In contrast, striking differences of alkaloid patterns were found between sponges from shallow sites (1.8-11.8 m) and those collected from deeper sites (11.8-38.5 m). Sponges from shallow depths consistently exhibited alkaloid patterns typical for Aplysina aerophoba with aerophobin-2 (2) and isofistularin-3 (3) as main constituents. Sponges from deeper sites (below 11.8 m) resembled Aplysina cavernicola with aerothionin (4) and aplysinamisin-1 (1) as major compounds. The typical A. cavernicola pigment 3,4-dihydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (6), however, could not be detected in A. aerophoba sponges but was replaced by the A. aerophoba pigment uranidine (5) which appeared to be present in all sponge samples analyzed. During transplantation experiments sponges from sites below 30 m featuring the A. cavernicola chemotype of bromoisoxazoline alkaloids were translocated to shallower habitats (10 m). The alkaloid patterns in transplanted sponges were found to be stable over a period of 12 months and unaffected by this change in depth. In a further experiment, clones of Aplysina sponges from shallow depths of 5-6 m resembling the A. aerophoba chemotype were either kept in situ under natural light conditions or artificially shaded by excluding photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Neither 4 nor 1 were detected in artificially shaded sponges over an observation period of 12 months. In summary, two chemically distinct types of Aplysina sponges were discovered in this study that proved to be remarkably stable with regard to the bromoisoxazoline patterns and unaffected either by changing the light conditions or depth. It is not clear presently whether the Aplysina sponges collected from depths < 11.8 m

  2. Ca(2+)-dependent protease I from Allomyces arbuscula.

    PubMed

    Ojha, M

    1996-01-05

    A monomeric Ca(2+)-dependent protease (CDP I) of 39 kDa active at neutral pH has been purified from the aquatic fungus Allomyces arbuscula. The enzyme elutes at NaCl molarity of 0.07 M from the DEAE (DE52)-cellulose columns in contrast to the second Ca(2+)-dependent protease (CDP II) characterized earlier which elutes at 0.18 M NaCl. The enzyme has no basal activity in the absence of Ca2+ and requires 1.7 mM Ca2+ for half maximum activation of the in vitro enzyme activity. The enzyme prefers substrates with Arg in P1 position but this specificity also depends strongly on the nature of the subsite residues, for example Pro in P2 position. The enzyme is glycosylated and contains essential cysteine residues in the active site. It appears to be an atypical cysteine protease as it is inactivated to varying degree with some serine protease inhibitors.

  3. Bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Aplysina lacunosa

    PubMed Central

    Göthel, Qun; Sirirak, Thanchanok

    2015-01-01

    Summary Three new bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids 14-debromo-11-deoxyfistularin-3 (1), aplysinin A (2), and aplysinin B (3), together with 15 known compounds (4–18) were isolated from the sponge Aplysina lacunosa collected from Stirrup Cay, Bahamas. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data analysis. The 13C NMR assignment of spirocyclohexadienylisoxazoline moieties of 1 and 2 were confirmed by an 1,1-ADEQUATE experiment. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a mild to moderate cytotoxic activities against KB-31 and FS4-LTM cell lines. Only aplysinin A (2) exhibited cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. PMID:26734082

  4. Relevant Spatial Scales of Chemical Variation in Aplysina aerophoba

    PubMed Central

    Sacristan-Soriano, Oriol; Banaigs, Bernard; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the scale at which natural products vary the most is critical because it sheds light on the type of factors that regulate their production. The sponge Aplysina aerophoba is a common Mediterranean sponge inhabiting shallow waters in the Mediterranean and its area of influence in Atlantic Ocean. This species contains large concentrations of brominated alkaloids (BAs) that play a number of ecological roles in nature. Our research investigates the ecological variation in BAs of A. aerophoba from a scale of hundred of meters to thousand kilometers. We used a nested design to sample sponges from two geographically distinct regions (Canary Islands and Mediterranean, over 2500 km), with two zones within each region (less than 50 km), two locations within each zone (less than 5 km), and two sites within each location (less than 500 m). We used high-performance liquid chromatography to quantify multiple BAs and a spectrophotometer to quantify chlorophyll a (Chl a). Our results show a striking degree of variation in both natural products and Chl a content. Significant variation in Chl a content occurred at the largest and smallest geographic scales. The variation patterns of BAs also occurred at the largest and smallest scales, but varied depending on which BA was analyzed. Concentrations of Chl a and isofistularin-3 were negatively correlated, suggesting that symbionts may impact the concentration of some of these compounds. Our results underline the complex control of the production of secondary metabolites, with factors acting at both small and large geographic scales affecting the production of multiple secondary metabolites. PMID:22363236

  5. Diversity of the candidate phylum Poribacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, C.C.P.; Cox, C.J.; Peixoto, R.S.; Rosado, A.S.; Costa, R.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poribacterial clone libraries constructed for Aplysina fulva sponge specimens were analysed with respect to diversity and phylogeny. Results imply the coexistence of several, prevalently “intra-specific” poribacterial genotypes in a single sponge host, and suggest quantitative analysis as a desirable approach in studies of the diversity and distribution of poribacterial cohorts in marine sponges. PMID:24159324

  6. In situ analysis of the bacterial community associated with the reindeer lichen Cladonia arbuscula reveals predominance of Alphaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Vieira de Castro, João; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2008-10-01

    The diversity and spatial pattern of the bacterial community hosted by the shrub-like reindeer lichen Cladonia arbuscula were investigated by general DNA staining and FISH, coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Using an optimized protocol for FISH using cryosections of small lichen fragments, we found about 6 x 10(7) bacteria g(-1) of C. arbuscula. Approximately 86% of acridine orange-stained cells were also stained by the universal FISH probe EUB338. Using group-specific FISH probes, we detected a dominance of Alphaproteobacteria (more than 60% of all bacteria), while the abundance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria was much lower (<10%). Firmicutes were rarely detected, and no Gammaproteobacteria were present. Bacterial cells of different taxonomic groups are embedded in a biofilm-like, continuous layer on the internal surface of the C. arbuscula podetia, mainly occurring in small colonies of a few to a few hundred cells. The other parts of the lichen showed a lower bacterial colonization. alpha-proteobacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified using total DNA extracts from C. arbuscula and separated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Sequencing of excised bands revealed the dominance of Acetobacteraceae.

  7. Integrative Taxonomy and Molecular Phylogeny of Genus Aplysina (Demospongiae: Verongida) from Mexican Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Barraza, José Antonio; Carballo, José Luis; Rocha-Olivares, Axayacatl; Ehrlich, Hermann; Hog, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy provides a major approximation to species delimitation based on integration of different perspectives (e.g. morphology, biochemistry and DNA sequences). The aim of this study was to assess the relationships and boundaries among Eastern Pacific Aplysina species using morphological, biochemical and molecular data. For this, a collection of sponges of the genus Aplysina from the Mexican Pacific was studied on the basis of their morphological, chemical (chitin composition), and molecular markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear ribosomal rDNA: ITS1-5.8-ITS2). Three morphological species were identified, two of which are new to science. A. clathrata sp. nov. is a yellow to yellow-reddish or -brownish sponge, characterized by external clathrate-like morphology; A. revillagigedi sp. nov. is a lemon yellow to green, cushion-shaped sometimes lobate sponge, characterized by conspicuous oscules, which are slightly elevated and usually linearly distributed on rims; and A. gerardogreeni a known species distributed along the Mexican Pacific coast. Chitin was identified as the main structural component within skeletons of the three species using FTIR, confirming that it is shared among Verongida sponges. Morphological differences were confirmed by DNA sequences from nuclear ITS1-5.8-ITS2. Mitochondrial COI sequences showed extremely low but diagnostic variability for Aplysina revillagigedi sp. nov., thus our results corroborate that COI has limited power for DNA-barcoding of sponges and should be complemented with other markers (e.g. rDNA). Phylogenetic analyses of Aplysina sequences from the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean, resolved two allopatric and reciprocally monophyletic groups for each region. Eastern Pacific species were grouped in general accordance with the taxonomic hypothesis based on morphological characters. An identification key of Eastern Pacific Aplysina species is presented. Our results constitute one of the first approximations to integrative

  8. Integrative taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of genus Aplysina (Demospongiae: Verongida) from Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Barraza, José Antonio; Carballo, José Luis; Rocha-Olivares, Axayacatl; Ehrlich, Hermann; Hog, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy provides a major approximation to species delimitation based on integration of different perspectives (e.g. morphology, biochemistry and DNA sequences). The aim of this study was to assess the relationships and boundaries among Eastern Pacific Aplysina species using morphological, biochemical and molecular data. For this, a collection of sponges of the genus Aplysina from the Mexican Pacific was studied on the basis of their morphological, chemical (chitin composition), and molecular markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear ribosomal rDNA: ITS1-5.8-ITS2). Three morphological species were identified, two of which are new to science. A. clathrata sp. nov. is a yellow to yellow-reddish or -brownish sponge, characterized by external clathrate-like morphology; A. revillagigedi sp. nov. is a lemon yellow to green, cushion-shaped sometimes lobate sponge, characterized by conspicuous oscules, which are slightly elevated and usually linearly distributed on rims; and A. gerardogreeni a known species distributed along the Mexican Pacific coast. Chitin was identified as the main structural component within skeletons of the three species using FTIR, confirming that it is shared among Verongida sponges. Morphological differences were confirmed by DNA sequences from nuclear ITS1-5.8-ITS2. Mitochondrial COI sequences showed extremely low but diagnostic variability for Aplysina revillagigedi sp. nov., thus our results corroborate that COI has limited power for DNA-barcoding of sponges and should be complemented with other markers (e.g. rDNA). Phylogenetic analyses of Aplysina sequences from the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean, resolved two allopatric and reciprocally monophyletic groups for each region. Eastern Pacific species were grouped in general accordance with the taxonomic hypothesis based on morphological characters. An identification key of Eastern Pacific Aplysina species is presented. Our results constitute one of the first approximations to integrative

  9. Protein and Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis During the Diploid Life Cycle of Allomyces arbuscula

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Daniel J.; Seale, Thomas W.; McCarthy, Brian J.

    1972-01-01

    The diploid life cycle of Allomyces arbuscula may be divided into four parts: spore induction, germination, vegetative growth, and mitosporangium formation. Spore induction, germination, and mitosporangium formation are insensitive to inhibition of actinomycin D, probably indicating that stable, pre-existing messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) is responsible for these developmental events. Protein synthesis is necessary during the entire life cycle except for cyst formation. A system for obtaining synchronous germination of mitospores is described. During germination there is a characteristic increase in the rate of synthesis of RNA and protein although none of the other morphogenetic changes occurring during the life cycle are necessarily accompanied by an appreciable change in the rate of macromolecular synthesis. PMID:4113121

  10. Description of the mitochondrial genome of the tree coral Dendrophyllia arbuscula (Anthozoa, Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Luz, Bruna Louise Pereira; Capel, Kátia Cristina Cruz; Stampar, Sérgio Nascimento; Kitahara, Marcelo Visentini

    2016-07-01

    Dendrophylliidae is one of the few monophyletic families within the Scleractinia that embraces zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate species represented by both solitary and colonial forms. Among the exclusively azooxanthellate genera, Dendrophyllia is reported worldwide from 1 to 1200 m deep. To date, although three complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes from representatives of the family are available, only that from Turbinaria peltata has been formally published. Here we describe the complete nucleotide sequence of the mt genome from Dendrophyllia arbuscula that is 19 069 bp in length and comprises two rDNAs, two tRNAs, and 13 protein-coding genes arranged in the canonical scleractinian mt gene order. No genes overlap, resulting in the presence of 18 intergenic spacers and one of the longest scleractinian mt genome sequenced to date.

  11. Reproductive biology of the deep-water coral Acanella arbuscula (Phylum Cnidaria: Class Anthozoa: Order Alcyonacea), northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, Lindsay I.; Kenchington, Ellen L.

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive life-history of deep-water corals is important for assessing their vulnerability to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, the reproductive biology of many deep-water corals, especially members of the subclass Octocorallia, has not been examined. We used histological techniques to describe the reproductive biology of the deep-water gorgonian coral Acanella arbuscula from the northwest Atlantic. All colonies examined were gonochoric, and no embryos or planula larvae were observed in the polyps. Mean polyp-level fecundity (females: 21.0±17.5 oocytes polyp-1, and males: 13.9±13.5 sperm sacs polyp-1) is high compared to other deep-water gorgonians, and polyps closer to the branch tips had the highest fecundities in both females and males. The presence of large oocytes (maximum diameter 717.8 μm) suggests that A. arbuscula produces lecithotrophic larvae. Despite the potentially high fecundity and small size at first reproduction, the paucity of information on dispersal and recruitment, combined with its longevity, vulnerability to bottom fishing gear, and ecological role as a structure-forming species, still warrants the classification of A. arbuscula as a vulnerable marine ecosystem indicator.

  12. A nonlinear calcification response to CO2-induced ocean acidification by the coral Oculina arbuscula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2010-09-01

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric pCO2 is predicted to cause the pH of surface seawater to decline by 0.3-0.4 units by 2100 AD, causing a 50% reduction in seawater [CO3 2-] and undersaturation with respect to aragonite in high-latitude surface waters. We investigated the impact of CO2-induced ocean acidification on the temperate scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula by rearing colonies for 60 days in experimental seawaters bubbled with air-CO2 gas mixtures of 409, 606, 903, and 2,856 ppm pCO2, yielding average aragonite saturation states (ΩA) of 2.6, 2.3, 1.6, and 0.8. Measurement of calcification (via buoyant weighing) and linear extension (relative to a 137Ba/138Ba spike) revealed that skeletal accretion was only minimally impaired by reductions in ΩA from 2.6 to 1.6, although major reductions were observed at 0.8 (undersaturation). Notably, the corals continued accreting new skeletal material even in undersaturated conditions, although at reduced rates. Correlation between rates of linear extension and calcification suggests that reduced calcification under ΩA = 0.8 resulted from reduced aragonite accretion, rather than from localized dissolution. Accretion of pure aragonite under each ΩA discounts the possibility that these corals will begin producing calcite, a less soluble form of CaCO3, as the oceans acidify. The corals’ nonlinear response to reduced ΩA and their ability to accrete new skeletal material in undersaturated conditions suggest that they strongly control the biomineralization process. However, our data suggest that a threshold seawater [CO3 2-] exists, below which calcification within this species (and possibly others) becomes impaired. Indeed, the strong negative response of O. arbuscula to ΩA = 0.8 indicates that their response to future pCO2-induced ocean acidification could be both abrupt and severe once the critical ΩA is reached.

  13. Anti-parasitic Guanidine and Pyrimidine Alkaloids from the Marine Sponge Monanchora arbuscula.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mario F C; Harper, Philip M; Williams, David E; Mesquita, Juliana T; Pinto, Érika G; da Costa-Silva, Thais A; Hajdu, Eduardo; Ferreira, Antonio G; Santos, Raquel A; Murphy, Patrick J; Andersen, Raymond J; Tempone, Andre G; Berlinck, Roberto G S

    2015-05-22

    HPLC-UV-ELSD-MS-guided fractionation of the anti-parasitic extract obtained from the marine sponge Monanchora arbuscula, collected off the southeastern coast of Brazil, led to the isolation of a series of guanidine and pyrimidine alkaloids. The pyrimidines monalidine A (1) and arbusculidine A (7), as well as the guanidine alkaloids batzellamide A (8) and hemibatzelladines 9-11, represent new minor constituents that were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data. The total synthesis of monalidine A confirmed its structure. Arbusculidine A (7), related to the ptilocaulin/mirabilin/netamine family of tricyclic guanidine alkaloids, is the first in this family to possess a benzene ring. Batzellamide A (8) and hemibatzelladines 9-11 represent new carbon skeletons that are related to the batzelladines. Evaluation of the anti-parasitic activity of the major known metabolites, batzelladines D (12), F (13), L (14), and nor-L (15), as well as of synthetic monalidine A (1), against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum is also reported, along with a detailed investigation of parasite cell-death pathways promoted by batzelladine L (14) and norbatzelladine L (15).

  14. Isolation and identification of chitin in three-dimensional skeleton of Aplysina fistularis marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Wysokowski, Marcin; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Galli, Roberta; Stelling, Allison L; Stöcker, Hartmut; Kaiser, Sabine; Niederschlag, Elke; Gärtner, Günter; Behm, Thomas; Ilan, Micha; Petrenko, Alexander Y; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    The recent discovery of chitin within skeletons of numerous marine and freshwater sponges (Porifera) stimulates further experiments to identify this structural aminopolysaccharide in new species of these aquatical animals. Aplysina fistularis (Verongida: Demospongiae: Porifera) is well known to produce biologically active bromotyrosines. Here, we present a detailed study of the structural and physico-chemical properties of the three-dimensional skeletal scaffolds of this sponge. Calcofluor white staining, Raman and IR spectroscopy, ESI-MS as well as chitinase digestion test were applied in order to unequivocally prove the first discovery of α-chitin in skeleton of A. fistularis.

  15. Structure, expression and function of Allomyces arbuscula CDP II (metacaspase) gene.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Mukti; Cattaneo, Arlette; Hugh, Séverine; Pawlowski, Jan; Cox, Jos A

    2010-06-01

    Allomyces arbuscula, a primitive chytridiomycete fungus, has two Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine proteases, the CDP I and CDP II. We have cloned and analyzed the nucleotide sequence of CDP II gene and domain structure of the protein. Blast analysis of the sequence has shown that the protein belongs to a newly described member of caspase superfamily protein, the metacaspase, a CD clan of C14 family cysteine protease, we hence-forth name it as AMca 2 (Allomyces metacaspase 2). Southern hybridization studies have shown that the gene exists in a single copy per genome. The transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization has confirmed our previous results that the protein is developmentally regulated, i.e. present in active growth phase but disappears during nutritional stress which also induces reproductive differentiation, indicating that the protein promotes cell growth, not death. The recombinant gene product expressed in Escherichiacoli has all the catalytic properties of native enzyme, i.e. sensitivity to protease inhibitors and substrate specificity. There is an absolute requirement of Ca(2+) for the activation of catalytic activity and the presence of R residue at the cleavage site (P1 position) in the substrate. The presence of a second basic residue, either R or K, in the P2 position strongly inhibits the catalytic activity which is stimulated by the presence of P and to a lesser extent G at this site. Peptide substrates with D at the cleavage site are not recognised and therefore not cleaved. The enzyme activity is inhibited by EDTA-EGTA, cysteine protease inhibitors and a specific peptide inhibitor Ac GVRCHCL TFA, but not by E64, although a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases.

  16. Brominated Compounds from Marine Sponges of the Genus Aplysina and a Compilation of Their 13C NMR Spectral Data

    PubMed Central

    Lira, Narlize Silva; Montes, Ricardo Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; da Cunha, Emidio V. L.; de Athayde-Filho, Petronio Filgueiras; Rodrigues, Luis Cezar; da Silva Dias, Celidarque; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria

    2011-01-01

    Aplysina is the best representative genus of the family Aplysinidae. Halogenated substances are its main class of metabolites. These substances contribute greatly to the chemotaxonomy and characterization of the sponges belonging to this genus. Due to their pharmacological activities, these alkaloids are of special interest. The chemistry of halogenated substances and of the alkaloids has long been extensively studied in terrestrial organisms, while the number of marine organisms studied has just started to increase in the last decades. This review describes 101 halogenated substances from 14 species of Aplysina from different parts of the world. These substances can be divided into the following classes: bromotyramines (A), cavernicolins (B), hydroverongiaquinols (C), bromotyrosineketals (D), bromotyrosine lactone derivatives (E), oxazolidones (F), spiroisoxazolines (G), verongiabenzenoids (H), verongiaquinols (I), and dibromocyclohexadienes (J). A compilation of their 13C NMR data is also part of the review. For this purpose 138 references were consulted. PMID:22163189

  17. Characterization of the spasmin 1 gene in Zoothamnium arbuscula strain Kawagoe (protozoa, ciliophora) and its relation to other spasmins and centrins.

    PubMed

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Mikami, Kazuyuki; Asai, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    Zoothamnium arbuscula strain Kawagoe is a giant sessile peritrich ciliated protozoa that possesses a contractile organelle called a spasmoneme. We report here on the molecular characterization and provide an opportunity to discuss the evolutionary relationships of the Z. arbuscula spasmin; spasmins belong to the calmodulin superfamily and are the major components of spasmoneme filaments. We analysed and obtained the whole sequence of the spasmin 1 gene and a partial sequence of the spasmin 2 gene. It is surprising that the sequence of spasmin 1 does not contain introns and encodes an open reading frame of 531 bp. It predicts a product of 177 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19659 Da and a pI of 4.68. The amino acid sequence has two putative calcium-binding domains. One of them is a functional domain, as defined by the EF-hand consensus. The varieties of spasmins were revealed by comparison with amino acid components and molecular relationships of spasmin 1 protein and other spasmins. A comparison of the amino acid sequence between the Z. arbuscula spasmin and known centrins indicates that spasmins have a one residue deletion in the EF-hand domain-2 and four residue insertions in domain-4, as does the Vorticella spasmin. However, there are large variations in the amino acid sequence at domain-4 within spasmin 1, spasmin 2 and the Vorticella spasmin.

  18. Crystal structure of HIV-1 Tat complexed with human P-TEFb and AFF4.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianyou; Babayeva, Nigar D; Suwa, Yoshiaki; Baranovskiy, Andrey G; Price, David H; Tahirov, Tahir H

    2014-01-01

    Developing anti-viral therapies targeting HIV-1 transcription has been hampered by the limited structural knowledge of the proteins involved. HIV-1 hijacks the cellular machinery that controls RNA polymerase II elongation through an interaction of HIV-1 Tat with the positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, which interacts with an AF4 family member (AFF1/2/3/4) in the super elongation complex (SEC). Because inclusion of Tat•P-TEFb into the SEC is critical for HIV transcription, we have determined the crystal structure of the Tat•AFF4•P-TEFb complex containing HIV-1 Tat (residues 1-48), human Cyclin T1 (1-266), human Cdk9 (7-332), and human AFF4 (27-69). Tat binding to AFF4•P-TEFb causes concerted structural changes in AFF4 via a shift of helix H5' of Cyclin T1 and the α-3 10 helix of AFF4. The interaction between Tat and AFF4 provides structural constraints that explain tolerated Tat mutations. Analysis of the Tat-binding surface of AFF4 coupled with modeling of all other AF4 family members suggests that AFF1 and AFF4 would be preferred over AFF2 or AFF3 for interaction with Tat•P-TEFb. The structure establishes that the Tat-TAR recognition motif (TRM) in Cyclin T1 interacts with both Tat and AFF4, leading to the exposure of arginine side chains for binding to TAR RNA. Furthermore, modeling of Tat Lys28 acetylation suggests that the acetyl group would be in a favorable position for H-bond formation with Asn257 of TRM, thereby stabilizing the TRM in Cyclin T1, and provides a structural basis for the modulation of TAR RNA binding by acetylation of Tat Lys28.

  19. Isolation, biochemical characterization and antibiofilm effect of a lectin from the marine sponge Aplysina lactuca.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Rômulo Farias; Lima, Paulo Henrique Pinheiro de; Chaves, Renata Pinheiro; Pereira, Rafael; Pereira, Anna Luísa; de Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pinheiro, Ulisses; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda

    2017-06-01

    A new lectin was isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina lactuca (ALL) by combining ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography on guar gum matrix. ALL showed affinity for the disaccharides α-lactose, β-lactose and lactulose (Ka=12.5, 31.9 and 145.5M(-1), respectively), as well as the glycoprotein porcine stomach mucin. Its hemagglutinating activity was stable in neutral acid pH values and temperatures below 60°C. ALL is a dimeric protein formed by two covalently linked polypeptide chains. The average molecular mass, as determined by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS), was 31,810±2Da. ESI-MS data also indicated the presence of three cysteines involved in one intrachain and one interchain disulfide bond. The partial amino acid sequence of ALL was determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Eight tryptic peptides presented similarity with lectin I isolated from Axinella polypoides. Its secondary structure is predominantly β-sheet, as indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. ALL agglutinated gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells, and it were able to significantly reduce the biomass of the bacterial biofilm tested at dose- dependent effect.

  20. Brominated Skeletal Components of the Marine Demosponges, Aplysina cavernicola and Ianthella basta: Analytical and Biochemical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, Kurt; Niemann, Hendrik; Ueberlein, Susanne; Schulze, Renate; Ehrlich, Hermann; Brunner, Eike; Proksch, Peter; van Pée, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Demosponges possess a skeleton made of a composite material with various organic constituents and/or siliceous spicules. Chitin is an integral part of the skeleton of different sponges of the order Verongida. Moreover, sponges of the order Verongida, such as Aplysina cavernicola or Ianthella basta, are well-known for the biosynthesis of brominated tyrosine derivates, characteristic bioactive natural products. It has been unknown so far whether these compounds are exclusively present in the cellular matrix or whether they may also be incorporated into the chitin-based skeletons. In the present study, we therefore examined the skeletons of A. cavernicola and I. basta with respect to the presence of bromotyrosine metabolites. The chitin-based-skeletons isolated from these sponges indeed contain significant amounts of brominated compounds, which are not easily extractable from the skeletons by common solvents, such as MeOH, as shown by HPLC analyses in combination with NMR and IR spectroscopic measurements. Quantitative potentiometric analyses confirm that the skeleton-associated bromine mainly withstands the MeOH-based extraction. This observation suggests that the respective, but yet unidentified, brominated compounds are strongly bound to the sponge skeletons, possibly by covalent bonding. Moreover, gene fragments of halogenases suggested to be responsible for the incorporation of bromine into organic molecules could be amplified from DNA isolated from sponge samples enriched for sponge-associated bacteria. PMID:23595055

  1. Brominated skeletal components of the marine demosponges, Aplysina cavernicola and Ianthella basta: analytical and biochemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Kurt; Niemann, Hendrik; Ueberlein, Susanne; Schulze, Renate; Ehrlich, Hermann; Brunner, Eike; Proksch, Peter; van Pée, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-17

    Demosponges possess a skeleton made of a composite material with various organic constituents and/or siliceous spicules. Chitin is an integral part of the skeleton of different sponges of the order Verongida. Moreover, sponges of the order Verongida, such as Aplysina cavernicola or Ianthella basta, are well-known for the biosynthesis of brominated tyrosine derivates, characteristic bioactive natural products. It has been unknown so far whether these compounds are exclusively present in the cellular matrix or whether they may also be incorporated into the chitin-based skeletons. In the present study, we therefore examined the skeletons of A. cavernicola and I. basta with respect to the presence of bromotyrosine metabolites. The chitin-based-skeletons isolated from these sponges indeed contain significant amounts of brominated compounds, which are not easily extractable from the skeletons by common solvents, such as MeOH, as shown by HPLC analyses in combination with NMR and IR spectroscopic measurements. Quantitative potentiometric analyses confirm that the skeleton-associated bromine mainly withstands the MeOH-based extraction. This observation suggests that the respective, but yet unidentified, brominated compounds are strongly bound to the sponge skeletons, possibly by covalent bonding. Moreover, gene fragments of halogenases suggested to be responsible for the incorporation of bromine into organic molecules could be amplified from DNA isolated from sponge samples enriched for sponge-associated bacteria.

  2. An Aeroplysinin-1 Specific Nitrile Hydratase Isolated from the Marine Sponge Aplysina cavernicola

    PubMed Central

    Lipowicz, Bartosz; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz; Proksch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A nitrile hydratase (NHase) that specifically accepts the nitrile aeroplysinin-1 (1) as a substrate and converts it into the dienone amide verongiaquinol (7) was isolated, partially purified and characterized from the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola; although it is currently not known whether the enzyme is of sponge origin or produced by its symbiotic microorganisms. The formation of aeroplysinin-1 and of the corresponding dienone amide is part of the chemical defence system of A. cavernicola. The latter two compounds that show strong antibiotic activity originate from brominated isoxazoline alkaloids that are thought to protect the sponges from invasion of bacterial pathogens. The sponge was shown to contain at least two NHases as two excised protein bands from a non denaturating Blue Native gel showed nitrile hydratase activity, which was not observed for control samples. The enzymes were shown to be manganese dependent, although cobalt and nickel ions were also able to recover the activity of the nitrile hydratases. The temperature and pH optimum of the studied enzymes were found at 41 °C and pH 7.8. The enzymes showed high substrate specificity towards the physiological substrate aeroplysinin-1 (1) since none of the substrate analogues that were prepared either by partial or by total synthesis were converted in an in vitro assay. Moreover de-novo sequencing by mass spectrometry was employed to obtain information about the primary structure of the studied NHases, which did not reveal any homology to known NHases. PMID:23966036

  3. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183(T) (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475(T) (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103(T) (=NRRL B-65309(T) = CMAA 1378(T)) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  4. Diversity of Bacteria in the Marine Sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian Coastal Waters▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, C. C. P.; Costa, R.; Araújo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using “direct” and “indirect” approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups—Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria—revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species. PMID:19304829

  5. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    PubMed

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  6. How Do Radionuclides Accumulate in Marine Organisms? A Case Study of Europium with Aplysina cavernicola.

    PubMed

    Maloubier, Melody; Shuh, David K; Minasian, Stefan G; Pacold, Joseph I; Solari, Pier-Lorenzo; Michel, Hervé; Oberhaensli, François R; Bottein, Yasmine; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2016-10-04

    In the ocean, complex interactions between natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, seawater, and diverse marine biota provide a unique window through which to examine ecosystem and trophic transfer mechanisms in cases of accidental dissemination. The nature of interaction between radionuclides, the marine environment, and marine species is therefore essential for better understanding transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. Although data pertaining to the rate of global transfer are often available, little is known regarding the mechanism of environmental transport and uptake of heavy radionuclides by marine species. Among marine species, sponges are immobile active filter feeders and have been identified as hyperaccumulators of several heavy metals. We have selected the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola as a model species for this study. Actinide elements are not the only source of radioactive release in cases of civilian nuclear events; however, their physicochemical transfer mechanisms to marine species remain largely unknown. We have targeted europium(III) as a representative of the trivalent actinides such as americium or curium. To unravel biological uptake mechanisms of europium in A. cavernicola, we have combined radiometric (γ) measurements with spectroscopic (time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, TRLIFS, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure, XANES) and imaging (transmission electron microscopy, TEM, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, STXM) techniques. We have observed that the colloids of NaEu(CO3)2·nH2O formed in seawater are taken up by A. cavernicola with no evidence that lethal dose has been reached in our working conditions. Spectroscopic results suggest that there is no change of speciation during uptake. Finally, TEM and STXM images recorded at different locations across a sponge cross section, together with differential cell separation, indicate the presence of europium particles (around

  7. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hardoim, C C P; Costa, R; Araújo, F V; Hajdu, E; Peixoto, R; Lins, U; Rosado, A S; van Elsas, J D

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using "direct" and "indirect" approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups--Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria--revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species.

  8. Lectins from tropical sponges. Purification and characterization of lectins from genus Aplysina.

    PubMed

    Miarons, P B; Fresno, M

    2000-09-22

    Only a few animal phyla have been screened for the presence and distribution of lectins. Probably the most intensively studied group is the mollusk. In this investigation, 22 species from 12 families of tropical sponges collected in Los Roques National Park (Venezuela) were screened for the presence of lectins. Nine saline extracts exhibited strong hemagglutinating activity against pronase-treated hamster red blood cells; five of these reacted against rabbit red blood cells, four with trypsin-treated bovine red blood cells, and five with human red blood cells regardless of the blood group type. Extracts from the three species studied from genus Aplysina (archeri, lawnosa, and cauliformis) were highly reactive and panagglutinating against the panel of red blood cells tested. The lectins from A. archeri and A. lawnosa were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on p-aminobenzyl-beta-1-thiogalactopyranoside-agarose, and gel filtration chromatography. Both lectins exhibited a native molecular mass of 63 kDa and by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions have an apparent molecular mass of 16 kDa, thus suggesting they occur as homotetramers. The purified lectins contain 3-4 mol of divalent cation per molecule, which are essential for their biological activity. Hapten inhibition of hemagglutination was carried out to define the sugar binding specificity of the purified A. archeri lectin. The results indicate a preference of the lectin for nonreducing beta-linked d-Gal residues being the best inhibitors of red blood cells binding methyl-beta-d-Gal and thiodigalactoside (Gal beta 1-4-thiogalactopyranoside). The behavior of several glycans on immobilized lectin affinity chromatography confirmed and extended the specificity data obtained by hapten inhibition.

  9. Physiological adaptations in the lichens Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula var. mitis, and the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum to copper-rich substrate.

    PubMed

    Backor, Martin; Klejdus, Borivoj; Vantová, Ivana; Kovácik, Jozef

    2009-09-01

    Two lichen species (Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis) and one moss species (Racomitrium lanuginosum) growing on a copper mine heaps (probably 200-300yr old) in the village of Spania dolina (Slovak Republic) were assessed for selected physiological parameters, including composition of assimilation pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence, soluble proteins and free amino acid content. The lichen C. arbuscula subsp. mitis was collected also at a control locality where total copper concentration in the soil was approximately 3% that of the waste heaps. Concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb and Zn were highest in thalli of Peltigera, while the moss Racomitrium contained the highest content of Fe and Pb. Thalli of Cladina contained less metals than the cyanolichen Peltigera, and except for Zn metal concentrations in Cladina from the control locality were lower than in thalli of the same species from copper mine heaps. Regardless of the species or locality, the composition of assimilation pigments and chlorophyll a fluorescence showed that the tested lichens and moss were in good physiological condition and adapted to increased copper levels in the soil. There were significantly different amounts of total free amino acids in Peltigera, Cladina and Racomitrium from the Cu-polluted field. However, differences in amount of free amino acids in control, as well as Cu-polluted thalli of Cladina were less pronounced.

  10. Excess variants in AFF2 detected by massively parallel sequencing of males with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Kajari; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Patel, Viren C; Hagen, Katie R; Bose, Promita; Cutler, David J; Zwick, Michael E

    2012-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder with substantial heritability, most of which is unexplained. ASD has a population prevalence of one percent and affects four times as many males as females. Patients with fragile X E (FRAXE) intellectual disability, which is caused by a silencing of the X-linked gene AFF2, display a number of ASD-like phenotypes. Duplications and deletions at the AFF2 locus have also been reported in cases with moderate intellectual disability and ASD. We hypothesized that other rare X-linked sequence variants at the AFF2 locus might contribute to ASD. We sequenced the AFF2 genomic region in 202 male ASD probands and found that 2.5% of males sequenced had missense mutations at highly conserved evolutionary sites. When compared with the frequency of missense mutations in 5545 X chromosomes from unaffected controls, we saw a statistically significant enrichment in patients with ASD (OR: 4.9; P < 0.014). In addition, we identified rare AFF2 3' UTR variants at conserved sites which alter gene expression in a luciferase assay. These data suggest that rare variation in AFF2 may be a previously unrecognized ASD susceptibility locus and may help explain some of the male excess of ASD.

  11. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from an extract of Aplysina caissara, a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Luciana Gutterres; Peraza, Gianni Goulart; Lerner, Clea; Soares, Andrea; Murcia, Nícolas; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza

    2008-10-01

    A variety of biologically active compounds with pharmacological applications has been reported to occur in marine sponges. The present study was undertaken to provide a set of data about an extract from Aplysina caissara, a Brazilian marine sponge. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were investigated against different experimental models in mice. When evaluated against writhing test intraperitoneally (60 and 90 mg/kg), the extract significantly inhibited abdominal constriction by 33.7% and 41.4% respectively. In the formalin test (60 and 90 mg/kg), the extract of sponge inhibited 43.6% and 51.6% in the first phase and 98.2% and 97.2% in the second phase respectively. When evaluated against the hot plate test, both doses demonstrated activity. An increase in the hot plate latency was observed after 60 min. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by formalin-induced mice paw edema. Extract from A. caissara (60 and 90 mg/kg) significantly reduced hind paw swelling. Mortality increased with increasing doses, with LD(50) of 212.2 mg/kg for intraperitoneal administration. These results demonstrated that the extract of the marine sponge A. caissara possesses antinociceptive and anti-edematogenic effects.

  12. Bioactive brominated metabolites from the natural habitat and tank-maintained cuttings of the Jamaican sponge Aplysina fistularis.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, Winklet A

    2013-06-01

    Cut specimens of the common reef sponge of the Verongid family, Aplysina fistularis, were retained in flow-through seawater tanks over a six-week period to assess the metabolite profile of the sponge when subjected to stress, compare the profile with the source material, and assess the preliminary feasibility of the protocol for sponge culture. The living specimens were harvested, extracted with MeOH/CH₂Cl₂ 1:1, and subjected to column chromatography to identify metabolites. The brominated isoxazoline compounds, aerothionin (1) and 11-oxoaerothionin (2), along with aeroplysinin 2 (3) and 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenol)acetamide (4), were detected in the cuttings from the tank-maintained sponge. An examination of the metabolite profile of the sponge from the natural habitat showed that the compounds 1 and 2 were present. The identities of all the compounds were ascertained by analysis of the mass-spectral data and NMR spectra (¹H, ¹³C, HMBC, and HSQC) of the compounds, which were compared with reported data. The survival rate was 44% with limited necrosis or exposed skeletal tissue being observed in eight of the 18 cuttings, suggesting that protocol modifications would be required for culturing the sponge.

  13. Structural basis for ELL2 and AFF4 activation of HIV-1 proviral transcription.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shiqian; Li, Zichong; Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Stjepanovic, Goran; Zhou, Qiang; Hurley, James H

    2017-01-30

    The intrinsically disordered scaffold proteins AFF1/4 and the transcription elongation factors ELL1/2 are core components of the super elongation complex required for HIV-1 proviral transcription. Here we report the 2.0-Å resolution crystal structure of the human ELL2 C-terminal domain bound to its 50-residue binding site on AFF4, the ELLBow. The ELL2 domain has the same arch-shaped fold as the tight junction protein occludin. The ELLBow consists of an N-terminal helix followed by an extended hairpin that we refer to as the elbow joint, and occupies most of the concave surface of ELL2. This surface is important for the ability of ELL2 to promote HIV-1 Tat-mediated proviral transcription. The AFF4-ELL2 interface is imperfectly packed, leaving a cavity suggestive of a potential binding site for transcription-promoting small molecules.

  14. Structural basis for ELL2 and AFF4 activation of HIV-1 proviral transcription

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Shiqian; Li, Zichong; Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Stjepanovic, Goran; Zhou, Qiang; Hurley, James H.

    2017-01-01

    The intrinsically disordered scaffold proteins AFF1/4 and the transcription elongation factors ELL1/2 are core components of the super elongation complex required for HIV-1 proviral transcription. Here we report the 2.0-Å resolution crystal structure of the human ELL2 C-terminal domain bound to its 50-residue binding site on AFF4, the ELLBow. The ELL2 domain has the same arch-shaped fold as the tight junction protein occludin. The ELLBow consists of an N-terminal helix followed by an extended hairpin that we refer to as the elbow joint, and occupies most of the concave surface of ELL2. This surface is important for the ability of ELL2 to promote HIV-1 Tat-mediated proviral transcription. The AFF4–ELL2 interface is imperfectly packed, leaving a cavity suggestive of a potential binding site for transcription-promoting small molecules. PMID:28134250

  15. From AFF to CCNT : JPL's evolving family of multifunction constellation transceivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Srinivasan, Jeff; Farrington, Allen

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the profiles and requirements of the ST-3 and ST-5 missions, and discusses the unique technological challenges each of them presents. Bothe the AFF and CCNT trace their heritage to GPS receivers, using measurements of both RF carrier phase and a ranging code. They will operate, however, at very different frequency bands; the ADD at Ka-band, and the CCNT at S-band.

  16. The stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, as a potential indicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rosa, Annelise; I'Anson Price, Robbie; Ferreira Caliman, Maria Juliana; Pereira Queiroz, Elisa; Blochtein, Betina; Sílvia Soares Pires, Carmen; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-08-01

    Neonicotinoids have the potential to enter the diet of pollinators that collect resources from contaminated plants. The species Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure, 1942) can be a useful indicator of the prevalence of these chemicals in the environment. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the authors devised a protocol for neonicotinoid residue extraction and detected the presence of neonicotinoids in the bee bodies. Thus, the authors consider this species to be a potential indicator of environmental contamination.

  17. Cytogenetics of the darkling beetles Zophobas aff. confusus and Nyctobates gigas (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Lira-Neto, A C; Silva, G M; Moura, R C; Souza, M J

    2012-08-16

    Males of Zophobas aff. confusus and Nyctobates gigas (Tenebrionidae) collected in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were studied through conventional staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation (AgNO₃), and the base specific fluorochromes CMA₃ and DAPI. Z. aff. confusus was found to have 2n = 20 (9+Xyp) while N. gigas exhibited 2n = 18 (8+neoXY). Large pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) were detected throughout the autosomal complement of the two species, except in one autosomal pair of N. gigas in which no heterochromatic block was observed. The sex chromosomes of both species were almost totally heterochromatic. Double staining with CMA₃/DA (distamycin) and DAPI/DA marked CH in Z. aff. confusus. However, DAPI staining was more intense. N. gigas was found to possess blocks of CH-positive CMA₃ and homogeneous DAPI. AgNO₃ staining also revealed differences between the two species. In Z. confusus an NOR was observed in the sexual bivalent Xyp and N. gigas was found to have an autosomal NOR.

  18. Anatomical and molecular characterization of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis, Russula alnijorullensis and Cortinarius tucumanensis ectomycorrhizae on Alnus acuminata.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Beenken, Ludwig; Pritsch, Karin; Daniele, Graciela; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis Romagn., Russula alnijorullensis (Sing.) Sing. and Cortinarius tucumanensis Mos. on Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth) were characterized and identified. The identification of the fungal symbionts was achieved by morpho-anatomical observations of mycorrhizae and by comparison of ITS-RFLP patterns obtained from ECM and fruitbodies. L. aff omphaliformis ECM differed in some morphological details such as ramification and mantle type from ECM of the same species on A. glutinosa. L. aff omphaliformis ECM show an orange to ochre mantle containing latex cells, which stain with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. R. alnijorullensis ECM represent a typical Russula-type-ECM, light yellow to pinkish, the outer mantle being composed of triangular latex-filled cells staining with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. C. tucumanensis ECM exhibit a white (silvery) to yellowish brown mantle covered with soil particles, emanating hyphae with clamps.

  19. Effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum on growth and prey consumption of juvenile Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Osteichthyes: Erythrinidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, R M; Weber, L; Souza, V L; Soares, A R; Petry, A C

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the water-soluble fraction of petroleum (WSF) on prey consumption and growth of juvenile trahira Hoplias aff. malabaricus was investigated. Juveniles were submitted to either WSF or Control treatment over 28 days, and jewel tetra Hyphessobrycon eques adults were offered daily as prey for each predator. Total prey consumption ranged from 16 to 86 individuals. Despite the initially lower prey consumption under WSF exposure, there were no significant differences in overall feeding rates between the two treatments. Water-soluble fraction of petroleum had a negative effect on the growth in length of H. aff. malabaricus juveniles. Although unaffected, prey consumption suggested a relative resistance in H. aff. malabaricus to WSF exposition and the lower growth of individuals exposed to WSF than the Control possibly reflects metabolic costs. The implications of the main findings for the individual and the food chain are discussed, including behavioral aspects and the role played by this predator in shallow aquatic systems.

  20. The Karyotype of Microsternarchus aff. bilineatus: A First Case of Y Chromosome Degeneration in Gymnotiformes.

    PubMed

    Batista, Jéssica Almeida; Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Ready, Jonathan Stuart; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2017-06-01

    Various species and lineages that until recently were identified as Microsternarchus bilineatus (Hypopomidae, Gymnotiformes) have a widespread distribution in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins and across the Guiana shield. Recent molecular studies show five distinct lineages for Microsternarchus from different localities. These results suggest that this previously monotypic genus actually consists of more than one species. Here, we describe the karyotype of M. aff. bilineatus from the Cururutuia River (Bragança, Pará, Brazil). The diploid number of 48 chromosomes (14 meta-submetacentric/34 subtelo-acrocentric) is found for males and females, with an XX/XY sex chromosome system. The nucleolar organizer region is found in the short arm of pair 9. Constitutive heterochromatin occurs in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes, in the distal region of 3p, 5p, 7p, 8q, 9q, 16q, and Xq, in the interstitial region in 2p, 10q, 11q, and 12q and all along 4p, and in a large block of the Y chromosome. These results indicate extensive karyotype divergence between this population and samples from Igarapé Tarumã Grande (Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil) studied by other researchers. Moreover, despite the diversity of sex chromosome systems found in Gymnotiformes, the XX/XY sex chromosome system of M. aff. bilineatus is the first case of Y chromosome degeneration in this order. The present data are valuable to help understand karyotype evolution in Hypopomidae.

  1. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, Basilio; Pecková, Hana

    2011-07-12

    A total of 109 sea urchins from 3 species collected in 2 localities off the coast of Tenerife Island, Spain, were examined for the presence of free-living amoebae in their coelomic fluid. Amoeba trophozoites were isolated exclusively from moribund individuals of long-spined sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum (Philippi) (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) that manifested lesions related to sea urchin bald disease on their tests (16 out of 56 examined). No amoebae were detected in Arbacia lixula (L.) and Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). From the former sea urchin species, 8 strains, established from 10 primary isolates, were identified as Neoparamoeba branchiphila Dyková et al., 2005 using morphological and molecular methods. Results of this study (limited to the screening for free-living amoebae) together with data on agents of sea urchin mortalities reported to date justify the hypothesis that free-living amoebae play an opportunistic role in D. aff. antillarum mortality. The enlargement of the dataset of SSU rDNA sequences brought new insight into the phylogeny of Neoparamoeba species.

  2. Combined foraging strategies and soldier behaviour in Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A

    2016-05-01

    A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF) Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch 'Benihoppe') Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Pang, Hui; Ma, Mengxia; Bu, Yufen; Shao, Wei; Huang, Weijing; Ji, Qianlong; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF), despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized. We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA were performed to determine AFF effects on rhizosphere. Moreover, the growth index and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined 30 days after treatments. We identified five dominant bacteria in AFF: Coprinus atramentarius, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Weissella and B. subtilis. The greatest number of bacterial species were observed in the rhizosphere of control matrix (water treated), and the lowest diversity appeared in the rhizosphere soil treated with 108 cfu/mL B. licheniformis alone. Combining AFF plus B. licheniformis in one treatment resulted in the largest leaf area, plant height, root length, plant weight, and the markedly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. We conclude that a combination of AFF plus B. licheniformis treatment to matrix can increase antioxidant enzymes activities in strawberry seedlings, optimize the status of rhizosphere microbial, and promote plant growth.

  4. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF) Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch ‘Benihoppe’) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Yufen; Shao, Wei; Huang, Weijing; Ji, Qianlong; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF), despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized. We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA were performed to determine AFF effects on rhizosphere. Moreover, the growth index and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined 30 days after treatments. We identified five dominant bacteria in AFF: Coprinus atramentarius, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Weissella and B. subtilis. The greatest number of bacterial species were observed in the rhizosphere of control matrix (water treated), and the lowest diversity appeared in the rhizosphere soil treated with 108 cfu/mL B. licheniformis alone. Combining AFF plus B. licheniformis in one treatment resulted in the largest leaf area, plant height, root length, plant weight, and the markedly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. We conclude that a combination of AFF plus B. licheniformis treatment to matrix can increase antioxidant enzymes activities in strawberry seedlings, optimize the status of rhizosphere microbial, and promote plant growth. PMID:27755580

  5. AFF4, a component of the ELL/p-TEFb elongation complex and a shared subunit of MLL chimeras can link transcription elongation to leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chengqi; Smith, Edwin R.; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Lai, Ka-Chun; Martin-Brown, Skylar; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Conaway, Joan W.; Conaway, Ronald C.; Shilatifard, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the MLL gene are associated with infant acute lymphoblastic and mixed lineage leukemia. There are a large number of translocation partners of MLL that share very little sequence or seemingly functional similarities, however, their translocations into MLL result in the pathogenesis of leukemia. To define the molecular reason why these translocations result in the pathogenesis of leukemia, we purified several of the commonly occurring MLL chimeras. We have identified a novel super elongation complex (SEC) associated with all chimeras purified. SEC includes ELL, P-TEFb, AFF4 and several other factors. AFF4 is required for SEC stability and proper transcription by poised RNA polymerase II in metazoans. Knockdown of AFF4 within SEC in leukemic cells shows reduction in MLL chimera target gene expression suggesting that AFF4/SEC could be a key regulator in the pathogenesis of leukemia through many of the MLL partners. PMID:20159561

  6. Feeding ecology of the copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis near the lower interface of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    Feeding ecology of the calanoid copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis collected in the Arabian Sea at one station during the Spring Intermonsoon and during the Southwest Monsoon of 1995 was studied with transmission electron microscopy of gut-contents. Highest abundances of these animals occurred from ˜400 to 1100 m, near the lower interface of the oxygen minimum zone and at the inflection point where oxygen starts to increase. We expected that their gut-contents would include particles and cells that had sunk relatively undegraded from surface waters as well as those from within the oxygen minimum zone, and that gut-contents would differ between the Spring Intermonsoon and the more productive SW Monsoon. Overall, in both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis was omnivorous, and consumed a variety of detrital particles, prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs, gram-negative bacteria including metal-precipitating bacteria, aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, microheterotrophs, virus-like particles and large virus-like particles, as well as cuticle and cnidarian tissue. Few significant differences in types of food consumed were seen among life stages within or among various depth zones. Amorphous, unidentifiable material was significantly more abundant in guts during the Spring Intermonsoon than during the late SW Monsoon, and recognizable cells made up a significantly higher portion of gut-contents during the late SW Monsoon. This is consistent with the Intermonsoon as a time when organic material is considerably re-worked by the surface water microbial loop before leaving the euphotic zone. In both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis had consumed what appeared to be aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, similar to those we had previously found in gut-contents of several species of zooplankton from the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical Pacific. By intercepting sinking material, populations of Lucicutia aff. L. grandis act as a filter for carbon

  7. Modeling Natural Photic Entrainment in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Tomotani, Barbara M.; Tachinardi, Patricia; Oda, Gisele A.; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean rodents spend most of the day inside underground tunnels, where there is little daily change in environmental variables. Our observations of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) in a field enclosure indicated that these animals perceive the aboveground light-dark cycle by several bouts of light-exposure at irregular times during the light hours of the day. To assess whether such light-dark pattern acts as an entraining agent of the circadian clock, we first constructed in laboratory the Phase Response Curve for 1 h light-pulses (1000lux). Its shape is qualitatively similar to other curves reported in the literature and to our knowledge it is the first Phase Response Curve of a subterranean rodent. Computer simulations were performed with a non-linear limit-cycle oscillator subjected to a simple model of the light regimen experienced by tuco-tucos. Results showed that synchronization is achieved even by a simple regimen of a single daily light pulse scattered uniformly along the light hours of the day. Natural entrainment studies benefit from integrated laboratory, field and computational approaches. PMID:23874562

  8. Extraction and partial characterization of venom from the Colombian spider Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor (Aranae:Theraphosidae).

    PubMed

    Estrada-Gomez, Sebastian; Vargas Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Quintana Castillo, Juan C

    2013-12-15

    We report the first studies of characterization and extraction of the Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor (Pocock, 1901) (Aranae:Theraphosidae) venom done in Colombia using the electro-stimulation technique previous anesthesia with isofluorane. After each extraction process, a low viscosity, colorless venom was obtained. This venom showed a 1.01 mg/μl density and a pH of 5. The humidity percentage did not show a significance difference between males and females (P > 0.05) with a general media of 77.49 ± 1.74%. In all cases the venom yielded was variable between males and females, with a media of 22.45 ± 5.17 mg (wet weight) and 4.58 ± 0.94 mg (dry weigh), obtaining larger amounts in females, 28.34 ± 7.49 mg and 5.69 ± 1.36 (wet and dry weight respectively). Venom showed a hemolytic activity dependent of enzymatic active phospholipase and neither coagulant nor proteolytic activities were observed. Electrophoretic profile showed a main protein content with a molecular mass below 14 kDa. RP-HPLC venom profile revealed a difference among male and female venom's content where 17 and 21 main fractions were obtained respectively. Three peptides, Theraphotoxin-Pn1a, Theraphotoxin-Pn1b and Theraphotoxin-Pn2a, were identified using HPLC-nESI-MS/MS. These peptides showed a high identity with other peptides found on Theraphosides which are proved to affect voltage-gated calcium channels.

  9. Exploring Individual- to Population-Level Impacts of Disease on Coral Reef Sponges: Using Spatial Analysis to Assess the Fate, Dynamics, and Transmission of Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS)

    PubMed Central

    Easson, Cole G.; Slattery, Marc; Momm, Henrique G.; Olson, Julie B.; Thacker, Robert W.; Gochfeld, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine diseases are of increasing concern for coral reef ecosystems, but often their causes, dynamics and impacts are unknown. The current study investigated the epidemiology of Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS), a disease affecting the Caribbean sponge Aplysina cauliformis, at both the individual and population levels. The fates of marked healthy and ARBS-infected sponges were examined over the course of a year. Population-level impacts and transmission mechanisms of ARBS were investigated by monitoring two populations of A. cauliformis over a three year period using digital photography and diver-collected data, and analyzing these data with GIS techniques of spatial analysis. In this study, three commonly used spatial statistics (Ripley’s K, Getis-Ord General G, and Moran’s Index) were compared to each other and with direct measurements of individual interactions using join-counts, to determine the ideal method for investigating disease dynamics and transmission mechanisms in this system. During the study period, Hurricane Irene directly impacted these populations, providing an opportunity to assess potential storm effects on A. cauliformis and ARBS. Results Infection with ARBS caused increased loss of healthy sponge tissue over time and a higher likelihood of individual mortality. Hurricane Irene had a dramatic effect on A. cauliformis populations by greatly reducing sponge biomass on the reef, especially among diseased individuals. Spatial analysis showed that direct contact between A. cauliformis individuals was the likely transmission mechanism for ARBS within a population, evidenced by a significantly higher number of contact-joins between diseased sponges compared to random. Of the spatial statistics compared, the Moran’s Index best represented true connections between diseased sponges in the survey area. This study showed that spatial analysis can be a powerful tool for investigating disease dynamics and transmission in a coral reef

  10. Exploring individual- to population-level impacts of disease on coral reef sponges: using spatial analysis to assess the fate, dynamics, and transmission of Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS).

    PubMed

    Easson, Cole G; Slattery, Marc; Momm, Henrique G; Olson, Julie B; Thacker, Robert W; Gochfeld, Deborah J

    2013-01-01

    Marine diseases are of increasing concern for coral reef ecosystems, but often their causes, dynamics and impacts are unknown. The current study investigated the epidemiology of Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS), a disease affecting the Caribbean sponge Aplysina cauliformis, at both the individual and population levels. The fates of marked healthy and ARBS-infected sponges were examined over the course of a year. Population-level impacts and transmission mechanisms of ARBS were investigated by monitoring two populations of A. cauliformis over a three year period using digital photography and diver-collected data, and analyzing these data with GIS techniques of spatial analysis. In this study, three commonly used spatial statistics (Ripley's K, Getis-Ord General G, and Moran's Index) were compared to each other and with direct measurements of individual interactions using join-counts, to determine the ideal method for investigating disease dynamics and transmission mechanisms in this system. During the study period, Hurricane Irene directly impacted these populations, providing an opportunity to assess potential storm effects on A. cauliformis and ARBS. Infection with ARBS caused increased loss of healthy sponge tissue over time and a higher likelihood of individual mortality. Hurricane Irene had a dramatic effect on A. cauliformis populations by greatly reducing sponge biomass on the reef, especially among diseased individuals. Spatial analysis showed that direct contact between A. cauliformis individuals was the likely transmission mechanism for ARBS within a population, evidenced by a significantly higher number of contact-joins between diseased sponges compared to random. Of the spatial statistics compared, the Moran's Index best represented true connections between diseased sponges in the survey area. This study showed that spatial analysis can be a powerful tool for investigating disease dynamics and transmission in a coral reef ecosystem.

  11. The Role of Resource Density on Energy Allocation in the Neotropical Termite Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae).

    PubMed

    Cristaldo, P F; Almeida, C S; Cruz, N G; Ribeiro, E J M; Rocha, M L C; Santos, A A; Santana, A S; Araújo, A P A

    2017-05-02

    Organisms acquire energy from environment and must allocate it among different life traits (growth, maintenance and reproduction). Social insects must manage the energy allocation to various levels such as colony growth and caste functions. Here, we addressed the question of whether resource density affects the energy allocation to the number of individuals and caste functions as well as nest's growth rate in the Neotropical termite Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Homgren) (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae). In a manipulative field experiment, colonies of N. aff. coxipoensis, with known volume, were maintained in plots with three different resource's density (0.32, 0.64 and 1.92 baits/m(2)) over 3 months. After this period, the number of individuals as well as the caste identity and nest volume were measured. Surprisingly, our results showed that colonies reared in the extremes of resource's density (0.32 and 1.92 baits/m(2)) produced a higher number of individuals compared with colonies reared with intermediate resource density (0. 64 baits/m(2)). The mean number of workers increased linearly with resource density; however, the average number of immature was higher in colonies reared with 0.32 baits/m(2) compared with colonies reared with 0.64 and 1.92 baits/m(2). No significant differences of resource density were observed in the mean number of soldiers, worker/soldier ratio as well as in the nest's growth rate. In conclusion, the resource's density seems to play an important role in determining the investment of energy in the number of individuals and caste in N. aff. coxipoensis colonies.

  12. New host record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid of Microdon sp. larvae associated with the ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The host of Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) is newly reported as Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a genus of obligatory myrmecophilous fly that predates ant brood, in this case Camponotus sp. aff. textor, in southern Mexico. The biology of Microdon spp. is reported as is that o...

  13. Cold seep biogenic carbonate crust in the Levantine basin is inhabited by burrowing Phascolosoma aff. turnerae, a sipunculan worm hosting a distinctive microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Shemesh, Eli; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly; Coleman, Dwight F.; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Tchernov, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Biogenic calcium carbonate crusts represent a cryptic habitat that is often associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Most biological observations of these crusts concern the external surfaces and the fauna inhabiting their inner cavities are generally neglected. Exposed carbonates in areas of active seepage at the 1100-m-deep base of the Palmachim slumping feature in the Levantine basin are intensively burrowed by metazoans, especially by sipunculans (peanut worms), identified by genetic and morphological markers as a potentially novel Phascolosoma sp., closely related to Phascolosoma turnerae (Rice, 1985) and named here P. aff. turnerae. Bacterial 16S-based tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) was utilized to analyze the bacterial community associated with P. aff. turnerae. We compared the bacterial community structure in P. aff. turnerae to the bacterial community structure associated with the sediment-water interface in adjacent gas seeps and in biofilm covering the carbonate crust hosting the sipunculan. A distinctive microbiota, capable of chemosynthesis and sulfide detoxification, was found in association with P. aff. turnerae.

  14. Importance of a specific amino acid pairing for murine MLL leukemias driven by MLLT1/3 or AFF1/4.

    PubMed

    Lokken, Alyson A; Achille, Nicholas J; Chang, Ming-Jin; Lin, Jeffrey J; Kuntimaddi, Aravinda; Leach, Benjamin I; Malik, Bhavna; Nesbit, Jacqueline B; Zhang, Shubin; Bushweller, John H; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Hemenway, Charles S

    2014-11-01

    Acute leukemias caused by translocations of the MLL gene at chromosome 11 band q23 (11q23) are characterized by a unique gene expression profile. More recently, data from several laboratories indicate that the most commonly encountered MLL fusion proteins, MLLT1, MLLT3, and AFF1 are found within a molecular complex that facilitates the elongation phase of mRNA transcription. Mutational analyses suggest that interaction between the MLLT1/3 proteins and AFF family proteins are required for experimental transformation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Here, we define a specific pairing of two amino acids that creates a salt bridge between MLLT1/3 and AFF proteins that is critically important for MLL-mediated transformation of HPCs. Our findings, coupled with the newly defined structure of MLLT3 in complex with AFF1, should facilitate the development of small molecules that block this amino acid interaction and interfere with the activity of the most common MLL oncoproteins.

  15. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of “super elongation complexes” (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs. PMID:27679741

  16. Geometric morphometry and molecular analysis clarified the identity of Opius sp. aff. bellus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a fruit fly parasitoid in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Cláudia F; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this study was to clarify the identity of specimens designated as Opius sp. aff. bellus using geometric morphometry and analysis of the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and region D2 of the 28S rDNA. Opius bellus Gahan is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) exclusively found in the Neotropical region, but widely distributed from Mexico to Argentina. Opius sp. aff. bellus is morphologically similar to Opius bellus but exhibits yellowish, instead of dark-brown, posterior tibiae. Twenty anatomical landmarks on the wings from these two taxa sampled from three Brazilian states were analyzed. Multivariate morphometric analysis showed a large amount of morphological similarity between the specimens, indicating they are the same species. Sequence analysis of the ITS2 showed that intrapopulation variability was similar to interpopulation variability and that the morphotypes were also highly similar. In addition, the D2 region of the 28S rDNA displayed high similarity between sequences. Therefore, based on morphometric and molecular analyses, specimens thought to be Opius sp. aff. bellus actually belong to O. bellus. 

  17. Simultaneous production of intracellular triacylglycerols and extracellular polyol esters of fatty acids by Rhodotorula babjevae and Rhodotorula aff. paludigena.

    PubMed

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Cathcart, Erin; Fiehn, Oliver; German, J Bruce; Block, David E; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2017-07-05

    Microbial oils have been analyzed as alternatives to petroleum. However, just a handful of microbes have been successfully adapted to produce chemicals that can compete with their petroleum counterparts. One of the reasons behind the low success rate is the overall economic inefficiency of valorizing a single product. This study presents a lab-scale analysis of two yeast species that simultaneously produce multiple high-value bioproducts: intracellular triacylglycerols (TG) and extracellular polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), two lipid classes with immediate applications in the biofuels and surfactant industries. At harvest, the yeast strain Rhodotorula aff. paludigena UCDFST 81-84 secreted 20.9 ± 0.2 g L(-1) PEFA and produced 8.8 ± 1.0 g L(-1) TG, while the yeast strain Rhodotorula babjevae UCDFST 04-877 secreted 11.2 ± 1.6 g L(-1) PEFA and 18.5 ± 1.7 g L(-1) TG. The overall glucose conversion was 0.24 and 0.22 g(total lipid) g (glucose)(-1) , respectively. The results present a stable and scalable microbial growth platform yielding multiple co-products.

  18. Male meliponine bees (Scaptotrigona aff. depilis) produce alarm pheromones to which workers respond with fight and males with flight.

    PubMed

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    In highly social hymenopteran societies, males mainly serve reproductive purposes. Semiochemicals enable the different hymenopteran sexes and castes to communicate with each other and to coordinate important functions within colonies. I hereby show that sexual dimorphism in meliponine bees incorporates the alarm and defence communication system. I chemically analysed the mandibular glands of Scaptotrigona aff. depilis using GCMS methods and conducted behavioural experiments in both males and female workers using cephalic and mandibular gland extracts. In addition, behaviour studies with male cephalic extracts were also conducted in Scaptotrigona bipunctata and Partamona cupira. Males and female worker bees showed differences in the content of the mandibular glands, which are responsible for alarm communication in meliponines. Males never attacked but usually fled when confronted with the mandibular gland extract content of other conspecific males or females. Interestingly, however, meliponine males were still able to raise alarm and to induce substantial amounts of aggression at nest entrances, which is different from the much better known and studied honey bees. Potential reasons are briefly discussed.

  19. Differences between the quality of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) pollinated by the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis and Nannotrigona testaceicornis.

    PubMed

    Roselino, A C; Santos, S B; Hrncir, M; Bego, L R

    2009-05-12

    We investigated the success of two stingless bee species in pollinating strawberries in greenhouses. Three greenhouses and one open field area were used; one greenhouse had only strawberry plants (control), another (G1) had three colonies of Scaptotrigona aff. depilis and another (G2) had three colonies of Nannotrigona testaceicornis. In the open field area, the flowers could be visited by any bee. The total production of fruits was counted and a random sample (N = 100) from each area was used to measure weight, length, circumference, and achenes number (N = 5). The percentages of deformed strawberries were: 23% (no bees); 2% (greenhouses with bees) and 13% (open field). The strawberries from the greenhouse with N. testaceicornis and the open field were heavier than those from the greenhouses with no bees and with S. depilis. The fruit circumference was largest in the greenhouses with bees. The achenes number did not differ among the experimental areas. The strawberries produced in the greenhouses with stingless bees had more quality and greater commercial value than the fruits produced in the open field area and the greenhouse without bees. We conclude that stingless bees are efficient pollinators of strawberry flowers cultivated in greenhouses.

  20. Phospholpid studies of marine organisms: 2.(1) Phospholipids, phospholipid-bound fatty acids and free sterols of the spongeAplysina fistularis (Pallas) formafulva (Pallas) (=Verongia thiona)(2). Isolation and structure elucidation of unprecedented branched fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Walkup, R D; Jamieson, G C; Ratcliff, M R; Djerassi, C

    1981-09-01

    The free sterols and phospholipids of the demospongeAplysina fistularis were isolated and analyzed. The free sterols consisted mainly of the unusual 26-methylated sterols aplysterol (53%) and 24(28)-dehydroaplysterol (7%) together with 7 commonly occurring sterods. The major phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acyl components of the phospholipids consisted of 85% C14-C20 acids, including the unprecedented 2,6,10-trimethyl-5-tetradecenoic acid and 11-methyloctadecanoic acid. The remaining 15% were C27-C30 demospongic acids, including 2 novel acids tentatively assigned the structures 5,9,23-octacosatrienoic acid and 5,9,23-nonacosatrienoic acid, and 3 novel acids proven to be 5,9,21-octacosatrienoic acid, Z,Z-20-methyl-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid and Z,Z-22-methyl-5,9-octacosadienoic acid. The biosyntheses of the novel demospongic acids are proposed to occur by chain elongation of monoenoic or branched precursors followed by desaturation. The large quantities of typically bacterial phospholipids and fatty acids found implied the presence of bacteria in the sponge, in agreement with microscopic studies. Analysis of the phospholipid-bound fatty acids in a sponge cell-enriched fraction indicated that the demospongic acids, including the 2 branched structures, were the major acids of the sponge cells. The presence inA. fistularis of demospongic acids containing membrane disordering groups-methyl branches or double bonds-on the ω7 carbon is proposed to be due to the need by the sponge for membranes possessing fluidity near the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. It is also proposed that the C26 methyl group of aplysterol causes disordering of the phospholipid bilayer in the same region, and thus also evolved in response to this need.

  1. The occurence of black spot disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae) in the Guaíba Lake basin, RS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Flores-Lopes, F

    2014-08-01

    Black spot disease is common in freshwater fish and is usually caused by the metacercaria stage of digenetic trematodes, normally from the Diplostomidae family. The present study evaluated the prevalence and intensity of this disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Teleostei: Characiformes) in the Guaíba Lake basin (RS, Brazil), including body parts assessment and the points of sampling with higher occurrence of black spots. Fish samples were taken seasonally from December 2002 until October 2004. The samples were collected with the use of a seine net at eleven points. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethanol. Black spot disease showed a low frequency in the Guaíba lake basin (2.07%) and no specificity to the species Astyanax aff. fasciatus was observed. A high prevalence among the individuals and high intensity of infection levels was found in the ventral and dorsal regions in relation to other body parts (e.g., pectoral, pelvic and anal regions). Among the sampling points studied, we observed a higher prevalence on samples collected at points Gasômetro, Saco da Alemoa and Sinos, located in open areas with less occurrence of mollusks.

  2. Two F/A-18B aircraft involved in the AFF program return to base in close formation with the autonomo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    After completing a milestone autonomous station-keeping formation, two F/A-18B aircraft from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, return to base in close formation with the autonomous function disengaged. For the milestone, the aircraft were spaced approximately 200 feet nose-to-tail and 50 feet apart laterally and vertically. Autonomous formation control was maintained by the trailing aircraft, the Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), in the lateral and vertical axes to within five feet of the commanded position. Nose-to-tail separation of the aircraft was controlled by manual throttle inputs by the trailing aircraft's pilot. The milestone was accomplished on the seventh flight of a 12 flight phase. The AFF flights were a first for a project under NASA's Revolutionary (RevCon) in Aeronautics Project. Dryden was the lead NASA center for RevCon, an endeavor to accelerate the exploration of high-risk, revolutionary technologies in atmospheric flight. Automated formation flight could lead to formation fuel efficiencies and higher air traffic capacity. In the background is the U. S. Borax mine, Boron, California, near the Dryden/Edwards Air Force Base complex. Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) is intended to allow an aircraft to fly in close formation over long distances using advanced positioning and controls technology. It utilizes Global Positioning System satellites and inertial navigation systems to position two or more aircraft in formation, with an accuracy of a few inches. This capability is expected to yield fuel efficiency improvements.

  3. Insights into HIV-1 proviral transcription from integrative structure and dynamics of the Tat:AFF4:P-TEFb:TAR complex

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Echeverria, Ignacia; Stjepanovic, Goran; Bai, Yun; Lu, Huasong; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Doudna, Jennifer A; Zhou, Qiang; Sali, Andrej; Hurley, James H

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat hijacks the human superelongation complex (SEC) to promote proviral transcription. Here we report the 5.9 Å structure of HIV-1 TAR in complex with HIV-1 Tat and human AFF4, CDK9, and CycT1. The TAR central loop contacts the CycT1 Tat-TAR recognition motif (TRM) and the second Tat Zn2+-binding loop. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) shows that AFF4 helix 2 is stabilized in the TAR complex despite not touching the RNA, explaining how it enhances TAR binding to the SEC 50-fold. RNA SHAPE and SAXS data were used to help model the extended (Tat Arginine-Rich Motif) ARM, which enters the TAR major groove between the bulge and the central loop. The structure and functional assays collectively support an integrative structure and a bipartite binding model, wherein the TAR central loop engages the CycT1 TRM and compact core of Tat, while the TAR major groove interacts with the extended Tat ARM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15910.001 PMID:27731797

  4. Two F/A-18B aircraft involved in the AFF program return to base in close formation with the autonomo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    After completing a milestone autonomous station-keeping formation, two F/A-18B aircraft from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, return to base in close formation with the autonomous function disengaged. For the milestone, the aircraft were spaced approximately 200 feet nose-to-tail and 50 feet apart laterally and vertically. Autonomous formation control was maintained by the trailing aircraft, the Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), in the lateral and vertical axes to within five feet of the commanded position. Nose-to-tail separation of the aircraft was controlled by manual throttle inputs by the trailing aircraft's pilot. The milestone was accomplished on the seventh flight of a 12 flight phase. The AFF flights were a first for a project under NASA's Revolutionary (RevCon) in Aeronautics Project. Dryden was the lead NASA center for RevCon, an endeavor to accelerate the exploration of high-risk, revolutionary technologies in atmospheric flight. Automated formation flight could lead to formation fuel efficiencies and higher air traffic capacity. Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) is intended to allow an aircraft to fly in close formation over long distances using advanced positioning and controls technology. It utilizes Global Positioning System satellites and inertial navigation systems to position two or more aircraft in formation, with an accuracy of a few inches. This capability is expected to yield fuel efficiency improvements.

  5. Pollination of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), by the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Santos, Solange A B dos; Roselino, Ana C; Bego, Luci R

    2008-01-01

    When for a successful fruit development the fertilization of flowers is necessary, bees can be used as crop-pollinators in greenhouses. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis Moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier as pollinators of cucumber plants (Cucumus sativus var. caipira) in greenhouses during the Brazilian winter season. The study was conducted in four greenhouses (GH), of which two greenhouses contained bee colonies to ascertain pollination of the cucumber plants (GH I, with S. aff. depilis, GH II, with N. testaceicornis), whereas the other two greenhouses (GH III, GH IV) had no bee colonies and served as control groups. Furthermore, we planted cucumbers in an open field plot (OA) where pollination by any/various visiting insects could occur. Each of the experimental areas measured 87.5 m2. Without pollination (GH III, GH IV), the plants produced a low number of cucumbers, and the fruits were smaller and less heavy than in those experimental areas where pollination occurred. In the open field area, not protected against unfavorable climatic conditions, the plants produced fewer flowers than the plants in the greenhouses. The highest cucumber yield (with the highest amount of perfect fruits) was found in those greenhouses which housed the stingless bees as pollinators (GH I, GH II). Our results demonstrate that stingless bees can be successfully and efficiently used as pollinators of greenhouse cucumbers during the winter season.

  6. Development and reproduction of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) with fungus gnat larvae (Diptera: Sciaridae), potworms (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Acari: Acaridae) as the sole food source.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

    2005-01-01

    Stratiolaelaps (=Hypoaspis) miles (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is a polyphagous soil-dwelling predatory mite that is widely marketed for use in greenhouse production systems to manage populations of dark-winged fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) and for supplemental control of thrips. The suggestion by Walter and Campbell (2003, Biol. Control 26: 253-269) that North American commercial cultures of S. miles may actually be S. scimitus was confirmed. The development and reproduction at 21-23 degrees C of S. scimitus provided ad libidum with one of three different prey--the fungus gnat Bradysia aff. coprophila (Lintner), potworms (Enchytraeidae), or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Zachvatkin, 1937) (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae)--were compared. Developmental duration of the egg and non-feeding larval stages were 2.47 and 1.11 days, respectively; mortalities were 8.3 and 5.5%. Stratiolaelaps scimitus failed to develop beyond the protonymphal stage when provided with S. aff. sphaerogaster alone, although some feeding was observed. Development and reproduction of S. scimitus was successful on both fungus gnat larvae and enchytraeids, with no influence of prey on protonymphal duration (4.70 days) and mortality (8.3%), or on deutonymphal duration (4.61 days) and mortality (6.1%). Adult female S. scimitus feeding on potworms, compared to those feeding on fungus gnat larvae, had a significantly shorter pre-oviposition period (2.69 vs. 4.59 days). However, diet did not influence other adult female developmental or reproductive characteristics (oviposition period, 18.6 days; post-oviposition period, 6.2 days; total adult longevity, 27.3 days; total number of eggs, 26.5). S. scimitus reared on potworms tended (p = 0.06) to have a higher intrinsic rate of increase, a higher finite rate of increase and a shorter doubling time (rm = 0.142 day(-1), lambda = 1.153, Dt = 4.85 days) than those reared on fungus gnat larvae (rm = 0.105 day(-1), lambda = 1

  7. Severe Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II) phenotype secondary to large deletion in the X chromosome encompassing IDS, FMR1, and AFF2 (FMR2).

    PubMed

    Burruss, Day M; Wood, Tim C; Espinoza, Lesby; Dwivedi, Alka; Holden, Kenton R

    2012-06-01

    A 2-year-old boy with an initial diagnosis of Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II) had a more severe phenotype than expected, which warranted further evaluation. The patient had severe infantile global neurodevelopmental delays, macrocephaly with a prominent forehead, coarse facial features with clear corneas, chronic congestion with snoring, wide-spaced teeth, short thick neck, hepatomegaly, an inguinal hernia repaired, early clawhand deformities, and severe generalized hypotonia. X chromosome microarray revealed a large deletion encompassing the genes IDS, FMR1, and AFF2 (FMR2) confirming the diagnoses of both Hunter and fragile X syndromes. This case is also a reminder to clinicians that for optimum patient care, further diagnostic testing is warranted if there is concern that a patient's phenotype is more severe or complex than would be expected for the initial neurogenetic diagnosis.

  8. Genome-wide linkage and positional association analyses identify associations of novel AFF3 and NTM genes with triglycerides: the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia A L; Rao, Dabeeru C; Hixson, James E; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng; Gu, Charles C; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Jaquish, Cashell E; Schwander, Karen; Liu, De-Pei; Huang, Jianfeng; Lu, Fanghong; Cao, Jie; Chong, Shen; Lu, Xiangfeng; Kelly, Tanika N

    2015-03-20

    We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and positional association study to identify genes and variants influencing blood lipid levels among participants of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. The GenSalt study was conducted among 1906 participants from 633 Han Chinese families. Lipids were measured from overnight fasting blood samples using standard methods. Multipoint quantitative trait genome-wide linkage scans were performed on the high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and log-transformed triglyceride phenotypes. Using dense panels of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), single-marker and gene-based association analyses were conducted to follow-up on promising linkage signals. Additive associations between each SNP and lipid phenotypes were tested using mixed linear regression models. Gene-based analyses were performed by combining P-values from single-marker analyses within each gene using the truncated product method (TPM). Significant associations were assessed for replication among 777 Asian participants of the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing. In the GenSalt study, suggestive linkage signals were identified at 2p11.2‒2q12.1 [maximum multipoint LOD score (MML) = 2.18 at 2q11.2] and 11q24.3‒11q25 (MML = 2.29 at 11q25) for the log-transformed triglyceride phenotype. Follow-up analyses of these two regions revealed gene-based associations of charged multivesicular body protein 3 (CHMP3), ring finger protein 103 (RNF103), AF4/FMR2 family, member 3 (AFF3), and neurotrimin (NTM) with triglycerides (P = 4 × 10(-4), 1.00 × 10(-5), 2.00 × 10(-5), and 1.00 × 10(-7), respectively). Both the AFF3 and NTM triglyceride associations were replicated among MESA study participants (P = 1.00 × 10(-7) and 8.00 × 10(-5), respectively). Furthermore, NTM explained the linkage signal on chromosome 11. In conclusion, we identified novel genes

  9. Genome-Wide Linkage and Positional Association Analyses Identify Associations of Novel AFF3 and NTM Genes with Triglycerides: The GenSalt Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia A.L.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Hixson, James E.; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng; Gu, Charles C.; Shimmin, Lawrence C.; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Schwander, Karen; Liu, De-Pei; Huang, Jianfeng; Lu, Fanghong; Cao, Jie; Chong, Shen; Lu, Xiangfeng; Kelly, Tanika N.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and positional association study to identify genes and variants influencing blood lipid levels among participants of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. The GenSalt study was conducted among 1906 participants from 633 Han Chinese families. Lipids were measured from overnight fasting blood samples using standard methods. Multipoint quantitative trait genome-wide linkage scans were performed on the high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and log-transformed triglyceride phenotypes. Using dense panels of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), single-marker and gene-based association analyses were conducted to follow-up on promising linkage signals. Additive associations between each SNP and lipid phenotypes were tested using mixed linear regression models. Gene-based analyses were performed by combining P-values from single-marker analyses within each gene using the truncated product method (TPM). Significant associations were assessed for replication among 777 Asian participants of the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing. In the GenSalt study, suggestive linkage signals were identified at 2p11.2–2q12.1 [maximum multipoint LOD score (MML) = 2.18 at 2q11.2] and 11q24.3–11q25 (MML = 2.29 at 11q25) for the log-transformed triglyceride phenotype. Follow-up analyses of these two regions revealed gene-based associations of charged multivesicular body protein 3 (CHMP3), ring finger protein 103 (RNF103), AF4/FMR2 family, member 3 (AFF3), and neurotrimin (NTM ) with triglycerides (P = 4 × 10−4, 1.00 × 10−5, 2.00 × 10−5, and 1.00 × 10−7, respectively). Both the AFF3 and NTM triglyceride associations were replicated among MESA study participants (P = 1.00 × 10−7 and 8.00 × 10−5, respectively). Furthermore, NTM explained the linkage signal on chromosome 11. In conclusion, we identified novel genes

  10. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4'-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  11. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  12. Field and Laboratory Studies Provide Insights into the Meaning of Day-Time Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tomotani, Barbara M.; Flores, Danilo E. F. L.; Tachinardi, Patrícia; Paliza, José D.; Oda, Gisele A.; Valentinuzzi, Verônica S.

    2012-01-01

    South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti), commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD) conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD). However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12∶12) with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker. PMID:22649565

  13. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  14. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents.

  15. Developmental plasticity and biomechanics of treelets and lianas in Manihot aff. quinquepartita (Euphorbiaceae): a branch-angle climber of French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, Léa; McKey, Doyle; Rowe, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Most tropical lianas have specialized organs of attachment such as twining stems, hooks or tendrils but some do not. Many climbers also have an early self-supporting phase of growth and in some species this can produce treelet-sized individuals. This study focuses on how a liana can climb without specialized attachment organs and how biomechanical properties of the stem are modulated between self-supporting treelets and canopy-climbing lianas. Methods Biomechanics and stem development were investigated in self-supporting to climbing individuals of Manihot aff. quinquepartita (Euphorbiaceae) from tropical rain forest at Saül, central French Guiana. Bending tests were carried out close to the site of growth. Mechanical properties, including Young's elastic modulus, were observed with reference to habit type and changes in stem anatomy during development. Key Results This liana species can show a remarkably long phase of self-supporting growth as treelets with stiff, juvenile wood characterizing the branches and main stem. During the early phase of climbing, stiff but unstable stem segments are loosely held in a vertical position to host plants via petiole bases. The stiffest stems – those having the highest values of Young's modulus measured in bending – belonged to young, leaning and climbing stems. Only when climbing stems are securely anchored into the surrounding vegetation by a system of wide-angled branches, does the plant develop highly flexible stem properties. As in many specialized lianas, the change in stiffness is linked to the development of wood with numerous large vessels and thin-walled fibres. Conclusions Some angiosperms can develop highly effective climbing behaviour and specialized flexible stems without highly specialized organs of attachment. This is linked to a high degree of developmental plasticity in early stages of growth. Young individuals in either open or closed marginal forest conditions can grow as substantial

  16. Methodological Aspects of the Phase II Study AFF006 Evaluating Amyloid-beta -Targeting Vaccine AFFITOPE® AD02 in Early Alzheimer's Disease - Prospective Use of Novel Composite Scales.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, S; Ellison, N; Stanworth, S; Tierney, L; Mattner, F; Schmidt, W; Dubois, B; Schneeberger, A

    2015-06-01

    Optimized scales and composite outcomes have been proposed as a way to more accurately measure Alzheimer's disease related decline. AFFITOPE® AD02, is an amyloid-beta (Aβ)-targeting vaccine to elicit anti-Aβ antibodies. IMM-AD04, commonly known as Alum, originally designated as a control agent, appeared to have disease-modifying activity in a multicenter, parallel group phase II study in early AD patients. To develop adapted outcomes for cognition, function and a composite scale with improved sensitivity to decline and treatment effects in early AD (mild plus prodromal AD) based on historical data and to assess these adapted outcomes in this phase II study. Data from public datasets was analyzed using a partial least squares model in order to identify an optimally weighted cognitive outcome, Adapted ADAS-cog, and an optimally weighted ADL outcome, Adapted ADCS-ADL which were prospectively defined as co-primary endpoints for the study and were also combined into a composite scale. Data from 162 patients in the placebo groups of ADCS studies and 156 mild patients in the ADNI I study were pooled for this analysis. The Adapted ADAS-cog scale considered 13 ADAS-cog items as well as several Neuropsychological test items and CogState items, the Adapted ADCS-ADL considered all ADCS-ADL items. After the pre-specified analyses were complete, additional adapted and composite scales were investigated in a post-hoc manner. Evaluation of the adapted and composite scales was performed on Phase II trial data for AFFITOPE® AD02 (AFF006, Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01117818) and historic data in early AD. Least square means, standard deviations, and least squares mean to standard deviation ratios were compared among adapted and composite scales and traditional scales for the 5 treatment groups in the phase II study and overall for the historic data. Treatment effect sizes and p-values were also compared for the phase II study. Cognitive items that were selected for the adapted

  17. Frequency of the ETV6-RUNX1, BCR-ABL1, TCF3-PBX1, and MLL-AFF1 fusion genes in Guatemalan pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and their ethnic associations.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Claudia; Granados, Lilian; Morales, Oneida; Jo, Wendy; Villagran, Swuanny; Tinti, Damaris; Villegas, Mauricio; Antillón, Federico; Torselli, Silvana; Silva, Gabriel

    2013-06-01

    Fusion genes involved in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occur mostly due to genetic and environmental factors, and only a limited number of studies have reported any ethnic influence. This study assesses whether an ethnic influence has an effect on the frequency of any of the four fusion genes: BCR-ABL1, ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, and MLL-AFF1 found in ALL. To study this ethnic influence, mononuclear cells were obtained from bone marrow samples from 143 patients with ALL. We performed RNA extraction and reverse transcription, then assessed the quality of the cDNA by amplifying the ABL1 control gene, and finally evaluated the presence of the four transcripts by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. We found 10 patients who had the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene (7%); 3 patients (2%) were TCF3-PBX1 positive; and 6 patients (4.5%) were ETV6-RUNX1 positive. The incidence of this last fusion gene is quite low when compared to the values reported in most countries. The low incidence of the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene found in Guatemala matches the incidence rates that have been reported in Spain and Indian Romani. Since it is known that an ethnic resemblance exists among these three populations, as shown by ancestral marker studies, the ALL data suggests an ethnic influence on the occurrence and frequency of this particular fusion gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gyrodactylus aff. mugili Zhukov, 1970 (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) from the gills of mullets (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the inland waters of southern Iraq, with an evalutation of previous records of Gyrodactylus spp. on mullets in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Ali, Atheer H; Khamees, Najim R

    2013-11-01

    Gyrodactylus aff. mugili Zhukov, 1970 (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) is recorded and described from the gill lamellae of 11 of 35 greenback mullet, Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) (minimum prevalence 31%), from the brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab Estuary in southern Iraq. The gyrodactylid was also found on the gill lamellae of one of eight Speigler's mullet, Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker), from the brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Basrah Canal (minimum prevalence 13%). Fifteen Klunzinger's mullet, Liza klunzingeri (Day), and 13 keeled mullet, Liza carinata (Valenciennes), collected and examined from southern Iraqi waters, were apparently uninfected. The gyrodactylids from the greenback mullet and Speigler's mullet were considered to have affinity to G. mugili Zhukov, 1970, and along with G. mugili may represent members of a species complex occurring on mullets in the Indo-Pacific Region. A single damaged gyrodactylid from the external surfaces of the abu mullet, Liza abu (Heckel), was insufficient for species identification. Previously identified species of Gyrodactylus recorded on L. abu in Iraq by various authors were considered possible misidentifications or accidental infections.

  19. The clinical characteristics, therapy and outcome of 85 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AFF1 prospectively treated in the UKALLXII/ECOG2993 trial

    PubMed Central

    Marks, David I.; Moorman, Anthony V.; Chilton, Lucy; Paietta, Elisabeth; Enshaie, Amir; DeWald, Gordon; Harrison, Christine J.; Fielding, Adele K.; Foroni, Letizia; Goldstone, Anthony H.; Litzow, Mark R.; Luger, Selina M.; McMillan, Andrew K.; Racevskis, Janis; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Wiernik, Peter; Lazarus, Hillard M.

    2013-01-01

    The biology and outcome of adult t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AFF1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia are poorly understood. We describe the outcome and delineate prognostic factors and optimal post-remission therapy in 85 consecutive patients (median age 38 years) treated uniformly in the prospective trial UKALLXII/ECOG2993. The immunophenotype of this leukemia was pro-B (CD10NEG). Immaturity was further suggested by high expression of the stem-cell antigens, CD133 and CD135, although CD34 expression was significantly lower than in t(4;11)-negative patients. Complete remission was achieved in 77 (93%) patients but only 35% survived 5 years (95% CI: 25–45%); the relapse rate was 45% (95% CI: 33–58%). Thirty-one patients underwent allogeneic transplantation in first remission (15 sibling donors and 16 unrelated donors): with 5-year survival rates of 56% and 67% respectively, only 2/31 patients relapsed. This compares with a 24% survival rate and 59% relapse rate in 46 patients who received post-remission chemotherapy. A major determinant of outcome was age with 71% of patients aged <25 years surviving. Younger patients had lower relapse rates (19%) but most received allografts in first complete remission. In conclusion, multivariate analysis did not demonstrate an advantage of allografting over chemotherapy but only five younger patients received chemotherapy. Prospective trials are required to determine whether poor outcomes in older patients can be improved by reduced-intensity conditioning allografts. NCT00002514 www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23349309

  20. Lamellodiscus aff. euzeti Diamanka, Boudaya, Toguebaye & Pariselle, 2011 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the gills of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Pisces: Sparidae) collected in the Arabian Sea, with comments on the distribution, specificity and historical biogeography of Lamellodiscus spp.

    PubMed

    Machkewskyi, Volodymyr K; Dmitrieva, Evgenija V; Gibson, David I; Al-Jufaili, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Specimens of Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) were collected from the gills of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Sparidae) in the Arabian Sea. All of these parasites belonged to one and the same species, which is morphologically very close to L. euzeti Diamanka, Boudaya, Toguebaye & Pariselle, 2011. A different host, distant locality and small morphological differences compared with the original description of L. euzeti acted as a stimulus for a detailed redescription. The specimens from the Arabian Sea differ slightly in the details of the male copulatory organ (MCO) from the type-specimens of L. euzeti, which were re-examined, and from the respective drawings in its original description. Such differences include a longer inner process of the large element of the accessory piece associated with the proximal part of the copulatory tube, a longer point on the small element of the accessory piece associated with the distal part of the copulatory tube, and the presence of a smooth or slightly folded inner margin of this element rather than structures resembling spines which occur in the type-specimens of L. euzeti. Therefore, the present specimens infecting C. nufar in the Indo-Pacific may represent a different, but morphologically very similar species to the Atlantic form L. euzeti; consequently, they are recognised here as Lamellodiscus aff. euzeti. This form belongs to the 'ignoratus s. str.' subgroup of the genus. The composition of this subgroup is redefined to comprise 17 species, including L. corallinus Paperna, 1965 but excluding L. acanthopagri Roubal, 1981, and the morphology of the MCO of representatives of this group is clarified. A link between the diversity of Lamellodiscus species and the ancestral origin of present-day sparid species in the Tethys Sea is suggested. It is shown that Lamellodiscus spp. exhibit rather high levels of specificity to their hosts, since half of them parasitise only a single host species and c.90

  1. Antifouling activities against colonizer marine bacteria of extracts from marine invertebrates collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina).

    PubMed

    Mora-Cristancho, Jennyfer A; Arévalo-Ferro, Catalina; Ramos, Freddy A; Tello, Edisson; Duque, Carmenza; Lhullier, Cintia; Falkenberg, Miriam; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The growth inhibition of 12 native marine bacteria isolated from Aplysina sponge surfaces, the shell of a bivalve, and Phytagel immersed for 48 h in sea water were used as indicator of the antifouling activity of the extracts of 39 marine organisms (octocorals, sponges, algae, and zoanthid) collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina). Gram-negative bacteria represented 75% of the isolates; identified strains belonged to Oceanobacillus iheyensis, Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi, and Bacillus megaterium species and seven strains were classified at genus level by the 16S rRNA sequencing method. The extracts of the octocorals Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, four Eunicea octocorals, and the sponges Topsentia ophiraphidites, Agelas citrina, Neopetrosia carbonaria, Monanchora arbuscula, Cliona tenuis, Iotrochota imminuta, and Ptilocaulis walpersii were the most active, thus suggesting those species as antifoulant producers. This is the first study of natural antifoulants from marine organisms collected on the Colombian and Brazilian coasts.

  2. Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Bever, Glenn; Campos, Norma V.; Schkolnik, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of uninhabited aerial vehicles [UAVs (basically, remotely piloted or autonomous aircraft)] has spawned new developments in autonomous operation and posed new challenges. Automated aerial refueling (AAR) is a capability that will enable UAVs to travel greater distances and loiter longer over targets. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), the Naval Air Force Pacific Fleet, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, rapidly conceived and accomplished an AAR flight research project focused on collecting a unique, high-quality database on the dynamics of the hose and drogue of an aerial refueling system. This flight-derived database would be used to validate mathematical models of the dynamics in support of design and analysis of AAR systems for future UAVs. The project involved the use of two Dryden F/A-18 airplanes and an S-3 hose-drogue refueling store on loan from the Navy. In this year-long project, which was started on October 1, 2002, 583 research maneuvers were completed during 23 flights.

  3. Pseudorandom Switching for Adding Radar to the AFF Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, Jeffrey; Purcell, George; Young, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    A document describes the proposed addition of a radar function to the Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor, making possible coarse relative-position control to prevent collisions in the event of failure of one of the spacecraft. According to the proposal, in addition to tracking GPS-like one-way ranging signals transmitted by the other normally functioning spacecraft, each spacecraft could simultaneously track the reflection of its own ranging signal from a disabled, non-transmitting spacecraft. From the round-trip travel time, the approximate distance to the disabled spacecraft could be estimated. To prevent jamming of the receiver by the transmitter on the same spacecraft, the receiver would be switched off during transmission.

  4. Tylerianthus crossmanensis gen. et sp. nov. (aff. Hydrangeaceae) from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Gandolfo, M; Nixon, K; Crepet, W

    1998-03-01

    A fossil flower with affinities to the modern families of the saxifragalean complex is described. Fossils were collected at Old Crossman Pit, Raritan Formation, New Jersey, USA. These sediments are dated on the basis of palynology as Turonian (Upper Cretaceous, ~90 million years before present). Fossils are charcoalified and preserved with exceptional three- dimensional detail. The characters observed in these flowers, when compared with those of extant flowers of several families of the saxifragalean complex, suggest a close relationship with extant members of the Saxifragaceae and Hydrangeaceae. Hypotheses on the origin of petals and staminodes and a possible mechanism of pollination are discussed. This new taxon provides additional characters in the floral morphology of the fossil saxifragoids and extends their geographical distribution in the Cretaceous to North America.

  5. Cockroaches as pollinators of Clusia aff. sellowiana (Clusiaceae) on inselbergs in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H G; Teichert, Holger

    2008-09-01

    A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. The results suggest that the plant-cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species.

  6. Cockroaches as Pollinators of Clusia aff. sellowiana (Clusiaceae) on Inselbergs in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H. G.; Teichert, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Methods Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). Key Results The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. Conclusions The results suggest that the plant–cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species. PMID:18567597

  7. Cambarus (Jugicambarus) adustus, a new species of crayfish from northeastern Kentucky delimited from the Cambarus (J.) aff. dubius species complex.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Roger F; Fetzner, James W Jr; Stocker, G Whitney; Loughman, Zachary J

    2016-09-08

    A new species of burrowing crayfish, Cambarus (Jugicambarus) adustus, is described from Lewis County in northeastern Kentucky, USA. The new species is most similar morphologically to C. dubius. Cambarus adustus coloration differs from C. dubius by lacking red, orange and blue hues, and instead is brown over the entire body surface. Morphological differences between C. dubius and C. adustus exist in the form I male gonopod, with C. adustus possessing a caudal knob, while C. dubius does not. In addition, the lateral carapace of C. adustus is distinctly tuberculate, whereas in C. dubius the carapace lacks extensive tuberculation. Cambarus (J.) adustus appears to have an extremely small geographic range (~19.5 km2), and as such we suggest its consideration for both state and federal levels of protection.

  8. Insights into transcriptomes of Big and Low sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Huynh; Justin T. Page; Bryce A. Richardson; Joshua A. Udall

    2015-01-01

    We report the sequencing and assembly of three transcriptomes from Big (Artemisia tridentatassp. wyomingensis and A. tridentatassp. tridentata) and Low (A. arbuscula ssp. arbuscula) sagebrush. The sequence reads are available in the Sequence Read Archive of NCBI. We demonstrate the utilities of these transcriptomes for gene discovery and phylogenomic analysis. An...

  9. Arboreal Ant Colonies as ‘Hot-Points’ of Cryptic Diversity for Myrmecophiles: The Weaver Ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor and Its Interaction Network with Its Associates

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Systematic surveys of macrofaunal diversity within ant colonies are lacking, particularly for ants nesting in microhabitats that are difficult to sample. Species associated with ants are generally small and rarely collected organisms, which makes them more likely to be unnoticed. We assumed that this tendency is greater for arthropod communities in microhabitats with low accessibility, such as those found in the nests of arboreal ants that may constitute a source of cryptic biodiversity. Materials and Methods We investigated the invertebrate diversity associated with an undescribed, but already threatened, Neotropical Camponotus weaver ant. As most of the common sampling methods used in studies of ant diversity are not suited for evaluating myrmecophile diversity within ant nests, we evaluated the macrofauna within ant nests through exhaustive colony sampling of three nests and examination of more than 80,000 individuals. Results We identified invertebrates from three classes belonging to 18 taxa, some of which were new to science, and recorded the first instance of the co-occurrence of two brood parasitoid wasp families attacking the same ant host colony. This diversity of ant associates corresponded to a highly complex interaction network. Agonistic interactions prevailed, but the prevalence of myrmecophiles was remarkably low. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis of the evolution of low virulence in a variety of symbionts associated with large insect societies. Because most myrmecophiles found in this work are rare, strictly specific, and exhibit highly specialized biology, the risk of extinction for these hitherto unknown invertebrates and their natural enemies is high. The cryptic, far unappreciated diversity within arboreal ant nests in areas at high risk of habitat loss qualifies these nests as ‘hot-points’ of biodiversity that urgently require special attention as a component of conservation and management programs. PMID:24941047

  10. Cloning and Characterization of a Norbelladine 4′-O-Methyltransferase Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Alzheimer’s Drug Galanthamine in Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; Starks, Courtney M.; O’Neil-Johnson, Mark; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid used to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. This compound is primarily isolated from daffodil (Narcissus spp.), snowdrop (Galanthus spp.), and summer snowflake (Leucojum aestivum). Despite its importance as a medicine, no genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of galanthamine have been identified. This absence of genetic information on biosynthetic pathways is a limiting factor in the development of synthetic biology platforms for many important botanical medicines. The paucity of information is largely due to the limitations of traditional methods for finding biochemical pathway enzymes and genes in non-model organisms. A new bioinformatic approach using several recent technological improvements was applied to search for genes in the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway, first targeting methyltransferases due to strong signature amino acid sequences in the proteins. Using Illumina sequencing, a de novo transcriptome assembly was constructed for daffodil. BLAST was used to identify sequences that contain signatures for plant O-methyltransferases in this transcriptome. The program HAYSTACK was then used to identify methyltransferases that fit a model for galanthamine biosynthesis in leaf, bulb and inflorescence tissues. One candidate gene for the methylation of norbelladine to 4′-O-methylnorbelladine in the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway was identified. This methyltransferase cDNA was expressed in E. coli and the protein purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein was found to be a norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase (NpN4OMT) of the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25061748

  11. Cloning and characterization of a norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the Alzheimer's drug galanthamine in Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; Starks, Courtney M; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid used to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. This compound is primarily isolated from daffodil (Narcissus spp.), snowdrop (Galanthus spp.), and summer snowflake (Leucojum aestivum). Despite its importance as a medicine, no genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of galanthamine have been identified. This absence of genetic information on biosynthetic pathways is a limiting factor in the development of synthetic biology platforms for many important botanical medicines. The paucity of information is largely due to the limitations of traditional methods for finding biochemical pathway enzymes and genes in non-model organisms. A new bioinformatic approach using several recent technological improvements was applied to search for genes in the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway, first targeting methyltransferases due to strong signature amino acid sequences in the proteins. Using Illumina sequencing, a de novo transcriptome assembly was constructed for daffodil. BLAST was used to identify sequences that contain signatures for plant O-methyltransferases in this transcriptome. The program HAYSTACK was then used to identify methyltransferases that fit a model for galanthamine biosynthesis in leaf, bulb and inflorescence tissues. One candidate gene for the methylation of norbelladine to 4'-O-methylnorbelladine in the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway was identified. This methyltransferase cDNA was expressed in E. coli and the protein purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein was found to be a norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase (NpN4OMT) of the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway.

  12. Structural organization and tooth development in a Homo aff. erectus juvenile mandible from the Early Pleistocene site of Garba IV at Melka Kunture, Ethiopian highlands.

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément; Dean, M Christopher; Assefa, Yared; Bayle, Priscilla; Braga, José; Condemi, Silvana; Endalamaw, Metasebia; Engda Redae, Blade; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    The immature partial mandible GAR IVE from the c. 1.7 Ma old Garba IV site at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash Basin, Ethiopia), the earliest human representative from a mountain-like environment, represents one of the oldest early Homo specimens bearing a mixed dentition. Following its first description (Condemi, ), we extended the analytical and comparative record of this specimen by providing unreported details about its inner morphology, tooth maturational pattern and age at death, crown size, and tooth tissue proportions. The new body of quantitative structural information and virtual imaging derives from a medical CT record performed in 2013. Compared to the extant human condition and to some fossil representatives of comparable individual age, the GAR IVE mandible reveals absolutely and relatively thick cortical bone. Crown size of the permanent lateral incisor and the canine fit the estimates of H. erectus s.l., while the dm2 and the M1 more closely approach those of H. habilis-rudolfensis. Molar crown pulp volumes are lower than reported in other fossil specimens and in extant humans. The mineralization sequence of the permanent tooth elements is represented four times in our reference sample of extant immature individuals (N = 795). The tooth developmental pattern displayed by the immature individual from Garba IV falls within the range of variation of extant human populations and is also comparable with that of other very young early fossil hominins. Taken together, the evidence presented here for mandibular morphology and dental development suggest GAR IVE is a robust 2.5- to 3.5-year old early Homo specimen. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Factors affecting fracture location in atypical femoral fractures: A cross-sectional study with 147 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Wan; Kim, Jung Jae; Byun, Young-Soo; Shon, Oog-Jin; Oh, Hyoung Keun; Park, Ki Chul; Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have tried to determine the characteristics of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) through age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched comparison with non-AFFs. However, we hypothesized that diaphyseal AFFs would have characteristics different from those of subtrochanteric AFFs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of diaphyseal/subtrochanteric AFFs and determine the factors related to fracture location. One hundred forty-seven patients with AFF were enrolled, 114 patients (78%) had a history of bisphosphonate use. Forty-nine patients (33%) had bilateral lesion, and 35% of patients had thigh pain. Patients were divided into two groups according to fracture location: 52 patients (35.4%) with subtrochanteric AFF and 95 patients (64.6%) with diaphyseal AFF. The patient demographics and fracture characteristics of the two groups were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for variables related to fracture location. The patients in the diaphyseal AFFs group were older and had lower BMI, lower BMD, and larger lateral and anterior bowing. Multivariate analysis revealed that age greater than 65 years and low BMD were related with diaphyseal location. With greater lateral bowing angle, the AFF location was moved from the subtrochanteric area to the diaphyseal area. This study demonstrated that patients with diaphyseal AFFs had different characteristics compared with those with subtrochanteric AFFs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhance performance of micro direct methanol fuel cell by in situ CO2 removal using novel anode flow field with superhydrophobic degassing channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junsheng; Luo, Ying; Zheng, Sheng; Wang, Dazhi

    2017-05-01

    Capillary blocking caused by CO2 bubbles in anode flow field (AFF) is one of the bottlenecks for performance improvement of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC). In this work, we present a novel AFF structure with nested layout of hydrophilic fuel channels and superhydrophobic degassing channels which can remove most of CO2 from AFF before it is released to the fuel channels. The new AFFs are fabricated on Ti substrates by using micro photochemical etching combined with anodization and fluorination treatments. Performance of the μDMFCs with and without superhydrophobic degassing channels in their AFF is comparatively studied. Results show that the superhydrophobic degassing channels can significantly speed up the exhaust of CO2 from the AFF. CO2 clogging is not observed in the new AFFs even when their comparison AFFs have been seriously blocked by CO2 slugs under the same operating conditions. 55% and 60% of total CO2 produced in μDMFCs with N-serpentine and N-spiral AFF can be respectively removed by the superhydrophobic degassing channels. The power densities of the μDMFCs equipped with new serpentine and spiral AFFs are respectively improved by 30% and 90% compared with those using conventional AFFs. This means that the new AFFs developed in this work can effectively prevent CO2-induced capillary blocking in the fuel channels, and finally significantly improve the performance of the μDMFCs.

  15. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  16. Incidence of Atypical Femur Fractures in Cancer Patients: The MD Anderson Cancer Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Beatrice J; Sun, Ming; West, Dennis P; Guindani, Michele; Lin, Yan Heather; Lu, Huifang; Hu, Mimi; Barcenas, Carlos; Bird, Justin; Feng, Chun; Saraykar, Smita; Tripathy, Debasish; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Gagel, Robert; Murphy, William A

    2016-08-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are rare adverse events attributed to bisphosphonate (BP) use. Few cases of AFF in cancer have been described; the aim of this study is to identify the incidence and risk factors for AFF in a large cancer center. This retrospective study was conducted at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. The incidence rate of AFF among BP users was calculated from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2013. The control group (n = 51) included 2 or 3 patients on BPs matched for age (≤1 year) and gender. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between clinical characteristics and AFF. Twenty-three AFF cases were identified radiographically among 10,587 BP users, the total BP exposure was 53,789 months (4482 years), and the incidence of AFF in BP users was 0.05 cases per 100,000 person-years. Meanwhile, among 300,553 patients who did not receive BPs there were 2 cases of AFF as compared with the 23 cases noted above. The odds ratio (OR) of having AFF in BP users was 355.58 times higher (95% CI, 84.1 to 1501.4, p < 0.0001) than the risk in non-BP users. The OR of having AFF in alendronate users was 5.54 times greater (OR 5.54 [95% CI, 1.60 to 19.112, p = 0.007]) than the odds of having AFF among other BP users. Patients who were on zoledronic acid (ZOL) had smaller odds of developing AFF compared with other BP users in this matched case control sample. AFFs are rare, serious adverse events that occur in patients with cancer who receive BP therapy. Patients with cancer who receive BPs for prior osteoporosis therapy or for metastatic cancer are at higher risk of AFF. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Risk factors for development of atypical femoral fractures in patients on long-term oral bisphosphonate therapy.

    PubMed

    Franceschetti, Paola; Bondanelli, Marta; Caruso, Gaetano; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Massari, Leo; Degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2013-10-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the first-line therapy for osteoporosis. In recent years, atypical femoral fractures (AFF) have been described in patients on BPs therapy. However, the relationship between BPs and AFF remains to be clarified. We evaluated clinical and hormonal characteristics of AFF patients, in order to determine AFF risk factors. We studied 11 females with AFF and 58 females with typical femoral fractures (TFF), admitted to our Department for surgical repair between January 2008 and December 2011. All AFF patients received BPs therapy for 6 to 13 yrs, whereas 36.2% (p<0.0001) of TFF patients received BPs for shorter period (TFF, 6.1±1.8 yr vs. AFF, 8.6±1.9 yr, p<0.0001). A higher prevalence of hypocalcemia was observed in AFF patients compared with TFF (p<0.02), with significantly (p<0.05) lower corrected calcium levels in AFF patients. By contrast a reduced prevalence of elevated PTH levels (p<0.05) was found in AFF patients. No significant difference in prevalence of vitamin D defect was observed between the two groups. Younger age (p<0.004), higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, p<0.03) and early menopausal age (p<0.05) were observed in AFF patients. At time of fracture, prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and levels of bone turnover markers were significantly (p<0.01) lower in AFF compared with TFF patients. By multivariate analysis hypocalcemia, obesity, and younger age (<70 yr) were confirmed to be independent predictors of AFF; elevated PTH level was the predominant independent protective factor (p<0.004). In conclusion, our data indicate that clinical characteristics and metabolic factors may favor the development of AFF in BP treated patients. We identified hypocalcemia due to latent hypoparathyroidism as primary risk factor for AFF; age, obesity, early menopause, and BMD may also influence the development of AFF. An adequate clinical and metabolic assessment is suggested to prevent the development of AFF in BP treated patients. © 2013.

  18. Novel polycyclic guanidine alkaloids from two marine sponges of the genus Monanchora.

    PubMed

    Braekman, J C; Daloze, D; Tavares, R; Hajdu, E; Van Soest, R W

    2000-02-01

    Two marine sponges of the genus Monanchora (Poecilosclerida, Crambeidae) have been found to contain new polycyclic guanidine alkaloids bearing the (5,6,8b)-triazaperhydroacenaphthylene skeleton. Their structures have been determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis. Dehydrobatzelladine C (1) has been isolated from M. arbuscula and crambescidins 359 (2) and 431 (3) from M. unguiculata. The chemotaxonomic implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Species of Elasmogorgia and Euplexaura (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) from Japan with a discussion about the genus Filigella

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Asako K.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Octocorals with thread-like colony shape have been re-examined, mainly from Japanese waters. The holotypes of Elasmogorgia filiformis and Filigella boninensis and a syntype of Filigella mitsukurii have been studied. Euplexaura arbuscula is identified and Euplexaura yayoii sp. n. described. PMID:27408532

  20. Species of Elasmogorgia and Euplexaura (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) from Japan with a discussion about the genus Filigella.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Asako K; van Ofwegen, Leen P

    2016-01-01

    Octocorals with thread-like colony shape have been re-examined, mainly from Japanese waters. The holotypes of Elasmogorgia filiformis and Filigella boninensis and a syntype of Filigella mitsukurii have been studied. Euplexaura arbuscula is identified and Euplexaura yayoii sp. n. described.

  1. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    contains mostly fusion partners (e.g. AFF1, AFF4, ELL1, ELL2, ENL and AF9) of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein and promotes transcription of...MLL-target genes, leading to some of the most severe forms of leukemia . Our working hypotheses is that P-TEFb activation as a result of shifting its

  2. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    e.g. AFF1, AFF4, ELL1, ELL2, ENL and AF9) of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein and promotes transcription of MLL-target genes, leading to some...of the most severe forms of leukemia . Our working hypotheses is that P-TEFb activation as a result of shifting its functional equilibrium to the

  3. Prebiotic potential of Agave angustifolia Haw fructans with different degrees of polymerization.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Martínez, José Rodolfo; González-Cervantes, Rina M; Hernández-Gallegos, Minerva Aurora; Mendiola, Roberto Campos; Aparicio, Antonio R Jiménez; Ocampo, Martha L Arenas

    2014-08-19

    Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both β-(2→1) and β-(2→6) linked fructosyl chains attached to the sucrose start unit with a degree of polymerization (DP) of up to 80 fructose units. The objective of this work was to assess the prebiotic potential of three Agave angustifolia Haw fructan fractions (AFF) with different degrees of polymerization. The three fructan fractions were extracted from the agave stem by lixiviation and then purified by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography: AFF1, AFF2 and AFF3 with high (3-60 fructose units), medium (2-40) and low (2-22) DP, respectively. The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), which confirmed a branched fructan structure. Structural elucidation was performed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The AFF spectrum shows characteristic fructan bands. The prebiotic effect of these fractions was assessed in vitro through fermentation by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Four growth patterns were observed. Some bacteria did not grow with any of the AFF, while other strains grew with only AFF3. Some bacteria grew according to the molecular weight of the AFF and some grew indistinctly with the three fructan fractions.

  4. Bone scintigraphy depicts bilateral atypical femoral stress fractures with metachronous presentation, long before a complete fracture occurs.

    PubMed

    Spyridonidis, Trifon J; Mousafiris, Kostantinos V; Rapti, Efi K; Apostolopoulos, Dimitris J

    2014-01-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFF), although rare, are recognized more often during the last decade. They are located in the subtrochanteric region or the femoral shaft, may be bilateral, can evolve to complete fractures after bone overload or minimal trauma and have specific radiological features. The complete fractures have horizontal or slightly oblique configuration accompanied by a medial spike, are non-comminuted, and extend to both cortices. There is also generalized cortical thickening of femoral shaft. Newer evidence suggests that AFF are stress or insufficiency fractures, possibly associated with long-term use of bisphoshonates (BP). AFF can also occur in oncologic patients referred for bone scintigraphy and, in such a case, they should be differentiated from bone metastases. We present here a case with bilateral AFF with metachronous appearance in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and osteoporosis. The first AFF had been depicted on bone scintigraphy 3 years before a complete fracture occurred at this site, but the finding was overlooked. A second bone scan performed shortly after the fracture in order to exclude underlying bone metastases disclosed an additional unsuspected incomplete AFF in the contralateral femur, which was confirmed by radiography. In conclusion, oncologists should consider other causes of bone pain besides bone metastatic disease, and physicians interpreting whole body bone scans of oncologic patients should be aware of the entity of AFF, in order to avoid false positive results and provide early information about an impending complete AFF.

  5. Ka-Band Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, Jeffrey; Purcell, George, Jr.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey; Ciminera, Michael; Srinivasan, Meera; Meehan, Thomas; Young, Lawrence; Aung, MiMi; Amaro, Luis; Chong, Yong; Quirk, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Ka-band integrated range and bearing-angle formation sensor called the Autonomous Formation Flying (AFF) Sensor has been developed to enable deep-space formation flying of multiple spacecraft. The AFF Sensor concept is similar to that of the Global Positioning System (GPS), but the AFF Sensor would not use the GPS. The AFF Sensor would reside in radio transceivers and signal-processing subsystems aboard the formation-flying spacecraft. A version of the AFF Sensor has been developed for initial application to the two-spacecraft StarLight optical-interferometry mission, and several design investigations have been performed. From the prototype development, it has been concluded that the AFF Sensor can be expected to measure distances and directions with standard deviations of 2 cm and 1 arc minute, respectively, for spacecraft separations ranging up to about 1 km. It has also been concluded that it is necessary to optimize performance of the overall mission through design trade-offs among the performance of the AFF Sensor, the field of view of the AFF Sensor, the designs of the spacecraft and the scientific instruments that they will carry, the spacecraft maneuvers required for formation flying, and the design of a formation-control system.

  6. Stand density relationships

    Treesearch

    John C. Tappeiner

    2013-01-01

    Th inning stands (managing their densities) aff ects the development of trees and understory plants as individuals, as well as stand-level characteristics like structure, microclimate, and stand growth, habitat for various species, and fuel and potential fi re severity. Th ese characteristics and the rate of changes are aff ected by thinning severity—the reduction in...

  7. Do Bisphosphonate-related Atypical Femoral Fractures and Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Affect the Same Group of Patients? A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Afif, Haitham; Mukka, Sebastian; Sjödén, Göran; Sayed-Noor, Arkan S.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are commonly used drugs in clinical practice. In this pilot study, we investigated whether bisphosphonate-related atypical femoral fractures (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) occurred simultaneously in the same group of patients. Six ONJ patients were examined by an orthopedic surgeon and 5 AFF patients were examined by a dentist to look for manifestations of simultaneous occurrence of AFF in ONJ patients and vice versa. The required radiological investigations and previous medical and dental records were available. No simultaneous occurrence of AFF and ONJ was found in the examined patients. In this pilot study with limited sample size, no manifestations of simultaneous occurrence of AFF and ONJ were found. This could be an indication that these complications have different pathophysiologies and affect different subgroups of patients on long-term BP treatment. PMID:24744836

  8. “Atypical” atypical femur fractures and use of bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    van de Laarschot, Denise M.; Somford, Matthijs P.; Jager, Agnes; Oei, Edwin H.; Bos, P. Koen; Zillikens, M. Carola

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) present a rare but serious condition associated with use of bisphosphonates. Underlying mechanisms and clinical risk factors remain unclear. According to the diagnostic criteria formulated by the ASBMR, a lateral localization of an AFF is required. Case history We present a patient who developed bilateral leg pain while using an oral bisphosphonate and aromatase inhibitor in the course of adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Initially she was diagnosed with bone metastases and received radiotherapy on the right femur. However, the bilateral periosteal reactions of the subtrochanteric femur are highly suggestive of AFFs. Our case meets all criteria for AFF except that she presented with lesions at the medial side of the femur. Therefore they could be best described as “atypical” atypical femur fractures. Discussion Since the pathogenesis of AFFs is not fully understood, we cannot rule out that AFFs also occur in the medial femur or in other weight-baring bones. Hence we propose that medial stress reactions belong to a spectrum of atypical fractures associated with use of antiresorptive drugs. The localization may depend on yet unknown biomechanical factors. Conclusion We propose that these periosteal reactions of the subtrochanteric femur are in fact AFFs with uncommon medial localization and could hence be considered “atypical” AFFs. We recommend being alert of AFFs in patients with bone pain and medial subtrochanteric lesions. More epidemiological studies are needed to investigate the occurrence of both medial and lateral AFFs and to gain more insight into its frequency and pathogenesis. PMID:28228783

  9. Bioactive guanidine alkaloids from two Caribbean marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Laville, Rémi; Thomas, Olivier P; Berrué, Fabrice; Marquez, Diana; Vacelet, Jean; Amade, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Seven new guanidine alkaloids (1-7) together with the known batzelladines A, F, H, and L, ptilomycalin A, and fromiamycalin were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponges Monanchora arbuscula and Clathria calla. Molecular structures were assigned on the basis of detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and mass spectrometry data, and bioactivities of the alkaloids were evaluated against human cancer cell lines and malaria protozoa.

  10. Assimilation and partitioning of prey nitrogen within two anthozoans and their endosymbiotic zooxanthellae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piniak, G.A.; Lipschultz, F.; McClelland, J.

    2003-01-01

    The movement of nitrogen from zooplankton prey into the temperate scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula and the anemone Aiptasia pallida was measured using 15N-labeled brine shrimp. The efficiency with which prey nitrogen was incorporated into cnidarian tissues was species-specific. O. arbuscula with a full complement of zooxanthellae had an assimilation efficiency of nearly 100%, compared to only 46% for corals containing few zooxanthellae. In A. pallida, symbiont density had no effect, and nitrogen assimilation was 23 to 29%. In both species, the host retained the bulk of the ingested label. Complete digestion was rapid (<4 h), as was the partitioning of the label between host amino acids and macromolecules. The label was primarily in the low-molecular weight-amino acid pool in O. arbuscula, where it remained for 30 h. A maximum of ca. 20% of the 15N appeared in the zooxanthellae, where it was rapidly converted into macromolecules. Individual amino acids in A. pallida tissues were highly labeled with 15N within 4 h and showed no subsequent enrichment with time; however, zooxanthellae amino acids became increasingly enriched over 30 h. Differences in 15N enrichment among amino acids were consistent with known synthesis and transformation pathways, but it was not possible to discriminate between host feeding and de novo synthesis.

  11. Molecular assessment of heterotrophy and prey digestion in zooxanthellate cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Leal, M C; Nejstgaard, J C; Calado, R; Thompson, M E; Frischer, M E

    2014-08-01

    Zooxanthellate cnidarians are trophically complex, relying on both autotrophy and heterotrophy. Although several aspects of heterotrophy have been studied in these organisms, information linking prey capture with digestion is still missing. We used prey-specific PCR-based tools to assess feeding and prey digestion of two zooxanthellate cnidarians - the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia sp. and the scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula. Prey DNA disappeared rapidly for the initial 1-3 days, whereas complete digestion of prey DNA required up to 10 days in O. arbuscula and 5 or 6 days in Aiptasia sp. depending on prey species. These digestion times are considerably longer than previously reported from microscopy-based examination of zooxanthellate cnidarians and prey DNA breakdown in other marine invertebrates, but similar to prey DNA breakdown reported from terrestrial invertebrates such as heteroptera and spiders. Deprivation of external prey induced increased digestion rates during the first days after feeding in O. arbuscula, but after 6 days of digestion, there were no differences in the remaining prey levels in fed and unfed corals. This study indicates that prey digestion by symbiotic corals may be slower than previously reported and varies with the type of prey, the cnidarian species and its feeding history. These observations have important implications for bioenergetic and trophodynamic studies on zooxanthellate cnidarians.

  12. Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos

    PubMed Central

    Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. Methods The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. Results A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). Conclusions The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology. PMID:23569778

  13. Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos.

    PubMed

    Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

    2011-08-01

    To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology.

  14. Genomics of "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarium", a Cyanobacterial Sponge Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, Beate M.; Copeland, Alex; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-03-21

    Marine sponges (Porifera): ancient metazoans of ecological importance, that produce bioactive secondary metabolites and interact with various microorganisms including cyanobacteria1: Marine Synechococcus spp.: cyanobacteria, important contributors to the global carbon cycle and major primary producers in the oceans2 Ca. S. spongiarum: an ecotype of this genus, widespread and abundant symbiont of various marine sponges around the world3, e.g. Aplysina aerophoba

  15. The Super Elongation Complex Family of RNA Polymerase II Elongation Factors: Gene Target Specificity and Transcriptional Output

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhuojuan; Lin, Chengqi; Guest, Erin; Garrett, Alexander S.; Mohaghegh, Nima; Swanson, Selene; Marshall, Stacy; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The elongation stage of transcription is highly regulated in metazoans. We previously purified the AFF1- and AFF4-containing super elongation complex (SEC) as a major regulator of development and cancer pathogenesis. Here, we report the biochemical isolation of SEC-like 2 (SEC-L2) and SEC-like 3 (SEC-L3) containing AFF2 and AFF3 in association with P-TEFb, ENL/MLLT1, and AF9/MLLT3. The SEC family members demonstrate high levels of polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain kinase activity; however, only SEC is required for the proper induction of the HSP70 gene upon stress. Genome-wide mRNA-Seq analyses demonstrated that SEC-L2 and SEC-L3 control the expression of different subsets of genes, while AFF4/SEC plays a more dominant role in rapid transcriptional induction in cells. MYC is one of the direct targets of AFF4/SEC, and SEC recruitment to the MYC gene regulates its expression in different cancer cells, including those in acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemia. These findings suggest that AFF4/SEC could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of leukemia or other cancers associated with MYC overexpression. PMID:22547686

  16. Comparison of two synthetic food-odor lures for captures of feral Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico and implications regarding use of irradiated flies to assess lure efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robacker, David C; Thomas, Donald B

    2007-08-01

    Feral Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were trapped in a citrus orchard in Mexico by using two types of synthetic food-odor lures, the AFF lure (Anastrepha fruit fly lure, APTIV, Inc., Portland, OR) and the BioLure (two-component MFF lure, Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR). In Multilure traps (Better World Manufacturing, Inc., Miami, FL) containing water, BioLures captured about the same numbers of flies as AFF lures. In Multilure traps containing antifreeze solution, BioLures captured 2 and 5 times more flies than AFF lures in two experiments. BioLures, and AFF lures did not differ in attractiveness when used on sticky traps (Intercept trap, APTIV, Inc.; and sticky cylinder trap). Multilure traps captured >4 times as many flies as sticky traps with the exception that captures of females did not differ between Multilure and sticky traps baited with AFF lures. The percentage of females captured in Multilure traps was greater when traps were baited with BioLures compared with AFF lures, but the reverse was true for sticky traps. Sticky cylinder traps captured a higher percentage of females than Multilure traps. The most effective trap/lure combination was the Multilure trap baited with BioLure and antifreeze. In comparison with tests of these two lures in Texas, results were similar for Multilure traps, but they differed for sticky cylinder traps in that AFF lures were consistently more attractive than BioLures in Texas, but not in Mexico.

  17. Location of atypical femoral fracture can be determined by tensile stress distribution influenced by femoral bowing and neck-shaft angle: a CT-based nonlinear finite element analysis model for the assessment of femoral shaft loading stress.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoto; Fujita, Koji; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Kurosa, Yoshiro; Okawa, Atsushi

    2017-09-27

    Loading stress due to individual variations in femoral morphology is thought to be strongly associated with the pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). In Japan, studies on AFF regarding pathogenesis in the mid-shaft are well-documented and a key factor in the injury is thought to be femoral shaft bowing deformity. Thus, we developed a CT-based finite element analysis (CT/FEA) model to assess distribution of loading stress in the femoral shaft. A multicenter prospective study was performed at 12 hospitals in Japan from August 2015 to February 2017. We assembled three study groups-the mid-shaft AFF group (n=12), the subtrochanteric AFF group (n=10), and the control group (n=11)-and analyzed femoral morphology and loading stress in the femoral shaft by nonlinear CT/FEA. Femoral bowing in the mid-shaft AFF group was significantly greater (lateral bowing, p<0.0001; anterior bowing, p<0.01). Femoral neck-shaft angle in the subtrochanteric AFF group was significantly smaller (p<0.001). On CT/FEA, both the mid-shaft and subtrochanteric AFF group showed maximum tensile stress located adjacent to the fracture site. Quantitatively, there was a correlation between femoral bowing and the ratio of tensile stress, which was calculated between the mid-shaft and subtrochanteric region (lateral bowing, r=0.6373, p<0.0001; anterior bowing, r=-0.5825, p<0.001). CT/FEA demonstrated that tensile stress by loading stress can cause AFF. The location of AFF injury could be determined by individual stress distribution influenced by femoral bowing and neck-shaft angle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bisphosphonates and risk of subtrochanteric, femoral shaft, and atypical femur fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gedmintas, Lydia; Solomon, Daniel H; Kim, Seoyoung C

    2013-08-01

    Although there is strong evidence that bisphosphonates prevent certain types of osteoporotic fractures, there are concerns that these medications may be associated with rare atypical femoral fractures (AFF). Recent published studies examining this potential association are conflicting regarding the existence and strength of this association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies examining the association of bisphosphonates with subtrochanteric, femoral shaft, and AFF. The random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates of adjusted risk ratios (RR). Subgroup analysis was performed by study design, for studies that used validated outcome definitions for AFF, and for studies reporting on duration of bisphosphonate use. Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis: five case-control and six cohort studies. Bisphosphonate exposure was associated with an increased risk of subtrochanteric, femoral shaft, and AFF, with adjusted RR of 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.37). Subgroup analysis of studies using the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research criteria to define AFF suggests a higher risk of AFF, with bisphosphonate use with RR of 11.78 (95% CI, 0.39-359.69) as compared to studies using mainly diagnosis codes (RR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.18-2.22), although there is a wide confidence interval and severe heterogeneity (I(2)  = 96.15%) in this subgroup analysis. Subgroup analysis of studies examining at least 5 years of bisphosphonate use showed adjusted RR of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.29-2.04). This meta-analysis suggests there is an increased risk of subtrochanteric, femoral shaft, and AFF among bisphosphonate users. Further research examining the risk of AFF with long-term use of bisphosphonates is indicated as there was limited data in this subgroup. The public health implication of this observed increase in AFF risk is not clear.

  19. Atypical femur fractures: a survey of current practices in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P S; Wall, M; Brown, J P; Cheung, A M; Harvey, E J; Morin, S N

    2017-08-02

    The results of a self-administered online survey demonstrate that orthopedic surgeons' management practices for AFF are variable. These data will inform the development of clinical practice guidelines. We aimed to determine current AFF treatment practices of orthopedic surgeons to inform clinical practice guideline development. A self-administered online survey was developed and sequentially posted on the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) website from July to August 2015 and the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) website from December 2015 to January 2016. Level of confidence in diagnosis and treatment as well as treatment preferences between respondents who self-identified as trauma surgeons vs. non-trauma surgeons were compared. A total of 172 completed surveys were obtained (OTA, N = 100, 58%; COA, N = 72, 8%). Seventy-eight percent of respondents had treated ≥1 AFF in the previous 6 months. Seventy-six percent reported feeling extremely or very confident in diagnosing AFF (trauma 84% vs. non-trauma surgeons 70%, p = 0.04), and 63% reported feeling extremely or very confident in treating AFF (trauma 82%, non-trauma surgeons 50%, p < 0.01). Preferred management for complete and symptomatic incomplete AFFs was surgical fixation with a cephalomedullary nail (CMN) by 88 and 79%, respectively, while close follow-up was preferred for asymptomatic incomplete AFFs in 72% of respondents. Trauma surgeons used the CMN more frequently than non-trauma surgeons (90 vs. 76% p = 0.03). In patients with bilateral AFFs, with one side surgically treated, 56% were extremely likely to surgically treat the contralateral side, if symptomatic. Most felt guidelines (81%) and educational resources (73%) would be valuable. Current orthopedic treatment practices for AFFs are variable. The results of this survey will inform the development of practice guidelines and educational resources.

  20. The fracture sites of atypical femoral fractures are associated with the weight-bearing lower limb alignment.

    PubMed

    Saita, Yoshitomo; Ishijima, Muneaki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Kubota, Mitsuaki; Baba, Tomonori; Kaketa, Takefumi; Nagao, Masashi; Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakai, Kensuke; Kato, Rui; Nagura, Nana; Miyagawa, Kei; Wada, Tomoki; Liu, Lizu; Obayashi, Osamu; Shitoto, Katsuo; Nozawa, Masahiko; Kajihara, Hajime; Gen, Hogaku; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are stress-related fractures that are speculated to associate with long-term treatment with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. A history of AFF is a high risk factor for the development of a subsequent AFF in the same location of the contralateral femur, suggesting that a patient's individual anatomical factor(s) are related to the fracture site of AFFs. In this study, we investigated the radiographs of fourteen AFFs (four bilateral fractures among ten patients) treated at six hospitals associated with our university between 2005 and 2010. The fracture site and standing femorotibial angle (FTA), which reflects the mechanical axis of the lower limb, were measured on weight-bearing lower limb radiographs. The fracture site and FTA of patients with typical femoral fractures (TFF) were compared to those of patients with AFFs. The correlations were examined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The fracture locations in the femora were almost the same in the patients with bilateral AFFs. There was a positive correlation between the fracture site and the standing FTA in the patients with AFFs (r=0.82, 95% confidence interval; 0.49 to 0.94), indicating that the larger the standing FTA (varus alignment), the more distal the site of the fracture in the femur. The FTA of the patients with atypical diaphyseal femoral fracture were significantly larger compared to that of those with not only atypical subtrochanteric fractures but also TFFs. In conclusion, the fracture sites of AFFs are associated with the standing lower limb alignment, while those of TFFs are not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impending Atypical Femoral Fracture in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer With Skeletal Metastasis Treated With Long-term Bisphosphonate and Denosumab.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Gokita, Tabu; Toda, Kazuhisa

    2017-02-24

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) occur in osteoporosis patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate. Atypical femoral fractures also occur in cancer patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate or denosumab, but the prevalence is low. We describe a 53-year-old woman with a history of medullary thyroid cancer and skull metastasis who was prescribed bisphosphonate for 6 years and denosumab for 1.5 years, consecutively. Bone scintigraphy performed because of spontaneous groin pain showed uptake in the lateral aspect of the left femur, which was confirmed as impending AFF. In oncological patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate or denosumab, AFF should be included as a differential diagnosis with focal femoral findings.

  2. Diurnal and Seasonal Variation in Sap Flow Among Different Sagebrush Species and Subspecies Along an Elevation Gradient in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H.; Reinhardt, K.; Lohse, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sagebrush is a widespread and locally dominant shrub across much of western North America, occupying >66 million ha. Sagebrush steppe provides many important ecosystem services including carbon (C) storage, water storage, and providing critical habitat for several threatened and endangered animal species. At the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory (RC CZO) in southwestern Idaho, sagebrush is the dominant shrub species across most of the watershed. The research objectives of RC CZO are to quantify soil carbon storage and flux, and the environmental factors governing these from pedon to landscape scales. Sagebrush-steppe ecosystems have been identified as possible future C sinks, but C storage in these water-limited systems is tightly linked to hydroclimate, which is highly variable in space and time. Quantifying soil-plant water relations is essential to understanding C storage in these systems. Stem-heat-balance sap-flow sensors were installed in June 2015 at three sites in RC CZO that had existing meteorological stations and eddy covariance towers. These sites are situated along an elevation gradient from 1417 m to 2111 m. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingenesis, A. arbuscula and A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana at dominate at the lower, middle, and upper sites, respectively. At all three sites, we installed sensors on 5-6 shrubs. Preliminary results indicate greater sap flow velocity in both wyomingenesis and tridentata species than arbuscula. The mean hourly sap flow rates were 2.05±0.12 g/h, 0.33±0.01 g/h and 3.02±0.14 g/h for wyomingenesis, arbuscula, and vaseyana, respectively, during June 26th to July 22nd, 2015. Daily sap flow averaged about 61.56±5.21 g/day, 7.60±0.88 g/day, and 74.60±5.44 g/day, respectively within same time period. Lower soil water content at the middle site seemed to be the cause of lower sap flow velocities in arbuscula. Diurnal patterns in sap flow were similar in all subspecies, with maximum flow velocities recorded between 11

  3. Patients Receiving Parenteral Bisphosphonates for Malignant Disease and Having Developed an Atypical Femoral Fracture Are at Risk of Concomitant Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lindsay L; Bukata, Susan V; Aghazadehsanai, Nona; Chang, Tina I; Garrett, Neal R; Friedlander, Arthur H

    2016-12-01

    The risk of developing concomitant medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in patients who have sustained an atypical femoral fracture (AFF) in association with parental administration of a bisphosphonate osteoclastic inhibitor medication for malignant disease is unclear. Published data were searched to determine the prevalence of these concomitant adverse medication events, if any. A systematic review of published case series in the PubMed database was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence of patients having a concomitant history of AFF and MRONJ. The data were analyzed to provide prevalence rates of these events from the literature. Two case series were identified that delineated the risk (25 and 33%, respectively) of concomitant development of MRONJ and AFF in recipients of parenteral bisphosphonate medication administered for malignant disease. The published data suggest that approximately 30% of patients receiving parenteral bisphosphonates and having sustained an AFF could develop comorbid MRONJ. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Atypical femoral fracture in a beta-thalassemia major patient with previous bisphosphonate use: case report and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulou-Adamidou, K.; Tournis, S.; Triantafyllopoulos, I.K.

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous studies presenting the beneficial effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) on bone disease of patients suffering from beta-thalassemia major (TM). Although BPs have been widely used, adverse events have been described including atypical femoral fractures (AFF). In the present case, a male adult patient suffering from TM sustained an AFF fulfilling all major and two minor criteria. Before AFF, the patient had been treated with zoledronic acid for three years and remained another one year without osteoporosis therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AFF in a patient suffering from TM, probably due to the small sample size of patients with thalassemia. The purpose of the present case is to increase the awareness amongst haematologists, who mainly deal with TM patients, of the adverse events of BP use. PMID:26944826

  5. Atypical femoral fracture in a beta-thalassemia major patient with previous bisphosphonate use: case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulou-Adamidou, K; Tournis, S; Triantafyllopoulos, I K

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous studies presenting the beneficial effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) on bone disease of patients suffering from beta-thalassemia major (TM). Although BPs have been widely used, adverse events have been described including atypical femoral fractures (AFF). In the present case, a male adult patient suffering from TM sustained an AFF fulfilling all major and two minor criteria. Before AFF, the patient had been treated with zoledronic acid for three years and remained another one year without osteoporosis therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AFF in a patient suffering from TM, probably due to the small sample size of patients with thalassemia. The purpose of the present case is to increase the awareness amongst haematologists, who mainly deal with TM patients, of the adverse events of BP use.

  6. Affinity flow fractionation of cells via transient interactions with asymmetric molecular patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Suman; Singh, Rishi; Hanewich-Hollatz, Mikhail; Shen, Chong; Lee, Chia-Hua; Dorfman, David M.; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Karnik, Rohit

    2013-07-01

    Flow fractionation of cells using physical fields to achieve lateral displacement finds wide applications, but its extension to surface molecule-specific separation requires labeling. Here we demonstrate affinity flow fractionation (AFF) where weak, short-range interactions with asymmetric molecular patterns laterally displace cells in a continuous, label-free process. We show that AFF can directly draw neutrophils out of a continuously flowing stream of blood with an unprecedented 400,000-fold depletion of red blood cells, with the sorted cells being highly viable, unactivated, and functionally intact. The lack of background erythrocytes enabled the use of AFF for direct enumeration of neutrophils by a downstream detector, which could distinguish the activation state of neutrophils in blood. The compatibility of AFF with capillary microfluidics and its ability to directly separate cells with high purity and minimal sample preparation will facilitate the design of simple and portable devices for point-of-care diagnostics and quick, cost-effective laboratory analysis.

  7. Innovative applications of bacteriophages in rapid detection and identification of foodborne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Relative to traditional microbiological approaches, biosensors are a rapid method for foodborne bacterial pathogen detection. Biosensors function by detecting the interaction of the target pathogen, or pathogen derived molecule, with a biological recognition component which must have sufficient aff...

  8. Bisphenol A activates EGFR and ERK promoting proliferation, tumor spheroid formation and resistance to EGFR pathway inhibition in estrogen receptornegative inflammatory breast cancer cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a distinct and the deadliest breast cancer variant, which shows a rapid rate of progression and acquired therapeutic resistance. Epidemiological studies suggest that chemical exposure in the environment and consumer products can aff...

  9. Universal dimer–dimer scattering in lattice effective field theory

    DOE PAGES

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Katterjohn, Kris; Lee, Dean; ...

    2017-03-14

    We consider two-component fermions with short-range interactions and large scattering length. This system has universal properties that are realized in several different fields of physics. In the limit of large fermion–fermion scattering length aff and zero-range interaction, all properties of the system scale proportionally with aff. For the case with shallow bound dimers, we calculate the dimer–dimer scattering phase shifts using lattice effective field theory. We extract the universal dimer–dimer scattering length add/aff=0.618(30) and effective range rdd/aff=-0.431(48). This result for the effective range is the first calculation with quantified and controlled systematic errors. We also benchmark our methods by computingmore » the fermion–dimer scattering parameters and testing some predictions of conformal scaling of irrelevant operators near the unitarity limit.« less

  10. Atypical Femoral Fractures Can Happen Even With Short Duration Bisphosphonate Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Ritesh; Siva, Chokkalingam

    2015-08-01

    Bisphosphonates remain the mainstay of the pharmacological approach to reduce the risk of fractures. Clinical trials have demonstrated their efficacy in reducing the frequency of osteoporosis-related vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. In the last few years, there have been several reports of increased risk of subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures also known as "atypical femoral fractures" (AFF) among patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate treatment. Most of these reports have been on alendronate, the most extensively used bisphosphonate. There is paucity of data to link ibandronate to AFF. We report a 66-year-old female presenting with AFF within three years of starting ibandronate and after receiving a total of 27 doses. Prescribers should be aware that AFF can happen even during the early course of bisphosphonate treatment and not necessarily only after prolonged treatment for several years.

  11. Karyotypic diversity among three species of the genus Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, P B; Vieira, M M R; Porto, F E; Borin, L A; Portela-Castro, A L B; Santos, I C M

    2016-06-01

    The group Incertae sedis within the Characidae family currently includes 88 genera, previously included in the subfamily Tetragonopterinae. Among them is the genus Astyanax comprising a group of species with similar morphology and widely distributed in the Neotropics. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the karyotype diversity in Astyanax species from different watersheds by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH rDNA 18S) probe.specimens of Astyanax aff. paranae belonging to the "scabripinnis complex", Astyanax asunsionensis and Astyanax aff. bimaculatus were analyzed". Two sympatric karyomorphs were observed in Astyanax.aff paranae, one of them having2n=48andthe other one with 2n=50 chromosomes. Other population of this same species also presented 2n=50 chromosomes, but differing in the karyotype formula and with macro supernumerary chromosome found in 100% of the cells in about 80%of females analyzed. Two population of A. asuncionensis and one population of Astyanax. aff. bimaculatus, also showed a diploid number of 50 chromosomes, but also differing in their karyotype formulas. Therefore, A. asuncionensis was also characterized by intraspecific chromosome diversity. The C-banding analysis was able to demonstrate a distinctable to demonstrate a distinct pattern of heterochromatin differing A. asuncionensis from Astyanax aff. paranae and Astyanax aff. bimaculatus. The supernumerary chromosome of Astyanax aff. paranae proved completely heterochromatic. Only Astyanax.aff. bimaculatus multiple showed multiple sites of nucleolar organizing regions. The other species were characterized by having a simple system of NOR. These data contributes to the know ledge of the existing biodiversity in our fish fauna, here highlighted by the inter- and intraspecific chromosomal diversity in the genus Astyanax.

  12. Efficacy of two synthetic food-odor lures for Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) is determined by trap type.

    PubMed

    Robacker, David C; Czokajlo, Darek

    2005-10-01

    Sterile mass-reared Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), were trapped in a citrus orchard by using multilure traps and cylindrical sticky traps baited with Advanced Pheromone Technologies Anastrepha fruit fly (AFF) lures or Suterra BioLure two-component (ammonium acetate and putrescine) MFF lures (BioLures). The cylinder trap/AFF lure combination was the best trap over the first 6 wk, the multilure trap/BioLure combination was best during weeks 6-12, and the multilure trap/AFF lure combination was best during the last 6 wk. The multilure trap/BioLure combination was best overall by 36% over the cylinder trap/AFF lure combination, and 57% over the multilure trap/AFF lure combination. Cylinder traps with BioLures were the least effective trap/lure combination throughout the experiment, capturing only half as many flies as cylinder traps with AFF lures. Captures with cylinder traps baited with either lure and multilure traps with BioLures were female biased. For the most part, both lures remained highly attractive and emitted detectable amounts of attractive components under hot field conditions for the duration of the 18-wk experiment. Total emission of ammonia was 4 times greater and 1-pyrroline at least 10 times greater from AFF lures compared with BioLures. Correlations of trap and lure performance with ammonia emission and weather were determined, but no conclusions were possible. Results indicate that BioLures would be the lure of choice in multilure or other McPhail-type traps and AFF lures would be superior with most sticky traps or kill stations that attract flies to outer (not enclosed) surfaces.

  13. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employee is not relieved if he is required to perform any duties, whether active or inactive, while eating.... 661 (D. Neb. 1951), aff'd 197 F. 2d 981 (C.A. 8, 1952), cert. denied 344 U.S. 888 (1952); Thompson v. Stock & Sons, Inc., 93 F. Supp. 213 (E.D. Mich 1950), aff'd 194 F. 2d 493 (C.A. 6, 1952); Biggs...

  14. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employee is not relieved if he is required to perform any duties, whether active or inactive, while eating.... 661 (D. Neb. 1951), aff'd 197 F. 2d 981 (C.A. 8, 1952), cert. denied 344 U.S. 888 (1952); Thompson v. Stock & Sons, Inc., 93 F. Supp. 213 (E.D. Mich 1950), aff'd 194 F. 2d 493 (C.A. 6, 1952); Biggs...

  15. Demineralized Bone Matrix Add-On for Acceleration of Bone Healing in Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture: A Consecutive Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kulachote, Noratep; Sirisreetreerux, Norachart; Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Fuangfa, Praman; Suphachatwong, Chanyut; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Delayed union and nonunion are common complications in atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) despite having good fracture fixation. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a successfully proven method for enhancing fracture healing of the long bone fracture and nonunion and should be used in AFFs. This study aimed to compare the outcome after subtrochanteric AFFs (ST-AFFs) fixation with and without DBM. Materials and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 9 ST-AFFs patients using DBM (DBM group) during 2013-2014 and compared with a retrospective consecutive case series of ST-AFFs patients treated without DBM (2010–2012) (NDBM group, 9 patients). All patients were treated with the same standard guideline and followed up until fractures completely united. Postoperative outcomes were then compared. Results. DBM group showed a significant shorter healing time than NDBM group (28.1 ± 14.4 versus 57.9 ± 36.8 weeks, p = 0.04). Delayed union was found in 4 patients (44%) in DBM group compared with 7 patients (78%) in NDBM group (p > 0.05). No statistical difference of nonunion was demonstrated between both groups (DBM = 1 and NDBM = 2, p > 0.05). Neither postoperative infection nor severe local tissue reaction was found. Conclusions. DBM is safe and effective for accelerating the fracture healing in ST-AFFx and possibly reduces nonunion after fracture fixation. Trial registration number is TCTR20151021001. PMID:27022610

  16. Chromosomal Diversity of Three Species of Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae), from the Paraná River Basin, Brazil: A Species Complex in Hypostomus ancistroides Reinforced by a ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosome System.

    PubMed

    Lara Kamei, Marcia Cristina de Souza; Baumgärtner, Lucas; Paiva, Suzana; Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito

    2017-08-01

    Hypostomus shows wide morphological patterns, corroborated by great chromosomal diversity that has suggested the existence of new species, especially from small tributaries. Cytogenetic analysis has contributed to estimate a cryptic diversity providing important data for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. Cytogenetic techniques were carried out on species from a small tributary of Ivaí River, Keller River (upper Paraná River basin): Hypostomus aff. ancistroides, Hypostomus topavae, and Hypostomus aff. hermanni that presented 2n = 68, 80, and 72 chromosomes, respectively. Each species showed the same diploid number from previous descriptions for other populations but different karyotype formulas, and Hypostomus aff. ancistroides had a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. Multiple NORs (nucleolar organizer regions) and pericentromeric heterochromatin blocks were found in the three species. Moreover, each of them showed species-specific heterochromatins. Multiple 5S rDNA sites were detected in Hypostomus aff. ancistroides and H. topavae, whereas Hypostomus aff. hermanni had only one pair bearing these sites. In addition to the divergence in the karyotype formulas, chromosomal markers used showed karyotype differences in the three species related to other respective populations studied. Furthermore, the first description of a ZZ/ZW system for Hypostomus aff. ancistroides reinforces the hypothesis that it may correspond to a species complex and yet, confirming an unknown cryptic diversity existent in small rivers.

  17. Effects of nutritional history on nitrogen assimilation in congeneric temperate and tropical scleractinian corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piniak, G.A.; Lipschultz, F.

    2004-01-01

    The nutritional history of corals is known to affect metabolic processes such as inorganic nutrient uptake and photosynthesis, but little is known about how it affects assimilation efficiency of ingested prey items or the partitioning of prey nitrogen between the host and symbiont. The temperate scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula and its tropical congener Oculina diffusa were acclimated to three nutritional regimes (fed twice weekly, starved, starved with an inorganic nutrient supplement), then fed Artemia nauplii labeled with the stable isotope tracer 15N. Fed corals of both species had the lowest assimilation efficiencies (36-51% for O. arbuscula, 38-57% for O. diffusa), but were not statistically different from the other nutritional regimes. Fed and starved corals also had similar NU4+ excretion rates. This is inconsistent with decreased nitrogen excretion and reduced amino acid catabolism predicted by both the nitrogen recycling and conservation paradigms. In coral host tissue, ???90% of the ingested 15N was in the TCA-insoluble (protein and nucleic acids) and ethanol-soluble (amino acids/low molecular weight compounds) within 4 h of feeding. The TCA-insoluble pool was also the dominant repository of the label in zooxanthellae of both species (40-53% in O. arbuscula, 50-60% in O. diffusa). However, nutritional history had no effect on the distribution of prey 15N within the biochemical pools of the host or the zooxanthellae for either species. This result is consistent with the nitrogen conservation hypothesis, as preferential carbon metabolism would minimize the effects of starvation on nitrogen-containing biochemical pools. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  18. Quantifying disease activity in fatty-infiltrated skeletal muscle by IDEAL-CPMG in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mankodi, Ami; Bishop, Courtney A.; Auh, Sungyoung; Newbould, Rexford D.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Janiczek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the use of iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (IDEAL-CPMG) to simultaneously measure skeletal muscle apparent fat fraction (AFF) and water T2 (T2,w) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Materials and Methods In twenty healthy volunteer (HV) boys and thirteen subjects with DMD, thigh muscle AFF was measured by Dixon and IDEAL-CPMG, with the IDEAL-CPMG also providing T2,w as a measure of muscle inflammatory activity. A subset of subjects with DMD was followed up during a 48-week clinical study. The study was in compliance with the Patient Privacy Act and approved by the Institutional Review Board. Results AFF in the thigh muscles of subjects with DMD was significantly increased compared to HV boys (p < 0.001). Dixon and IDEAL-CPMG AFF strongly correlated (r = 0.92) and were in good agreement. Muscle T2,w measured by IDEAL-CPMG was independent of changes in AFF. Muscle T2,w was higher in the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles of subjects with DMD (p < 0.05). There was a strong correlation (p < 0.004) between AFF in all thigh muscles and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in subjects with DMD. Conclusions IDEAL-CPMG allowed independent and simultaneous quantification of skeletal muscle fatty degeneration and disease activity in DMD. IDEAL-CPMG AFF and T2,w may be useful as biomarkers in clinical trials of DMD as the technique disentangles two competing biological processes. PMID:27593185

  19. Volume Matters: Improved Outcomes for Patients Presenting to High-Volume Emergency Departments with Atrial Flutter and Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Michelle M.; Holroyd, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Clinical familiarity plays a role in health outcomes; the relationship between emergency department (ED) volume and outcomes for atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) are not clear. We compared ED presentation outcomes for AFF between high (HV) and low volume (LV) EDs in Alberta, Canada. Methods 45,372 AFF presentations for patients aged ≥ 35 years from all 104 EDs in Alberta during 1999 to 2011 using administrative health databases formed a retrospective cohort. EDs were grouped by annual AFF volume: 11 high (>100 presentations) or 93 low (≤100 presentations). Outcomes included hospital admission rate, return to ED for AFF within 30 and 90 days, and death within 30 and 90 days. Analyses included statistical tests and mixed effects modeling. Results Mean age at ED presentation was 69.8 years (52% male). HV ED presentations were associated with lower admissions (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 0.72; p-value [p]<0.001), ED returns at 90 (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73, 0.90; p<0.001) days, and a higher likelihood of specialist visits at 30 (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.68, 1.94; p<0.001) and 90 (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.76, 2.03; p<0.001) days. For admitted patients, there were fewer returns to HV EDs at 30 (aOR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15, 0.87; p = 0.02) and 90 (aOR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.26, 0.89; p = 0.02) days after hospital discharge. There was no difference in death between the two groups. Conclusions AFF patients presenting to HV EDs experienced fewer admissions and AFF ED revisit and higher specialist referrals compared to LV EDs. PMID:27814387

  20. Distinct modulation of superficial and juxtamedullary arterioles by prostaglandin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroto; Hayashi, Koichi; Arakawa, Koki; Kubota, Eiji; Honda, Masanori; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Kajiya, Fumihiko; Saruta, Takao

    2002-11-01

    Renal afferent (AFF) and efferent arteriolar (EFF) responsiveness to angiotensin II (ANG II) in superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons in vivo remains undetermined, nor has it been clarified what role intrarenal autocrines/paracrines play in modulating the renal microvascular response. The present study characterized the responsiveness to ANG II (1-30 ng/kg/min) of AFF and EFF of canine superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons under pentobarbital anesthesia, using intravital CCD-videomicroscopy that allowed direct in vivo visualization of the renal microcirculation. Furthermore, the effect of prostaglandins (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) on ANG II-induced tone was examined. In superficial nephrons, ANG II induced a similar dose-dependent constriction of both AFF (46 +/- 5% constriction) and EFF (53 +/- 3%). In juxtamedullary arterioles, ANG II induced a dose-dependent constriction of EFF, whereas AFF responses were diminished (17 +/- 4% vs. 37 +/- 4% at 10 ng/kg/min). The PG inhibition by indomethacin enhanced the ANG II-induced constriction of juxtamedullary AFF, whereas no augmentation was observed in other arterioles. In contrast, NO inhibition by nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) enhanced the ANG II-induced constriction, with greater augmentation in juxtamedullary AFF and EFF. Finally, renal interstitial PG and nitrite/nitrate contents were greater in the medulla than the superficial cortex under basal and ANG II-stimulated conditions. Taken together, the results of the intravital CCD-videomicroscopy reveal that the renal microvascular action of ANG II had both zonal (juxtamedullary vs. superficial nephrons) and segmental (AFF vs. EFF) heterogeneity under the present experimental conditions. This heterogeneity was associated with a difference in the intrarenal production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO; PGE2 contributed to segmental and zonal differences whereas NO was responsible for the zonal heterogeneity in arteriolar responsiveness.

  1. Caffeine during exercise in the heat: thermoregulation and fluid-electrolyte balance.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Estevez, Emma; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of caffeine ingestion on thermoregulation and fluid-electrolyte losses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Seven endurance-trained ( .VO2max = 61 +/- 8 mL.kg.min) heat-acclimated cyclists pedaled for 120 min at 63% .VO2max in a hot-dry environment (36 degrees C; 29% humidity) on six occasions: 1) without rehydration (NF); 2) rehydrating 97% of sweat losses with water (WAT); 3) rehydrating the same volume with a 6% carbohydrate-electrolytes solution (CES); or combining these treatments with the ingestion of 6 mg caffeine.kg (-1) body weight 45 min before exercise, that is, 4) C(AFF) + NF; 5) C(AFF) + WAT; and 6) C(AFF) + CES. Without fluid replacement (NF and C(AFF) + NF), final rectal temperature (T(REC)) reached 39.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C, whereas it remained at 38.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C during WAT (CES and C(AFF)+ WAT; (P < 0.05). Caffeine did not alter heat production, forearm skin blood flow, or sweat rate. However, C(AFF) + CES tended to elevate T(REC) above CES alone (38.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C vs 38.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P = 0.07). Caffeine ingestion increased sweat losses of sodium, chloride, and potassium ( approximately 14%; P < 0.05) and enlarged urine flow (28%; P < 0.05). Caffeine ingested alone or in combination with water or a sports drink was not thermogenic or impaired heat dissipation. However, C(AFF) + CES tended to have a higher T(REC) than CES alone. Caffeine increased urine flow and sweat electrolyte excretion, but these effects are not enough to affect dehydration or blood electrolyte levels when exercising for 120 min in a hot environment.

  2. Trade-offs in defensive metabolite production but not ecological function in healthy and diseased sponges.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Deborah J; Kamel, Haidy N; Olson, Julie B; Thacker, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Diseases of marine organisms, and sponges in particular, are increasingly reported worldwide. Prior research indicates that the survival of sponges on reefs is due largely to their production of biologically active secondary metabolites that provide protection from a diversity of stressors. Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS) is an emerging disease affecting Caribbean rope sponges (Aplysina spp.), but it is not known whether secondary metabolites play a role in disease susceptibility and resistance. To investigate whether differences in secondary metabolites may explain variability in susceptibility to ARBS in Aplysina cauliformis, we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to generate chemical profiles from healthy tissue in both healthy and diseased sponges, and quantified peak areas for 15 metabolites. Analyses of healthy and diseased sponges revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in their chemical profiles. Aplysamine-1 and fistularin-3 were produced in significantly higher concentrations by healthy sponges, whereas aerothionin and 11-oxoaerothionin were found only in diseased sponges. At natural concentrations, extracts from both healthy and diseased sponges deterred feeding by an omnivorous reef fish. Fistularin-3 deterred feeding at concentrations found in healthy sponges, but not at concentrations found in diseased sponges. Aerothionin deterred feeding at concentrations found in diseased sponges, and may at least partially replace the loss of fistularin-3 as a feeding deterrent compound following pathogenesis, suggesting a trade-off in the production of feeding deterrent compounds. Extracts from healthy and diseased sponges inhibited bacterial growth, and both aplysamine-1 and fistularin-3 displayed selective antibacterial activity. Despite differences in secondary metabolite production between healthy and diseased sponges, the stress associated with ARBS does not appear to compromise the ability of A. cauliformis to maintain defenses

  3. Preparation of monolithic silica-chitin composite under extreme biomimetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wysokowski, Marcin; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Stawski, Dawid; Sapozhnikov, Philipp; Born, René; Stelling, Allison L; Kaiser, Sabine; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2015-05-01

    Chitin is a widespread renewable biopolymer that is extensively distributed in the natural world. The high thermal stability of chitin provides an opportunity to develop novel inorganic-organic composites under hydrothermal synthesis conditions in vitro. For the first time, in this work we prepared monolithic silica-chitin composite under extreme biomimetic conditions (80°C and pH 1.5) using three dimensional chitinous matrices isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina cauliformis. The resulting material was studied using light and fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A mechanism for the silica-chitin interaction after exposure to these hydrothermal conditions is proposed and discussed.

  4. Potential pathogenic mechanism for stress fractures of the bowed femoral shaft in the elderly: Mechanical analysis by the CT-based finite element method.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoto; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Kurosa, Yoshiro; Fujita, Koji; Okawa, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Stress fractures of the bowed femoral shaft (SBFs) may be one of the causes of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). The CT-based finite element method (CT/FEM) can be used to structurally evaluate bone morphology and bone density based on patient DICOM data, thereby quantitatively and macroscopically assessing bone strength. Here, we clarify the pathogenic mechanism of SBFs and demonstrate this new understanding of AFFs through mechanical analysis by CT/FEM. A prospective clinical study was performed from April 2012 to February 2014. We assembled two study groups, the bowed AFF group (n=4 patients; mean age, 78.0 years) including those with a prior history of AFF associated with bowing deformity and the thigh pain group (n=14 patients; mean age, 78.6 years) comprising outpatients with complaints of thigh pain and tenderness. Stress concentration in the femoral shaft was analysed by CT/FEM, and the visual findings and extracted data were assessed to determine the maximum principal stress (MPS) and tensile stress-strength ratio (TSSR). In addition, we assessed femoral bowing, bone density, and bone metabolic markers. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was used for statistical analysis. All patients in the bowed AFF group showed a marked concentration of diffuse stress on the anterolateral surface. Thirteen patients in the thigh pain group had no significant findings. However, the remaining 1 patient had a finding similar to that observed in the bowed AFF group, with radiographic evidence of bowing deformity and a focally thickened lateral cortex. Patients were reclassified as having SBF (n=5) or non-SBF (n=13). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in MPS (p=0.0031), TSSR (p=0.0022), and femoral bowing (lateral, p=0.0015; anterior, p=0.0022) between the SBF and non-SBF groups, with no significant differences in bone density or bone metabolic markers. Significant tensile stress due to bowing deformity can induce AFFs. SBFs should be considered a novel subtype of

  5. Derivation of acid fractionation factor for BaCO3: Implications for equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations of the carbonic acid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, J.; Zeebe, R. E.; Vennemann, T. W.; Spero, H. J.

    2010-12-01

    The acid fractionation factor (AFF) accounts for the oxygen isotope effect associated with the reaction of a carbonate mineral with phosphoric acid to liberate CO2. The AFF is mineral-specific and is a function of acid digestion temperature. Unlike other carbonate minerals (i.e., CaCO3), the AFF for BaCO3 has not been empirically well-constrained (particularly so at higher digestion temperatures). We note that the equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation factors of the carbonic acid system were derived from quantitatively precipitated BaCO3, yet the AFF for BaCO3 in the original experimental data was not properly taken into account. This is an important issue in paleoceanographic context because these fractionation factors are critical for understanding the potential effects of seawater pH (and hence [CO32-]) variations on δ18O of marine biogenic carbonates. We will experimentally determine the AFF for BaCO3, which will be used to re-calculate equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation factors of the carbonic acid systems. We will also present new experimental results to further validate these fractionation factors.

  6. Insights into transcriptomes of big and low sagebrush.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Mark D; Page, Justin T; Richardson, Bryce A; Udall, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    We report the sequencing and assembly of three transcriptomes from Big (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis and A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) and Low (A. arbuscula ssp. arbuscula) sagebrush. The sequence reads are available in the Sequence Read Archive of NCBI. We demonstrate the utilities of these transcriptomes for gene discovery and phylogenomic analysis. An assembly of 61,883 transcripts followed by transcript identification by the program TRAPID revealed 16 transcripts directly related to terpene synthases, proteins critical to the production of multiple secondary metabolites in sagebrush. A putative terpene synthase was identified in two of our sagebrush samples. Using paralogs with synonymous mutations we reconstructed an evolutionary time line of ancient genome duplications. By applying a constant mutation rate to the data we estimate that these three ancient duplications occurred about 18, 34 and 60 million years ago. These transcriptomes offer a foundation for future studies of sagebrush, including inferences in chemical defense and the identification of species and subspecies of sagebrush for restoration and preservation of the threatened sage-grouse.

  7. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of zoothamnium (ciliophora, peritrichia, sessilida).

    PubMed

    Clamp, John C; Williams, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The gene coding for 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in seven free-living, marine species of the sessiline peritrich genus Zoothamnium. These were Zoothamnium niveum, Zoothamnium alternans, Zoothamnium pelagicum, and four unidentified species. The ssu rRNA gene also was sequenced in Vorticella convallaria, Vorticella microstoma, and in an unidentified, freshwater species of Vorticella. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using these new sequences to test a previously published phylogenetic association between Zoothamnium arbuscula, currently in the family Zoothamniidae, and peritrichs in the family Vorticellidae. Trees constructed by means of neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods all had similar topologies. The seven new sequences of Zoothamnium species grouped into three well-supported clades, each of which contained a diversity of morphological types. The three clades formed a poorly supported, larger clade that was deeply divergent from Z. arbuscula, which remained more closely associated with vorticellid peritrichs. It is apparent that Zoothamnium is a richly diverse genus and that a much more intensive investigation, involving both morphological and molecular data and a wider selection of species, will be necessary to resolve its phylogeny. A greater amount of molecular diversity than is predicted by morphological data exists within all major clades of sessiline peritrichs that have been included in molecular phylogenies, indicating that characteristics of stalk and peristomial structure traditionally used to differentiate taxa at the generic level and above may not be uniformly reliable.

  8. Regularity in budding mode and resultant growth morphology of the azooxanthellate colonial scleractinian Tubastraea coccinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, A.; Ezaki, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Scleractinia exhibit a variety of growth forms, whether zooxanthellate or azooxanthellate, according to factors that control asexual reproduction and ensuing coral growth. The azooxanthellate branching scleractinian Dendrophyllia arbuscula shows regular modes of budding in terms of the locations of budding sites, the orientations of directive septa, and the inclination angle of budding throughout colonial growth. This study reports that such regularities are also found in the apparently different growth form of the massive dendrophylliid Tubastraea coccinea, which shows the following growth features: (1) the offsets (lateral corallites) always occur near four primary septa, except the two directive primary septa, meaning that the lateral corallites do not appear in the sectors of the two directive septa; (2) the two directive septa in lateral corallites tend to be oriented subperpendicular to the growth direction of the parental corallites; (3) the lateral corallites grow approximately diagonally upwards; and (4) these regularities are seen in the axial and derived lateral corallites among all generations during colony growth. Large differences in growth form are found between the branching D. arbuscula and massive T. coccinea, irrespective of the presence of specific regularities. It is likely that subtle modifications of certain parameters (e.g., budding interval, branch length, corallite size, and inclination angle of lateral corallites) have a strong effect on the overall growth morphology. A precise understanding of such regularities, which occur regardless of generation or taxonomic position, would contribute to understanding the "shape-controlling mechanism" of corals, which are an archetypal modular organism.

  9. Applying low-intensity pulsed ultrasounds (LIPUS) to a zoledronate-associated atypical femoral shaft fracture without cessation of zoledronate therapy for 3 years follow up: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Shoutaro; Saito, Mitsuru; Kubota, Makoto; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Tsuchida, Shigeki; Hashimoto, Kurando; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reports are increasing regarding atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) caused by minor trauma in patients using bisphosphonates (BPs) for long periods. Patients with malignant skeletal metastases potentially are at greater risk for these AFFs, especially considering the high dose and the duration of treatment with BPs. We evaluated a case of atypical femoral shaft fracture treated with an intramedullary nail in a patient treated for five years with zoledronate who had breast cancer with metastases to bone. Although bone union was achieved without cessation of zoledronate therapy by applying low-intensity pulsed ultrasounds (LIPUS), the remodeling phase of the fracture healing process was delayed. For BPs-associated AFFs, LIPUS is an alternative to parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs such as teriparatide that are contraindicated in patients with malignant skeletal metastases. LIPUS is an effective treatment for fracture healing and may avoid the necessity to discontinue BP therapy. PMID:26811711

  10. Construction of an AMR magnetometer for car detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fúra, V.; Petrucha, V.; Platil, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new construction of magnetometer with commercially available AMR (anisotropic magnetoresistive) sensors intended for vehicle detection experiments is presented. Initial experiments with simple AMR gradiometer indicated viability of the approach in a real- world setup. For further experiments and acquisition of representative data, a new design of precise multi-channel magnetometer was developed. The design supports two models of commercial AMR sensors: the proven and reliable, but obsolete Honeywell HMC1021-series sensors and newly available Sensitec AFF755B sensors. In the comparison the two types are similar in most achieved parameters, except offset stability in flipped operation regime. Unfortunately, the new AFF755B sensors seem to have perhaps inferior coupling of the flipping (set/reset) coil to the ferromagnetic core that causes insufficient saturation of the AMR material. The issue is being solved by Sensitec, current deliverables of the AFF755B have “product sample” status (September 2015).

  11. Construction of Allosteric Protein Switches by Alternate Frame Folding and Intermolecular Fragment Exchange.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jeung-Hoi; Loh, Stewart N

    2017-01-01

    Alternate frame folding (AFF) and protein/fragment exchange (FREX) are related technologies for engineering allosteric conformational changes into proteins that have no pre-existing allosteric properties. One of their chief purposes is to turn an ordinary protein into a biomolecular switch capable of transforming an input event into an optical or functional readout. Here, we present a guide for converting an arbitrary binding protein into a fluorescent biosensor with Förster resonance energy transfer output. Because the AFF and FREX mechanisms are founded on general principles of protein structure and stability rather than a property that is idiosyncratic to the target protein, the basic design steps-choice of permutation/cleavage sites, molecular biology, and construct optimization-remain the same for any target protein. We highlight effective strategies as well as common pitfalls based on our experience with multiple AFF and FREX constructs.

  12. Fludrocortisone: Role in Central Regulation of Fluid Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallman, M. F.

    1996-01-01

    We have performed 7 experiments in rats on the effects of systemic treatment with fludrocortisone (9a-FF) given in a variety of doses over a variety of times, in the AM and in the PM. These experiments were designed to determine the best treatment protocol to use in the head-down rat model studies which were performed at NASA-Ames Research Center during the final year. The results of the experiments in non-stressed rats have been, on the whole, disappointing in that we have so far been unable to obtain direct evidence that the 9a-FF acts as a mineralocorticoid. In the ultimate experiments using control and suspended rats, we showed mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid effects of 9aFF. However, suspension served in our rats as a chronic stressor when they were examined 5 d after the onset of treatment.

  13. Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone/Advanced Froth Flotation fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Shirey, G.A.; Stoessner, R.D.; Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA )

    1988-12-30

    The objective of the project is to evaluate the Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) and Advanced Froth Flotation (AFF) procedures for their effectiveness in cleaning fine (minus 100 mesh) coal. The two processes will be tested in a circuit capable of processing 0.124 to 0.15 tons per hour of coal at the EPRI-CQDC. Performance of the two processes will be evaluated, and the economics of fine coal cleaning by both processes will be determined. During the past quarter, efforts were concentrated on the following tasks: installation of process equipment and characterization of the test feed coal; start-up of the ASH and AFF circuits; and initialization of the AFF Test Program. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Collaborative design and use of an agency feedback form for student clinical practicum experience in community/public health nursing.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Janet Resop; Collier, Jill; Edelstein, Janice; Vandenhouten, Chris; Hovarter, Rebecca; Hansen, Judith M; Stewart, Stephanie; Turner, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of students in community and public health (C/PH) nursing clinical practica is a challenge, especially when preceptors are expected to evaluate students from different academic nursing programs. The need for a standardized student evaluation tool was identified during federally funded collaborative meetings held between C/PH academic and practice partners in Northeastern Wisconsin. This article focuses on the development and appraisal of the standardized Agency Feedback Form (AFF) for Student Practicum Experience in Community/Public Health Nursing, which was designed to meet the identified need. Four baccalaureate nursing programs implemented the AFF for 3 purposes: (1) to provide a consistent and easy evaluation form for preceptors to complete; (2) to communicate useful information about students' individual professional behaviors observed during practicum; and (3) to increase students' and preceptors' understanding of the population-based nursing interventions, using the Public Health Intervention Wheel. Future uses and implications of the AFF are also discussed.

  15. Nanometric Finishing on Biomedical Implants by Abrasive Flow Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.

  16. Assessment of bone microarchitecture in postmenopausal women on long-term bisphosphonate therapy with atypical fractures of the femur.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Maria Belen; Diehl, Maria; Buttazzoni, Mirena; Galich, Ana; Silveira, Fernando; Bogado, Cesar E; Zanchetta, Jose Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Reports of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in patients receiving long- term bisphosphonate therapy have raised concerns regarding the genesis of this rare event. Using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we conducted a study to evaluate bone microarchitecture in patients who had suffered an AFF during long-term bisphosphonate treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate if bone microarchitecture assessment could help explain the pathophysiology of these fractures. We compared bone volumetric density and microarchitectural parameters measured by HR-pQCT in the radius and tibia in 20 patients with AFFs with 35 postmenopausal women who had also received long-term bisphosphonate treatment but had not experienced AFFs, and with 54 treatment-naive postmenopausal women. Control groups were similar in age, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD). Mean age of the 20 patients with AFFs was 71 years, mean lumbar spine T-score was -2.2, and mean femoral neck T-score was -2. Mean time on bisphosphonate treatment was 10.9 years (range, 5-20 years). None of the patients had other conditions associated with AFFs such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes or glucocorticoid use. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the parameters measured by HR-pQCT between postmenopausal women with or without treatment history and with or without history of atypical fractures. We could not find any distinctive microarchitecture features in the peripheral skeleton of women who had suffered an atypical fracture of the femur while receiving bisphosphonate treatment. This suggests that risk of developing an atypical fracture is not related to bone microarchitecture deterioration. Our results indicate that there may be other individual factors predisposing to atypical fractures in patients treated with bisphosphonates, and that those are independent of bone microarchitecture. In the future, identification of those factors could

  17. Bisphosphonates and atypical subtrochanteric fractures of the femur

    PubMed Central

    Kharwadkar, N.; Mayne, B.; Lawrence, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bisphosphonates are widely used as first-line treatment for primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. Whilst they have proved effective in this role, there is growing concern over their long-term use, with much evidence linking bisphosphonate-related suppression of bone remodelling to an increased risk of atypical subtrochanteric fractures of the femur (AFFs). The objective of this article is to review this evidence, while presenting the current available strategies for the management of AFFs. Methods We present an evaluation of current literature relating to the pathogenesis and treatment of AFFs in the context of bisphosphonate use. Results Six broad themes relating to the pathogenesis and management of bisphosphonate-related AFFs are presented. The key themes in fracture pathogenesis are: bone microdamage accumulation; altered bone mineralisation and altered collagen formation. The key themes in fracture management are: medical therapy and surgical therapy. In addition, primary prevention strategies for AFFs are discussed. Conclusions This article presents current knowledge about the relationship between bisphosphonates and the development of AFFs, and highlights key areas for future research. In particular, studies aimed at identifying at-risk subpopulations and organising surveillance for those on long-term therapy will be crucial in both increasing our understanding of the condition, and improving population outcomes. Cite this article: N. Kharwadkar, B. Mayne, J. E. Lawrence, V. Khanduja. Bisphosphonates and atypical subtrochanteric fractures of the femur. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:144–153. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.63.BJR-2016-0125.R1. PMID:28288986

  18. Hétérochronies dans l'évolution des hominidés. Le développement dentaire des australopithécines «robustes»Heterochronic process in hominid evolution. The dental development in 'robust' australopithecines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V.

    2000-10-01

    Heterochrony is defined as an evolutionary modification in time and in the relative rate of development [6]. Growth (size), development (shape), and age (adult) are the three fundamental factors of ontogeny and have to be known to carry out a study on heterochronies. These three factors have been analysed in 24 Plio-Pleistocene hominid molars from Omo, Ethiopia, attributed to A. afarensis and robust australopithecines ( A. aethiopicus and A. aff. aethiopicus) . Molars were grouped into three chronological periods. The analysis suggests that morphological modifications through time are due to heterochronic process, a neoteny ( A. afarensis - robust australopithecine clade) and a time hypermorphosis ( A. aethiopicus - A. aff. aethiopicus).

  19. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  20. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. Z.; Park, B. K.; Yan, C. G.; Choi, J. G.; Ahn, J. S.; Shin, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  1. Integrated Pest Management of Sunflower Insect Pests in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflowers are native to North America and include 50 species in the genus Helianthus. Thus, associated insects have coevolved with the plants for centuries. A number of these insect species have made the transition from the wild plants to the cultivated plant to feed and develop. These species affe...

  2. No effects of thinning with riparian buffers on terrestrial salamanders in headwater forests 5 to 6 years post-harvest in western Oregon

    Treesearch

    Matthew R. Kluber; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Th ere are emerging concerns for wildlife species associated with forested headwater systems. Given that headwater streams comprise a large portion of the length of fl owing waterways in western Oregon forests, there is a need to better understand how forest management aff ects headwater forest taxa and their habitats. Forest management strategies that consist of only...

  3. The Effect of Osteoporosis Treatments on Fatigue Properties of Cortical Bone Tissue.

    PubMed

    Brock, Garry R; Chen, Julia T; Ingraffea, Anthony R; MacLeay, Jennifer; Pluhar, G Elizabeth; Boskey, Adele L; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2015-06-01

    Bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed for treatment of osteoporosis. Long-term use of bisphosphonates has been correlated to atypical femoral fractures (AFF). AFFs arise from fatigue damage to bone tissue that cannot be repaired due to pharmacologic treatments. Despite fatigue being the primary damage mechanism of AFFs, the effects of osteoporosis treatments on fatigue properties of cortical bone are unknown. To examine if fatigue-life differences occur in bone tissue after different pharmacologic treatments for osteoporosis, we tested bone tissue from the femurs of sheep given a metabolic acidosis diet to induce osteoporosis, followed by treatment with a selective estrogen reception modulator (raloxifene), a bisphosphonate (alendronate or zoledronate), or parathyroid hormone (teriparatide, PTH). Beams of cortical bone tissue were created and tested in four-point bending fatigue to failure. Tissues treated with alendronate had reduced fatigue life and less modulus loss at failure compared to other treatments, while tissue treated with PTH had a prolonged fatigue life. No loss of fatigue life occurred with zoledronate treatment despite its greater binding affinity and potency compared to alendronate. Tissue mineralization measured by microCT did not explain the differences seen in fatigue behavior. Increased fatigue life with PTH suggests that current treatment methods for AFF could have beneficial effects for restoring fatigue life. These results indicate that fatigue life differs with each type of osteoporosis treatment.

  4. Residents Living in Residential Care Facilities: United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2007. Stevenson DG, Grabowski DC. Sizing up the market for assisted living. Health Aff 29(1): 35–43. 2010. Moss AJ, Harris-Kojetin LD, Sengupta M, et al. Design and operation of the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care ...

  5. Official Guard and Reserve Manpower Strengths and Statistics. FY 2002 Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    ARPERSCOM. ARPC PPO ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZA ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZPP ARPERSCOM. ARPC ALP-T ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZAP T ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZAP TS ARMY RESERVE...TAACM 1 ARMY AUDIT AGENCY. SAAG AFF 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC-PPO 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC-ZA 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC- ZPP 2 ARPERSCOM. ARPC ALP-T 9 ARPERSCOM. ARPC

  6. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  7. A Minor Subset of Super Elongation Complexes Plays a Predominant Role in Reversing HIV-1 Latency.

    PubMed

    Li, Zichong; Lu, Huasong; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a key rate-limiting step in HIV-1 transcription and latency reversal. The viral Tat protein recruits human super elongation complexes (SECs) to paused Pol II to overcome this restriction. Despite the recent progress in understanding the functions of different subsets of SECs in controlling cellular and Tat-activated HIV transcription, little is known about the SEC subtypes that help reverse viral latency in CD4(+) T cells. Here, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing tool to knock out the gene encoding the SEC subunit ELL2, AFF1, or AFF4 in Jurkat/2D10 cells, a well-characterized HIV-1 latency model. Depletion of these proteins drastically reduced spontaneous and drug-induced latency reversal by suppressing HIV-1 transcriptional elongation. Surprisingly, a low-abundance subset of SECs containing ELL2 and AFF1 was found to play a predominant role in cooperating with Tat to reverse latency. By increasing the cellular level/activity of these Tat-friendly SECs, we could potently activate latent HIV-1 without using any drugs. These results implicate the ELL2/AFF1-SECs as an important target in the future design of a combinatorial therapeutic approach to purge latent HIV-1.

  8. The Quantified Patient Checks In: Larry Smarr?s Experiments in Self-Tracking for Health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Like eight-year-olds who can't let go of a good joke, Larry Smarr's nurses and doctors kept coming to him with the same question: "Have you passed gas yet?" Answering this question in the aff irmative is, Smarr explains, deadpan, "the state of the art in 2017 in the medical community for deciding when your colon restarts."

  9. A Minor Subset of Super Elongation Complexes Plays a Predominant Role in Reversing HIV-1 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zichong; Lu, Huasong

    2016-01-01

    Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a key rate-limiting step in HIV-1 transcription and latency reversal. The viral Tat protein recruits human super elongation complexes (SECs) to paused Pol II to overcome this restriction. Despite the recent progress in understanding the functions of different subsets of SECs in controlling cellular and Tat-activated HIV transcription, little is known about the SEC subtypes that help reverse viral latency in CD4+ T cells. Here, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing tool to knock out the gene encoding the SEC subunit ELL2, AFF1, or AFF4 in Jurkat/2D10 cells, a well-characterized HIV-1 latency model. Depletion of these proteins drastically reduced spontaneous and drug-induced latency reversal by suppressing HIV-1 transcriptional elongation. Surprisingly, a low-abundance subset of SECs containing ELL2 and AFF1 was found to play a predominant role in cooperating with Tat to reverse latency. By increasing the cellular level/activity of these Tat-friendly SECs, we could potently activate latent HIV-1 without using any drugs. These results implicate the ELL2/AFF1-SECs as an important target in the future design of a combinatorial therapeutic approach to purge latent HIV-1. PMID:26830226

  10. REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH ON VAPOR INTRUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews current and recent research in the area of vapor intrusion of organic compounds into residential buildings. We begin with a description of the challenges in evaluating the subsurface-to-indoor air pathway. A discussion of the fate and transport mechanisms affe...

  11. State Variability in Supply of Office-based Primary Care Providers: United States, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Quality. 2012. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The registered nurse population: Findings from the 2008 National Sample Survey of ... and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ... aging population? Health Aff 27:w232–41. 2008. Staiger DO, ...

  12. Undergraduate Experiences of Division I Athlete Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie; Bachman, Tina; Burton, Rena M.; Aliyeva, Aida

    2017-01-01

    Employing the conceptual model developed by Comeaux and Harrison ("Coll Stud Aff J" 30(1):75-87, 2011), this study explored the undergraduate experience of Division I athlete STEM graduates. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews with former athletes at two research-intensive, public institutions. Results revealed that…

  13. Atypical femoral fracture in a 51-year-old woman: Revealing a hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Maman, Esther; Briot, Karine; Roux, Christian

    2016-05-01

    We report a 51-year old woman who suffered 2 atypical subtrochanteric femoral fractures (AFFs). She had a history of several metatarsal fractures. She had a normal bone densitometry. An adult form of hypophosphatasia (HPP) was diagnosed from low serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tissue nonspecific isoenzyme of ALP (TNSALP) mutation analysis revealing 2 heterozygous mutations: c.299C>T (p. T100M) and c.571G>A (p. E191K). Low ALP is the hallmark of the diagnosis of HPP; which is associated in adults with premature loss of deciduous teeth, recurrent metatarsal stress fractures, and joints and tendons disorders. The incidence of AFFs in the population is 5.9 per 100,000 person-years. Physicians and patients with bone fragility must pay attention to prodromal pain, which require urgent radiographic evaluation of both femurs. Rheumatoid arthritis, use of glucocorticoids, and proton pump inhibitors have been associated with an excess risk of AFFs. Healthy subjects carrying a TNSALP mutation with low ALP value may be exposed to develop AFF spontaneously or while receiving potent anti-resorptive drugs. Low ALP must be checked as a cause of bone fragility.

  14. Interval-Timing Deficits in Individuals at High Risk for Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, T.B.; Meck, W.H.; Roberts, S.A.; Gibbon, J.; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.

    2005-01-01

    A duration-bisection procedure was used to study the effects of signal modality and divided attention on duration classification in participants at high genetic risk for schizophrenia (HrSz), major affective disorder (HrAff), and normal controls (NC). Participants learned short and long target durations during training and classified probe…

  15. a1-acid glycoprotein inhibits lipogenesis in neonatal swine adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum a1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is elevated during late gestation and at birth in the pig and rapidly declines postnatally. In contrast, the pig is born with minimal lipid stores in the adipose tissue, but rapidly accumulates lipid during the first week. The present study examined if AGP can affe...

  16. Attention-Affect Check List: A self-report measure of acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Sawada, YUKIHIRO; Tanaka, GOHICHI

    2004-05-01

    Given a hint from Lang, Bradley, and Cutbert's (1997) defense cascade, two cognitive processes, instead of passive versus active behavioral coping, which seem to have differential effects on the provocation of vascular- versus cardiac-dominant reaction pattern during mental stress were advocated: attention (Attent) versus unpleasant affect (UnplAff). Based on this notion the Attention-Affect Check List (AACL) was developed as a self-report measure. In addition, items on uncontrollability (Uncontr) were prepared for the purpose of checking whether heightened Attent and UnplAff are accompanied by alterations in Uncontr. Two hundred and eighty-four students underwent two kinds of mental stress, which seemed to specifically heighten Attent and UnplAff. Four factors with four items each were extracted from the AACL item pool: concentrated and allocated Attent, UnplAff, and pleasant affect. Also, one factor with four items was extracted from the Uncontr item pool. For both the mental stresses, each scale, although very brief, had quite reasonable alpha reliability. Accountability of each scale for the total variance was reasonably high. Some problems are discussed in relation to the validity of AACL.

  17. Growth and yield considerations and implications for alternative density management objectives and approaches

    Treesearch

    David. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Density management through thinning is the most important tool foresters have to aff ect stand development and stand structure of existing stands. Reducing stand density by thinning increases the growing space and resource availability (e.g., light, water, and nutrients) for the remaining trees. Th is can result in increased average tree growth. More available site...

  18. TREATABILITY STUDY BULLETIN: ENZYME-ACTIVATED CELLULOSE TECHNOLOGY - THORNECO, INC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Enzyme-Activated Cellulose Technology developed by Thorneco, Inc. uses cellulose placed into one or more cylindrical towers to remove metals and organic compounds from an aqueous solution. The cellulose is coated with a proprietary enzyme. Operating parameters that can affe...

  19. Training program focuses on developing managers' skills.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D

    1980-01-01

    The movement toward skill development and behavior modification in the training and staff development field is just beginning to affe(t management training in hospitals. The training model described in this article is adaptable to a variety of tasks involving the management of people.

  20. Bases of Radio Direction Finding. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-22

    cathode-ray tube, it is reprosented possible to count aff bearings to signal ani interforences separately and systematic error because of interference...I I 1 xapaSTe- * ~PHCTUKi4, zpadpc.. ’I’i ! Key: (1). lumber 2f antennas n. (2). Limiting angle of mijor lobe of total characteristic, dog. IP I, DOC

  1. Evidence for recent gene flow between north-eastern and south-eastern Madagascan poison frogs from a phylogeography of the Mantella cowani group

    PubMed Central

    Rabemananjara, Falitiana CE; Chiari, Ylenia; Ramilijaona, Olga Ravoahangimalala; Vences, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Mantella, endemic poison frogs of Madagascar with 16 described species, are known in the field of international pet trade and entered under the CITES control for the last four years. The phylogeny and phylogeography of this genus have been recently subject of study for conservation purposes. Here we report on the studies of the phylogeography of the Mantella cowani group using a fragment of 453 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 195 individuals from 21 localities. This group is represented by five forms: M. cowani, a critically endangered species, a vulnerable species, M. haraldmeieri, and the non-threatened M. baroni, M. aff. baroni, and M. nigricans. Results The Bayesian phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses revealed the presence of three separated haplotype clades: (1) M. baroni, M. aff. baroni, M. nigricans, and putative hybrids of M. cowani and M. baroni, (2) M. cowani and putative hybrids of M. cowani and M. baroni, and (3) M. haraldmeieri. The putative hybrids were collected from sites where M. cowani and M. baroni live in sympatry. Conclusion These results suggest (a) a probable hybridization between M. cowani and M. baroni, (b) a lack of genetic differentiation between M. baroni/M. aff. baroni and M. nigricans, (c) evidence of recent gene-flow between the northern (M. nigricans), eastern (M. baroni), and south-eastern (M. aff. baroni) forms of distinct coloration, and (d) the existence of at least three units for conservation in the Mantella cowani group. PMID:17207286

  2. EPA Administrator Announces New Report on Impacts of Climate Change on Public Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Today, on the first day of National Public Health Week, EPA and seven other federal agencies, as well as the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, are releasing a new report summarizing the growing understanding of how climate change is affe

  3. ASPERGILLOSIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillosis is a disease, usually of the respiratory system, of chickens, turkeys, and less frequently ducklings, pigeons, canaries, geese, and many other wild and pet birds. In chickens and turkeys, the disease may be endemic on some farms; in wild birds, it appears to be sporadic, frequently aff...

  4. First Report of a New Phytoplasma Subgroup, 16SrIII-S, Associated with Decline Disease Affecting Sweet and Sour Cherry Trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During July 2007, we observed sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees exhibiting disease symptoms suggestive of possible phytoplasma infection in a large orchard in the Kaunas region of Lithuania. Samples of leaf tissue were collected from sweet cherry trees that were aff...

  5. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits expression of receptors for T cell regulatory cytokines and their downstream signaling in mouse CD4+ T cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously showed a suppressive effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on T cell cycling and expansion as well as a paradoxical effect on IL-2 levels (up-regulating) and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)alpha expression (down-regulating). Thus, in the current study we tested the hypothesis that EGCG aff...

  6. Prolonged Incubation Time in Sheep with QK171 Genotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at 171, but its affe...

  7. 76 FR 66055 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Interpretation of Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Interpretation of Reliability Standard; Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman; Philip D. Moeller, John R. Norris, and Cheryl A. LaFleur Issued October 20, 2011. 1. On April 15, 2011, the North American... reh'g & compliance, 117 FERC ] 61,126 (2006), aff'd sub nom. Alcoa, Inc. v. FERC, 564 F.3d 1342 (D.C...

  8. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  9. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  10. Identifying and assessing critical uncertainty thresholds in a forest pest risk model

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Koch; Denys Yemshanov

    2015-01-01

    Pest risk maps can provide helpful decision support for invasive alien species management, but often fail to address adequately the uncertainty associated with their predicted risk values. Th is chapter explores how increased uncertainty in a risk model’s numeric assumptions (i.e. its principal parameters) might aff ect the resulting risk map. We used a spatial...

  11. Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-11-01

    Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics.

  12. 77 FR 32714 - Saratoga and North Creek Railway, LLC-Operation Exemption-Tahawus Line

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... was outside the Board's jurisdiction. See B. Willis, C.P.A., Inc.--Petition for Declaratory Order, FD 34013 (STB served Oct. 3, 2001) (B. Willis)., aff'd sub nom. B. Willis, C.P.A., Inc. v. STB, 51 Fed Appx...

  13. 76 FR 70223 - Saratoga and North Creek Railway, LLC-Operation Exemption-Tahawus Line

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    .... Saratoga cites B. Willis, C.P.A., Inc.--Petition for Declaratory Order, FD No. 34013 (STB served Oct. 3, 2001) (B. Willis)., aff'd sub nom. B. Willis, C.P.A., Inc. v. STB, 51 Fed Appx. 321 (D.C. Cir. 2002) in...

  14. Undergraduate Experiences of Division I Athlete Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie; Bachman, Tina; Burton, Rena M.; Aliyeva, Aida

    2017-01-01

    Employing the conceptual model developed by Comeaux and Harrison ("Coll Stud Aff J" 30(1):75-87, 2011), this study explored the undergraduate experience of Division I athlete STEM graduates. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews with former athletes at two research-intensive, public institutions. Results revealed that…

  15. Limits to soil carbon stability; Deep, ancient soil carbon decomposition stimulated by new labile organic inputs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil carbon (C) pools store about one-third of the total terrestrial organic carbon. Deep soil C pools (below 1 m) are thought to be stable due to their low biodegradability, but little is known about soil microbial processes and carbon dynamics below the soil surface, or how global change might aff...

  16. Obesity, the Economic Meltdown, and the Gut Feeling for the Foods We Choose to Eat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary recommendations typically emphasize minimizing the intake of highly palatable, energy dense foods, but this may be very difficult in some persons experiencing stress. Non-homeostatic regulation of food intake, such as habitually eating more or less in response to emotional stimuli, can affe...

  17. The Impact of the Shared Permissive Feeding Environment on Low-income Preschool Children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To gain insight into parental feeding problems and strategies, this study investigated the impact of permissive feeding styles (FS) on overweight status of low-income preschool children and described the shared permissive feeding environment by examining characteristics of the parent (emotional affe...

  18. The New Age Movement: Fad or Menace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Arthur A.; And Others

    This paper presents selected opinions held by a panel of specialists in cult behaviors about the New Age movement, emphasizing those positions about which there is most consensus. These specialists included advisory board members from the American Family Foundation (AFF),which has sponsored publications and workshops on Satanism and on the New…

  19. REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH ON VAPOR INTRUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews current and recent research in the area of vapor intrusion of organic compounds into residential buildings. We begin with a description of the challenges in evaluating the subsurface-to-indoor air pathway. A discussion of the fate and transport mechanisms affe...

  20. The New Age Movement: Fad or Menace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Arthur A.; And Others

    This paper presents selected opinions held by a panel of specialists in cult behaviors about the New Age movement, emphasizing those positions about which there is most consensus. These specialists included advisory board members from the American Family Foundation (AFF),which has sponsored publications and workshops on Satanism and on the New…

  1. Movement of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-affected and healthy citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...

  2. Two F-18s in Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 32 second video clip shows two F-18s in NASA's Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program. The aircraft use smoke contrails to gather data on wingtip vortices. Flight research attempts to utilize the energy in the vortices for more efficient flight.

  3. 77 FR 12617 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... determine not whether a particular decree is the one that will best serve society, but whether the.... Gillette Co., 406 F. Supp. 713, 716 (D. Mass. 1975) (noting that, in this way, the court is constrained to.... 713, 716 (D. Mass. 1975)), aff'd sub nom. Maryland v. United States, 460 U.S. 1001 (1983); see...

  4. Effects of forest thinning on bird-vegetation relationships in young Douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Svetlana Yegorova

    2013-01-01

    Forest thinning has been widely used in the Pacifi c Northwest as a technique to accelerate latesuccessional vegetation characteristics and promote mature forest habitats for wildlife. Th inning treatments aff ect tree and understory vegetation development. Th e eff ects of thinning on bird abundance and occurrence vary by bird species and change over time, presumably...

  5. Interval-Timing Deficits in Individuals at High Risk for Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, T.B.; Meck, W.H.; Roberts, S.A.; Gibbon, J.; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.

    2005-01-01

    A duration-bisection procedure was used to study the effects of signal modality and divided attention on duration classification in participants at high genetic risk for schizophrenia (HrSz), major affective disorder (HrAff), and normal controls (NC). Participants learned short and long target durations during training and classified probe…

  6. 78 FR 30245 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Specific Requirements of the Disturbance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... software should be filed in native applications or print-to-PDF format and not in a scanned format. Mail... on reh'g & compliance, 117 FERC ] 61,126 (2006), aff'd sub nom. Alcoa, Inc. v. FERC, 564 F.3d 1342... applications or print-to-PDF format and not in a scanned format. Commenters filing electronically do not need...

  7. Integrated watershed analysis: adapting to changing times

    Treesearch

    Gordon H. Reeves

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers are increasingly required to conduct integrated analyses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems before undertaking any activities. Th ere are a number of research studies on the impacts of management actions on these ecosystems, as well as a growing body of knowledge about ecological processes that aff ect them, particularly aquatic ecosystems, which...

  8. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, João Marcelo; Andreata, Regina Helena Potsch; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon); while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns occur in nodes and

  9. Sex Differences in Outcomes After Discharge from the Emergency Department for Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter.

    PubMed

    Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Holroyd, Brian R; Zhang, Xuechen; Rowe, Brian H; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) are the most common arrhythmias presenting to emergency departments (EDs). We examined sex differences in outcomes for patients with AFF discharged from the ED in Alberta, Canada. ED presentations for AFF during 1999-2011 that ended in discharge were extracted from administrative databases for all Alberta residents (age ≥ 35 years). Multivariable models determined the effect of sex on the time to ED return for AFF, the first follow-up visit with a physician, the first follow-up visit with a specialist (cardiologist or internal medicine physician), and death. There were 21,062 patients/ED presentations (47.5% women). About 10% returned to the ED for AFF after discharge; the time to return was similar for both sexes (P = 0.39). Time to a first physician visit was shorter (unadjusted hazard ratio [uHR] = 1.10) and time to a specialist follow-up visit was longer (uHR = 0.93) for women than for men. Interactions between sex and age, socioeconomic groups, and comorbidities were identified that changed the effect of sex on time to follow-up. More women died by 30 (1.3% vs 0.9%; P = 0.009) and 90 (2.9% vs 2.4%, P = 0.02) days. The time between ED discharge and death was shorter for women in 1 socioeconomic group (P = 0.008) and for those with peripheral vascular disease (P = 0.02) or diabetes (P = 0.03). We identified sex differences for time to return to the ED, follow-up visit, and death (most importantly, increased mortality rates among women at 30 and 90 days), and time to death remained significant after adjustment for other demographic and health-related variables. Our findings have important potential implications for physicians in the emergency setting. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific interactions versus counterion condensation. 1. Nongelling ions/polyuronate systems.

    PubMed

    Donati, Ivan; Cesàro, Attilio; Paoletti, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the interaction between nongelling divalent cations (typically Mg(2+)) and polyuronates have been explored by means of isothermal calorimetry. In particular, three polyuronates mimicking separately guluronan (polyguluronate, polyG), mannuronan (polymannuronate, polyM), and polyalternating (polyMG), the three block-components of natural alginate samples, have been treated with divalent ions, and the enthalpy of mixing was determined for different values of the [M(2+)]/[Polym](rep.unit) ratio. Despite the absence of a site-specific chemical bonding between the two, as confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, a substantial deviation of the experimental enthalpy of mixing from the theoretical behavior, as predicted by the classical counterion condensation (CC) theory, was observed. Such deviation has been interpreted in terms of a "generic" nonbonding affinity of the condensed divalent counterion for the polyelectrolytes. The mathematical formalism of the CC theory was extended to include a contribution to the (reduced) free energy and enthalpy arising from the counterion affinity, g(aff,0) and h(aff,0), and allowed the parametrical calculation of the fraction of divalent counterions condensed as function of the reduced thermodynamic quantity g(aff,0). A best fit procedure of the experimental enthalpy of mixing allowed the g(aff,0) and h(aff,0) pair to be estimated for each of the different polyuronates considered, revealing differences in the three samples. In qualitative terms, the results obtained seem to suggest a notable contribution of the desolvation process (i.e., release of structured water as a consequence of the interaction between the divalent counterion and the uronate group) to the enthalpy of affinity for polyM which is counterbalanced and overcome by an ion pairing term (i.e., partial formation of ion-ion and/or ion-dipole bonds) for polyG and polyMG, respectively.

  11. Epigenetic genome mining of an endophytic fungus leads to the pleiotropic biosynthesis of natural products.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Xu, Wei; Li, Dehai; Yin, Wen-Bing; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Li, Yong-Quan; Tang, Yi; Hu, Youcai

    2015-06-22

    The small-molecule biosynthetic potential of most filamentous fungi has remained largely unexplored and represents an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. Genome sequencing of Calcarisporium arbuscula, a mushroom-endophytic fungus, revealed 68 core genes that are involved in natural product biosynthesis. This is in sharp contrast to the predominant production of the ATPase inhibitors aurovertin B and D in the wild-type fungus. Inactivation of a histone H3 deacetylase led to pleiotropic activation and overexpression of more than 75 % of the biosynthetic genes. Sampling of the overproduced compounds led to the isolation of ten compounds of which four contained new structures, including the cyclic peptides arbumycin and arbumelin, the diterpenoid arbuscullic acid A, and the meroterpenoid arbuscullic acid B. Such epigenetic modifications therefore provide a rapid and global approach to mine the chemical diversity of endophytic fungi. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in lichens in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    Machart, Peter; Hofmann, Werner; Türk, Roman; Steger, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for 137Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area.

  13. Poriferan chitin as a template for hydrothermal zirconia deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokowski, Marcin; Motylenko, Mykhaylo; Bazhenov, Vasilii V.; Stawski, Dawid; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Ehrlich, Andre; Behm, Thomas; Kljajic, Zoran; Stelling, Allison L.; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2013-09-01

    Chitin is a thermostable biopolymer found in various inorganic-organic skeletal structures of numerous invertebrates including sponges (Porifera). The occurrence of chitin within calcium- and silica-based biominerals in organisms living in extreme natural conditions has inspired development of new (extreme biomimetic) synthesis route of chitin-based hybrid materials in vitro. Here, we show for the first time that 3D-α-chitin scaffolds isolated from skeletons of the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba can be effectively mineralized under hydrothermal conditions (150°C) using ammonium zirconium(IV) carbonate as a precursor of zirconia. Obtained chitin-ZrO2 hybrid materials were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, HRTEM, as well as light and confocal laser microscopy. We suggest that formation of chitin-ZrO2 hybrids occurs due to hydrogen bonds between chitin and ZrO2.

  14. Three-dimensional chitin-based scaffolds from Verongida sponges (Demospongiae: Porifera). Part I. Isolation and identification of chitin.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, H; Ilan, M; Maldonado, M; Muricy, G; Bavestrello, G; Kljajic, Z; Carballo, J L; Schiaparelli, S; Ereskovsky, A; Schupp, P; Born, R; Worch, H; Bazhenov, V V; Kurek, D; Varlamov, V; Vyalikh, D; Kummer, K; Sivkov, V V; Molodtsov, S L; Meissner, H; Richter, G; Steck, E; Richter, W; Hunoldt, S; Kammer, M; Paasch, S; Krasokhin, V; Patzke, G; Brunner, E

    2010-08-01

    Marine invertebrate organisms including sponges (Porifera) not only provide an abundant source of biologically active secondary metabolites but also inspire investigations to develop biomimetic composites, scaffolds and templates for practical use in materials science, biomedicine and tissue engineering. Here, we presented a detailed study of the structural and physico-chemical properties of three-dimensional skeletal scaffolds of the marine sponges Aiolochroia crassa, Aplysina aerophoba, A. cauliformis, A. cavernicola, and A. fulva (Verongida: Demospongiae). We show that these fibrous scaffolds have a multilayered design and are made of chitin. (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, NEXAFS, and IR spectroscopy as well as chitinase digestion and test were applied in order to unequivocally prove the existence of alpha-chitin in all investigated species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New metabolites from sponge-derived fungi Curvularia lunata and Cladosporium herbarum.

    PubMed

    Jadulco, Raquel; Brauers, Gernot; Edrada, Ru Angelie; Ebel, Rainer; Wray, Victor; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Proksch, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The fungus Curvularia lunata, isolated from the marine sponge Niphates olemda, yielded the new 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxyanthraquinone, which we named lunatin (1), the known modified bisanthraquinone cytoskyrin A (2), and the known plant hormone (+)-abscisic acid (3). Both anthraquinones were found to be active against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Two strains of the fungus Cladosporium herbarum, isolated from the sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Callyspongia aerizusa, respectively, yielded two new alpha-pyrones, herbarin A (4) and herbarin B (5), the known compound citreoviridin A (6), and the new phthalide herbaric acid (7). All structures were unambiguously established by 1D and 2D NMR and MS data.

  16. An Enrichment of CRISPR and Other Defense-Related Features in Marine Sponge-Associated Microbial Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Hannes; Slaby, Beate M.; Jahn, Martin T.; Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Förster, Frank; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont. PMID:27877161

  17. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in the Microbial Metagenomes of Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila Marie; Grozdanov, Lubomir; Proksch, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows highest similarities to NRPS genes that were previously assigned, by ways of single cell genomics, to a Chloroflexi sponge symbiont. Genomic mining studies such as the one presented here for NRPS genes, contribute to on-going efforts to characterize the genomic potential of sponge-associated microbiota for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:22822366

  18. Sponge derived bromotyrosines: structural diversity through natural combinatorial chemistry.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Hendrik; Marmann, Andreas; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sponge derived bromotyrosines are a multifaceted class of marine bioactive compounds that are important for the chemical defense of sponges but also for drug discovery programs as well as for technical applications in the field of antifouling constituents. These compounds, which are mainly accumulated by Verongid sponges, exhibit a diverse range of bioactivities including antibiotic, cytotoxic and antifouling effects. In spite of the simple biogenetic building blocks, which consist only of brominated tyrosine and tyramine units, an impressive diversity of different compounds is obtained through different linkages between these precursors and through structural modifications of the side chains and/or aromatic rings resembling strategies that are known from combinatorial chemistry. As examples for bioactive, structurally divergent bromotyrosines psammaplin A, Aplysina alkaloids featuring aerothionin, aeroplysinin-1 and the dienone, and the bastadins, including the synthetically derived hemibastadin congeners, have been selected for this review. Whereas all of these natural products are believed to be involved in the chemical defense of sponges, some of them may also be of particular relevance to drug discovery due to their interaction with specific molecular targets in eukaryotic cells. These targets involve important enzymes and receptors, such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), which are inhibited by psammaplin A, as well as ryanodine receptors that are targeted by bastadine type compounds. The hemibastadins such as the synthetically derived dibromohemibastadin are of particular interest due to their antifouling activity. For the latter, a phenoloxidase which catalyzes the bioglue formation needed for firm attachment of fouling organisms to a given substrate was identified as a molecular target. The Aplysina alkaloids finally provide a vivid example for dynamic wound induced bioconversions of natural products that generate highly

  19. Quality or quantity: is nutrient transfer driven more by symbiont identity and productivity than by symbiont abundance?

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Christopher J; Thacker, Robert W; Baker, David M; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2013-01-01

    By forming symbiotic interactions with microbes, many animals and plants gain access to the products of novel metabolic pathways. We investigated the transfer of symbiont-derived carbon and nitrogen to the sponges Aplysina cauliformis, Aplysina fulva, Chondrilla caribensis, Neopetrosia subtriangularis and Xestospongia bocatorensis, all of which host abundant microbial populations, and Niphates erecta, which hosts a sparse symbiont community. We incubated sponges in light and dark bottles containing seawater spiked with 13C- and 15N-enriched inorganic compounds and then measured 13C and 15N enrichment in the microbial (nutrient assimilation) and sponge (nutrient transfer) fractions. Surprisingly, although most sponges hosting abundant microbial communities were more enriched in 13C than N. erecta, only N. subtriangularis was more enriched in 15N than N. erecta. Although photosymbiont abundance varied substantially across species, 13C and 15N enrichment was not significantly correlated with photosymbiont abundance. Enrichment was significantly correlated with the ratio of gross productivity to respiration (P:R), which varied across host species and symbiont phylotype. Because irradiance impacts P:R ratios, we also incubated A. cauliformis in 13C-enriched seawater under different irradiances to determine whether symbiont carbon fixation and transfer are dependent on irradiance. Carbon fixation and transfer to the sponge host occurred in all treatments, but was greatest at higher irradiances and was significantly correlated with P:R ratios. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nutrient transfer from microbial symbionts to host sponges is influenced more by host–symbiont identities and P:R ratios than by symbiont abundance. PMID:23407307

  20. A new species of Cacatuocotyle (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) parasitizing two species of Astyanax (Ostariophysi, Characidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallas, Moisés; Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B

    2014-10-01

    A new species of Cacatuocotyle is described from the external surface of Astyanax aff. fasciatus and Astyanax jacuhiensis from Lake Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It differs from the other three species of the genus, recorded from Mexico and the State of Paraná, Brazil, by possessing an accessory piece with a long proximal portion, a U-shaped bar with irregular posterior margin in its midportion, and a haptor containing two circular thickenings with muscular anterior margins. Only one monogenean species, Urocleidoides astyanacis (= Characithecium costaricensis) was recorded for the host Astyanax aff. fasciatus, whereas none were known for A. jacuhiensis. This paper records a new host (A. jacuhiensis) for monogeneans in southern Brazil and extends southward with the geographical distribution of the genus Cacatuocotyle to the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  1. Cytogenetic divergence in two sympatric fish species of the genus Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Characiformes, Characidae) from northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Medrado, Aline Souza; Ribeiro, Mavione Souza; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Carneiro, Paulo Luíz Souza; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2012-01-01

    The fish genus Astyanax is widespread throughout the Neotropical region and is one of the most species-rich genera of the Characiformes. Cytogenetic studies of Astyanax have revealed marked intra- and interspecific diversity, with the identification of various species complexes. In this report, we describe the karyotypic structure of two sympatric species of Astyanax (Astyanax sp. and Astyanax aff. fasciatus) from the Middle Contas River basin in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Both species had 2n = 48 but differed in their karyotypic formulae. Small heterochromatic blocks and multiple nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in both species. Terminal CMA3+/DAPI− signals were observed in Astyanax sp. and A. aff. fasciatus, mostly coincident with NORs. These results show that chromosomal markers can be used to identify species in this fish complex. These markers can provide useful information for evolutionary studies and investigations on the mechanisms of chromosomal diversity in Astyanax. PMID:23271941

  2. PubMed

    De Quintana Sancho, A; Piris García, X; Valle García, J N; Hierro Cámara, M

    2016-12-30

    La alopecia frontal fibrosante (AFF) es un tipo de alopecia cicatricial cuya incidencia está aumentando de forma significativa en nuestro país. Se caracteriza por un retroceso en la línea de implantación del pelo a nivel frontotemporal que afecta mayoritariamente a mujeres postmenopaúsicas, con un impacto negativo en su calidad de vida. Se asocia a menopausia precoz en un 14% de los casos y a hipotiroidismo en un 15%. Con respecto al tratamiento, son los inhibidores de la 5α-reductasa, los fármacos que han demostrado mejoría de la enfermedad en un mayor número de casos. Presentamos un caso de AFF en una mujer de 77 años tratada con éxito con finasteride a dosis de 2,5mg/día.

  3. Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in layered intermetallic La0.75Sm0.25Mn2Si2 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushnikov, N. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Terentev, P. B.; Gaviko, V. S.; Yazovskikh, K. A.; Aliev, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic and magnetothermal properties have been studied for the La0.75Sm0.25Mn2Si2 compound which has the spontaneous first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (AF-F) transition at a temperature of 160 K. The transition is accompanied by the anisotropic lattice distortion. Isothermal entropy change has been estimated for different magnetic states using the heat capacity and magnetization data. Direct measurements of the adiabatic temperature change have been performed in the fields applied both along the easy c-axis and in the basal plane of a quasi-single crystal. Near the transition temperature, the AF-F transition can be realized in low magnetic fields, which makes such compounds attractive for magnetoelastic and magnetothermal applications.

  4. Integrative study of a new cold-seep mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) associated with chemosynthetic symbionts in the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Bénédicte; Duperron, Sébastien; Lorion, Julien; Sara Lazar, Cassandre; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2012-09-01

    Recently, small Idas-like mussels have been discovered living on carbonate crusts associated with cold-seeps in the Marmara Sea. These mussels, here referred to as Idas-like nov. sp., differ morphologically and genetically from another species identified as Idas aff. modiolaeformis, living in the same type of ecosystem in the Nile Deep-Sea Fan (eastern Mediterranean Sea). A phylogenetic analysis confirms the distinction between the two species, which belong to highly divergent lineages. Carbon stable isotope values, as well as the detection of thiotroph-related bacteria in the gill tissue, support the presence of a symbiotic, thiotroph-derived nutrition. In contrast, Idas aff. modiolaeformis displays six different types of symbionts. Finally our size-frequency data suggest that the recruitment is continuous in the examined area. The present study extends the documented distribution of symbiont-bearing mussels to the Marmara Sea, and contributes to the characterisation of biological communities in this recently explored area.

  5. Middle Permian cephalopods from central Peninsular Malaysia: implications for faunal migration through the southern Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Masatoshi; Leman, Mohd Shafeea; Ehiro, Masayuki

    2001-10-01

    A Wordian (Middle Permian) cephalopod fauna consisting of four ammonoid species, Tauroceras aff. scrobiculatum (Gemmellaro), Agathiceras sp., Bamyaniceras orientale n. sp. and Pronoritidae gen. and sp. indet., and two nautiloid species, Tainoceras sp. and Orthocerida fam. indet., were recovered from the Bera South area, southern Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. The outcrop represents the southernmost extent of the Bera Formation. Bamyaniceras and Tainoceras are recorded in Malaysia for the first time. The presence of T. aff. scrobiculatum suggests a regional correlation with an ammonoid-bearing bed of Sungai Cheroh, western Pahang, and permits global correlations with strata of northeastern Iraq, northern Oman and Sicily (Italy). A possible eastwards faunal migration through the southern Tethys is suggested.

  6. Unexpected morphological and karyological changes in invasive Carpobrotus (Aizoaceae) in Provence (S-E France) compared to native South African species.

    PubMed

    Verlaque, Régine; Affre, Laurence; Diadema, Katia; Suehs, Carey M; Médail, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    Hybridization processes can lead to evolutionary changes, particularly in co-introduced congeneric plant species, such as Carpobrotus spp. which are recognized as invasive in Mediterranean climate regions. Morphological and karyological comparisons have therefore been made between native Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in South Africa and their invasive counterparts in Provence (C. edulis and C. aff. acinaciformis). Morphological data exhibited the most significant differences in invasive C. aff. acinaciformis that forms a new phenotypic variant. Unexpected chromosomal restructuring has been highlighted for both taxa in Provence, with in particular a clear decrease in asymmetry, an increase in the intraspecific variability, and an interspecific convergence of karyotypes. These changes suggest a drift that has facilitated various crosses, and has been amplified through hybridization/introgression. Furthermore, several morphological and karyological transgressive characters have been found in the two invasive taxa. These results stress the important role and the rapidity of karyological changes in invasive processes.

  7. Campanian ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous Gober Chalk of Lamar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobban, W.A.; Kennedy, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Roxton Limestone Member at the top of the Gober Chalk in northeast Texas yields a rich fauna, dominated by Baculites haresi Reeside, 1927, and Inoceramus balticus Boehm, 1909, with sparse occurrences of pachydiscus cf. P. paulsoni (Young, 1963), Anapachydiscus sp.juv., Placenticeras placenta (DeKay, 1828), Hoplitoplacenticeras aff. H. plasticum (Paulcke, 1907), Menabites (Delawarella) delawarensis (Morton, 1830), M.(D.) danei (Young, 1963), M.(D.) aff. M.(D.) vanuxemi (Morton, 1830), Submortoniceras vandalinaense Young, 1963, Submortoniceras sp., Eubostrychoceras sp., and Scaphites hippocrepis (DeKay, 1828) III. The presence of S. hippocrepis III suggests a late early Campanian age assignment for the fauna. The assemblage includes species known from the Western Interior, Gulf Coast, Atlantic seaboard, and western Europe. -Authors

  8. Pennsylvanian fusulinids from the Beaverhead Mountains, Morrison Lake area, Beaverhead County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Verville, G.J. ); Sanderson, G.A.; Baesemann, J.F. ); Hampton, G.L. III )

    1990-04-01

    A fusulinid fauna consisting of Triticites spp., Kansanella aff. K. tenuis (Merchant Keroher), Eowaeringella sp., Fusulina sp. (Beedeina of some authors), Wedekindellina henbesti (Skinner), Plectofusulina spp., Pseudostaffella sp., Fusulinella aff. F. acuminata Thompson, and Eoschubertella sp. has been identified from Pennsylvanian rocks exposed on the Continental Divide, Morrison Lake area, Beaverhead County, Montana. These fusulinids, the first to be published from Pennsylvanian rocks in southwestern Montana, indicate that strata of late Atokan, early Desmoinesian, Missourian, and Virgilian age are present. These rocks, previously assigned to the Quadrant Formation in the Morrison Lake area, are subdivided and correlated with the Bloom, Gallagher Peak Sandstone and Juniper Gulch members of the Snaky Canyon Formation (Skipp et al., 1979a).

  9. Physical incorporation of particles in a porous media: a path to a smart wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerriaa, Azza; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Gerardin, Christine; Tazibt, Abdel; Gabsi, Slimane

    2016-05-01

    -names>http://Jean-Michelhttp:// http:// http:// http:// http:// http://Bennacerhttp:// http://Rachidhttp:// http:// http:// http:// http:// http://El Ganaouihttp:// http://Mohammedhttp:// http:// http:// http://Guest editorshttp:// http:// http:// http:// http:// http://Zerriaahttp:// http://Azzahttp:// http:// aff" rid="AFF1">http://1http:// http://ahttp:// http:// http:// http:// http://El Ganaouihttp:// http://Mohammedhttp:// http:// aff" rid="AFF1">http://1http:// http:// http:// http:// http://Gerardinhttp:// http://Christinehttp:// http:// aff" rid="AFF2">http://2http:// http:// http:// http:// http://Tazibthttp:// http://Abdelhttp:// http:// aff" rid="AFF3">http://3http:// http:// http:// http:// http://Gabsihttp:// http://Slimanehttp:// http:// aff" rid="AFF4">http://4http:// http:// http:// <aff id="AFF1">http:// http:// http://Lorraine University, LERMAB-Longwy, IUT Henri Poincaré Longwyhttp://, http://186 rue de Lorrainehttp://,

  10. The Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (P.L. 108-189)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) David D. Acker Library and Knowledge Repository... Tabor v Miller 369 F Supp 647 D Pa aff d 389 F 2d 645 3d Cir cert denied sub nom Steams v Tabor 39 U S 9 5 968 where servicemember did not claim he was

  11. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 19, Number 12, December 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    frequently associated with disorders of female pelvic organs (e.g., endometriosis, ovarian cyst) and pregnancy complications (n=129), dis- eases of...documented) were white, non- Hispanic; and 40.0 percent of all aff ected benefi ciaries were in their teens or twenties (Table 1). Appendectomies...ovarian cyst) and pregnancy complica- tions (n=624) and diseases of the digestive system (e.g., intestinal obstruction, diver- ticula) (n=477) accounted

  12. Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    for BMO, Lompoc and Santa NIaria for Vandenberg AFB, California; Riverside, Moreno Valley, and Perris for March AFF, Califoi ha; Colorado Springs for...representatives of U.S. congressmen and state legislators, representatives of the Cities I of San Bernardino and Moreno Valley; the University of...California, Riverside; the Moreno Valley Chamber of Commerce; and several local organizations and private citizens. These statements were generally in

  13. Further Validation of Stahl and Harrell’s Job Choice Exercise in Measuring McClelland’s Trichotomy of Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    capturing tool. The JCE measured subjects’ nPow, nAch, and nAff from a behavioral decision theory modeling approach. The single experimental condition...1 Problem Statement...............8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.................9 The Brunswik Lens Model ............ 10 Capturing Behavioral...LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Brunswjk’s Lens Model ...... .... .. .. .... 1 vi i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Many studies have examined people’s need

  14. Location of fractures and the characteristics of patients with atypical femoral fractures: analyses of 38 Japanese cases.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kojiro; Nishino, Tomofumi; Kamada, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Daisuke; Mishima, Hajime; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine fracture location and the characteristics of patients with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). We studied 38 AFFs in 34 patients admitted to our institution between November 2007 and July 2013. The diagnostic criteria for the AFFs were based on 2014 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research guidelines. We classified the fracture location as proximal, middle, or distal to trisect the femoral diaphysis from just distal to the lesser trochanter to just proximal to the supracondylar flare. Bowing was defined as a line through the inside of the tip of the great trochanter and a condylar center that was outside the medullary cavity. We investigated the fracture's location, existence of coronal bowing, and bisphosphonates (BPs), glucocorticoids (GCs), and proton pump inhibitors therapy. We analyzed associations between fracture location and demographic and clinical factors. Twelve fractures were proximal, 25 were middle, and one was distal. Nineteen limbs showed femoral bowing. Thirty-one patients received BP treatment-20 patients received alendronic acid, eight risedronic acid, and three minodronic acid. Fourteen patients received a GC, and 16 received a proton pump inhibitor. There was a significant association between coronal bowing and middle fracture locations, GC therapy and proximal fracture locations, and older age and middle fracture locations. Tall height and heavy weight had an association with proximal fracture location, and short height and light weight had an association with middle fracture location. In conclusion, we provide evidence supporting a causal relationship between BP-related severely suppressed bone turnover and AFFs. We also provide evidence supporting additional influences from altered distribution of mechanical stress with femoral bowing and various factors, such as GC therapy, age, body weight, and height, which might negatively affect bone intensity and quality and result in fracture.

  15. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 21, Number 11, November 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    itary treatment facilities, or Department of Veterans Aff airs (VA) hospitals; however, testing is sometimes performed at civilian facilities as well...fi xed military and civilian (if reimbursed through the Military Health System [MHS]) treatment facilities.7 Th e cohort consisted of active- duty...undiagnosed, chronic HBV infection may result from lack of a ser- vicewide systematic screening process for HBV, as well as potential patient disclosure

  16. Public perceptions of west-side forests: improving visual impact assessments and designing thinnings and harvests for scenic integrity

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Ribe

    2013-01-01

    Perceptions of public forests’ acceptability can be infl uenced by aesthetic qualities, at both broad and project levels, aff ecting managers’ social license to act. Legal and methodological issues related to measuring and managing forest aesthetics in NEPA and NFMA decision-making are discussed. It is argued that conventional visual impact assessments—using...

  17. Comparing the neural correlates of affective and cognitive theory of mind using fMRI: Involvement of the basal ganglia in affective theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Bodden, Maren E; Kübler, Dorothee; Knake, Susanne; Menzler, Katja; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Sommer, Jens; Kalbe, Elke; Krach, Sören; Dodel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to infer other people's mental states like intentions or desires. ToM can be differentiated into affective (i.e., recognizing the feelings of another person) and cognitive (i.e., inferring the mental state of the counterpart) subcomponents. Recently, subcortical structures such as the basal ganglia (BG) have also been ascribed to the multifaceted concept ToM and most BG disorders have been reported to elicit ToM deficits. In order to assess both the correlates of affective and cognitive ToM as well as involvement of the basal ganglia, 30 healthy participants underwent event-related fMRI scanning, neuropsychological testing, and filled in questionnaires concerning different aspects of ToM and empathy. Directly contrasting affective (aff) as well as cognitive (cog) ToM to the control (phy) condition, activation was found in classical ToM regions, namely parts of the temporal lobe including the superior temporal sulcus, the supplementary motor area, and parietal structures in the right hemisphere. The contrast aff > phy yielded additional activation in the orbitofrontal cortex on the right and the cingulate cortex, the precentral and inferior frontal gyrus and the cerebellum on the left. The right BG were recruited in this contrast as well. The direct contrast aff > cog showed activation in the temporoparietal junction and the cingulate cortex on the right as well as in the left supplementary motor area. The reverse contrast cog > aff however did not yield any significant clusters. In summary, affective and cognitive ToM partly share neural correlates but can also be differentiated anatomically. Furthermore, the BG are involved in affective ToM and thus their contribution is discussed as possibly providing a motor component of simulation processes, particularly in affective ToM.

  18. Diltiazem vs. Metoprolol in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter with Rapid Ventricular Rate in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Christian; Suau, Salvador J; Cohen, Victor; Likourezos, Antonios; Jellinek-Cohen, Samantha; Rose, Jonathan; Marshall, John

    2015-08-01

    Diltiazem (calcium channel blocker) and metoprolol (beta-blocker) are both commonly used to treat atrial fibrillation/flutter (AFF) in the emergency department (ED). However, there is considerable regional variability in emergency physician practice patterns and debate among physicians as to which agent is more effective. To date, only one small prospective, randomized trial has compared the effectiveness of diltiazem and metoprolol for rate control of AFF in the ED and concluded no difference in effectiveness between the two agents. Our aim was to compare the effectiveness of diltiazem with metoprolol for rate control of AFF in the ED. A convenience sample of adult patients presenting with rapid atrial fibrillation or flutter was randomly assigned to receive either diltiazem or metoprolol. The study team monitored each subject's systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates for 30 min. In the first 5 min, 50.0% of the diltiazem group and 10.7% of the metoprolol group reached the target heart rate (HR) of <100 beats per minute (bpm) (p < 0.005). By 30 min, 95.8% of the diltiazem group and 46.4% of the metoprolol group reached the target HR < 100 bpm (p < 0.0001). Mean decrease in HR for the diltiazem group was more rapid and substantial than that of the metoprolol group. From a safety perspective, there was no difference between the groups with respect to hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg) and bradycardia (HR < 60 bpm). Diltiazem was more effective in achieving rate control in ED patients with AFF and did so with no increased incidence of adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated Avionics Computerized Test Station and Component (F-16) Career Ladder AFSCs 32634C, 32654C, and 32674.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    lAt ;NOST C IF OF HEI) Ets 96 E132 MAKE ENI’RIEF , 8 SI N I -iCANT HISTORICAl DATA (AFf O FORM 95) 96 1316 PERFORMAN.!. ’I:’S] I li I> 96 G214 REMOVE OR...TESTS OF HUD EU ITAs 93 G174 INSPECT AND CLEAN TESI ’ STATION FILTERS 93 1334 REMOVE OR REPLACI REO IND SRUs 89 G190 PER-FORM PEi,!OIC INSTIIONS OF TEST

  20. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-30

    Train- ing Center, to be completed in October, 13 months aft er the originally scheduled completion date. Work on the Falluja Wastewater Treatment ...the growth of Iraq’s oil and gas industry . Notwith- standing this progress, relations between the KRG and Baghdad remain tense. In July, Kurdish...energy can aff ect global energy markets. Under the study’s central scenario for growth in the country’s oil and natural gas industries , the IEA

  1. Chromosome analysis in Pseudopaludicola (Anura, Leiuperidae), with description of sex chromosomes XX/XY in P. saltica.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Thiago C; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina P; Lima, Janaína F R; Strüssmann, Christine; Del-Grande, Maria L; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A; Pereira, Emiliane G; Rossa-Feres, Denise C; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

    2010-04-01

    Taxonomic changes have frequently occurred in the anuran genus Pseudopaludicola as a consequence of high morphological similarity among its species. The present work reports karyotypic analysis of three Pseudopaludicola species sampled in their type locality and four Pseudopaludicola populations from distinct localities, aiming at contributing to the systematics of this genus. Chromosomes were stained with Giemsa or submitted to the silver staining (Ag-NOR) and C-banding techniques. The karyotype was 2n=22 in P. mineira, Pseudopaludicola sp. and two populations of P. saltica. The chromosome pair 8 was heteromorphic in P. saltica, characterizing a XX/XY sex-determination system with telocentric X and submetacentric Y. Highly similar karyotypes with 2n=18 chromosomes were observed in P. canga, P. aff. canga from Barreirinhas, State of Maranhão, Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais and Icém, State São Paulo. The high similarity among the karyotypes 2n=18 suggested that the populations of P. aff. canga belong to the group 'pusilla', the same group of P. canga. The data demonstrated also that P. aff. canga from Barreirinhas (northeast region) is cytogenetically identical to P. canga with regarding the NOR site position in pair 3 and the presence of a heterochromatic block in the pair 2, whereas P. aff. canga from Uberlândia and Icém (southeast) had the NOR in the pair 9. Moreover, the cytogenetic data discriminated P. mineira and Pseudopaludicola sp. from the previously analyzed species with 22 chromosomes, and suggested that Pseudopaludicola sp. is an undescribed species. Sexual heteromorphic chromosomes are firstly reported in Pseudopaludicola and the data indicated the need of an extensive taxonomic review in this genus.

  2. Floral traits driving reproductive isolation of two co-flowering taxa that share vertebrate pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Joel A.; Quirino, Zelma G. M.; Machado, Isabel C.

    2015-01-01

    Floral attributes evolve in response to frequent and efficient pollinators, which are potentially important drivers of floral diversification and reproductive isolation. In this context, we asked, how do flowers evolve in a bat–hummingbird pollination system? Hence, we investigated the pollination ecology of two co-flowering Ipomoea taxa (I. marcellia and I. aff. marcellia) pollinated by bats and hummingbirds, and factors favouring reproductive isolation and pollinator sharing in these plants. To identify the most important drivers of reproductive isolation, we compared the flowers of the two Ipomoea taxa in terms of morphometry, anthesis and nectar production. Pollinator services were assessed using frequency of visits, fruit set and the number of seeds per fruit after visits. The studied Ipomoea taxa differed in corolla size and width, beginning and duration of anthesis, and nectar attributes. However, they shared the same diurnal and nocturnal visitors. The hummingbird Heliomaster squamosus was more frequent in I. marcellia (1.90 visits h−1) than in I. aff. marcellia (0.57 visits h−1), whereas glossophagine bats showed similar visit rates in both taxa (I. marcellia: 0.57 visits h−1 and I. aff. marcellia: 0.64 visits h−1). Bat pollination was more efficient in I. aff. marcellia, whereas pollination by hummingbirds was more efficient in I. marcellia. Differences in floral attributes between Ipomoea taxa, especially related to the anthesis period, length of floral parts and floral arrangement in the inflorescence, favour reproductive isolation from congeners through differential pollen placement on pollinators. This bat–hummingbird pollination system seems to be advantageous in the study area, where the availability of pollinators and floral resources changes considerably throughout the year, mainly as a result of rainfall seasonality. This interaction is beneficial for both sides, as it maximizes the number of potential pollen vectors for plants and

  3. Marine Natural Meroterpenes: Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Levert, Annabel; Menniti, Christophe; Soulère, Laurent; Genevière, Anne-Marie; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Banaigs, Bernard; Witczak, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Meroterpenes are compounds of mixed biogenesis, isolated from plants, microorganisms and marine invertebrates. We have previously isolated and determined the structure for a series of meroterpenes extracted from the ascidian Aplidium aff. densum. Here, we demonstrate the chemical synthesis of three of them and their derivatives, and evaluate their biological activity on two bacterial strains, on sea urchin eggs, and on cancerous and healthy human cells. PMID:20390109

  4. Smoke generators show the twisting paths of wingtip vortices behind two NASA Dryden F/A-18 jets used

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Smoke generators show the twisting paths of wingtip vortices behind two NASA Dryden F/A-18 jets used in the Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program. A vortex is a spiraling current of air emanating from aircraft wingtips as they fly. By mapping the vortex pattern and using sophisticated software to put the trailing aircraft in the optimum location, the energy of the vortex could result in fuel savings for the follower aircraft of 15 percent or more.

  5. Atypical femoral fractures in Italy: a retrospective analysis in a large urban emergency department during a 7-year period (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoni, Mario; Giusti, Andrea; Girasole, Giuseppe; Abbate, Barbara; Verzicco, Ignazio; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) seen in a large emergency department in Italy. It was a retrospective study of all men and women aged 40 years or older admitted to the Emergency Department of Parma University Hospital for a femoral fracture. Cases were identified in the hospital database with use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 820 or 821 or text strings. All the radiographic images of fractures not clearly identified as proximal or condylar were retrieved and evaluated by three independent reviewers. Fractures were considered as atypical if all three reviewers agreed on at least four of five major features defined by the 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research criteria. In the 7-year period (2007-2013), with a total follow-up of 1,383,154 patient-years, we found 22 AFFs in 21 patients, accounting for 7.1% of low-trauma subtrochanteric/femoral shaft fractures and 0.6% of all femoral fractures. The incidence was very low (1.6 in 100,000 patient-years in both sexes combined). In contrast, the incidence of classic fractures of the proximal end of the femur was at least two orders of magnitude higher (typical/atypical rate ratio 152). Bisphosphonate use was reported in 13 patients (62%; mean treatment duration 9 years; range 5-14 years). Among 286 patients with typical subtrochanteric/femoral shaft fractures, 20 were being treated with bisphosphonate (7%; odds ratio 22; 95% confidence interval 8-58; p < 0.001). This study confirms the very low incidence of AFFs in the largest Italian cohort of patients to date. Even though the risk is higher in patients treated with bisphosphonates, AFFs are very rare, and typical femoral fractures are at least 100-fold more frequent.

  6. Notes on caridean shrimps collected during the Snellius-II expedition. I. Associates of Anthozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransen, C. H. J. M.

    During the Snellius-II Expedition to Indonesian waters in 1984, ten species of shrimp were collected associated with Anthozoa (Actiniaria: 6 species; Corallimorpharia: 1 species; Scleractinia: 3 species). These species are: Thor amboinensis (Hippolytidae), Periclimenes brevicarpalis, P. aff. inornatus, P. ornatus, P. holthuisi, P. magnificus, Pliopontonia furtiva, Paratypton siebenrocki, Philarius gerlachei and Jocaste japonica (all Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae). Four new associations and four new records for Indonesian waters were established. Biogeographical aspects, as well as taxonomic problems in some groups are discussed.

  7. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MAQUAT 128 MN, 05/03 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-05-12

    ... 115 fff -5TJ2 E f-§>> s^ i c3 i-2 "° ° ? ^ of ... ' c ^ .2 >- "3 5 0 « CO > — ^- > ... &|£t.I8S,l^| f £§£.! 3| 8°.! !i*s|i||«|r||l||ji|ll|l |i»|s*ill 5Il i .nif!aff fllffiflisi! lisfijilfisi ...

  8. A Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Computing the Yolk in Fixed Dimension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    10 Source of Funding Numbers Program Element Number Pro i No Task No Work Unit Accession No 11 Title (Include Security Classification) A POLYNOMIAL...vertices of a rectangle, or y would not be the point in Aff(B 2) closest to x. Algebraically , this means x - w = y - z 0 0. Recall that an affine...Barrault 75634 PARIS C~dex 27. S. Barbera............................................................................1. Dept. d’Economica I Historia

  9. Zonal heterogeneity in action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on renal microcirculation: role of intrarenal bradykinin.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Hayashi, K; Arakawa, K; Naitoh, M; Kubota, E; Honda, M; Matsumoto, A; Suzuki, H; Yamamoto, T; Kajiya, F; Saruta, T

    1999-11-01

    The present study examined the role of intrarenal bradykinin in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced dilation of renal afferent (AFF) and efferent arterioles (EFF) in vivo, and further evaluated whether ACEI-stimulated bradykinin activity differed in superficial (SP) and juxtamedullary nephrons (JM). Arterioles of canine kidneys were visualized with an intravital charge-coupled device camera microscope. E4177 (an angiotensin receptor antagonist, 30 microg/kg) dilated AFF and EFF in SP (15 +/- 3% and 19 +/- 5%) and JM (15 +/- 3% and 18 +/- 4%). Subsequently, cilazaprilat (30 microg/kg) caused further dilation of both AFF (29 +/- 4%) and EFF (36 +/- 4%) in JM, whereas in SP it dilated only EFF (29 +/-3%). Similarly, in the presence of E4177, cilazaprilat caused further increases in sodium excretion. This cilazaprilat-induced vasodilation and natriuresis was abolished by a bradykinin antagonist (N(alpha)-adamantaneacetyl-D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]b radykinin). In parallel with these results, cilazaprilat increased renal bradykinin content, more greatly in the medulla than in the cortex (5.7 +/- 0.4 versus 4.6 +/- 0.1 ng/g). Similarly, cilazaprilat elicited greater bradykinin-dependent increases of nitrite/nitrate in the medulla. In conclusion, zonal heterogeneity in renal bradykinin/nitric oxide levels and segmental differences in reactivity to bradykinin contribute to the diverse responsiveness of renal AFF and EFF to ACEI. ACEI-enhanced kinin action would participate in the amelioration of glomerular hemodynamics and renal sodium excretion by ACEI.

  10. Floral traits driving reproductive isolation of two co-flowering taxa that share vertebrate pollinators.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Joel A; Quirino, Zelma G M; Machado, Isabel C

    2015-11-10

    Floral attributes evolve in response to frequent and efficient pollinators, which are potentially important drivers of floral diversification and reproductive isolation. In this context, we asked, how do flowers evolve in a bat-hummingbird pollination system? Hence, we investigated the pollination ecology of two co-flowering Ipomoea taxa (I. marcellia and I. aff. marcellia) pollinated by bats and hummingbirds, and factors favouring reproductive isolation and pollinator sharing in these plants. To identify the most important drivers of reproductive isolation, we compared the flowers of the two Ipomoea taxa in terms of morphometry, anthesis and nectar production. Pollinator services were assessed using frequency of visits, fruit set and the number of seeds per fruit after visits. The studied Ipomoea taxa differed in corolla size and width, beginning and duration of anthesis, and nectar attributes. However, they shared the same diurnal and nocturnal visitors. The hummingbird Heliomaster squamosus was more frequent in I. marcellia (1.90 visits h(-1)) than in I. aff. marcellia (0.57 visits h(-1)), whereas glossophagine bats showed similar visit rates in both taxa (I. marcellia: 0.57 visits h(-1) and I. aff. marcellia: 0.64 visits h(-1)). Bat pollination was more efficient in I. aff. marcellia, whereas pollination by hummingbirds was more efficient in I. marcellia. Differences in floral attributes between Ipomoea taxa, especially related to the anthesis period, length of floral parts and floral arrangement in the inflorescence, favour reproductive isolation from congeners through differential pollen placement on pollinators. This bat-hummingbird pollination system seems to be advantageous in the study area, where the availability of pollinators and floral resources changes considerably throughout the year, mainly as a result of rainfall seasonality. This interaction is beneficial for both sides, as it maximizes the number of potential pollen vectors for plants and

  11. Atypical Femur Fractures in Patients Treated with Bisphosphonates: Identification, Management, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bubbear, Judith Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common condition with significant health care costs. First-line therapy is with bisphosphonates, which have proven anti-fracture efficacy. Around 10 years after the introduction of bisphosphonates reports began to be published of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) that may be associated with this therapy. These fractures are associated with significant morbidity although lower mortality than the more common osteoporotic neck-of-femur fractures. A case definition has been described to allow identification of this class of fracture. Further work has established a high relative risk of AFFs in patients treated with bisphosphonates, but a low absolute risk in comparison to that of osteoporotic fractures. Proposed pathological mechanisms include low bone turnover states leading to stress/insufficiency fractures. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of AFFs and in particular the high rate of prodromal thigh/groin pain that warrants investigation in a patient receiving a bisphosphonate. If an incomplete fracture is diagnosed then bisphosphonate therapy needs to be stopped and prophylactic surgery may be considered. Due to these rare side effects patients on bisphosphonates require regular review, and this is particularly advised after 5 years of oral or 3 years of intravenous therapy. PMID:27824547

  12. Adjuvant Teriparatide Therapy for Surgical Treatment of Femoral Fractures; Does It Work?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Taek; Jeong, Hyung Jun; Lee, Soong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Atypical femoral fracture (AFF), periprosthetic femoral fracture (PPFF) and femoral nonunion (FNU) are recalcitrant challenges for orthopedic surgeons. Teriparatide (TPTD) had been demonstrated to have anabolic effects on bone in various studies. We postulated that adjuvant TPTD after operation would enhance biologic stimulation for bone formation. We investigated (1) whether the adjuvant TPTD could achieve satisfactory union rate of surgically challenging cases such as displaced AFF, PPFF and FNU; (2) whether the adjuvant TPTD could promote development of abundant callus after surgical fixation; (3) whether the adjuvant TPTD had medically serious adverse effects. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients who agreed to off label use of TPTD in combination of operation were included in this retrospective case series. Median patients' age was 68.7 years, and there were three male and ten female patients. Their diagnoses were nonunion in six patients and acute fracture in seven. Medical records and radiographic images were reviewed. Results Twelve of thirteen fractures were united both clinically and radiologically within a year after adjuvant TPTD. Union completed radiologically median 5.4 months and clinically 5.7 months after the medication, respectively. Callus appeared abundantly showing median 1.4 of fracture healing response postoperatively. There was no serious adverse reaction of medication other than itching, muscle cramp, or nausea. Conclusion Even appropriate surgical treatment is a mainstay of treatment for AFF, PPFF, and FNU, the current report suggested that adjuvant TPTD combined with stable fixation results in satisfactory outcome for the challenging fractures of femur. PMID:27777917

  13. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral shaft fractures: role for mechanics and bone quality.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Marjolein C H; Boskey, Adele L

    2012-08-29

    Bisphosphonates are highly effective agents for reducing osteoporotic fractures in women and men, decreasing fracture incidence at the hip and spine up to 50%. In a small subset of patients, however, these agents have recently been associated with 'atypical femoral fractures' (AFFs) in the subtrochanteric region or the diaphysis. These fractures have several atypical characteristics, including occurrence with minimal trauma; younger age than typical osteoporotic fractures; occurrence at cortical, rather than cancellous sites; early radiographic appearance similar to that of a stress fracture; transverse fracture pattern rather than the familiar spiral or transverse-oblique morphologies; initiation on the lateral cortex; and high risk of fracture on the contralateral side, at the same location as the initial fracture. Fracture is a mechanical phenomenon that occurs when the loads applied to a structure such as a long bone exceed its load-bearing capacity, either due to a single catastrophic overload (traumatic failure) or as a result of accumulated damage and crack propagation at sub-failure loads (fatigue failure). The association of AFFs with no or minimal trauma suggests a fatigue-based mechanism that depends on cortical cross-sectional geometry and tissue material properties. In the case of AFFs, bisphosphonate treatment may alter cortical tissue properties, as these agents are known to alter bone remodeling. This review discusses the use of bisphosphonates, their effects on bone remodeling, mechanics and tissue composition, their significance as an effective therapy for osteoporosis, and why these agents may increase fracture risk in a small population of patients.

  14. First come, first serve: "sit and wait" behavior in dung beetles at the source of primate dung.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jennifer; Nole, Inés; Palminteri, Susanne; Ratcliffe, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) compete intensively for dung resources, and most species forage in the understory. Here, we describe the unique behavior of one dung beetle species, Canthon aff. quadriguttatus (Olivier), associated with two species of monkeys from Peru. We observed this beetle species on the genital and anal regions of the brown titi monkey, Callicebus brunneus (Wagner), and subsequently falling with dung as the monkeys defecated. The same association was also observed with the bald-faced saki monkey, Pithecia irrorata irrorata (Gray). Using the ' sit and wait' at the source behavior, C. quadriguttus may arrive first at the dung resource, possibly out-competing other dung beetle species. This paper is the first report of this behavior for C. aff. quadriguttatus on the brown titi monkey and bald-faced saki monkey from southeastern, Amazonian Peru. We discuss this behavior in the context of competition and resource partitioning, and also speculate as to why C. aff. quadriguttatus has been found on both monkey species.

  15. Atom-dimer scattering and stability of Bose and Fermi mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoling

    2014-10-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment by the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (ENS) group on the mixture of Bose and Fermi superfluids [I. Ferrier-Barbut et al., Science 345, 1035 (2014), 10.1126/science.1255380], we investigate the effective scattering between a bosonic atom and a molecule (dimer) of fermion atoms. It is found that the mean-field prediction of the atom-dimer scattering length (aad), as simply given by the boson-fermion scattering length (abf), generically fails. Instead, aad crucially depends on the ratio between abf and aff (the fermion-fermion scattering length), and in addition it log-periodically depends on the three-body parameter. We identify the universal parameters in characterizing aad for a wide range of aff in the molecular side of the fermion-fermion Feshbach resonance, and further demonstrate that the atom-dimer many-body system can become unstable against either phase separation or collapse as tuning aff. Our results have some implications for the ENS experiment.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family. PMID:21637480

  17. Odor discrimination in classical conditioning of proboscis extension in two stingless bee species in comparison to Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed

    Mc Cabe, S I; Hartfelder, K; Santana, W C; Farina, W M

    2007-11-01

    Learning in insects has been extensively studied using different experimental approaches. One of them, the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm, is particularly well suited for quantitative studies of cognitive abilities of honeybees under controlled conditions. The goal of this study was to analyze the capability of three eusocial bee species to be olfactory conditioned in the PER paradigm. We worked with two Brazilian stingless bees species, Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, and with the invasive Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera. These three species present very different recruitment strategies, which could be related with different odor-learning abilities. We evaluated their gustatory responsiveness and learning capability to discriminate floral odors. Gustatory responsiveness was similar for the three species, although S. aff. depilis workers showed fluctuations along the experimental period. Results for the learning assays revealed that M. quadrifasciata workers can be conditioned to discriminate floral odors in a classical differential conditioning protocol and that this discrimination is maintained 15 min after training. During conditioning, Africanized honeybees presented the highest discrimination, for M. quadrifasciata it was intermediate, and S. aff. depilis bees presented no discrimination. The differences found are discussed considering the putative different learning abilities and procedure effect for each species.

  18. Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L.

  19. Development and Testing of the Phase 0 Autonomous Formation Flight Research System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Shane; Fantini, Jay; Norlin, Ken; Theisen, John; Krasiewski, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) project was initiated in 1995 to demonstrate at least 10-percent drag reduction by positioning a trailing aircraft in the wingtip vortex of a leading aircraft. If successful, this technology would provide increased fuel savings, reduced emissions, and extended flight duration for fleet aircraft flying in formation. To demonstrate this technology, the AFF project at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center developed a system architecture incorporating two F-18 aircraft flying in leading-trailing formation. The system architecture has been designed to allow the trailing aircraft to maintain station-keeping position relative to the leading aircraft within +/-10 ft. Development of this architecture would be directed at the design and development of a computing system to feed surface position commands into the flight control computers, thereby controlling the longitudinal and lateral position of the trailing aircraft. In addition, modification to the instrumentation systems of both aircraft, pilot displays, and a means of broadcasting the leading aircraft inertial and global positioning system-based positional data to the trailing aircraft would be needed. This presentation focuses on the design and testing of the AFF Phase 0 research system.

  20. Head-Down Suspension Alters Stress-Responsiveness and Feedback Efficacy of 9a-Fludrocortisone in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsley, C. J.; Evans, J.; Scribner, K. A.; Keil, L. C.; Dallman, M. F.

    1994-01-01

    9a-Fludrocortisone (9aFF) has been used to decrease orthostatic hypotension in astronauts whorl they return to earth after space flight. An earth-based model for weightlessness in space is head-down posture in man and rats. In these studies male rats were suspended head-down or not for 7 days and treated 14 and 2 hours prior to ether stress in the AM with 9aFF (20 micrograms i.u.) at -14 and -2 h or at -2 h with steroid and at -14 h with oil; controls were treated 2x with oil. Rats were decapitated 10 min after ether and ACTH and corticosterone (B) were measured. Both ACTH and B responses were greater in suspended than control rats under all three steroid conditions, and the percentage inhibition of ACTH by 9aFF was similar. Basal activity in the HPA over the 7 d suspension period was probably not elevated since adrenal and thymus weights did not differ in the ambulatory and head down groups. We conclude that headdown suspension facilitates acute stress-induced activity in the HPA axis, but that HPA axis sensitivity to corticosteroid feedback does not change.

  1. Fatty Acid Composition of Different Collections of Coprinoid Mushrooms (Agaricomycetes) and Their Nutritional and Medicinal Values.

    PubMed

    Badalyan, Susanna M

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the free fatty acid (FA) composition of ethanol extracts obtained from mycelia of 30 genetically identified strains of 18 species of coprinoid mushrooms (CMs) or coprini belonging to clades Coprinellus (C. bisporus, C. curtus, C. disseminatus, C. domesticus, C. ellisii, C.flocculosus, C. micaceus, C. aff radians I, C. aff radians II, C. aff radians III, C. xanthothrix, Coprinellus sp. 4), Coprinopsis (C. cinerea, C. cothurnata, C. gonophylla, C. lagopides, C. maysoidispora, C. strossmayeri), and Coprinus (C. comatus) were evaluated using gas chromatography. Two unsaturated (lineolic, oleic) and 3 saturated (palmitic, stearic, myristic) FAs were detected in the tested mycelial samples. Amounts of unsaturated FAs prevailed over saturated FAs. Lineolic and palmitic acids were detected in all the species in high quantities (up to 64.73% and 53.82%, respectively). All 5 FAs were found in the Coprinus clade (family Agaricaceae) as opposed to the Coprinellus and Coprinopsis clades (family Psathyrellaceae). Based on the unsaturated and saturated FA content, the species from the clade Coprinellus were different from Coprinopsis species and C. comatus. The obtained data confirm that palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids are predominant in mushrooms, including coprini. The presence of large amounts of unsaturated FAs in the tested coprini make them an option for further studies to formulate novel mushroom-based dietary supplements and nutriceuticals.

  2. Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California.

    PubMed

    Corlett, Jan L; Clegg, Michael S; Keen, Carl L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2002-03-01

    Since the end of the American-Vietnamese War in 1975, more than 1.5 million refugees from Southeast Asia have resettled in the United States. Included among these displaced persons were the Hmong from Laos, a subsistence-based, shifting-cultivation, agricultural society. Hmong who resettled in urban areas have viewed vacant lots adjacent to urban dwellings as potential garden sites for production of familiar herbs and vegetables. In the present study exotic culinary and medicinal herbs grown by Hmong refugees in Sacramento, California were identified and analyzed for mineral composition. The herbs grown in these urban gardens were significant ingredients of Hmong recipes, and herb leaves, or infusions of steamed herb leaves were widely consumed as a component of pregnancy and post-partum diets. Six common species, Acorus gramineus, aff. Angelica, Dendranthema indicum, Eupatorium lindleyana, Sedum aff. sarmentosum, and Sedum aff. spectabile, were used in combination to season chicken. Polygonum odoratum, also widely cultivated, was used to season fish. Exotic culinary-medicinal species with highest mineral profiles included: Basella alba (Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn); Houttuynia cordata (Fe, Mg, Mn); Justica gendarussa (Ca, Mg, Zn); and Polygonum odoratum (Ca, Mg, Mn). While vacant lots sometimes are heavy metal contamination sites, we found no detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, or lead in the samples analyzed.

  3. Addressing the Crisis in the Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Path Forward.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Sundeep; Cauley, Jane A; Compston, Juliet; Kiel, Douglas P; Rosen, Clifford; Saag, Kenneth G; Shane, Elizabeth

    2016-12-29

    Considerable data and media attention have highlighted a potential "crisis" in the treatment of osteoporosis. Specifically, despite the availability of several effective drugs to prevent fractures, many patients who need pharmacological therapy are either not being prescribed these medications or if prescribed a medication, are simply not taking it. Although there are many reasons for this "gap" in the treatment of osteoporosis, a major factor is physician and patient concerns over the risk of side effects, especially atypical femur fractures (AFFs) related to bisphosphonate (and perhaps other antiresorptive) drug therapy. In this perspective, we review the current state of undertreatment of patients at increased fracture risk and suggest possible short-, intermediate-, and long-term approaches to address patient concerns, specifically those related to AFF risk. We suggest improved patient and physician education on prodromal symptoms, extended femur scans using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to monitor patients on antiresorptive treatment, better identification of high-risk patients perhaps using geometrical parameters from DXA and other risk factors, and more research on pharmacogenomics to identify risk markers. Although not the only impediment to appropriate treatment of osteoporosis, concern over AFFs remains a major issue and one that needs to be resolved for effective dissemination of existing treatments to reduce fracture risk. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. Head-Down Suspension Alters Stress-Responsiveness and Feedback Efficacy of 9a-Fludrocortisone in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsley, C. J.; Evans, J.; Scribner, K. A.; Keil, L. C.; Dallman, M. F.

    1994-01-01

    9a-Fludrocortisone (9aFF) has been used to decrease orthostatic hypotension in astronauts whorl they return to earth after space flight. An earth-based model for weightlessness in space is head-down posture in man and rats. In these studies male rats were suspended head-down or not for 7 days and treated 14 and 2 hours prior to ether stress in the AM with 9aFF (20 micrograms i.u.) at -14 and -2 h or at -2 h with steroid and at -14 h with oil; controls were treated 2x with oil. Rats were decapitated 10 min after ether and ACTH and corticosterone (B) were measured. Both ACTH and B responses were greater in suspended than control rats under all three steroid conditions, and the percentage inhibition of ACTH by 9aFF was similar. Basal activity in the HPA over the 7 d suspension period was probably not elevated since adrenal and thymus weights did not differ in the ambulatory and head down groups. We conclude that headdown suspension facilitates acute stress-induced activity in the HPA axis, but that HPA axis sensitivity to corticosteroid feedback does not change.

  5. The 'Arm Force Field' method to predict manual arm strength based on only hand location and force direction.

    PubMed

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Potvin, Jim R

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel method (termed the 'Arm Force Field' or 'AFF') to predict manual arm strength (MAS) for a wide range of body orientations, hand locations and any force direction. This method used an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the effects of hand location and force direction on MAS, and included a method to estimate the contribution of the arm's weight to the predicted strength. The AFF method predicted the MAS values very well (r(2) = 0.97, RMSD = 5.2 N, n = 456) and maintained good generalizability with external test data (r(2) = 0.842, RMSD = 13.1 N, n = 80). The AFF can be readily integrated within any DHM ergonomics software, and appears to be a more robust, reliable and valid method of estimating the strength capabilities of the arm, when compared to current approaches.

  6. Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family.

    PubMed

    Nirchio, Mauro; Martinez, Emanuel Ricardo Monteiro; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2010-04-01

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family.

  7. Lateral Cortical Thickening and Bone Heterogeneity of the Subtrochanteric Femur Measured With Quantitative CT as Indicators for Early Detection of Atypical Femoral Fractures in Long-Term Bisphosphonate Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2017-08-10

    The objective of our study was to compare subtrochanteric femur bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality of long-term bisphosphonate (BP) users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture (AFF) with BP users who did not sustain a femoral fracture and BP-naïve patients with no history of femoral fracture using quantitative CT (QCT). Fourteen female BP users with an AFF (mean age, 72.6 years; mean duration of BP use, 6.2 years; mean body mass index, 21.9) who had undergone QCT before fracture events were sex-, age-, BP use duration-, and body mass index-matched to 14 BP users who did not sustain a fracture and 14 BP-naïve patients. The lateral cortical thickness index (CTI) and the mean BMD (BMDmean) and SD of the BMD (BMDSD) within the lateral cortex and within the entire cross-sectional area of the subtrochanteric femur were measured on axial QCT. Femoral neck-shaft angles were measured on the QCT scout image. Parameters were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Lateral CTIs were greater in the BP users with an AFF (median, 0.28) than in the BP users without a femoral fracture (median, 0.21) (p = 0.038) and the BP-naïve group (median, 0.21) (p = 0.009). The lateral cortex BMDSD was significantly higher in the BP users with an AFF (median, 59.59 mg/cm(3)) than the BP users without a femoral fracture (median, 39.27 mg/cm(3); p = 0.049) and the BP-naïve group (median, 31.02 mg/cm(3); p = 0.037). There was no significant difference among groups in lateral cortex BMDmean, BMDmean and BMDSD of the entire cross-sectional area, and femoral neck-shaft angle. Long-term BP users with a subsequent AFF had a thicker lateral cortex and higher lateral cortex BMDSD at the subtrochanteric area before the fracture on QCT than BP users who did not sustain a femoral fracture and BP-naïve patients.

  8. A pan-African medium-range ensemble flood forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, Vera; Bisselink, Bernard; Pappenberger, Florian; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions of the ECMWF and critical hydrological thresholds. In this study the predictive capability is investigated, to estimate AFFS' potential as an operational flood forecasting system for the whole of Africa. This is done in a hindcast mode, by reproducing pan-African hydrological predictions for the whole year of 2003 where important flood events were observed. Results were analysed in two ways, each with its individual objective. The first part of the analysis is of paramount importance for the assessment of AFFS as a flood forecasting system, as it focuses on the detection and prediction of flood events. Here, results were verified with reports of various flood archives such as Dartmouth Flood Observatory, the Emergency Event Database, the NASA Earth Observatory and Reliefweb. The number of hits, false alerts and missed alerts as well as the Probability of Detection, False Alarm Rate and Critical Success Index were determined for various conditions (different regions, flood durations, average amount of annual precipitations, size of affected areas and mean annual discharge). The second part of the analysis complements the first by giving a basic insight into the prediction skill of the general streamflow. For this, hydrological predictions were compared against observations at 36 key locations across Africa and the Continuous Rank Probability Skill Score (CRPSS), the limit of predictability and reliability were calculated. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70 % of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (> 1 week) and large affected areas (> 10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas

  9. Coral feeding on microalgae assessed with molecular trophic markers.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel C; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Calado, Ricardo; Thompson, Megan E; Frischer, Marc E; Nejstgaard, Jens C

    2014-08-01

    Herbivory in corals, especially for symbiotic species, remains controversial. To investigate the capacity of scleractinian and soft corals to capture microalgae, we conducted controlled laboratory experiments offering five algal species: the cryptophyte Rhodomonas marina, the haptophytes Isochrysis galbana and Phaeocystis globosa, and the diatoms Conticribra weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Coral species included the symbiotic soft corals Heteroxenia fuscescens and Sinularia flexibilis, the asymbiotic scleractinian coral Tubastrea coccinea, and the symbiotic scleractinian corals Stylophora pistillata, Pavona cactus and Oculina arbuscula. Herbivory was assessed by end-point PCR amplification of algae-specific 18S rRNA gene fragments purified from coral tissue genomic DNA extracts. The ability to capture microalgae varied with coral and algal species and could not be explained by prey size or taxonomy. Herbivory was not detected in S. flexibilis and S. pistillata. P. globosa was the only algal prey that was never captured by any coral. Although predation defence mechanisms have been shown for Phaeocystis spp. against many potential predators, this study is the first to suggest this for corals. This study provides new insights into herbivory in symbiotic corals and suggests that corals may be selective herbivorous feeders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar

    2010-03-01

    Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.

  11. Cellular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of the lichen compound usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Einarsdóttir, Eydis; Groeneweg, Judith; Björnsdóttir, Guethrún G; Harethardottir, Guethleif; Omarsdóttir, Sesselja; Ingólfsdóttir, Kristín; Ogmundsdóttir, Helga M

    2010-07-01

    The lichen compound usnic acid is used for its antimicrobial activities in cosmetic products and is also a component of slimming agents. Its effect against cancer cells was first noted over 30 years ago. In this study possible mechanisms of this effect were investigated using two human cell lines, the breast cancer cell line T-47D and the pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-2. Pure (+)-usnic acid from CLADONIA ARBUSCULA and (-)-usnic acid from ALECTORIA OCHROLEUCA were shown to be equally effective inhibitors of DNA synthesis, with IC (50) 4.2 microg/mL and 4.0 microg/mL for (+) and (-)-usnic acid against T-47D, and 5.3 microg/mL and 5.0 microg/mL against Capan-2, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed the inhibited entry into the S-phase and showed reduction in cell size. Classical apoptosis, as assessed by TUNEL staining, was not observed. Necrosis, measured by LDH release, was seen only in Capan-2 after exposure for 48 hours. Staining with the mitochondrial dye JC-1 demonstrated dose-dependent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following treatment with usnic acid in both cell lines. In conclusion, usnic acid had a marked inhibitory effect on growth and proliferation of two different human cancer cell lines and led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell survival was little affected; late necrosis was seen in one of the cell lines. No difference was noted between the two enantiomers.

  12. Species-specific structural and functional diversity of bacterial communities in lichen symbioses.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Cardinale, Massimiliano; de Castro, João Vieira; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2009-09-01

    Lichens are generally considered as mutualisms between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. These partnerships allow light-exposed and long-living joint structures. The unique organization of lichens provides still unexplored environments for microbial communities. To study lichen-associated bacterial communities, we analyze samples, by a polyphasic approach, from three lichen species (Cladonia arbuscula, Lecanora polytropa and Umbilicaria cylindrica) from alpine environments. Our results indicate that bacteria can form highly structured, biofilm-like assemblages on fungal surfaces and reach considerable abundances of up to 10(8) cells per gram fresh weight. Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals the predominance of Alphaproteobacteria. Microbial fingerprints performed by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis using universal and group-specific primers show distinct patterns for each lichen species. Characterization of cultivable strains and presence of functional genes in the total fraction suggest the involvement of associated bacteria in nutrient cycling. Ubiquitous nifH genes, which encode the nitrogenase reductase, show a high diversity and are assigned to Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes, for example, Paenibacillus. Cultivable strains mainly belonging to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Paenibacillus show lytic (chitinolytic, glucanolytic, and proteolytic) activities, hormone production (indole-3-acetic acid) as well as phosphate mobilization and antagonistic activity toward other microorganisms. The traditional concept of lichens has to be expanded to consider multiple bacterial partners.

  13. Effects of substrate differences on water availability for Arctic lichens during the snow-free summers in the High Arctic glacier foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kudoh, Sakae; Uchida, Masaki; Tanabe, Yukiko; Inoue, Masakane; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    We used observational and experimental analyses to investigate the photosynthetic activity and water relationships of five lichen species attached to different substrates in a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79°N) during the snow-free season in 2009 and 2010. After the rains ceased, lichens and their attached substrates quickly dried, whereas photosynthetic activity in the lichens decreased gradually. The in situ photosynthetic activity was estimated based on the relative electron transportation rate (rETR) in four fruticose lichens: Cetrariella delisei, Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia arbuscula ssp. mitis, and Cladonia pleurota. The rETR approached zero around noon, although the crustose lichen Ochrolechia frigida grown on biological soil crust (BSC) could acquire water from the BSC and retain its WC to perform positive photosynthesis. The light-rETR relationship curves of the five well-watered lichens were characterized into two types: shade-adapted with photoinhibition for the fruticose lichens, and light-adapted with no photoinhibition for O. frigida. The maximum rETR was expected to occur when they could acquire water from the surrounding air or from substrates during the desiccation period. Our results suggest that different species of Arctic lichens have different water availabilities due to their substrates and/or morphological characteristics, which affect their photosynthetic active periods during the summer.

  14. Greater sage-grouse of Grand Teton National Park: where do they roam?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chong, G.W.; Wetzel, W.C.; Holloran, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population declines may be caused by range-wide degradation of sagebrush (woody Artemisia spp.) steppe ecosystems. Understanding how greater sage-grouse use the landscape is essential for successful management. We assessed greater sage-grouse habitat selection on a landscape level in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and radio-collared sage-grouse to compare habitat used and the total available landscape. Greater sage-grouse selected mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata var. vaseyana) communities or mixed mountain big sagebrush–antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) communities and avoided low-sagebrush (A. arbuscula) dwarf shrubland. In spring and summer, sage-grouse primarily used sagebrush-dominated habitats on the valley floor and did not concentrate in mesic areas later in the summer as is typical of the species. The diversity of habitats used in winter exceeds that reported in the literature. In winter, Jackson Hole greater sage-grouse moved to hills, where they used various communities in proportion to their availability, including tall deciduous shrublands, cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) stands, exposed hillsides, and aspen (P. tremuloides) stands. Because seasonal habitat selection is not necessarily consistent across populations residing in different landscapes, habitat management should be specific to each population and landscape. This sage-grouse population provides an example that may offer insight into other species with seasonal habitat needs.

  15. Determination of the Halogenated Skeleton Constituents of the Marine Demosponge Ianthella basta.

    PubMed

    Ueberlein, Susanne; Machill, Susanne; Schupp, Peter J; Brunner, Eike

    2017-02-10

    Demosponges of the order Verongida such as Ianthella basta exhibit skeletons containing spongin, a collagenous protein, and chitin. Moreover, Verongida sponges are well known to produce bioactive brominated tyrosine derivatives. We recently demonstrated that brominated compounds do not only occur in the cellular matrix but also in the skeletons of the marine sponges Aplysina cavernicola and I. basta. Further investigations revealed the amino acid composition of the skeletons of A. cavernicola including the presence of several halogenated amino acids. In the present work, we investigated the skeletal amino acid composition of the demosponge I. basta, which belongs to the Ianthellidae family, and compared it with that of A. cavernicola from the Aplysinidae family. Seventeen proteinogenic and five non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected in I. basta. Abundantly occurring amino acids like glycine and hydroxyproline show the similarity of I. basta and A. cavernicola and confirm the collagenous nature of their sponging fibers. We also detected nine halogenated tyrosines as an integral part of I. basta skeletons. Since both sponges contain a broad variety of halogenated amino acids, this seems to be characteristic for Verongida sponges. The observed differences of the amino acid composition confirm that spongin exhibits a certain degree of variability even among the members of the order Verongida.

  16. Trophic transfer of radioisotopes in Mediterranean sponges through bacteria consumption.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Warnau, Michel; Beaugeard, Laureen; Pascal, Pierre-Yves

    2016-02-01

    Numerous field studies highlighted the capacities of marine sponges to bioaccumulate trace elements and assessed their potential as biomonitors of the marine environment. Experimental works demonstrated that dissolved metals and radionuclides can be taken up directly by sponge tissues but, to the best of our knowledge, little is known on the contribution of the dietary pathway through the consumption of contaminated bacteria considered as one of the trophic source in sponge diet. Objectives of this work are to study trophic transfer of radiotracers (110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn and (65)Zn from the marine bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri to the Mediterranean sponges Aplysina cavernicola and Ircinia oros. P. stutzeri efficiently bioaccumulated trace elements in our culture experimental conditions with CF comprised between 10(5) and 10(7) after 48 h of growth in radiolabeled medium. When fed with these radiolabelled bacteria, A. cavernicola took up around 60% of radiotracers accumulated in trophic source except (134)Cs for which only 8% has been transferred from bacteria to sponge. Contrasting to this, I. oros retained only 7% of (110m)Ag, (109)Cd and (65)Zn counted in bacteria, but retained 2-fold longer accumulated metals in its tissues. The sponge inter-specific differences of accumulation and depuration following a trophic exposure are discussed with respect to the structure and the clearance capacities of each species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sponge Microbiota Are a Reservoir of Functional Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Versluis, Dennis; Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Mari; Sommer, Morten O. A.; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; van Passel, Mark W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n = 6), gentamicin (n = 1), amikacin (n = 7), trimethoprim (n = 17), chloramphenicol (n = 1), rifampicin (n = 2) and ampicillin (n = 3). Fifteen of 37 inserts harbored resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria. PMID:27909433

  18. Enrichment and Physiological Characterization of a Novel Nitrospira-Like Bacterium Obtained from a Marine Sponge ▿

    PubMed Central

    Off, Sandra; Alawi, Mashal; Spieck, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Members of the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira are most likely responsible for the second step of nitrification, the conversion of nitrite (NO2−) to nitrate (NO3−), within various sponges. We succeeded in obtaining an enrichment culture of Nitrospira derived from the mesohyl of the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba using a traditional cultivation approach. Electron microscopy gave first evidence of the shape and ultrastructure of this novel marine Nitrospira-like bacterium (culture Aa01). We characterized these bacteria physiologically with regard to optimal incubation conditions, especially the temperature and substrate range in comparison to other Nitrospira cultures. Best growth was obtained at temperatures between 28°C and 30°C in mineral medium with 70% North Sea water and a substrate concentration of 0.5 mM nitrite under microaerophilic conditions. The Nitrospira culture Aa01 is very sensitive against nitrite, because concentrations higher than 1.5 mM resulted in a complete inhibition of growth. Sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the novel Nitrospira-like bacterium is separated from the sponge-specific subcluster and falls together with an environmental clone from Mediterranean sediments (98.6% similarity). The next taxonomically described species Nitrospira marina is only distantly related, with 94.6% sequence similarity, and therefore the culture Aa01 represents a novel species of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:20511427

  19. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay.

    PubMed

    Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina

    2014-05-29

    The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.

  20. Seasonal variation of Fatty acids and stable carbon isotopes in sponges as indicators for nutrition: biomarkers in sponges identified.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marieke; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Boschker, Henricus T S; Marco, Houtekamer; Martens, Dirk; Wijffels, Rene H

    2015-02-01

    To get a better understanding of sponge feeding biology and efficiencies, the fatty acid (FA) composition and (13)C natural abundance of sponges and of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from surrounding seawater was studied in different seasons at three locations. Haliclona oculata and Haliclona xena from the Oosterschelde, the Netherlands, Halichondria panicea and H. xena from Lake Veere, the Netherlands, and Aplysina aerophoba and Dysidea avara from the Mediterranean, Spain, were studied. Several FA biomarkers for different algal groups, bacteria and sponge biomass were identified in all sponges. The FA concentration variation in sponges was related to changes in fatty acid concentration in SPM. Stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ(13)C) in sponge specific FAs showed very limited seasonal variation at all sites. Algal FAs in sponges were mainly acquired from the SPM through active filtration in all seasons. At the two sites in the Netherlands only in May (spring), the sponge specific FAs had similar δ(13)C ratios as algal FAs, suggesting that sponges were mainly growing during spring and probably summer. During autumn and winter, they were still actively filtering, but the food collected during this period had little effect on sponge δ(13)C values suggesting limited incorporation of filtered material into the sponge body. The sponge A. aerophoba relied mostly on the symbiotic bacteria. In conclusion, fatty acid composition in combination with stable carbon isotope analysis can be used to analyze the food source of sponges.

  1. Quantification of bacterial and archaeal symbionts in high and low microbial abundance sponges using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Kristina; Kamke, Janine; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-09-01

    In spite of considerable insights into the microbial diversity of marine sponges, quantitative information on microbial abundances and community composition remains scarce. Here, we established qPCR assays for the specific quantification of four bacterial phyla of representative sponge symbionts as well as the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaea. We could show that the 16S rRNA gene numbers of Archaea, Chloroflexi, and the candidate phylum Poribacteria were 4-6 orders of magnitude higher in high microbial abundance (HMA) than in low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges and that actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene numbers were 1-2 orders higher in HMA over LMA sponges, while those for Cyanobacteria were stable between HMA and LMA sponges. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of Aplysina aerophoba tissue sections confirmed the numerical dominance of Chloroflexi, which was followed by Poribacteria. Archaeal and actinobacterial cells were detected in much lower numbers. By use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a primer- and probe-independent approach, the dominance of Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Poribacteria in A. aerophoba was confirmed. Our study provides new quantitative insights into the microbiology of sponges and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA/LMA dichotomy. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of bacterial composition in marine sponges reveals the influence of host phylogeny and environment.

    PubMed

    Souza, Danilo T; Genuário, Diego B; Silva, Fabio Sérgio P; Pansa, Camila C; Kavamura, Vanessa N; Moraes, Fernando C; Taketani, Rodrigo G; Melo, Itamar S

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with sponges are influenced by environmental factors; however, some degree of genetic influence of the host on the microbiome is also expected. In this work, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed diverse bacterial phylotypes based on the phylogenies of three tropical sponges (Aplysina fulva, Aiolochroia crassa and Chondrosia collectrix). Despite their sympatric occurrence, the studied sponges presented different bacterial compositions that differed from those observed in seawater. However, lower dissimilarities in bacterial communities were observed within sponges from the same phylogenetic group. The relationships between operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered from the sponges and database sequences revealed associations among sequences from unrelated sponge species and sequences retrieved from diverse environmental samples. In addition, one Proteobacteria OTU retrieved from A. fulva was identical to sequences previously reported from A. fulva specimens collected along the Brazilian coast. Based on these results, we conclude that bacterial communities associated with marine sponges are shaped by host identity, while environmental conditions seem to be less important in shaping symbiont communities. This is the first study to assess bacterial communities associated with marine sponges in the remote St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago using amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. First evidence of chitin as a component of the skeletal fibers of marine sponges. Part I. Verongidae (demospongia: Porifera).

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Maldonado, Manuel; Spindler, Klaus-Dieter; Eckert, Carsten; Hanke, Thomas; Born, René; Goebel, Caren; Simon, Paul; Heinemann, Sascha; Worch, Hartmut

    2007-07-15

    The Porifera (sponges) are often regarded as the oldest, extant metazoan phylum, also bearing the ancestral stage for most features occurring in higher animals. The absence of chitin in sponges, except for the wall of peculiar resistance bodies produced by a highly derived fresh-water group, is puzzling, since it points out chitin to be an autapomorphy for a particular sponge family rather than the ancestral condition within the metazoan lineage. By investigating the internal proteinaceous (spongin) skeleton of two demosponges (Aplysina sp. and Verongula gigantea) using a wide array of techniques (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, X-ray, Calcofluor White Staining, Immunolabeling, and chitinase test), we show that chitin is a component of the outermost layer (cuticle) of the skeletal fibers of these demosponges. FTIR and Raman spectra, as well as X-ray difractograms consistently revealed that sponge chitin is much closer to the alpha-chitin known from other animals than to beta-chitin. These findings support the view that the occurrence of a chitin-producing system is the ancestral condition in Metazoa, and that the alpha-chitin is the primitive form in animals.

  4. Determination of the Halogenated Skeleton Constituents of the Marine Demosponge Ianthella basta

    PubMed Central

    Ueberlein, Susanne; Machill, Susanne; Schupp, Peter J.; Brunner, Eike

    2017-01-01

    Demosponges of the order Verongida such as Ianthella basta exhibit skeletons containing spongin, a collagenous protein, and chitin. Moreover, Verongida sponges are well known to produce bioactive brominated tyrosine derivatives. We recently demonstrated that brominated compounds do not only occur in the cellular matrix but also in the skeletons of the marine sponges Aplysina cavernicola and I. basta. Further investigations revealed the amino acid composition of the skeletons of A. cavernicola including the presence of several halogenated amino acids. In the present work, we investigated the skeletal amino acid composition of the demosponge I. basta, which belongs to the Ianthellidae family, and compared it with that of A. cavernicola from the Aplysinidae family. Seventeen proteinogenic and five non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected in I. basta. Abundantly occurring amino acids like glycine and hydroxyproline show the similarity of I. basta and A. cavernicola and confirm the collagenous nature of their sponging fibers. We also detected nine halogenated tyrosines as an integral part of I. basta skeletons. Since both sponges contain a broad variety of halogenated amino acids, this seems to be characteristic for Verongida sponges. The observed differences of the amino acid composition confirm that spongin exhibits a certain degree of variability even among the members of the order Verongida. PMID:28208597

  5. Polyketide genes in the marine sponge Plakortis simplex: a new group of mono-modular type I polyketide synthases from sponge symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Della Sala, Gerardo; Hochmuth, Thomas; Costantino, Valeria; Teta, Roberta; Gerwick, William; Gerwick, Lena; Piel, Jörn; Mangoni, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sponge symbionts are a largely unexplored source of new and unusual metabolic pathways. Insights into the distribution and function of metabolic genes of sponge symbionts are crucial to dissect and exploit their biotechnological potential. Screening of the metagenome of the marine sponge Plakortis simplex led to the discovery of the swf family, a new group of mono-modular type I polyketide synthase/fatty acid synthase (PKS/FAS) specifically associated with sponge symbionts. Two different examples of the swf cluster were present in the metagenome of P. simplex. A third example of the cluster is present in the previously sequenced genome of a poribacterium from the sponge Aplysina aerophoba but was formerly considered orthologous to the wcb/rkp cluster. The swf cluster was also found in six additional species of sponges. Therefore, the swf cluster represents the second group of mono-modular PKS, after the supA family, to be widespread in marine sponges. The putative swf operon consists of swfA (type I PKS/FAS), swfB (reductase and sulphotransferase domains) and swfC (radical S-adenosylmethionine, or radical SAM). Activation of the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of the SwfA protein to its holo-form by co-expression with Svp is the first functional proof of swf type genes in marine sponges. However, the precise biosynthetic role of the swf clusters remains unknown. PMID:24249289

  6. Enrichment and physiological characterization of a novel Nitrospira-like bacterium obtained from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Off, Sandra; Alawi, Mashal; Spieck, Eva

    2010-07-01

    Members of the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira are most likely responsible for the second step of nitrification, the conversion of nitrite (NO(2)(-)) to nitrate (NO(3)(-)), within various sponges. We succeeded in obtaining an enrichment culture of Nitrospira derived from the mesohyl of the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba using a traditional cultivation approach. Electron microscopy gave first evidence of the shape and ultrastructure of this novel marine Nitrospira-like bacterium (culture Aa01). We characterized these bacteria physiologically with regard to optimal incubation conditions, especially the temperature and substrate range in comparison to other Nitrospira cultures. Best growth was obtained at temperatures between 28 degrees C and 30 degrees C in mineral medium with 70% North Sea water and a substrate concentration of 0.5 mM nitrite under microaerophilic conditions. The Nitrospira culture Aa01 is very sensitive against nitrite, because concentrations higher than 1.5 mM resulted in a complete inhibition of growth. Sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the novel Nitrospira-like bacterium is separated from the sponge-specific subcluster and falls together with an environmental clone from Mediterranean sediments (98.6% similarity). The next taxonomically described species Nitrospira marina is only distantly related, with 94.6% sequence similarity, and therefore the culture Aa01 represents a novel species of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria.

  7. An Enrichment of CRISPR and Other Defense-Related Features in Marine Sponge-Associated Microbial Metagenomes

    DOE PAGES

    Horn, Hannes; Slaby, Beate M.; Jahn, Martin T.; ...

    2016-11-08

    Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defensemore » is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. Furthermore, this study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.« less

  8. An Enrichment of CRISPR and Other Defense-Related Features in Marine Sponge-Associated Microbial Metagenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Hannes; Slaby, Beate M.; Jahn, Martin T.; Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Forster, Frank; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-11-08

    Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. Furthermore, this study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.

  9. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S M; Rogers, R; Rubem, A C; Da Gama, B A P; Muricy, G; Pereira, R C

    2013-08-01

    Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009), Tethya maza (p = 0.0039), Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277), and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003). These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  10. Species compositions and ecology of the riverine ichthyofaunas in two Sulawesian islands in the biodiversity hotspot of Wallacea.

    PubMed

    Tweedley, J R; Bird, D J; Potter, I C; Gill, H S; Miller, P J; O'Donovan, G; Tjakrawidjaja, A H

    2013-06-01

    This account of the riverine ichthyofaunas from the islands of Buton and Kabaena, off south-eastern mainland Sulawesi, represents the first detailed quantitative checklist and ecological study of the riverine fish faunas in the biological hotspot of Wallacea. The results are based on analysis of samples collected by electrofishing at a wide range of sites from July to September in both 2001 and 2002. While the fauna was diverse, with the 2179 fishes caught comprising 64 species representing 43 genera and 22 families, the catches were dominated by the Gobiidae (26 species and 25% by numbers), Eleotridae (seven species and 27% by numbers), Zenarchopteridae (three species and 22% by numbers) and Anguillidae (two species and 12% by numbers). The most abundant species were the eleotrids Eleotris aff. fusca-melanosoma and Ophieleotris aff. aporos, the anguillid Anguilla celebesensis, the zenarchopterids Nomorhamphus sp. and Nomorhamphus ebrardtii and the gobiids Sicyopterus sp. and Glossogobius aff. celebius-kokius. The introduced catfish Clarias batrachus was moderately abundant at a few sites. Cluster analysis, allied with the similarity profiles routine SIMPROF, identified seven discrete groups, which represented samples from sites entirely or predominantly in either Buton (five clusters) or Kabaena (two clusters). Species composition was related to geographical location, distance from river mouth, per cent contribution of sand and silt, altitude and water temperature. The samples from the two islands contained only one species definitively endemic to Sulawesi, i.e. N. ebrardtii and another presumably so, i.e. Nomorhamphus sp., contrasting starkly with the 57 species that are endemic to Sulawesi and, most notably, its large central and deep lake systems on the mainland. This accounts for the ichthyofaunas of these two islands, as well as those of rivers in northern mainland Sulawesi and Flores, being more similar to each other than to those of the central mainland

  11. Hematophagous Flies Attracted to Frog Calls in a Preserved Seasonal Forest of the Austral Neotropics, with a Description of a New Species of Corethrella (Diptera: Corethrellidae).

    PubMed

    Caldart, Vinícius Matheus; Santos, Maurício Beux Dos; Iop, Samanta; Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Cechin, Sonia Zanini

    2016-10-01

    The signaler-eavesdropper interaction has been investigated for a wide range of organisms, and although many flies feed on calling frogs, this dynamic has been addressed only poorly in the austral Neotropics. We investigated this interaction in southern Brazil using pairs of suction traps (acoustic + silent) broadcasting frog calls or an artificial white noise in ponds and streams. From 139 sessions, flies of the genera Corethrella (Corethrellidae), Forcipomyia (Ceratopogonidae) and Uranotaenia (Culicidae) were collected, including five Corethrella species, the most abundant of which was previously unknown and is formally described here. Additionally, we present the southernmost records of Corethrella lopesi, C. alticola and C. atricornis. Numbers of Forcipomyia midges and Uranotaenia mosquitoes did not differ between silent traps and traps broadcasting frog calls, and did not differ between white noise traps and adjacent silent traps. However, the number of female Corethrella was significantly higher in traps broadcasting calls of the pond-breeding frog P. aff. gracilis compared to adjacent silent traps; calls of this frog attracted the five Corethrella species and also collected significantly more female Corethrella than the white noise. By evaluating different taxa of flies and broadcasting different sounds, we demonstrated that Corethrella midges were attracted only to the acoustic cue of P. aff. gracilis calls, while Forcipomyia and Uranotaenia were captured in traps by chance. Our results suggest that female Corethrella feed on males of the common pond-breeding frog P. aff. gracilis in southern Brazil, and highlight the utility of frog call traps in revealing the diversity of Corethrella in the austral Neotropics.

  12. Physical and psychological determinants of injury in Ontario forest firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H; Larivière, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest firefighters are faced with multiple physical and psychological challenges as a result of their duties. Little is known about the determinants of injury among these workers. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) Aviation, Forest Fire and Emergency Services (AFFES) records detailed information on two mutually exclusive types of workplace injury: First aid (self-reported) and Workplace Safety Insurance Board (WSIB, i.e. received medical attention). To identify the contributions of physical and psychological factors on the likelihood of injury among forest firefighters. Participants were male and female forest firefighters aged between 18 and 65. Data were collected using two self-administered instruments: The NEO Personality Inventory and the Job Stress Survey. Secondary data were collected from the OMNR AFFES and data were analysed by way of multivariate statistical procedures. There were 252 participants. Those who were older, had a history of injury, had high scores for the personality construct of Neuroticism or low scores for the Openness construct were significantly more likely to incur a first aid injury, while those with high experience levels were significantly less likely to incur injury (P < 0.05). High job stress was the only significant predictor of WSIB injury (P < 0.05). First aid and WSIB injuries in the OMNR AFFES were quite distinct phenomena and different factors need consideration in their prediction. It is recommended that managers and decision-makers in this field consider factors such as job stress, personality and the prior occurrence of injuries in their assessment of risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Atypical fracture with long-term bisphosphonate therapy is associated with altered cortical composition and reduced fracture resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Ashley A.; Gludovatz, Bernd; Riedel, Christoph; Luengo, Emma A.; Saiyed, Rehan; Marty, Eric; Lorich, Dean G.; Lane, Joseph M.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2017-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed pharmacologic treatment for osteoporosis and reduce fracture risk in postmenopausal women by up to 50%. However, in the past decade these drugs have been associated with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs), rare fractures with a transverse, brittle morphology. The unusual fracture morphology suggests that bisphosphonate treatment may impair toughening mechanisms in cortical bone. The objective of this study was to compare the compositional and mechanical properties of bone biopsies from bisphosphonate-treated patients with AFFs to those from patients with typical osteoporotic fractures with and without bisphosphonate treatment. Biopsies of proximal femoral cortical bone adjacent to the fracture site were obtained from postmenopausal women during fracture repair surgery (fracture groups, n = 33) or total hip arthroplasty (nonfracture groups, n = 17). Patients were allocated to five groups based on fracture morphology and history of bisphosphonate treatment [+BIS Atypical: n = 12, BIS duration: 8.2 (3.0) y; +BIS Typical: n = 10, 7.7 (5.0) y; +BIS Nonfx: n = 5, 6.4 (3.5) y; −BIS Typical: n = 11; −BIS Nonfx: n = 12]. Vibrational spectroscopy and nanoindentation showed that tissue from bisphosphonate-treated women with atypical fractures was harder and more mineralized than that from bisphosphonate-treated women with typical osteoporotic fractures. In addition, fracture mechanics measurements showed that tissue from patients treated with bisphosphonates had deficits in fracture toughness, with lower crack-initiation toughness and less crack deflection at osteonal boundaries than that of bisphosphonate-naïve patients. Together, these results suggest a deficit in intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms, which contribute to AFFs in patients treated with long-term bisphosphonates. PMID:28760963

  14. Screening of Panamanian Plant Extracts for Pesticidal Properties and HPLC-Based Identification of Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; De Mieri, Maria; Gupta, Mahabir; Seiser, Tobias; Wiebe, Christine; Dickhaut, Joachim; Reingruber, Rüdiger; Sorgenfrei, Oliver; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A library of 600 taxonomically diverse Panamanian plant extracts was screened for fungicidal, insecticidal, and herbicidal activities. A total of 19 active extracts were submitted to HPLC-based activity profiling, and extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Miconia affinis, Myrcia splendens, Combretum aff. laxum, and Erythroxylum macrophyllum were selected for the isolation of compounds. Chelerythrine (2), macarpine (3), dihydrosanguinarine (5), and arjunolic acid (8) showed moderate-to-good fungicidal activity. Myricetin-3-O-(6’’-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside (13) showed moderate insecticidal activity, but no compound with herbicidal activity was identified. PMID:26839818

  15. Major contribution of diatom resting spores to vertical flux in the sub-polar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynearson, T. A.; Richardson, K.; Lampitt, R. S.; Sieracki, M. E.; Poulton, A. J.; Lyngsgaard, M. M.; Perry, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The mass sinking of phytoplankton cells following blooms is an important source of carbon to the ocean's interior, with some species contributing more to the flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) than others. During the 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment in the Iceland Basin, we examined plankton community composition from surface waters and from sediment traps at depths down to 750 m. Samples collected with neutrally buoyant Lagrangian sediment traps captured a major flux event. Diatoms comprised ≥99% of cell flux into the sediment traps, with vegetative cells and resting spores of the genus Chaetoceros contributing 50-95% of cell flux. Resting spores of one species, identified as Chaetoceros aff. diadema, were dominant, comprising 35-92% of cell flux. The flux of resting spores ranged from 2 to 63 mg C m-2 day-1 and was significantly correlated with POC flux (p=0.003). Over the course of 10 days, the flux of resting spores increased by 26 fold, suggesting that the cells sank en masse, possibly in aggregates. In contrast, vegetative cells of C. aff. diadema sampled from surface waters during the period preceding the flux event generally comprised <1% of the diatom community and never exceeded 5.2%. Resting spores of C. aff. diadema were rarely observed in surface waters but their concentrations increased with depth (to 200 m) below the mixed layer. This increase in resting spore abundance, coupled with increased dissolved silicic acid concentrations at depth, suggest that the morphological changes associated with spore formation may have occurred in the mesopelagic zone, while cells were sinking. The values of variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm) measured on sediment trap material dominated by resting spores were among the highest values measured in the study area at any depth. This, in combination with the rapid germination of resting spores in ship-board incubations, suggests that vegetative cells were not physiologically stressed during spore formation. The

  16. The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: biosynthesis and methods for enzyme discovery.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Kutchan, Toni M

    2016-06-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are an example of the vast diversity of secondary metabolites with great therapeutic promise. The identification of novel compounds in this group with over 300 known structures continues to be an area of active study. The recent identification of norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase (N4OMT), an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthetic enzyme, and the assembly of transcriptomes for Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus and Lycoris aurea highlight the potential for discovery of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthetic genes with new technologies. Recent technical advances of interest include those in enzymology, next generation sequencing, genetic modification, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS).

  17. Fiscal Law, Incremental Funding, and Conditional Contracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-22

    and John Cibinic, Jr. Professors of Law FOREWORD The author is an attorney serving in the United States Department of the Air Force Judge Advocate... John Reiner and Co. v. United States 169 Ct. Cl. 381 (1965). 245. 172 Ct. Cl. 60 (1965). 246. Id. at 72-73 (emphasis added). 247. 183 Ct. Cl. 694. 248...1377 (Ct. Cl. 1973), aff’q Federal Electric Corp., ASBCA 11726, 68-1 BCA 1 6834 (1968); Tennessee Soap Co., 130 Ct. Cl. 154, 158 (1954); Updike , Trustee

  18. Differential Equations, Related Problems of Pade Approximations and Computer Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    geometric sense, like the Picard-Fuchs equations satisfied by the variation of periods, possess strong arithmetic properties (global nilpotence ...result, and the (G, C)-function conditions, one needs the definition of the p-curvature. We consider a system of matrix first order linear differential...the system (1.1) in the matrix form df f /dx = Aff ; A E M (Q(x)), one can introduce the p-curvature operators Ip, associated with the system (1.1). The

  19. Year End Report: Autonomous Planetary Rover at Carnegie Mellon, 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    techniques must be considered. A singularity measure of a set of DAE’s is given by its index (or nilpotency ) and the solution difficulty increases as the...of the coefficient matrix for the non-state variables (i.e., variables not having any derivative terms). An alternate approach for where...work in (Lotstedt 84].) For a general system of DAE’s, the Jacobian matrix used in Newton’s method is original variables / state space variables aFF

  20. Man in Command Information Processing Systems--A Research Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-07-01

    7AD-AO?9172 ARM PERSONEL RESEARCH OFFICE WASHINGTON C F/6 5/2 𔄃 AMY N MAN INFMA NRCS NSYTM-REECHPORTCUI JUL. 63 5 RI OELUNCLASSIFIED APORSAC TD...34N U4’A lAff 𔃻 or C J" I IN COWt4AD 1ORMATIONjROCESSING SYS RESEAARCH -POGRAM, 16 L mour/Ringelj j Submitted by Joseph Zeidner Chief, Support Systems...Ringel, S., and Hammer, C . H. Information assimilation from alpha- numeric displays--amount and density of information (in press). Ringel, S., and Smith

  1. Severe Weather Guide - Mediterranean Ports. 30. Messina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    HAIFA, ISRAEL TANGIER, MOROCCO 16 BARCELONA, SPAIN ALGIERS, ALGERIA 17 PALMA , SPAIN TUNIS, TUNISIA 18 IBIZA, SPAIN BIZERTE, TUNISIA 19 POLLENSA BAY...a 10,902 ft (3,323 m) active volcano , lies about 38 n mi southwest of the Port. ITALY / I Vess -a 1 CATANIA 5jLF N ~AffA C.11 AN I ISEA AUGUSTA...3,323 m) active volcano , lies about 38 n mi southwest of the Port. IMESSINA ..... 7 CATANIA SICILY GULF OF I NA CA TANIA INA SEA -37-N NAUTICAL MILE

  2. Studies on 1-Trimethylsilyl-2,4,6-Triethylborazine and Related Species.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    analogous conditions. beh5 on ap proved 91-10249 f~i p :bi c c’i cs~ n d sale ; its I Ig’I~ I I~ l ~ 1~ I (X’.CtAFfAO j4LA,TF 0 JAA -,; C] n iea...Government This document has been approved for public release and sale ; its distribution is unlimited Studies on 1-Trimethylsilyl-2,4,6-triethylborazine...Floriani Department of Chemistry Institut de Chimie University of Pittsburgh Minerale et Analytique Pittsburgh, PA 15260 Universite de Lausanne Place du

  3. Transfer Learning for Adaptive Relation Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-13

    Suharto PER-SOC (Family) the Socialist People’s Party of Montenegro GPE-AFF (Based-In) arg-1 [verb] arg-2 Yemen [sent] planes to Baghdad ART (User-or...Processing, pages 724–731, 2005. [6] Xavier Carreras and Lluı́s Màrques. Introduction to the conll-2004 shared task: Semantic role labeling. In Proceedings of...Proceedings of the Human Language Technologies Conference, pages 113– 120, 2007. [18] Terry Koo, Amir Globerson, Xavier Carreras , and Michael Collins

  4. The cumulative incidence of and risk factors for latent beaking in patients with autoimmune diseases taking long-term glucocorticoids and bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Kondo, N; Wada, Y; Nakatsue, T; Iguchi, S; Fujisawa, J; Kazama, J J; Kuroda, T; Nakano, M; Endo, N; Narita, I

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of beaking, which has been reported to precede atypical femoral fracture, was high and increased over 2 years in patients with autoimmune diseases who were taking bisphosphonates and glucocorticoids. Regular femoral X-rays are strongly recommended to screen for beaking, and bisphosphonate drug holidays should be considered. Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) have been recently recognized as complications associated with bisphosphonate (BP) use. AFFs are considered to be stress fractures; localized periosteal thickening of the lateral cortex is often present at the fracture site; this thickening is termed "beaking." Beaking has been reported to precede AFF. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the incidence of latent beaking in patients with autoimmune diseases taking BPs and glucocorticoids and to identify risk factors for beaking. A total of 125 patients with autoimmune diseases who were taking BPs and glucocorticoids was included; 116 patients underwent X-rays and analysis of serum and urine bone metabolic markers annually for 2 years. Mean patient age was 54.5 years; there were 105 (90.5%) females and the mean duration of disease was 13.2 years. Focal lateral cortical thickening in femoral X-rays was defined as beaking. Beaking was detected in 15 femora of 10 patients (8.0%) at the time of recruitment. Over the 2-year observation period, the incidence of beaking increased to 21 femora of 12 patients (10.3%), and a complete AFF at the location of beaking occurred in one patient. Beaking was associated with a longer duration of BP treatment (6.1 ± 1.0 years vs. 5.0 ± 2.9 years, p = 0.01). Age 40-60 years, BP therapy ≥4 years, and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with beaking. The incidence of beaking was high, and increased over 2 years, in patients with autoimmune diseases who were taking BPs and glucocorticoids. Regular femoral X-rays are strongly recommended to screen for beaking. Long-term BP

  5. Proving Causation in Toxic Tort Claims: Will the Judiciary Bend?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    insulation workers union in the New York area were examined for pulmonary asbestosis. After 1982, 11,000 cases were pending against Johns - Manville Corporation...Flamm, J.V. Rodericks, and R.G. Tardiff (New York: Plenum Press, 1983). 25 For example Johns - Manville Corp. went through bankruptcy after the flood of...asbestos cases brought against the company. 5er In re Johns - Manville Corp., 68 Bankr. 618, 624-25, aff’d 843 F.2d 636 (2d Cir.). 26 5s& Schnare pp

  6. Factors affecting production of the group A streptococcus bacteriocin SA-FF22.

    PubMed

    Jack, R W; Tagg, J R

    1992-02-01

    Factors influencing the production of streptococcin A-FF22 (SA-FF22) in liquid media were examined. Despite good growth of the producer strain, no SA-FF22 was detected during incubation at 40 degrees C, at pH 7, in Brain Heart Infusion Broth or in Mg(2+)-supplemented media. Optimal SA-FF22 production occurred at 32 degrees C, at pH 6.7, in cultures in Tryptic Soy Broth supplemented with glucose 2.25% and yeast extract 1%. Under these conditions SA-FF22 remained cell-associated but could be extracted with acid.

  7. Some Physical Properties of Enamels Developed for Use at High Temperatures on Several Nonstrategic Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-10-01

    8217V4ADC TECHNICAL REPORT 52-25 R$p C AFF’,q1Z’D FOR PUBL IC RELEA.SE.. FOR USE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES OH SEVERAL NONSTRATEGIC STEELS R. MAYNARD KING...Available Copy &D01 I \\ 4\\Lqc -*. NOTICES When Government drawings, specifications, or other data are used for any purpose other than in connection with a...to manmfacture, use , or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto. The Information furnished herewith is made available for

  8. Post-Crazing Stress Analysis of Glass-Epoxy Laminates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    PERFORMING ORG . RyORT NUMBER TTU-ESM-79-i 7. AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(.) Dallas G. Smith and Ju-Chin Huang DAAK40-78-C-0165 9. PERFORMING...COOES / X 4JH4L~rEP x y 3 ALPHIA iArA INa .?C4C FCR4A i(//l Xp40MGENE-ArAff) 10~ COOFS L / X 40H NO 0E 39JUNDA9Y CONDITION Cl1OES I Lk~ 4)HMU;4iER X

  9. Une faune très diversifiée du Pléistocène inférieur de la Sierra de Quibas (province de Murcia, Espagne)A very diverse Lower Pleistocene faunistic assemblage from Sierra de Quibas (province of Murcia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Plinio; Alberdi, María. Teresa; Barbadillo, Luis Javier; van der Made, Jan; Morales, Jorge; Murelaga, Xabier; Peñalver, Enrique; Robles, Fernando; Ruiz Bustos, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchiz, Borja; Soria, Dolores; Szyndlar, Zbigniew

    2001-03-01

    The Quaternary karstic site of Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, province of Murcia, Spain) has provided a wide faunal list with more than 60 species. The assemblage of the taxa Arvicola deucalion, Castillomys rivas rivas, Eliomys intermedius, Equus altidens, Capra sp. aff. C. alba and cf. Praeovibos allows the correlation with other Spanish Lower Pleistocene sites in the Betic Cordillera, as Plines 1, Orce 3 and Venta Micena. Therefore Quibas can be located between 1.3 and 1.0 Ma. The palaeoenvironmental features of the area around the karstic cavity and the palaeoclimatic regime are inferred.

  10. Model of Ca(2+) Concentration Controlled by Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Skeletal Muscle, Using the State Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    SR T tubule half sarcomere CS voltage sensor on TT V-channel Ca2+ pump C-channel Ca2+ nerve impulse A B C D TC LSR Fig.2 Model...Aff = σ /τ. III. MODEL STRUCTURE Let us focus on a half sarcomere . We approximate the form as a cylinder with a height of 1.1 µm, a radius 0.5 µm and...a volume of 0.86 µm3 [5]. The half sarcomere is divided into 4 parts: CS, V-channels, C-channels and Ca2+ pumps as illustrated in Fig.2. The

  11. The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: biosynthesis and methods for enzyme discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2015-01-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are an example of the vast diversity of secondary metabolites with great therapeutic promise. The identification of novel compounds in this group with over 300 known structures continues to be an area of active study. The recent identification of norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase (N4OMT), an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthetic enzyme, and the assembly of transcriptomes for Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus and Lycoris aurea highlight the potential for discovery of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthetic genes with new technologies. Recent technical advances of interest include those in enzymology, next generation sequencing, genetic modification, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:27340382

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Fuels. Volume 2. Outdoor Chamber Data Tabulations. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    measurements of temperature, WV intensity, and (in some cases) dew point. 1 "* Initial concentrations of NO, N02 , toval hydrocarbon, and (for n- butane...RATE ID LABEL DESCRIPTION (ML/ MTN ) 1790 D-1790 DASIBI 1790 OZONE MONITOR 4600 B-NOX-1 BENDIX 8101BX NOX ANALYZER) SN300038-2 1600 BK6800-2 BECKMAN...3 1505 3245 4, 3 1515 3255 14, NO DATA WAKEN S S AFF- 55 JP-1O, DYNAMIC 1980,DEC 10-12 DAY 1 (DEC 10) 705: BAG FILLED WITH PURE AIR. 705: DEW PT

  13. New species and new records of freshwater Heterolepidoderma (Gastrotricha: Chaetonotidae) from Brazil with an identification key to the genus.

    PubMed

    Garraffoni, André R S; Melchior, Marina P

    2015-12-14

    A new species of freshwater Heterolepidoderma (Gastrotricha) was found in Brazil. Heterolepidoderma mariae sp. nov. is unique in possessing a three-lobed head, three types of dorsal keeled scales, a thin band of cilia on the head, connecting the two bands of ventral cilia, and an interciliary area with elliptical keeled scales with short spines. Heterolepidoderma famaillense Grosso & Drahg, 1991 is reported for the first time outside the type locality in Argentina, and we make some initial remarks on H. aff. majus Remane, 1927, a possible undescribed species. A dichotomous key for all freshwater species of Heterolepidoderma , with distributional data, is also provided.

  14. Evaluation of Liquid Cargo Tank Overpressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    20590vsin 12. Sponsring Agiiy N me edAdrs Deathen peoTrnpofrgotai nk ovrreinedrigt ale prai a aff et n omnngag tank oepressure deuraroingetis transfer...opratesns takca arsti tole v ntd realsq-fal matods ardeptribelow tkec.urriety most transfer operations wexceedt valu e with ank faelur expeeted.lessthan...LJO Vt a-i co ~ .x 4 CL) mo4-> cc V44 0 CD W- .0 to-, I ) t -4I -4 4 -4 𔃾DdId W 4 ) - &Ur c) ,4 C40 C: a r.-T C14 C ( n ~ 0fl 4)0 to *u 0 co 0 w u4

  15. Structured Finite Volume Modeling of U.S. Navy Aircraft Engine Test Cells. Task 1: Turboshaft Engine. Final Report Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    gas density; p - is the static pressure; Aeft - is the "effective" viscosity;’ h - is the enthalpy ; - is the diffusive energy flux; and - is the...turbulence quantities (described above); h - the static enthalpy ; 6 Cl - the mass fraction of engine gases; and C2 - the mass fraction of dynamometer gases...aff z-direction w Aeff - Oz Kinetic Energy k At Pk-Pf itt Dissipation Rate At (C1 Pk "C2 0EJ Enthalpy h + 0 a t Concentration C (9- + t) 0 CA - 0.09

  16. Search for a new bottomonium state decaying to aff/dtd">Υ(1S)π+π- in pp collisions at aff/dtd">s=8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2013-11-01

    The results of a search for the bottomonium counterpart, denoted as $X_b$, of the exotic charmonium state X(3872) is presented. The analysis is based on a sample of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.7 inverse femtobarns. The search looks for the exclusive decay channel $X_b \\to \\Upsilon(1S) \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ followed by $\\Upsilon(1S) \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$. No evidence for an $X_b$ signal is observed. Upper limits are set at the 95% confidence level on the ratio of the inclusive production cross sections times the branching fractions to $\\Upsilon(1S) \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ of the $X_b$ and the $\\Upsilon$(2S). The upper limits on the ratio are in the range 0.9-5.4% for $X_b$ masses between 10 and 11 GeV. These are the first upper limits on the production of a possible $X_b$ at a hadron collider.

  17. Measurement of the top quark mass in the aff/dtd">tt¯dilepton channel from aff/dtd">s=8 TeV ATLAS data

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gasnikova, K.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; Gentsos, C.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, G.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gravila, P. M.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grevtsov, K.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Groh, S.; Grohs, J. P.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guan, W.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Hadef, A.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanisch, S.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hartmann, N. M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hayakawa, D.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J. J.; Heinrich, L.; Heinz, C.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Henkelmann, S.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Herget, V.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooberman, B. H.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S. -C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, S.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Huo, P.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Ishijima, N.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Ito, F.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, P.; Jain, V.; Jakobi, K. B.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanneau, F.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G. -Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, H.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, S.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Juste Rozas, A.; Köhler, M. K.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kaji, T.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kaluza, A.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kanjir, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Kentaro, K.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khader, M.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. 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M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-10-01

    The top quark mass is measured in the t¯t→dileptonchannel (lepton=e, μ) using ATLAS data recorded in the year 2012 at the LHC. The data were taken at a proton–proton centre-of-mass energy of √s=8TeVand correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 20.2fb-1. Exploiting the template method, and using the distribution of invariant masses of lepton–b-jetpairs, the top quark mass is measured to be mtop=172.99 ±0.41(stat)±0.74(syst)GeV, with a total uncertainty of 0.84GeV. Finally, acombination with previous ATLAS mtopmeasurements from √s=7TeVdata in the t¯t→dileptonand t¯t→lepton+jetschannels results in mtop=172.84 ±0.34(stat)±0.61(syst)GeV, with a total uncertainty of 0.70GeV.

  18. Measurement of D*±, D± and aff/dtd">Ds± meson production cross sections in pp collisions at aff/dtd">s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. 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L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. 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F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. 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E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. 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A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. 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B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-06-01

    The production of D, D± and D $±\\atop{s}$charmed mesons has been measured with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV at the LHC, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 280 nb-1. The charmed mesons have been reconstructed in the range of transverse momentum 3.5T(D)<100 GeV and pseudorapidity |η(D)|<2.1. The differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity were measured for D and D± production. The next-to-leading-order QCD predictions are consistent with the data in the visible kinematic region within the large theoretical uncertainties. Using the visible D cross sections and an extrapolation to the full kinematic phase space, the strangeness-suppression factor in charm fragmentation, the fraction of charged non-strange D mesons produced in a vector state, and the total cross section of charm production at √s = 7 TeV were derived.

  19. [Genetic diversity of Chionomys genus (Mammalia, Arvicolinae) and comparative phylogeography of snow voles].

    PubMed

    Bannikova, A A; Sizhazheva, A M; Malikova, V G; Golenishchev, F N; Dzuev, R I

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, the genetic polymorphism of the Chionomys genus was examined based on the sequencing of the mitochondrial cytb gene and two nuclear exons, including CHR exon 10 and BRCA1 exon 11. The distinct subdivision of the genus of snow voles into five lineages, including Ch. nivalis, Ch. gud, Ch. roberti, and Ch. aff. nivalis from Turkey, as well as Ch. aff. gud from Turkey, was demonstrated. The branching order in the trees constructed based on the data for different genes was ambiguous, which was probably the consequence of recent and rapid radiation of the major lineages from a common ancestor. However, the data of the mitochondrial and nuclear gene analyses definitely indicated that the genetic and taxonomic diversity of the Chionomys genus was higher than it was expected before. The genetic divergence of some populations was so deep that they probably deserved the statuses of independent species. Despite that the range of the European snow vole Ch. nivalis is larger and more fragmented than the Gudaur vole Ch, gud, the latter species with its relatively small range, which is limited to the Caucasian and Pontic Mountains, was characterized by a similarly expressed phylogenetic structure. At the same time, Robert's vole Ch. roberti was less structured genetically than the first two species. The data obtained supported the Near Eastern, rather than the European origin of the Chionomys genus.

  20. Mandibular gland secretions of meliponine worker bees: further evidence for their role in interspecific and intraspecific defence and aggression and against their role in food source signalling.

    PubMed

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Hrncir, Michael; Mateus, Sidnei; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Schmidt, Veronika M; Barth, Friedrich G

    2009-04-01

    Like ants and termites some species of stingless bees (Meliponini), which are very important pollinators in the tropics, use pheromone trails to communicate the location of a food source. We present data on the communicative role of mandibular gland secretions of Meliponini that resolve a recent controversy about their importance in the laying of such trails. Volatile constituents of the mandibular glands have been erroneously thought both to elicit aggressive/defensive behaviour and to signal food source location. We studied Trigona spinipes and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis ('postica'), two sympatric species to which this hypothesis was applied. Using extracts of carefully dissected glands instead of crude cephalic extracts we analysed the substances contained in the mandibular glands of worker bees. Major components of the extracts were 2-heptanol (both species), nonanal (T. spinipes), benzaldehyde and 2-tridecanone (S. aff. depilis). The effect of mandibular gland extracts and of individual components thereof on the behaviour of worker bees near their nest and at highly profitable food sources was consistent. Independent of the amount of mandibular gland extract applied, the bees overwhelmingly reacted with defensive behaviour and were never attracted to feeders scented with mandibular gland extract or any of the synthetic chemicals tested. Both bee species are capable of using mandibular gland secretions for intra- and interspecific communication of defence and aggression and share 2-heptanol as a major pheromone compound. While confirming the role of the mandibular glands in nest defence, our experiments provide strong evidence against their role in food source signalling.

  1. Taxonomic and functional characterisation of fungi from the Sebacina vermifera complex from common and rare orchids in the genus Caladenia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Magali M; Cross, Rob; Cousens, Roger D; May, Tom W; McLean, Cassandra B

    2010-08-01

    The terrestrial orchid genus Caladenia contains many species which are threatened with extinction. They have highly specific associations with Sebacina vermifera and closely related fungi, and conservation of these terrestrial orchids, in part, relies on symbiotic propagation to produce plants for reintroduction and ex situ conservation collections. However, little is known of the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associating with natural populations. Here, restriction fragment polymorphism analysis, internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit sequencing and symbiotic seed germination were used to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversity of fungal isolates from single populations of six endangered Caladenia species and one common species across the same biogeographic range. Fifty-nine fungal isolates were collected for investigation including ten isolates from the six endangered species Caladenia audasii, Caladenia amoena, Caladenia sp. aff. fragrantissima (Central Victoria), Caladenia sp. aff. patersonii, Caladenia rosella and Caladenia orientalis and 49 isolates from six populations of the common species Caladenia tentaculata. While the common species associated with three distinct S. vermifera-like taxa, the six endangered species were restricted to one of these fungal taxa. No direct relationship between the taxonomic identity of the fungi and their ability to stimulate seed germination was observed; however, the majority of the fungi isolated from the Caladenia species were capable of germinating seed in vitro, indicating their mycorrhizal status and potential for symbiotic propagation in conservation programmes.

  2. Human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) connects the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) to RNA polymerase II on chromatin.

    PubMed

    He, Nanhai; Chan, Caleb K; Sobhian, Bijan; Chou, Seemay; Xue, Yuhua; Liu, Min; Alber, Tom; Benkirane, Monsef; Zhou, Qiang

    2011-09-06

    The Super Elongation Complex (SEC), containing transcription elongation activators/coactivators P-TEFb, ELL2, AFF4/1, ENL, and AF9, is recruited by HIV-1 Tat and mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins to activate the expression of HIV-1 and MLL-target genes, respectively. In the absence of Tat and MLL, however, it is unclear how SEC is targeted to RNA polymerase (Pol) II to stimulate elongation in general. Furthermore, although ENL and AF9 can bind the H3K79 methyltransferase Dot1L, it is unclear whether these bindings are required for SEC-mediated transcription. Here, we show that the homologous ENL and AF9 exist in separate SECs with similar but nonidentical functions. ENL/AF9 contacts the scaffolding protein AFF4 that uses separate domains to recruit different subunits into SEC. ENL/AF9 also exists outside SEC when bound to Dot1L, which is found to inhibit SEC function. The YEATS domain of ENL/AF9 targets SEC to Pol II on chromatin through contacting the human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) complex. This finding explains the YEATS domain's dispensability for leukemogenesis when ENL/AF9 is translocated to MLL, whose interactions with PAFc and DNA likely substitute for the PAFc/chromatin-targeting function of the YEATS domain.

  3. Revision of Hamites wernickei Wollemann, 1902 (Cephalopoda, Ancyloceratina) from the classic Lüneburg section (Upper Cretaceous, northern Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebuhr, Birgit; Jagt, John W. M.

    2016-12-01

    A re-examination of heteromorph ammonites of late Campanian age from the Zeltberg section at Lüneburg has demonstrated that the type series of Hamites wernickei in fact comprises two different species that are here assigned to the nostoceratid Nostoceras (Hyatt, 1894) and the polyptychoceratid Oxybeloceras (Hyatt, 1900)>. Nostoceras (Didymoceras) wernickei (Wollemann, 1902) comb. nov., to which three of the four specimens that were described and illustrated by Wollemann (1902) belong, has irregularities of ribbing and tuberculation and changes its direction of growth at the transition from the helicoidal whorls to the hook, which is a typical feature of members of the subfamily Nostoceratinae. Torsion of body chambers is not developed in hairpin-shaped ammonite species, which means that the species name wernickei is no longer available for such polyptychoceratine diplomoceratids. Consequently, the fourth specimen figured and assigned to Hamites wernickei by Wollemann (1902) is here transferred to Oxybeloceras and considered conspecific to material from the Hannover area (Lehrte West Syncline) as O. aff. crassum (Whitfield, 1877). In addition to the "Heteroceras-Schicht des Mucronaten-Senons" of Lüneburg (bipunctatum/roemeri Zone, upper upper Campanian), the geographic range of N. (D.) wernickei probably includes Upper Austria, Tunisia and the Donbass region, while O. aff. crassum is known from the Hannover area (northern Germany), southern France, northern Spain and Upper Austria.

  4. Iron Oxide Photoelectrode with Multidimensional Architecture for Highly Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Soo; Noh, Yoonsook; Kim, Jin; Choi, Hyelim; Jeon, Tae Hwa; Ahn, Docheon; Kim, Jae-Yup; Yu, Seung-Ho; Park, Hyeji; Yum, Jun-Ho; Choi, Wonyong; Dunand, David C; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors have shown outstanding performances in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, but limitations in light harvesting and charge collection have necessitated further advances in photoelectrode design. Herein, we propose anodized Fe foams (AFFs) with multidimensional nano/micro-architectures as a highly efficient photoelectrode for PEC water splitting. Fe foams fabricated by freeze-casting and sintering were electrochemically anodized and directly used as photoanodes. We verified the superiority of our design concept by achieving an unprecedented photocurrent density in PEC water splitting over 5 mA cm(-2) before the dark current onset, which originated from the large surface area and low electrical resistance of the AFFs. A photocurrent of over 6.8 mA cm(-2) and an accordingly high incident photon-to-current efficiency of over 50 % at 400 nm were achieved with incorporation of Co oxygen evolution catalysts. In addition, research opportunities for further advances by structual and compositional modifications are discussed, which can resolve the low fill factoring behavior and improve the overall performance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Seasonal flooding regime and ecological traits influence genetic structure of two small rodents

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Fonseca, Carlos; Justino, Juliana; Leite, Yuri Luiz Reis; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2014-01-01

    Although codistributed species are affected by the same abiotic factors, such as rivers and seasonal flooding regimes, ecological traits, such as locomotion habits and habitat preferences, may also influence differences in levels of genetic diversity and differentiation. We examined population genetic structure and diversity of Hylaeamys megacephalus and Oecomys aff. roberti, two cricetid rodent species from the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Specifically, we aim to test whether the Araguaia River acts as a barrier to the gene flow of these two species and to assess how ecological traits, such as locomotion habits and habitat preferences, may influence differences in levels of genetic diversity and differentiation. As both species occur in flooded forests, neither showed genetic differences related to river banks. Oecomys aff. roberti showed stronger population structure that appears to be associated with isolation by distance. This arboreal species maintained stable populations in the Araguaia River, while the terrestrial H. megacephalus was more affected by seasonal floods, resulting in a genetic signature of population expansion. Our initial predictions were largely supported by our results given that locomotion habits and habitat preferences of each species appears to have played a role on the genetic structure of these two sympatric rodent species. PMID:25558355

  6. Seasonal flooding regime and ecological traits influence genetic structure of two small rodents.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Fonseca, Carlos; Justino, Juliana; Leite, Yuri Luiz Reis; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2014-12-01

    Although codistributed species are affected by the same abiotic factors, such as rivers and seasonal flooding regimes, ecological traits, such as locomotion habits and habitat preferences, may also influence differences in levels of genetic diversity and differentiation. We examined population genetic structure and diversity of Hylaeamys megacephalus and Oecomys aff. roberti, two cricetid rodent species from the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Specifically, we aim to test whether the Araguaia River acts as a barrier to the gene flow of these two species and to assess how ecological traits, such as locomotion habits and habitat preferences, may influence differences in levels of genetic diversity and differentiation. As both species occur in flooded forests, neither showed genetic differences related to river banks. Oecomys aff. roberti showed stronger population structure that appears to be associated with isolation by distance. This arboreal species maintained stable populations in the Araguaia River, while the terrestrial H. megacephalus was more affected by seasonal floods, resulting in a genetic signature of population expansion. Our initial predictions were largely supported by our results given that locomotion habits and habitat preferences of each species appears to have played a role on the genetic structure of these two sympatric rodent species.

  7. Marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Gulf of México, new records and redescription of Erylus trisphaerus (de Laubenfels, 1953).

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Diana; Gómez, Patricia; Simões, Nuno

    2015-01-19

    Marine sponges usually constitute the most diverse group of the benthic community in coral reefs. Although they are reasonably well studied at the northern Gulf of Mexico (GMx), the southern GMx is poorly known and lacks records from many major reef systems that lie off the Mexican coast. The present taxonomic study is the first sponge account from Alacranes reef, the largest coral reef system in the GMx, and from the shallow reef banks of Sisal, both in the northwest Yucatan Peninsula. The 19 species herein described represent the first sponge fauna records from these reefs. Among these, seven species represent new record for GMx: Erylus formosus, Cliona flavifodina, Spirastrella aff. mollis, Strongylacidon bermuda, Topsentia bahamensis, Agelas tubulata and Chelonaplysilla aff. erecta. Twelve species are new records for the Southern GMx: Erylus trisphaerus, Cliona amplicavata, Chondrilla caribensis, Halichondria lutea, Hymeniacidon caerulea, Axinella corrugata, Dragmacidon reticulatum, Chalinula molitba, Amphimedon caribica, A. complanata, Hyatella cavernosa and Dysidea variabilis. Additionally, a redescription of Erylus trisphaerus is presented which had not been reviewed since its original description in 1953 off Western Florida, except that it was listed for north La Habana, Cuba. 

  8. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian plant extracts--Clusiaceae.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Ivana B; Paciencia, Mateus Lb; Nepomuceno, Daniela C; Younes, Riad N; Varella, Antonio D

    2006-05-01

    Twelve extracts obtained from nine plants belonging to six different genera of Clusiaceae were analyzed against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria using the microdilution broth assay. Tovomita aff. longifolia, T. brasiliensis, Clusia columnaris, Garcinia madruno, Haploclathra paniculata, and Caraipa grandifolia extracts showed significant results against the bacteria. The organic extract obtained from the leaves of T. aff. longifolia showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 70 microg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) = 90 microg/ml against E. faecalis and the organic extract made with the stem of C. columnaris showed MIC = 180 microg/ml and MBC = 270 microg/ml against P. aeruginosa. None of the antibacterial extracts showed lethal activity against brine shrimp nauplii. On the other hand, both aqueous and organic extracts obtained from the aerial organs of Vismia guianensis that were cytotoxic to brine shrimp nauplii did not show a significant antibacterial activity in the assay.

  9. The diets of ungulates from the hominid fossil-bearing site of Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stynder, Deano D.

    2009-01-01

    The dietary regimes of 15 ungulate species from the middle Pleistocene levels of the hominid-bearing locality of Elandsfontein, South Africa, are investigated using the mesowear technique. Previous studies, using taxonomic analogy, classified twelve of the studied species as grazers ( Redunca arundinum, Hippotragus gigas, Hippotragus leucophaeus, Antidorcas recki, Homoiceras antiquus, Damaliscus aff. lunatus, Connochaetes gnou laticornutus, Rabaticerus arambourgi, Damaliscus niro, Damaliscus sp. nov., an unnamed "spiral horn" antelope and Equus capensis), one as a mixed feeder ( Taurotragus oryx) and two as browsers ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros and Raphicerus melanotis). Although results from mesowear analysis sustain previous dietary classifications in the majority of cases, five species were reclassified. Three species previously classified as grazers, were reclassified as mixed feeders ( H. gigas, D. aff. lunatus and R. arambourgi), one previously classified as a grazer, was reclassified as a browser (the "spiral horn" antelope), and one previously classified as a mixed feeder, was reclassified as a browser ( T. oryx). While current results broadly support previous reconstructions of the Elandsfontein middle Pleistocene environment as one which included a substantial C 3 grassy component, the reclassifications suggest that trees, broad-leaved bush and fynbos were probably more prominent than what was previously thought.

  10. Smoke generators show the twisting paths of wingtip vortices behind two NASA Dryden F/A-18's used in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Smoke generators show the twisting paths of wingtip vortices behind two NASA Dryden F/A-18's used in the Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program during flight #743. The lead aircraft, F-18 #845 (NASA Dryden's Systems Research Aircraft), piloted by Craig Bomben, is followed closely by another F-18, #847, piloted by Dick Ewers. A vortex is a spiraling current of air emanating from aircraft wingtips as they fly. By mapping the vortex pattern and using sophisticated software to put the trailing aircraft in the optimum location, the energy of the vortex could result in fuel savings for the follower aircraft of 15 percent or more. Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) is intended to allow an aircraft to fly in close formation over long distances using advanced positioning and controls technology. It utilizes Global Positioning System satellites and inertial navigation systems to position two or more aircraft in formation, with an accuracy of a few inches. This capability is expected to yield fuel efficiency improvements.

  11. This unique view, looking directly up at two NASA Dryden F/A-18's used in the Autonomous Formation F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Smoke generators show the twisting paths of wingtip vortices behind two NASA Dryden F/A-18's used in the Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program during flight #743. The lead aircraft, F-18 #845 (NASA Dryden's Systems Research Aircraft), piloted by Craig Bomben, is followed closely by another F-18, #847, piloted by Dick Ewers. A vortex is a spiraling current of air emanating from aircraft wingtips as they fly. By mapping the vortex pattern and using sophisticated software to put the trailing aircraft in the optimum location, the energy of the vortex could result in fuel savings for the follower aircraft of 15 percent or more. Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) is intended to allow an aircraft to fly in close formation over long distances using advanced positioning and controls technology. It utilizes Global Positioning System satellites and inertial navigation systems to position two or more aircraft in formation, with an accuracy of a few inches. This capability is expected to yield fuel efficiency improvements.

  12. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into clinically amenable keratinocytes in an autogenic environment.

    PubMed

    Kidwai, Fahad K; Liu, Hua; Toh, Wei Seong; Fu, Xin; Jokhun, Doorgesh S; Movahednia, Mohammad M; Li, Mingming; Zou, Yu; Squier, Christopher A; Phan, Toan T; Cao, Tong

    2013-03-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived keratinocytes hold great clinical and research potential. However, the current techniques are hampered by the use of xenogenic components that limits their clinical application. Here we demonstrated an efficient differentiation of H9 hESCs (H9-hESCs) into keratinocytes (H9-Kert) with the minimum use of animal-derived materials. For differentiation, we established two microenvironment systems originated from H9-hESCs (autogenic microenvironment). These autogenic microenvironment systems consist of an autogenic coculture system (ACC) and an autogenic feeder-free system (AFF). In addition, we showed a stage-specific effect of Activin in promoting keratinocyte differentiation from H9-hESCs while repressing the expression of early neural markers in the ACC system. Furthermore, we also explained the effect of Activin in construction of the AFF system made up of extracellular matrix similar to basement membrane extracted from H9-hESC-derived fibroblasts. H9-Kert differentiated in both systems expressed keratinocyte markers at mRNA and protein levels. H9-Kert were also able to undergo terminal differentiation in high Ca(2+) medium. These findings support the transition toward the establishment of an animal-free microenvironment for successful differentiation of hESCs into keratinocytes for potential clinical application.

  14. Auto-fusion and the shaping of neurons and tubes.

    PubMed

    Soulavie, Fabien; Sundaram, Meera V

    2016-12-01

    Cells adopt specific shapes that are necessary for specific functions. For example, some neurons extend elaborate arborized dendrites that can contact multiple targets. Epithelial and endothelial cells can form tiny seamless unicellular tubes with an intracellular lumen. Recent advances showed that cells can auto-fuse to acquire those specific shapes. During auto-fusion, a cell merges two parts of its own plasma membrane. In contrast to cell-cell fusion or macropinocytic fission, which result in the merging or formation of two separate membrane bound compartments, auto-fusion preserves one compartment, but changes its shape. The discovery of auto-fusion in C. elegans was enabled by identification of specific protein fusogens, EFF-1 and AFF-1, that mediate cell-cell fusion. Phenotypic characterization of eff-1 and aff-1 mutants revealed that fusogen-mediated fusion of two parts of the same cell can be used to sculpt dendritic arbors, reconnect two parts of an axon after injury, or form a hollow unicellular tube. Similar auto-fusion events recently were detected in vertebrate cells, suggesting that auto-fusion could be a widely used mechanism for shaping neurons and tubes.

  15. Carbon source utilization and inhibitor tolerance of 45 oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli; Selby, Tylan; Lin, Ting; Zhu, Shirley; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

    2014-07-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to lipids using oleaginous (high lipid) yeasts requires alignment of the hydrolysate composition with the characteristics of the yeast strain, including ability to utilize certain nutrients, ability to grow independently of costly nutrients such as vitamins, and ability to tolerate inhibitors. Some combination of these characteristics may be present in wild strains. In this study, 48 oleaginous yeast strains belonging to 45 species were tested for ability to utilize carbon sources associated with lignocellulosic hydrolysates, tolerate inhibitors, and grow in medium without supplemented vitamins. Some well-studied oleaginous yeast species, as well as some that have not been frequently utilized in research or industrial production, emerged as promising candidates for industrial use due to ability to utilize many carbon sources, including Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hannaella aff. zeae, Tremella encephala, and Trichosporon coremiiforme. Other species excelled in inhibitor tolerance, including Candida aff. tropicalis, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Wickerhamomyces ciferrii. No yeast tested could utilize all carbon sources and tolerate all inhibitors tested. These results indicate that yeast strains should be selected based on characteristics compatible with the composition of the targeted hydrolysate. Other factors to consider include the production of valuable co-products such as carotenoids, availability of genetic tools, biosafety level, and flocculation of the yeast strain. The data generated in this study will aid in aligning yeasts with compatible hydrolysates for conversion of carbohydrates to lipids to be used for biofuels and other oleochemicals.

  16. Carbon source utilization and inhibitor tolerance of 45 oleaginous yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli; Selby, Tylan; Lin, Ting; Zhu, Shirley; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

    2014-01-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to lipids using oleaginous (high lipid) yeasts requires alignment of the hydrolysate composition with the characteristics of the yeast strain, including ability to utilize certain nutrients, ability to grow independently of costly nutrients such as vitamins, and ability to tolerate inhibitors. Some combination of these characteristics may be present in wild strains. In this study, 48 oleaginous yeast strains belonging to 45 species were tested for ability to utilize carbon sources associated with lignocellulosic hydrolysates, tolerate inhibitors, and grow in medium without supplemented vitamins. Some well-studied oleaginous yeast species, as well as some that have not been frequently utilized in research or industrial production, emerged as promising candidates for industrial use due to ability to utilize many carbon sources, including Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hanaella aff. zeae, Tremella encephala, and Trichosporon coremiiforme. Other species excelled in inhibitor tolerance, including Candida aff. tropicalis, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Wickerhamomyces ciferii. No yeast tested could utilize all carbon sources and tolerate all inhibitors tested. These results indicate that yeast strains should be selected based on characteristics compatible with the composition of the targeted hydrolysate. Other factors to consider include the production of valuable co-products such as carotenoids, availability of genetic tools, biosafety level, and flocculation of the yeast strain. The data generated in this study will aid in aligning yeasts with compatible hydrolysates for conversion of carbohydrates to lipids to be used for biofuels and other oleochemicals. PMID:24818698

  17. Physical Mapping of the 5S and 18S rDNA in Ten Species of Hypostomus Lacépède 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): Evolutionary Tendencies in the Genus

    PubMed Central

    César Venere, Paulo; Thums Konerat, Jocicléia; Henrique Zawadzki, Cláudio; Ricardo Vicari, Marcelo; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Hypostomus is a diverse group with unclear aspects regarding its biology, including the mechanisms that led to chromosome diversification within the group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes was performed on ten Hypostomini species. Hypostomus faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had only one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sites, while H. ancistroides, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, H. regani, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 18S rDNA sites. Regarding the 5S rDNA genes, H. ancistroides, H. regani, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had 5S rDNA sites on only one chromosome pair and H. faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 5S rDNA sites. Most species had 18S rDNA sites in the telomeric region of the chromosomes. All species but H. cochliodon had 5S rDNA in the centromeric/pericentromeric region of one metacentric pair. Obtained results are discussed based on existent phylogenies for the genus, with comments on possible dispersion mechanisms to justify the variability of the rDNA sites in Hypostomus. PMID:25405240

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline soils: Vertical distribution at different soil depth

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Alejandra; Bartoloni, Norberto; Cofré, Noelia; Soteras, Florencia; Cabello, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize land plants in every ecosystem, even extreme conditions such as saline soils. In the present work we report for the first time the mycorrhizal status and the vertical fungal distribution of AMF spores present in the rhizospheric soil samples of four species of Chenopodiaceae (Allenrolfea patagonica, Atriplex argentina, Heterostachys ritteriana and Suaeda divaricata) at five different depths in two saline of central Argentina. Roots showed medium, low or no colonization (0–50%). Nineteen morphologically distinctive AMF species were recovered. The number of AMF spores ranged between 3 and 1162 per 100 g dry soil, and AMF spore number decreased as depth increased at both sites. The highest spore number was recorded in the upper soil depth (0–10 cm) and in S. divaricata. Depending of the host plant, some AMF species sporulated mainly in the deep soil layers (Glomus magnicaule in Allenrolfea patagonica, Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Atriplex argentina), others mainly in the top layers (G. brohultti in Atriplex argentina and Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Allenrolfea patagonica). Although the low percentages of colonization or lack of it, our results show a moderate diversity of AMF associated to the species of Chenopodiaceae investigated in this study. The taxonomical diversity reveals that AMF are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from saline soils of central Argentina. PMID:25242945

  19. Miocene Oaks from Eastern Zhejiang, China and their Paleoenvironmental Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hui; Ferguson, David

    2015-04-01

    The intertrappean fluvial-lacustrine beds belonging to the Upper Miocene Shengxian Formation in eastern China contain many exquisitely preserved plant fossils, e.g., leaves, fruits and seeds as well as plentiful pollen. The Fagaceae is the dominant taxon represented by 5 genera and 15 species, four of which belong to Quercus subgenus Cyclobalanopsis. Quercus species (oaks) are highly sensitive to environmental changes. The correlation between climate and trichome base density of Quercus glauca and Quercus delavayi of subg. Cyclobalanopsis, which are the NLRs of two fossil species, Quercus paraglauca and Quercus aff. delavayi, indicates that the trichome base density of Quercus glauca is comprehensively affected by various climate factors, but most influenced by solar radiation and latitude. The trichome base parametrics of Quercus paraglauca and the comparison of epidermal cell characteristics between Quercus paraglauca and Quercus aff. delavayi and their NLR species of subg. Cyclobalanopsis, show that the climate was warmer and more humid in the late Miocene than that of today in eastern Zhejiang, China. A study of the stomatal index of Quercus glauca and Quercus delavayi, collected in different years, demonstrates that they are very sensitive to the variation of atmospheric CO2 concentration. By comparing the stomatal ratio between the two fossil species and their NLRs, the paleoatmospheric CO2 concentration in the late Miocene is reconstructed as ca. 400 ppmv, i.e. higher than the present natural CO2 concentration eliminating the industrial influence.

  20. Rapid perfusion quantification using Welch-Satterthwaite approximation and analytical spectral filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Reddy, Kasireddy V.; Ajani, Bhavya; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2017-02-01

    CT and MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) enable quantification of perfusion parameters in stroke studies. These parameters are calculated from the residual impulse response function (IRF) based on a physiological model for tissue perfusion. The standard approach for estimating the IRF is deconvolution using oscillatory-limited singular value decomposition (oSVD) or Frequency Domain Deconvolution (FDD). FDD is widely recognized as the fastest approach currently available for deconvolution of CT Perfusion/MR PWI. In this work, three faster methods are proposed. The first is a direct (model based) crude approximation to the final perfusion quantities (Blood flow, Blood volume, Mean Transit Time and Delay) using the Welch-Satterthwaite approximation for gamma fitted concentration time curves (CTC). The second method is a fast accurate deconvolution method, we call Analytical Fourier Filtering (AFF). The third is another fast accurate deconvolution technique using Showalter's method, we call Analytical Showalter's Spectral Filtering (ASSF). Through systematic evaluation on phantom and clinical data, the proposed methods are shown to be computationally more than twice as fast as FDD. The two deconvolution based methods, AFF and ASSF, are also shown to be quantitatively accurate compared to FDD and oSVD.

  1. Physical mapping of the 5S and 18S rDNA in ten species of Hypostomus Lacépède 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): evolutionary tendencies in the genus.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Vanessa; Venere, Paulo César; Thums Konerat, Jocicléia; Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Hypostomus is a diverse group with unclear aspects regarding its biology, including the mechanisms that led to chromosome diversification within the group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes was performed on ten Hypostomini species. Hypostomus faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had only one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sites, while H. ancistroides, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, H. regani, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 18S rDNA sites. Regarding the 5S rDNA genes, H. ancistroides, H. regani, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had 5S rDNA sites on only one chromosome pair and H. faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 5S rDNA sites. Most species had 18S rDNA sites in the telomeric region of the chromosomes. All species but H. cochliodon had 5S rDNA in the centromeric/pericentromeric region of one metacentric pair. Obtained results are discussed based on existent phylogenies for the genus, with comments on possible dispersion mechanisms to justify the variability of the rDNA sites in Hypostomus.

  2. [Frontal fibrosing alopecia].

    PubMed

    Jouanique, C; Reygagne, P

    2014-04-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) was first described in 1994. It is characterized by scarring alopecia in bands involving the anterior area of the scalp. Alopecia of the eyebrows is frequently associated, as are pubic, facial and body hair alopecia. The clinical and histologic features are evocative of lichen planopilaris (LPP), and AFF is in fact regarded as a special pattern of LPP. Histology reveals a lymphocytic infiltrate located around the isthmus and follicular infundibulum associated with a decrease in the number of follicles, which are supplanted by fibrous tract. AFF most commonly affects post-menopausal women, but instances have been described in men and in young women. This orphan disease has increased in recent years, with more than 37 articles dedicated to this condition since it was first described in 1994. The pathophysiology remains unknown. The condition develops slowly with spontaneous stabilization over several years but it is impossible to predict the degree of expression prior to stabilization. In this article we review the various treatments proposed, for none of which formal proof of efficacy has been provided to date.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline soils: vertical distribution at different soil depth.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Bartoloni, Norberto; Cofré, Noelia; Soteras, Florencia; Cabello, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize land plants in every ecosystem, even extreme conditions such as saline soils. In the present work we report for the first time the mycorrhizal status and the vertical fungal distribution of AMF spores present in the rhizospheric soil samples of four species of Chenopodiaceae (Allenrolfea patagonica, Atriplex argentina, Heterostachys ritteriana and Suaeda divaricata) at five different depths in two saline of central Argentina. Roots showed medium, low or no colonization (0-50%). Nineteen morphologically distinctive AMF species were recovered. The number of AMF spores ranged between 3 and 1162 per 100 g dry soil, and AMF spore number decreased as depth increased at both sites. The highest spore number was recorded in the upper soil depth (0-10 cm) and in S. divaricata. Depending of the host plant, some AMF species sporulated mainly in the deep soil layers (Glomus magnicaule in Allenrolfea patagonica, Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Atriplex argentina), others mainly in the top layers (G. brohultti in Atriplex argentina and Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Allenrolfea patagonica). Although the low percentages of colonization or lack of it, our results show a moderate diversity of AMF associated to the species of Chenopodiaceae investigated in this study. The taxonomical diversity reveals that AMF are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from saline soils of central Argentina.

  4. Cosmopolitan or Cryptic Species? A Case Study of Capitella teleta (Annelida: Capitellidae).

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Shinri; Kondoh, Tomohiko; Sato-Okoshi, Waka; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kakui, Keiichi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Capitella teleta Blake et al., 2009 is an opportunistic capitellid originally described from Massachusetts (USA), but also reported from the Mediterranean, NW Atlantic, and North Pacific, including Japan. This putatively wide distribution had not been tested with DNA sequence data; intraspecific variation in morphological characters diagnostic for the species had not been assessed with specimens from non-type localities, and the species status of the Japanese population(s) was uncertain. We examined the morphology and mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) gene sequences of Capitella specimens from two localities (Ainan and Gamo) in Japan. Specimens from Ainan and Gamo differed from C. teleta from Massachusetts in methyl-green staining pattern, shape of the genital spines, and shape of the capillary chaetae; we concluded that these characters vary intraspecifically. Species delimitation analyses of COI sequences suggested that worms from Ainan and Massachusetts represent C. teleta; these populations share a COI haplotype. The specimens from Gamo may represent a distinct species and comprise a sister group to C. teleta s. str.; we refer to the Gamo population as Capitella aff. teleta. The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance between C. teleta s. str. and C. aff. teleta was 3.7%. The COI data indicate that C. teleta actually occurs in both the NW Atlantic and NW Pacific. Given the short planktonic larval duration of C. teleta, this broad distribution may have resulted from anthropogenic dispersal.

  5. Connecting Bulk Viscosity Measurements to Kinetic Limitations on Attaining Equilibrium for a Model Aerosol Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, D. O.; Murphy, B.; Riipinen, I.; Percival, C.; Booth, A.

    2014-12-01

    The growth, composition, and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are governed by properties of individual compounds and ensemble mixtures that affect partitioning between the vapor and condensed phase. There has been considerable recent interest in the idea that SOA can form highly viscous particles where the diff usion of either water or semivolatile organics within the particle is suffi ciently hindered to aff ect evaporation and growth. Despite numerous indirect inferences of viscous behavior from SOA evaporation or " bounce" within aerosol instruments, there have been no bulk measurements of the viscosity of well-constrained model aerosol systems of atmospheric signifi cance. Here the viscous behavior of a well-defi ned model system of 9 dicarboxylic acids is investigated directly with complementary measurements and model predictions used to infer phase state. Results not only allow us to discuss the atmospheric implications for SOA formation through this representative mixture, but also the potential impact of current methodologies used for probing this aff ect in both the laboratory and from a modeling perspective. We show, quantitatively, that the physical state transformation from liquid-like to amorphous semisolid can substantially increase the importance of mass transfer limitations within particles by 7 orders of magnitude for 100 nm diameter particles. Recommendations for future research directions are given.

  6. Molecular evidence indicates that subarctic willow communities in Scotland support a diversity of host-associated Melampsora rust taxa.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jeremy M; Helfer, Stephan; Kirk, Calum; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Ennos, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    Rare and threatened subarctic willow scrub communities in the UK are the subject of ongoing conservation programmes, yet little is known about the diversity of fungal taxa that they support. Isolates of the rust genus Melampsora were sampled from 112 leaves of eight subarctic willow (Salix) taxa and their hybrids from twelve sites in the UK. In order to determine the number of Melampsora taxa present in the samples, isolates were sequenced for the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and data were subject to phylogenetic analysis. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis indicated that the isolates fell into three strongly supported host-associated clades. Clade I contained only isolates from Salix herbacea and was distinguished morphologically by dense urediniospore echinulation and thin cell walls. Clade II contained isolates from Salix arbuscula and Salix reticulata only. These could not be distinguished morphologically from isolates in Clade III which were found on Salix lapponum, Salix myrsinites, Salix myrsinifolia, Salix aurita, Salix lanata, and their hybrids. Clade II was most distinct in ITS sequence, differing by 50 bases from Clades I and III, while the latter clades differed in sequence by only 24 bases on average. Clades I and III are likely to represent the previously recognised taxa Melampsora alpina Juel 1894 and Melampsora epitea Thüm. 1879 respectively, but Clade II has not apparently been described before. Significant differences in the intensity of infection by isolates of Clade III were found among different Salix species at a single site, suggesting either differences in resistance among Salix taxa, or the presence of further cryptic taxa within Clade III. The study illustrates the power of molecular phylogenetic analysis to reveal cryptic biodiversity within Melampsora, and suggests that conserving Salix host diversity within subarctic willow communities will ensure that a diversity of associated Melampsora taxa is maintained.

  7. A radical shift in the taxonomy of Lepraria s.l.: molecular and morphological studies shed new light on the evolution of asexuality and lichen growth form diversification.

    PubMed

    Lendemer, James C; Hodkinson, Brendan P

    2013-01-01

    A combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and mtSSU sequences, morphological and chemical analyses were used to investigate the lineages nominally included in the sterile lichen genus Lepraria. A core group (Lepraria s. str.) was resolved as sister to Stereocaulon. Species producing the secondary compounds argopsin, pannarin and usnic acid were found to belong to other lineages of lichen-forming ascomycetes. Study of Leprocaulon revealed that all species, except the type, likely represent members of Lepraria s. str. that have evolved a fruticose growth form. The correct name for the type species of Leprocaulon is shown to be L. quisquiliare, not L. microscopicum, and the genus is redefined to include several species previously placed in Lepraria. Leprocaulon quisquiliare is also shown to comprise two morphologically convergent species. The name is lectotypified and epitypified on material from the type region (Germany) and its application restricted to Old World populations. New World populations of L. quisquiliare are described as L. americanum. Leprocaulon, in its revised sense, is recognized in a new family (Leprocaulaceae) and order (Leprocaulales) sister to the Caliciales and including the genus Halecania. A new genus of Pilocarpaceae, Nelsenium, is introduced to accommodate Lepraria usnica. The status of Lepraria ecorticata is discussed in the context of usnic acid-producing Lecanora species. These nomenclatural novelties are proposed: (i) transfers from Leprocaulon to Lepraria: Lepraria albicans comb. nov., L. arbuscula comb. nov., L. congestum comb. nov., L. gracilescens comb. nov., L. pseudoarbuscula comb. nov., L. subalbicans comb. nov., L. tenellum comb. nov.; (ii) transfers from Lepraria to Leprocaulon: Leprocaulon adhaerens comb. nov., L. coriense, L. santamonicae comb. nov., L. terricola comb. nov. and L. textum comb. nov.; (iii) new taxa: Leprocaulales ord. nov., Leprocaulaceae fam. nov., Nelsenium gen. nov., Leprocaulon americanum sp

  8. Frondihabitans cladoniiphilus sp. nov., an actinobacterium of the family Microbacteriaceae isolated from lichen, and emended description of the genus Frondihabitans.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain CafT13(T), was isolated from the thallus of the reindeer lichen Cladonia arbuscula sampled in the Austrian Alps (Koralpe). The organism was aerobic, with rod- to irregular-shaped cells (often forming dense clusters of cells when grown in liquid medium), Gram-stain-positive, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and non-motile. It was able to grow at 1 °C and at low to neutral pH, but not above 30 °C or at high pH. The peptidoglycan type was B2β with ornithine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-8. The polar lipid profile comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified glycolipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The predominant fatty acids were C(18:1), C(14:0) 2-OH, C(17:1)ω9c, C(16:0) and anteiso-C(15:0). The mean DNA G+C content of strain CafT13(T) was 69.0±0.17 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain CafT13(T) belongs to the family Microbacteriaceae, within the genus Frondihabitans. The mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CafT13(T) and the type strain of Frondihabitans australicus was 35.2±5.23%. The enzyme spectrum of strain CafT13(T) differentiated it from recognized species of the genus Frondihabitans. Based on molecular, chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain CafT13(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Frondihabitans, for which the name Frondihabitans cladoniiphilus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CafT13(T) (=DSM 23273(T)=LMG 25550(T)).

  9. Predicting Forage Foodscapes with Spectroscopy and UAV Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. J.; Olsoy, P.; Forbey, J.; Glenn, N. F.; Burgess, M. A.; Rachlow, J. L.; Shipley, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    A major goal in conservation biology is to predict habitat use by animals. This goal requires methods for identifying and mapping habitat quality features such as concealment, nitrogen (N) and chemical defenses across different spatial scales. Remote sensing has been used for landscape-scale analysis of habitat features to explain the spatial use and selection of habitat by large herbivores. However, studies that directly link specific parameters of habitat quality to selection by wildlife are needed at the microsite-scale before landscape-scale mapping can be validated. Herbivores appear to make foraging decisions based on the nutritional quality of plants. For example, previous research has shown that sagebrush preferentially browsed by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), a sagebrush specialist mammal, contain relatively higher amounts of crude protein and lower amounts of monoterpenes. Other research has shown that sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) select dwarf sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula and A. nova) over big sagebrush (A. tridentata subsp wyomingensis) for forage. In this study we examine the use of spectroscopy from the visible to shortwave infrared for predicting sagebrush nutritional quality, as measured by N (crude protein). Predictions are compared across instruments (FOSS NIRSystem 5000 and ASD FieldSpec Pro), sampling methods (i.e., dried ground leaves and fresh whole leaves), and species (dwarf and big sagebrush). We also build a foundation for spatial upscaling from whole leaf and individual shrubs to collective patches in a landscape by acquiring and classifying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery in terms of sagebrush food types. The resultant 'foodscape' map concept will ultimately provide a tool for rapid assessment of the dietary quality of sagebrush and facilitate more effective conservation of herbivores that rely on sagebrush for food.

  10. Reconstructing the Evolution of Brachypodium Genomes Using Comparative Chromosome Painting

    PubMed Central

    Betekhtin, Alexander; Jenkins, Glyn; Hasterok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a model for the temperate cereals and grasses and has a biology, genomics infrastructure and cytogenetic platform fit for purpose. It is a member of a genus with fewer than 20 species, which have different genome sizes, basic chromosome numbers and ploidy levels. The phylogeny and interspecific relationships of this group have not to date been resolved by sequence comparisons and karyotypical studies. The aims of this study are not only to reconstruct the evolution of Brachypodium karyotypes to resolve the phylogeny, but also to highlight the mechanisms that shape the evolution of grass genomes. This was achieved through the use of comparative chromosome painting (CCP) which hybridises fluorescent, chromosome-specific probes derived from B. distachyon to homoeologous meiotic chromosomes of its close relatives. The study included five diploids (B. distachyon 2n = 10, B. sylvaticum 2n = 18, B. pinnatum 2n = 16; 2n = 18, B. arbuscula 2n = 18 and B. stacei 2n = 20) three allotetraploids (B. pinnatum 2n = 28, B. phoenicoides 2n = 28 and B. hybridum 2n = 30), and two species of unknown ploidy (B. retusum 2n = 38 and B. mexicanum 2n = 40). On the basis of the patterns of hybridisation and incorporating published data, we propose two alternative, but similar, models of karyotype evolution in the genus Brachypodium. According to the first model, the extant genome of B. distachyon derives from B. mexicanum or B. stacei by several rounds of descending dysploidy, and the other diploids evolve from B. distachyon via ascending dysploidy. The allotetraploids arise by interspecific hybridisation and chromosome doubling between B. distachyon and other diploids. The second model differs from the first insofar as it incorporates an intermediate 2n = 18 species between the B. mexicanum or B. stacei progenitors and the dysploidic B. distachyon. PMID:25493646

  11. Roles of spatially varying vegetation on surface fluxes within a small mountainous catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flerchinger, G. N.; Marks, D.; Reba, M. L.; Yu, Q.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of ecosystems in modulating energy, water and carbon fluxes is critical to quantifying the variability in energy, carbon, and water balances across landscapes. This study compares and contrasts the seasonal surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat and carbon fluxes measured over different vegetation in a rangeland mountainous environment within the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed. Eddy covariance systems were used to measure surface fluxes over low sagebrush (Artemesia arbuscula), aspen (Populus tremuloides) and the understory of grasses and forbs beneath the aspen canopy. Peak leaf area index of the sagebrush, aspen, and aspen understory was 0.77, 1.35, and 1.20, respectively. The sagebrush and aspen canopies were subject to similar meteorological forces, while the understory of the aspen was sheltered from the wind. Estimated cumulative evapotranspiratation from the sagebrush, aspen understory, and aspen trees were 399 mm, 205 mm and 318 mm. A simple water balance of the catchment indicated that of the 700 mm of areal average precipitation, 442 mm was lost to evapotranspiration, and 254 mm of streamflow was measured from the catchment; water balance closure for the catchment was within 7 mm. Fluxes of latent heat and carbon for all sites were minimal through the winter. Growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon were consistently higher above the aspen canopy than from the other sites. While growing season carbon fluxes were very similar for the sagebrush and aspen understory, latent heat fluxes for the sagebrush were consistently higher. Higher evapotranspiration from the sagebrush was likely because it is more exposed to the wind. Sensible heat flux from the aspen tended to be slightly less than the sagebrush site during the growing season when the leaves were actively transpiring, but exceeded that from the sagebrush in May, September and October when the net radiation was offset by evaporative cooling. Results from this

  12. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable fungi from fishscale bamboo (Phyllostachys heteroclada) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying-Ke; Shen, Xiao-Ye; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2017-06-01

    An important and useful bamboo species, fishscale bamboo (Phyllostachys heteroclada Oliver), is broadly distributed in Southeast China and has multiple purposes, including uses in cuisine, weaving, Chinese medicine and ecological protection. However, no previous studies have focused on the endophytes of this plant. In our article, a total of 127 fungal strains were first isolated from the healthy branches and leaves of common P. heteroclada. These endophytic fungi could be directly categorized into 50 morphotypes according to their culture characteristics, and their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed for molecular identification. Using the BLAST search tool of the NCBI database and phylogenetic tree analysis, these isolates were divided into two phyla, Ascomycota (95.28%) and Basidiomycota (4.72%), including at least six orders (Xylariales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Chaetothyriales and Polyporales) and fourteen genera (Arthrinium, Pestalotiopsis, Epicoccum, Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Setophoma, Didymella, Calcarisporium, Preussia, Nemania, Creosphaeria, Ophiobolus, Phialophora and Perenniporia). It is fascinating that four genera, Calcarisporium, Preussia, Creosphaeria and Phialophora were isolated from bamboos for the first time. The inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens were also preliminarily screened, and four isolates FB43 (Calcarisporium arbuscula), FB06 (Preussia minima), FB16 (Setophoma sp.) and FB21 (Perenniporia medulla-pains) among the candidate strains displayed broad-spectrum activities according to the agar diffusion method and the disk diffusion assay. Strain FB16 (Setophoma sp.) especially indicated high bioactivity against both clinical bacteria and yeast. This study is the first report on the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi associated with P. heteroclada, which could be regarded as a potential source of drug precursors and could be used in biocontrol development.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Atlantic representatives of the invasive Pacific coral species Tubastraea coccinea and T. tagusensis (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae): Implications for species identification.

    PubMed

    Capel, K C C; Migotto, A E; Zilberberg, C; Lin, M F; Forsman, Z; Miller, D J; Kitahara, M V

    2016-09-30

    Members of the azooxanthellate coral genus Tubastraea are invasive species with particular concern because they have become established and are fierce competitors in the invaded areas in many parts of the world. Pacific Tubastraea species are spreading fast throughout the Atlantic Ocean, occupying over 95% of the available substrate in some areas and out-competing native endemic species. Approximately half of all known coral species are azooxanthellate but these are seriously under-represented compared to zooxanthellate corals in terms of the availability of mitochondrial (mt) genome data. In the present study, the complete mt DNA sequences of Atlantic individuals of the invasive scleractinian species Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis were determined and compared to the GenBank reference sequence available for a Pacific "T. coccinea" individual. At 19,094bp (compared to 19,070bp for the GenBank specimen), the mt genomes assembled for the Atlantic T. coccinea and T. tagusensis were among the longest sequence determined to date for "Complex" scleractinians. Comparisons of genomes data showed that the "T. coccinea" sequence deposited on GenBank was more closely related to that from Dendrophyllia arbuscula than to the Atlantic Tubastraea spp., in terms of genome length and base pair similarities. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that the former was misidentified and might actually be a member from the genus Dendrophyllia. In addition, although in general the COX1 locus has a slow evolutionary rate in Scleractinia, it was the most variable region of the Tubastraea mt genome and can be used as markers for genus or species identification. Given the limited data available for azooxanthellate corals, the results presented here represent an important contribution to our understanding of phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the Scleractinia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation of flow and nonflow correlations by two- and four-particle cumulant measurements of azimuthal harmonics in aff/dtd">sNN=200 GeV Au+Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelwahab, N. M.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-05-01

    A data-driven method was applied to Au+Au collisions at root S-NN = 200 GeV made with the STAR detector at RHIC to isolate pseudorapidity distance Delta eta-dependent and Delta eta-independent correlations by using two- and four-particle azimuthal cumulant measurements. We identified a Delta eta-independent component of the correlation, which is dominated by anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations. It was also found to be independent of. within the measured range of pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1. In 20-30% central Au+Au collisions, the relative flow fluctuation was found to be 34% +/- 2%(stat.) +/- 3%(sys.) for particles with transverse momentum p(T) less than 2 GeV/c. The Delta eta-dependent part, attributed to nonflow correlations, is found to be 5% +/- 2%(sys.) relative to the flow of the measured second harmonic cumulant at vertical bar Delta eta vertical bar > 0.7. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Efficient solution of the simplified aff/dtd">PN equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Steven P.; Evans, Thomas M.

    2014-12-23

    We show new solver strategies for the multigroup SPN equations for nuclear reactor analysis. By forming the complete matrix over space, moments, and energy a robust set of solution strategies may be applied. Moreover, power iteration, shifted power iteration, Rayleigh quotient iteration, Arnoldi's method, and a generalized Davidson method, each using algebraic and physics-based multigrid preconditioners, have been compared on C5G7 MOX test problem as well as an operational PWR model. These results show that the most ecient approach is the generalized Davidson method, that is 30-40 times faster than traditional power iteration and 6-10 times faster than Arnoldi's method.

  16. Thermophysical properties of aff/dtd">U3Si2 to 1773K

    SciTech Connect

    White, Joshua Taylor; Nelson, Andrew Thomas; Dunwoody, John Tyler; Byler, David Darrin; Safarik, Douglas Joseph; McClellan, Kenneth James

    2015-05-08

    Use of U3Si2 in nuclear reactors requires accurate thermophysical property data to capture heat transfer within the core. Compilation of the limited previous research efforts focused on the most critical property, thermal conductivity, reveals extensive disagreement. Assessment of this data is challenged by the fact that the critical structural and chemical details of the material used to provide historic data is either absent or confirms the presence of significant impurity phases. This study was initiated to fabricate high purity U3Si2 to quantify the coefficient of thermal expansion, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity from room temperature to 1773 K. Here, the datasets provided in this manuscript will facilitate more detailed fuel performance modeling to assess both current and proposed reactor designs that incorporate U3Si2.

  17. Implementation of the direct aff/dtd">S(α,β) method in the KENO Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Shane W. D.; Maldonado, G. Ivan

    2016-11-25

    The Monte Carlo code KENO contains thermal scattering data for a wide variety of thermal moderators. These data are processed from Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) by AMPX and stored as double differential probability distribution functions. The method examined in this study uses S(α,β) probability distribution functions derived from the ENDF data files directly instead of being converted to double differential cross sections. This allows the size of the cross section data on the disk to be reduced substantially amount. KENO has also been updated to allow interpolation in temperature on these data so that problems can be run at any temperature. Results are shown for several simplified problems for a variety of moderators. In addition, benchmark models based on the KRITZ reactor in Sweden were run, and the results are compared with the previous versions of KENO without the direct S(α,β) method. Results from the direct S(α,β) method compare favorably with the original results obtained using the double differential cross sections. Finally, sampling the data increases the run-time of the Monte Carlo calculation, but memory usage is decreased substantially.

  18. Simultaneous aff/dtd">π/2 rotation of two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Ping -Han; Peng, Jen -Chieh

    2015-06-05

    Here, we examine the characteristics of the π/2 pulse for simultaneously rotating two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios with the same sign. For a π/2 pulse using a rotating magnetic field, we derive an equation relating the frequency and strength of the pulse to the gyromagnetic ratios of the two particles and the strength of the constant holding field. For a π/2 pulse using a linear oscillatory magnetic field, we obtain the solutions numerically, and compare them with the solutions for the rotating π/2 pulse. Application of this analysis to the specific case of rotating neutrons and 3He atoms simultaneously with a π/2 pulse, proposed for a neutron electric dipole moment experiment, is also presented.

  19. Search for lepton flavour violating decays of the Higgs boson to eτ and eμ in proton–proton collisions at aff/dtd">s=8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-10-06

    A direct search for lepton flavour violating decays of the Higgs boson (H) in the H→eτ and H→eμ channels is described. The data sample used in the search was collected in proton–proton collisions at $\\sqrt s=$ 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb₋1 . No evidence is found for lepton flavour violating decays in either final state. Upper limits on the branching fractions, B(H→eτ)<0.69% and B(H→eμ)<0.035%, are set at the 95% confidence level. The constraint set on B(H→eτ) is an order of magnitude more stringent than the existing indirect limits. Finally, the limits are used to constrain the corresponding flavour violating Yukawa couplings, absent in the standard model.

  20. Search for high-mass new phenomena in the dilepton final state using proton–proton collisions at aff/dtd">s=13TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, G.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gravila, P. M.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grevtsov, K.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Groh, S.; Grohs, J. P.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guan, W.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Hadef, A.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanisch, S.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hartmann, N. M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J. J.; Heinrich, L.; Heinz, C.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Henkelmann, S.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herr, H.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. 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N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. 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S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-10-01

    A search is conducted for both resonant and non-resonant high-mass new phenomena in dielectron and dimuon final states. The search uses 3.2 fb-1of proton–proton collision data, collected at √s = 13 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015. The dilepton invariant mass is used as the discriminating variable. No significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction is observed; therefore limits are set on the signal model parameters of interest at 95% credibility level. Upper limits are set on the cross-section times branching ratio for resonances decaying to dileptons, and the limits are converted into lower limits on the resonance mass, ranging between 2.74 TeV and 3.36 TeV, depending on the model. Lower limits on the ℓℓqq contact interaction scale are set between 16.7 TeV and 25.2 TeV, also depending on the model.

  1. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in pp collisions at aff/dtd">s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. 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J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. 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A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-10-01

    A measurement of the total ppcross section at the LHC at √s=8TeV is presented. An integrated luminosity of 500 μb-1 was accumulated in a special run with high-β beam optics to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t. The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the -t range from 0.014GeV2 to 0.1GeV2 to extrapolate t→0, the total cross section, σtot(pp →X), is measured via the optical theorem to be σtot(pp→ X) = 96.07±0.18 (stat.)±0.85 (exp.)± 0.31 (extr.) mb, where the first error is statistical, the second accounts for all experimental systematic uncertainties and the last is related to uncertainties in the extrapolation t→0. In addition, the slope of the exponential function describing the elastic cross section at small t is determined to be B =19.74 ±0.05 (stat.) ±0.23 (syst.) GeV-2.

  2. Single-neutron orbits near 78Ni: Spectroscopy of the aff/dtd">N=49 isotope 79Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Orlandi, R.; Mücher, D.; Raabe, R.; Jungclaus, A.; Pain, S. D.; Bildstein, V.; Chapman, R.; de Angelis, G.; Johansen, J. G.; Van Duppen, P.; Andreyev, A. N.; Bottoni, S.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Elseviers, J.; Flavigny, F.; Gaffney, L. P.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gottardo, A.; Huyse, M.; Illana, A.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Lane, J. F. W.; Liberati, V.; Marsh, B.; Nowak, K.; Nowacki, F.; Pakarinen, J.; Rapisarda, E.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Roger, T.; Sahin, E.; Seidlitz, M.; Sieja, K.; Smith, J. F.; Valiente Dobón, J. J.; von Schmid, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F. K.; Wimmer, K.

    2014-12-09

    Single-neutron states in the Z=30, N=49 isotope 79Zn have been populated using the 78Zn(d, p)79Zn transfer reaction at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental setup allowed the combined detection of protons ejected in the reaction, and of γ rays emitted by 79Zn. The analysis reveals that the lowest excited states populated in the reaction lie at approximately 1 MeV of excitation, and involve neutron orbits above the N=50 shell gap. From the analysis of γ -ray data and of proton angular distributions, characteristic of the amount of angular momentum transferred, a 5/2+ configuration was assigned to a state at 983 keV. Comparison with large-scale-shell-model calculations supports a robust neutron N=50 shell-closure for 78Ni. Finally, these data constitute an important step towards the understanding of the magicity of 78Ni and of the structure of nuclei in the region.

  3. Spectral Quadrature method for accurate aff/dtd">O(N) electronic structure calculations of metals and insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapa, Phanisri P.; Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E.

    2015-12-02

    We present the Clenshaw–Curtis Spectral Quadrature (SQ) method for real-space O(N) Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In this approach, all quantities of interest are expressed as bilinear forms or sums over bilinear forms, which are then approximated by spatially localized Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature rules. This technique is identically applicable to both insulating and metallic systems, and in conjunction with local reformulation of the electrostatics, enables the O(N) evaluation of the electronic density, energy, and atomic forces. The SQ approach also permits infinite-cell calculations without recourse to Brillouin zone integration or large supercells. We employ a finite difference representation in order to exploit the locality of electronic interactions in real space, enable systematic convergence, and facilitate large-scale parallel implementation. In particular, we derive expressions for the electronic density, total energy, and atomic forces that can be evaluated in O(N) operations. We demonstrate the systematic convergence of energies and forces with respect to quadrature order as well as truncation radius to the exact diagonalization result. In addition, we show convergence with respect to mesh size to established O(N3) planewave results. In conclusion, we establish the efficiency of the proposed approach for high temperature calculations and discuss its particular suitability for large-scale parallel computation.

  4. An energy-dependent numerical model for the condensation probability, aff/dtd">γj

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2016-12-09

    The “condensation” probability, γj, is an important variable in the preequilibrium stage of nuclear spallation reactions. It represents the probability that pj excited nucleons (excitons) will “condense” to form complex particle type j in the excited residual nucleus. In addition, it has a significant impact on the emission width, or probability of emitting fragment type j from the residual nucleus. Previous formulations for γj were energy-independent and valid for fragments up to 4He only. This paper explores the formulation of a new model for γj, one which is energy-dependent and valid for up to 28Mg, and which provides improved fits compared to experimental fragment spectra.

  5. Search for supersymmetry in events with a photon, a lepton, and missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at aff/dtd">s=8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dobur, D.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Aly, R.; El-khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Lotfy, A.; Mohamed, A.; Radi, A.; Salama, E.; Sayed, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sudhakar, K.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. 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T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Dattola, D.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. 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P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y. -J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. -J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Demortier, L.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Christian, A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-03-19

    The results of a search for new physics in final states with photons and missing transverse energy are reported. The study is based on a sample of proton-proton collisions collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the CMS detector in 2015, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3 inverse femtobarns. Final states with two photons and significant missing transverse energy are used to search for supersymmetric particles in models of supersymmetry (SUSY) with general gauge-mediated (GGM) supersymmetry breaking. No excess is observed with respect to the standard model expectation, and the results are used to set limits on gluino pair production and squark pair production in the GGM SUSY framework. Gluino masses below 1.65 TeV and squark masses below 1.37 TeV are excluded at a 95% confidence level.

  6. Direct photon production in Pb–Pb collisions at aff/dtd">sNN=2.76 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. 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J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasar, C.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-01-19

    We studied the direct photon production at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV in the transverse momentum range 0.9 < pT < 14 GeV/c. Photons were detected with the highly segmented electromagnetic calorimeter PHOS and via conversions in the ALICE detector material with the e+e- pair reconstructed in the central tracking system. Our results of the two methods were combined and direct photon spectra were measured for the 0-20%, 20-40%, and 40-80% centrality classes. For all three classes, agreement was found with perturbative QCD calculations for pT greater than or similar to 5 GeV/c. Direct photon spectra down to pT approximate to 1 GeV/c could be extracted for the 20-40% and 0-20% centrality classes. Furthermore, the significance of the direct photon signal for 0.9 < pT < 2.1 GeV/c is 2.6 sigma for the 0-20% class. The spectrum in this pT range and centrality class can be described by an exponential with an inverse slope parameter of (297 ± 12stat ± 41syst) MeV. State-of-the-art models for photon production in heavy-ion collisions agree with the data within uncertainties.

  7. 6-bromohypaphorine from marine nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an agonist of human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kasheverov, Igor E; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Guzii, Alla G; Stonik, Valentin A; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2015-03-12

    6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP) has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains) or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM), but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM). To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes.

  8. Discovery and characterization of Isofistularin-3, a marine brominated alkaloid, as a new DNA demethylating agent inducing cell cycle arrest and sensitization to TRAIL in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Florean, Cristina; Schnekenburger, Michael; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Kyung Rok; Mazumder, Aloran; Song, Sungmi; Kim, Jae-Myun; Grandjenette, Cindy; Kim, Jeoung-Gyun; Yoon, Ah-Young; Dicato, Mario; Kim, Kyu-Won; Christov, Christo; Han, Byung-Woo; Proksch, Peter; Diederich, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We characterized the brominated alkaloid Isofistularin-3 (Iso-3), from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba, as a new DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 inhibitor. Docking analysis confirmed our in vitro DNMT inhibition data and revealed binding of Iso-3 within the DNA binding site of DNMT1. Subsequent increased expression of tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) could be correlated to decreased methylation of CpG sites within the essential Sp1 regulatory region of its promoter. Iso-3 induced growth arrest of cancer cells in G0/G1 concomitant with increased p21 and p27 expression and reduced cyclin E1, PCNA and c-myc levels. Reduced proliferation was accompanied by morphological changes typical of autophagy revealed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy and validated by LC3I-II conversion. Furthermore, Iso-3 strongly synergized with tumor-necrosis-factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) in RAJI [combination index (CI) = 0.22] and U-937 cells (CI = 0.21) and increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis via a mechanism involving reduction of survivin expression but not of Bcl-2 family proteins nor X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Iso-3 treatment decreased FLIPL expression and triggered activation of endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress with increased GRP78 expression, eventually inducing TRAIL receptor death receptor (DR)5 surface expression. Importantly, as a potential candidate for further anticancer drug development, Iso-3 reduced the viability, colony and in vivo tumor forming potential without affecting the viability of PBMCs from healthy donors or zebrafish development. PMID:27006469

  9. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity of Planctomycetes from Anaerobic, Sulfide- and Sulfur-Rich Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma▿

    PubMed Central

    Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Youssef, Noha H.; Luo, Qingwei; Najar, Fares Z.; Roe, Bruce A.; Sisk, Tracy M.; Bühring, Solveig I.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic capabilities of members of the phylum Planctomycetes in the anaerobic, sulfide-saturated sediments of a mesophilic spring (Zodletone Spring) in southwestern Oklahoma. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences generated using Planctomycetes-biased primer pairs suggested that an extremely diverse community of Planctomycetes is present at the spring. Although sequences that are phylogenetically affiliated with cultured heterotrophic Planctomycetes were identified, the majority of the sequences belonged to several globally distributed, as-yet-uncultured Planctomycetes lineages. Using complex organic media (aqueous extracts of the spring sediments and rumen fluid), we isolated two novel strains that belonged to the Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade within the Planctomycetes. The two strains had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, and their closest relatives were isolates from Kiel Fjord (Germany), Keauhou Beach (HI), a marine aquarium, and tissues of marine organisms (Aplysina sp. sponges and postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon). The closest recognized cultured relative of strain Zi62 was Blastopirellula marina (93.9% sequence similarity). Detailed characterization of strain Zi62 revealed its ability to reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide under anaerobic conditions, as well as its ability to produce acids from sugars; both characteristics may potentially allow strain Zi62 to survive and grow in the anaerobic, sulfide- and sulfur-rich environment at the spring source. Overall, this work indicates that anaerobic metabolic abilities are widely distributed among all major Planctomycetes lineages and suggests carbohydrate fermentation and sulfur reduction as possible mechanisms employed by heterotrophic Planctomycetes for growth and survival under anaerobic conditions. PMID:17545322

  10. Discovery and characterization of Isofistularin-3, a marine brominated alkaloid, as a new DNA demethylating agent inducing cell cycle arrest and sensitization to TRAIL in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Florean, Cristina; Schnekenburger, Michael; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Kyung Rok; Mazumder, Aloran; Song, Sungmi; Kim, Jae-Myun; Grandjenette, Cindy; Kim, Jeoung-Gyun; Yoon, Ah-Young; Dicato, Mario; Kim, Kyu-Won; Christov, Christo; Han, Byung-Woo; Proksch, Peter; Diederich, Marc

    2016-04-26

    We characterized the brominated alkaloid Isofistularin-3 (Iso-3), from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba, as a new DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 inhibitor. Docking analysis confirmed our in vitro DNMT inhibition data and revealed binding of Iso-3 within the DNA binding site of DNMT1. Subsequent increased expression of tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) could be correlated to decreased methylation of CpG sites within the essential Sp1 regulatory region of its promoter. Iso-3 induced growth arrest of cancer cells in G0/G1 concomitant with increased p21 and p27 expression and reduced cyclin E1, PCNA and c-myc levels. Reduced proliferation was accompanied by morphological changes typical of autophagy revealed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy and validated by LC3I-II conversion. Furthermore, Iso-3 strongly synergized with tumor-necrosis-factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) in RAJI [combination index (CI) = 0.22] and U-937 cells (CI = 0.21) and increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis via a mechanism involving reduction of survivin expression but not of Bcl-2 family proteins nor X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Iso-3 treatment decreased FLIPL expression and triggered activation of endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress with increased GRP78 expression, eventually inducing TRAIL receptor death receptor (DR)5 surface expression. Importantly, as a potential candidate for further anticancer drug development, Iso-3 reduced the viability, colony and in vivo tumor forming potential without affecting the viability of PBMCs from healthy donors or zebrafish development.

  11. Single-cell genomics reveals the lifestyle of Poribacteria, a candidate phylum symbiotically associated with marine sponges

    PubMed Central

    Siegl, Alexander; Kamke, Janine; Hochmuth, Thomas; Piel, Jörn; Richter, Michael; Liang, Chunguang; Dandekar, Thomas; Hentschel, Ute

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a single-cell genomics approach for the functional characterization of the candidate phylum Poribacteria, members of which are nearly exclusively found in marine sponges. The microbial consortia of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba were singularized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and individual microbial cells were subjected to phi29 polymerase-mediated ‘whole-genome amplification'. Pyrosequencing of a single amplified genome (SAG) derived from a member of the Poribacteria resulted in nearly 1.6 Mb of genomic information distributed among 554 contigs analyzed in this study. Approximately two-third of the poribacterial genome was sequenced. Our findings shed light on the functional properties and lifestyle of a possibly ancient bacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The Poribacteria are mixotrophic bacteria with autotrophic CO2-fixation capacities through the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway. The cell wall is of Gram-negative origin. The Poribacteria produce at least two polyketide synthases (PKSs), one of which is the sponge-specific Sup-type PKS. Several putative symbiosis factors such as adhesins (bacterial Ig-like domains, lamininin G domain proteins), adhesin-related proteins (ankyrin, fibronectin type III) and tetratrico peptide repeat domain-encoding proteins were identified, which might be involved in mediating sponge–microbe interactions. The discovery of genes coding for 24-isopropyl steroids implies that certain fossil biomarkers used to date the origins of metazoan life on earth may possibly be of poribacterial origin. Single-cell genomic approaches, such as those shown herein, contribute to a better understanding of beneficial microbial consortia, of which most members are, because of the lack of cultivation, inaccessible by conventional techniques. PMID:20613790

  12. 6-Bromohypaphorine from Marine Nudibranch Mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an Agonist of Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kasheverov, Igor E.; Shelukhina, Irina V.; Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Spirova, Ekaterina N.; Guzii, Alla G.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2015-01-01

    6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP) has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains) or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM), but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM). To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes. PMID:25775422

  13. The gsdf gene locus harbors evolutionary conserved and clustered genes preferentially expressed in fish previtellogenic oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Aude; Le Gac, Florence; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques

    2011-02-01

    The gonadal soma-derived factor (GSDF) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is conserved in teleostean fish species. Gsdf is specifically expressed in the gonads, and gene expression is restricted to the granulosa and Sertoli cells in trout and medaka. The gsdf gene expression is correlated to early testis differentiation in medaka and was shown to stimulate primordial germ cell and spermatogonia proliferation in trout. In the present study, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment conserved among vertebrates although no gsdf-related gene is detected on the corresponding genomic region in tetrapods. We demonstrate using quantitative RT-PCR that most of the genes localized in the synteny are specifically expressed in medaka gonads. Gsdf is the only gene of the synteny with a much higher expression in the testis compared to the ovary. In contrast, gene expression pattern analysis of the gsdf surrounding genes (nup54, aff1, klhl8, sdad1, and ptpn13) indicates that these genes are preferentially expressed in the female gonads. The tissue distribution of these genes is highly similar in medaka and zebrafish, two teleostean species that have diverged more than 110 million years ago. The cellular localization of these genes was determined in medaka gonads using the whole-mount in situ hybridization technique. We confirm that gsdf gene expression is restricted to Sertoli and granulosa cells in contact with the premeiotic and meiotic cells. The nup54 gene is expressed in spermatocytes and previtellogenic oocytes. Transcripts corresponding to the ovary-specific genes (aff1, klhl8, and sdad1) are detected only in previtellogenic oocytes. No expression was detected in the gonocytes in 10 dpf embryos. In conclusion, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment harboring evolutionary conserved genes in vertebrates. These genes are preferentially expressed in previtelloogenic oocytes, and thus, they

  14. There Are Sex Differences in the Demographics and Risk Profiles of Emergency Department (ED) Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter, but no Apparent Differences in ED Management or Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scheuermeyer, Frank Xavier; Mackay, Martha; Christenson, Jim; Grafstein, Eric; Pourvali, Reza; Heslop, Claire; MacPhee, Jan; Ward, John; Heilbron, Brett; McGrath, Lorraine; Humphries, Karin

    2015-09-01

    In non-emergency department (ED) settings, women with atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) have different presentations, treatments, and outcomes than men: they are older, less likely to be treated with rhythm control strategies or appropriate anticoagulation, and more likely to have strokes. This has not been investigated in ED patients. Records from consecutive ED patients from January 1 to December 31, 2009, with electrocardiogram-proven AFF at two urban hospitals were collected. Review of administrative and clinical data identified patient demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and ED treatments. The regional ED database was queried to determine 30-day and 1-year follow-up visits, and the provincial vital statistics database was referenced to obtain 30-day and 1-year mortality; all outcomes were stratified by sex. The primary outcome, which reflected overall appropriateness of ED care, was the proportion of patients who were discharged home at their index ED visits, who then had unscheduled 30-day ED revisits. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of eligible patients who underwent acute rhythm control strategies and the proportion of high-risk patients who had previously inadequately anticoagulation strategies corrected by the emergency physician. Additional outcomes included the ED length of stay (LOS) and 30-day and 1-year rates of stroke and death. A total of 1,112 records were reviewed: 470 women (42.3%) and 642 men. Women were a median 8 years (interquartile range = 3 to 13 years) older than men, had higher rates of cardiovascular comorbidities, and were more likely to present with atypical symptoms such as weakness or dyspnea. On their index ED visits, 50.2% of women and 41.3% of men were admitted. At 30 days, 39 of 234 (16.7%) women and 55 of 377 (14.6%) men who were discharged at their index ED visits had made revisits, for a risk difference of 2.1% (95% confidence interval = -3.9% to 8.5%). There were no apparent sex differences

  15. The inhibition of calcium carbonate crystal growth by the cysteine-rich Mdm2 peptide.

    PubMed

    Dalas, E; Chalias, A; Gatos, D; Barlos, K

    2006-08-15

    The crystal growth of calcite, the most stable calcium carbonate polymorph, in the presence of the cysteine-rich Mdm2 peptide (containing 48 amino acids in the ring finger configuration), has been investigated by the constant composition technique. Crystallization took place exclusively on well-characterized calcite crystals in solutions supersaturated only with respect to this calcium carbonate salt. The kinetic results indicated a surface diffusion spiral growth mechanism. The presence of the Mdm2 peptide inhibited the crystal growth of calcite by 22-58% in the concentration range tested, through adsorption onto the active growth sites of the calcite crystal surface. The kinetic results favored a Langmuir-type adsorption model, and the value of the calculated affinity constant was k(aff)=147x10(4) dm(3)mol(-1), a(ads)=0.29.

  16. Phylogeny of Symbiodinium populations in zoantharians of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Noori Koupaei, Atoosa; Dehghani, Hamed; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Mashini, Amirhossein Gheitanchi

    2016-04-30

    Zoantharians of the Persian Gulf (PG) experience periods of anomalous high temperature, irradiance and desiccation. Their survival largely relies on the symbiotic relationship with single celled dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. However, the phylogeny of symbionts of zoantharians has not been investigated in the region. In this study, the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) was used to recognize in hospite populations of Symbiodinium in Palythoa aff. mutuki, Palythoa tuberculosa and Zoanthus sansibaricus colonies from Hengam, Kish, Larak, and Qeshm Islands, in the PG. The results showed subclade D1-4 and a variant of A1, were the most prevalent subclades of Symbiodinium. Predominance of stress tolerant subclade D1-4 and putatively radiation tolerant variant of A1 of Symbiodinium in zoantharian species might suggest an adaptation strategy to the extreme physical environment of the PG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrating agricultural and forestry GHG mitigation responses into general economy frameworks: Developing a family of response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gillig, Dhazn; McCarl, Bruce A.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2004-07-01

    An econometrically estimated family of response functions is developed for characterizing potential responses to greenhouse gas mitigation policies by the agriculture and forestry sectors. The response functions are estimated based on results of an agricultural/forestry sector model. They provide estimates of sequestration and emission reductions in forestry and agriculture along with levels of sectoral production, prices, welfare, and environmental attributes given a carbon price, levels of demand for agricultural goods, and the energy price. Six alternative mitigation policies representing types of greenhouse gas offsets allowed are considered. Results indicate that the largest quantity of greenhouse gas offset consistently appears with the mitigation policy that pays for all opportunities. Restricting carbon payments (emission tax or sequestration subsidy) only to aff/deforestation or only to agricultural sequestration substantially reduces potential mitigation. Higher carbon prices lead to more sequestration, less emissions, reduced consumer and total welfare, improved environmental indicators and increased producer welfare.

  18. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-05-06

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani).

  19. NASA Tech Briefs, August 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Topics include: Program Merges SAR Data on Terrain and Vegetation Heights; Using G(exp 4)FETs as a Data Router for In-Plane Crossing of Signal Paths; Two Algorithms for Processing Electronic Nose Data; Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus; General-Purpose Front End for Real-Time Data Processing; Nanocomposite Photoelectrochemical Cells; Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill, Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors; Photocatalytic/Magnetic Composite Particles; Separation and Sealing of a Sample Container Using Brazing; Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF; Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples; High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System; Detergent-Specific Membrane Protein Crystallization Screens; Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters; Plasmonic Antenna Coupling for QWIPs; Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors; Improved Heat-Stress Algorithm; A Method of Partly Automated Testing of Software; Rover Wheel-Actuated Tool Interface; and Second-Generation Electronic Nose.

  20. Mission Opportunities for the Flight Validation of the Kinetic Impactor Concept for Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic impactor technique for deflecting near-Earth objects (NEOs), whereby a spacecraft is directed to collide with a NEO to alter its orbit via momentum transfer, is one of several proposed methods for defendingEarth against hazardous NEOs (asteroids and comets). In this paper we present detailed mission design concepts for a notionally feasible and aff ordable kinetic impactor flight validation mission deployed to a currently known near-Earth asteroid (NEA). Several filter steps are devised that utilize relevant criteria to optimally balance keyparameters, such as approach phase angle, estimated NEA diameter, relative velocity at intercept, and current NEA orbit knowledge, and produce refined lists of the most promising candidate target NEAs.

  1. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Yungas forests, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta N; Bartoloni, Norberto J

    2011-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities from the Yungas forests of Argentina were studied. The AMF species present in the rhizosphere of some dominant native plants (one tree: Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous species: Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub: Sambucus peruviana) from two sites (Quebrada del Portugués and Narváez Range) of the Yungas forests were isolated, identified and quantified during the four seasons of the year. Twenty-two AMF morphotaxa were found. Spore density of some AMF species at each site varied among seasons. The genera that most contributed to the biodiversity index were Acaulospora for Quebrada del Portugués and Glomus for Narváez Range. High diversity values were observed in the Yungas forests, particularly in the spring (rainy season). We concluded AMF differed in species composition and seasonal sporulation dynamics in the Yungas forests.

  2. Stream ichthyofauna of the Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Oliveira, Cárlison; Canto, André Luiz Colares; Ribeiro, Frank Raynner Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fish fauna of freshwater streams in the Tapajos National Forest was surveyed and a list of species is presented. The sampling was conducted from 2012 to 2013 during the dry season. Fish were collected with dip nets and seine nets in 22 streams of 1st to 3rd order. Sampling resulted in 3035 specimens belonging to 117 species, 27 families and six orders. The most abundant species were Bryconops aff. melanurus, Hemigrammus belottii, and Hemigrammus analis. Four undescribed species were recognized, one of which is known only from the area of this study. A significant dissimilarity was observed in fish species composition among drainage systems. This is the first survey of the stream ichthyofauna in the Tapajós National Forest, and it presents relevant information for future studies and decision-making in the management and conservation of fish fauna in this conservation unit. PMID:27110209

  3. In situ assessment of a neotropical fish to evaluate pollution in a river receiving agricultural and urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Nédia de Castilhos; de Oliveira, Elton Celton; Fávaro, Luís Fernando; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina; Prioli, Alberto José

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to assess the quality of a midsize river that receives agricultural and urban wastewater. Nuclear abnormalities (NA), comet assays of blood and gills, and gill histopathology were evaluated in fish Astyanax aff. paranae during the summer and winter 2011 at three sites in Paraná State, Brazil: (1) a biological reserve (Rebio-reference area); (2) an agricultural site; (3) a downstream site that accumulates agricultural and urban effluents. We found the highest effects of pollutants in fish at the downstream site during the summer. The agricultural site showed an intermediate damage rate, and fish at Rebio generally had the least damage, with the exception of NA. Despite conflicting results from the biomarkers used, we observed an increase in damage associated with the accumulation of pollutants. Pesticides are probable xenobiotics in the agricultural area. Additionally, metals and substances such as pharmaceuticals and ammonia may be present at the downstream site.

  4. Fossil birds of the Kibish Formation.

    PubMed

    Louchart, Antoine; Haile-Selassie, Y; Vignaud, P; Likius, A; Brunet, M

    2008-09-01

    The Kibish Formation has yielded a small collection of bird fossils, which are identified here as belonging to five species in four different families: Pelecanidae (pelicans), Anhingidae (darters), Ardeidae (herons) and Phasianidae (gamefowl). Two species of pelicans are identified: Pelecanus cf. P. onocrotalus, and P. aff. P. rufescens. The darter is referrable to Anhinga melanogaster. The heron is identifiable as Ardea sp., and the gamefowl as Numidinae indet. (guineafowl). Pelecanus cf. P. onocrotalus is represented by, among other remains, a well-preserved partial skull. Four of the birds are thus referrable to extant taxa that provide some paleoenvironmental clues for Member I of the Kibish Formation. The two species of pelican, the darter, and the heron indicate the presence of local freshwater bodies, a lake or a slow river, supporting resources of fish. The guineafowl is poorly informative ecologically, but probably excludes the notion that the local terrestrial landscape was treeless.

  5. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Schitoskey, Frank=; Schitoskey, Elizabeth C.; Talent, Larry G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  6. The karyotype of Adenomera diptyx (Boettger 1885) (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Zaracho, Víctor Hugo; Hernando, Alejandra Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    In this work we analyzed the karyotype of five populations of Adenomera diptyx from Argentina after conventional staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding. All specimens presented 2n = 26 and FN = 34. The karyotype was formed by three submetacentric, one metacentric and nine telocentric pairs. Silver staining revealed that the NOR was located on a secondary constriction in pair 7. C- banding evidenced constitutive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes. The karyotype of A. diptyx was similar to that of A. hylaedactyla (2n = 26, FN = 34) and different from that of A. andreae (2n = 26, FN = 40) in the fundamental number and secondary constriction position. It also differed from the karyotypes of A. marmorata (2n = 24, FN = 34 and 36) and of A. aff. bokermanni (2n = 23, FN = 34) in diploid number. Until a comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of all the species of the genus is performed, their chromosome evolution will remain poorly understood. PMID:21637549

  7. Undergraduate Experiences of Division I Athlete Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Graduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeaux, Eddie; Bachman, Tina; Burton, Rena M.; Aliyeva, Aida

    2017-02-01

    Employing the conceptual model developed by Comeaux and Harrison (Coll Stud Aff J 30(1):75-87, 2011), this study explored the undergraduate experience of Division I athlete STEM graduates. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews with former athletes at two research-intensive, public institutions. Results revealed that pre-college characteristics, involvement in purposeful STEM-related activities, and sport participation, as well as academic support and guidance within athletic departments, play important roles in shaping the experiences of athletes who earn STEM degrees. Implications for student affairs professionals, faculty, and others who frequently interact with college athletes and are committed to creating more equitable educational environments are discussed.

  8. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) and mites (Acari) associated with bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a high-altitude region in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moras, Ligiane Martins; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Graciolli, Gustavo; Gregorin, Renato

    2013-12-01

    A total of 71 bat flies belonging to families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and 37 mites were collected on 12 species of bats (Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) from the Chapada do Abanador (Minas Gerais, Brazil), between July 2009 and April 2010. Two new occurrences of ectoparasites were recorded on Histiotus velatus (bat fly Basilia producta) and on Carollia perspicillata (mite Parichoronyssus bakeri). Five new occurrences were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais, increasing the range for bat flies Anatrichobius passosi, Paraeuctenodes similis, Basilia juquiensis, Basilia producta and for mite Periglischrus vargasi. Moreover, two new species of mites were recorded for Brazil (P. bakeri and Macronyssus aff. leislerianus). With regard to infracommunities, the most frequent association was between Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi on bat Anoura geoffroyi. This study contributed to characterize the fauna of bat ectoparasites in representative but poorly-sampled environments of the Atlantic Forest, the campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands) and cloud forests of southern Minas Gerais.

  9. Mesozoic Bivalvia from Clerke and Mermaid Canyons, northwest Australian continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant-Mackie, J. A.

    Four sets of rock samples from two sites off the northwest Australian shelf in 3625-4480 m of water contain macrofaunas, mainly bivalves, of warm shallow-water origin. Mermaid Canyon (16 deg 19 min S, 118 deg 23 min E) provided many samples of oolitic calcarenite containing Pseudopecten (Pseudopecten) dugong n.sp., indicating an Early Jurassic age and Tethyan relationship. Three hand-specimens from the ridge forming the western edge of Clerke Canyon (16 deg 29 min S, 118 deg 30 min E) yielded a Norian coral-?Lima-oyster assemblage and the Norian-Rhaetian bivalve Palaeocardita aff. globiformis (Boettger). The latter shows relationship with south-east Asian (Indonesia-Vietnam-south China) forms.

  10. Javanese species of the mite genus Macrocheles (Arachnida: Acari: Gamasina: Macrochelidae).

    PubMed

    Hartini, Sri; Takaku, Gen

    2003-10-01

    Twelve mite species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) were collected from the body surface of dung beetles in Java, Indonesia. Of these, three species, i.e., Macrocheles jabarensis, M. jonggolensis, and M. sukabumiensis, were described as new to science. Female of M. dispar was redescribed. Two species, i.e., M. baliensis and M. sukaramiensis, were recorded from Java for the first time. The occurrence of five species previously recorded from Java, i.e., M. hallidayi, M. kraepelini, M. limue, M. oigru, and M. merdarius, were reconfirmed. Taxonomic status of M. sp. aff. glaber was not settled in the present study, because we could not obtain the male and immatures which are indispensable for exact identification. In total 15 species of the genus Macrocheles, including 3 species already recorded but not collected in this research (M. crispa, M. krantzi, and M. subbadius), are known from Java up to date.

  11. Ecological analyses of the intestinal helminth communities of the wolf, Canis lupus, in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Juan-Matías; Guerrero, Ricardo; Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos

    2003-09-01

    This work describes the ecological characteristics of the intestinal helminth communities of 50 wolves (Canis lupus L.) from Spain. The species found were classified into three groups according to prevalence, intensity and intestinal distribution. Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766 and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) are the core species of the community. Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a secondary species. The rest of the species, Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782), Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847). Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780), Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758), Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902), Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859) and Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), behave as satellite species. The linear intestinal distribution of all helminth species was analysed. The location of most species can be considered predictable, especially for core and secondary species. The analysis of interspecific relationships between infracommunities shows that negative associations are more numerous than positive associations. The role of A. caninum in the community is compared with that of U. stenocephala.

  12. Toward in Vivo Chemical Imaging of Epicuticular Waxes1[C

    PubMed Central

    Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers. PMID:20709828

  13. Stream ichthyofauna of the Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Oliveira, Cárlison; Canto, André Luiz Colares; Ribeiro, Frank Raynner Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    The fish fauna of freshwater streams in the Tapajos National Forest was surveyed and a list of species is presented. The sampling was conducted from 2012 to 2013 during the dry season. Fish were collected with dip nets and seine nets in 22 streams of 1(st) to 3(rd) order. Sampling resulted in 3035 specimens belonging to 117 species, 27 families and six orders. The most abundant species were Bryconops aff. melanurus, Hemigrammus belottii, and Hemigrammus analis. Four undescribed species were recognized, one of which is known only from the area of this study. A significant dissimilarity was observed in fish species composition among drainage systems. This is the first survey of the stream ichthyofauna in the Tapajós National Forest, and it presents relevant information for future studies and decision-making in the management and conservation of fish fauna in this conservation unit.

  14. Undergraduate Experiences of Division I Athlete Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Graduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeaux, Eddie; Bachman, Tina; Burton, Rena M.; Aliyeva, Aida

    2016-08-01

    Employing the conceptual model developed by Comeaux and Harrison (Coll Stud Aff J 30(1):75-87, 2011), this study explored the undergraduate experience of Division I athlete STEM graduates. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews with former athletes at two research-intensive, public institutions. Results revealed that pre-college characteristics, involvement in purposeful STEM-related activities, and sport participation, as well as academic support and guidance within athletic departments, play important roles in shaping the experiences of athletes who earn STEM degrees. Implications for student affairs professionals, faculty, and others who frequently interact with college athletes and are committed to creating more equitable educational environments are discussed.

  15. Luminescent Mycena: new and noteworthy species.

    PubMed

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Perry, Brian A; Lodge, D Jean; Stevani, Cassius V; Nagasawa, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of Mycena are reported as luminescent, representing specimens collected in Belize, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Japan (Bonin Islands), Malaysia (Borneo) and Puerto Rico. Four of them represent new species (Mycena luxaeterna, M. luxarboricola, M. luxperpetua, M. silvaelucens) and three represent new reports of luminescence in previously described species (M. aff. abieticola, M. aspratilis, M. margarita). Mycena subepipterygia is synonymized with M. margarita, and M. chlorinosma is proposed as a possible synonym. Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, photographs and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. A redescription of M. chlorophos, based on analyses of type specimens and recently collected topotypical material, is provided. The addition of these seven new or newly reported luminescent species of Mycena brings the total to 71 known bioluminescent species of fungi.

  16. Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus: Emergence of a primary pathogen, the causative agent of bat white-nose syndrome: Chapter 28

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verant, Michelle L.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Blehert, David

    2017-01-01

    Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus (Fungi, Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, aff. Thelebolales) are closely related groups of globally occurring soil-associated fungi. Recently, these genera of fungi have received attention because a newly identified species, Pseudogymnoascus (initially classified as Geomyces) destructans, was discovered in association with significant and unusual mortality of hibernating bats in North America (Blehert et al. 2009; Gargas et al. 2009; Minnis and Linder 2013). This emergent disease called bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), has since caused drastic declines in populations of hibernating bats in the United States and Canada (Turner, Reeder, and Coleman 2011; Thogmartin et al. 2012) and threatens some species with regional extinction (Frick et al. 2010; Langwig et al. 2012; Thogmartin et al. 2013). As primary predators of insects and keystone species for cave ecosystems, the loss of bats due to WNS has important economic and ecological implications.

  17. Leaf morphology and cuticular features of Sphenophyllum in the Gigantopteris flora from South China.

    PubMed

    Yao; Liu; Mapes; Rothwell

    2000-06-01

    Permian specimens of Sphenophyllum with preserved cuticular anatomy have been discovered in Cathaysia and have prompted a detailed re-evaluation of the genus in the Gigantopteris flora in South China. New specimens are described and previously published material is re-examined to clarify taxonomic diversity and to establish geographic and stratigraphic ranges for each species. Recognized taxa include Sphenophyllum apiciserratum sp. nov., S. koboense Kobatake, S. meridionale sp. nov., S. minor (Sterzel) Gu and Zhi, S. sinocoreanum Yabe, S. cf. sinocoreanum Yabe, and S. aff. speciosum (Royle) McClelland. Cuticles of Sphenophyllum apiciserratum and S. koboense are hypostomatic with randomly disposed ordinary cells in intercostal regions. Specific concepts are clarified and unresolved taxonomic problems are discussed. The South China taxa are compared with those from Euramerican, Gondwanan and Angaran floras, and the South China Cathaysian species are found to be taxonomically distinct.

  18. Ant foraging on extrafloral nectaries of Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) in cerrado vegetation: ants as potential antiherbivore agents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, P S; da Silva, A F; Martins, A B

    1987-12-01

    Qualea grandiflora is a typical tree of Brazilian cerrados (savanna-like vegetation) that bears paired extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) along its stems. Results show that possession of EFNs increases ant density on Q. grandiflora shrubs over that of neighbouring non-nectariferous plants. Frequency of ant occupancy and mean number of ants per plant were much higher on Qualea than on plants lacking EFNs. These differences resulted in many more live termitebaits being attacked by foraging ants on Qualea than on neighbours without EFNs. Termites were attacked in equal numbers and with equal speeds on different-aged leaves of Qualea. The greatest potential for herbivore deterrence was presented by Camponotus ants (C. crassus, C. rufipes and C. aff. blandus), which together attacked significantly more termites than nine other ant species grouped. EFNs are regarded as important promoters of ant activity on cerado plants.

  19. The Early Callovian genus Cadochamoussetia (Ammonoidea, Cardioceratidae) in the lower reaches of the Anabar River, Northern Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, V. G.; Meledina, S. V.; Alifirov, A. S.; Nikitenko, B. L.

    2017-07-01

    The species Cadochamoussetia aff. subpatruus (Nik.), Cadochamoussetia surensis (Nik.), and Cadoceras cf. simulans Spath are found for the first time in the lower reaches of the Anabar River. The first two species are characteristic of the Lower Callovian Cadochamoussetia subpatruus Subzone of Central Russia, which is equivalent to the Siberian Cadochamoussetia tschernyschewi Zone. Species of the genus Cadochamoussetia, found for the first time in the Arctic, are described. Shells of Siberian representatives of Cadochamoussetia are distinguished from the typical East European species by their larger umbilicus, which is similar to that of the ancestral genus Cadoceras. It is suggested that the Siberian taxa belong to the oldest representatives of this genus, which appeared in the early Callovian Arctic seas and later migrated to seas of Central Europe and England.

  20. DNA methylation profiling of pediatric B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia with KMT2A rearrangement identifies hypomethylation at enhancer sites.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Anke K; Castellano, Giancarlo; Alten, Julia; Ammerpohl, Ole; Kolarova, Julia; Nordlund, Jessica; Martin-Subero, Jose Ignacio; Schrappe, Martin; Siebert, Reiner

    2017-03-01

    Deregulation of the epigenome is an important pathogenetic mechanism in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A rearrangement (KMT2Ar). We performed array-based DNA methylation profiling of KMT2Ar ALL cells from 26 children in comparison to normal B-cell precursors. Significant changes in DNA methylation in KMT2Ar ALL were identified in 2,545 CpG loci, influenced by age and the translocation partners AFF1 and MLLT1. In KMT2Ar ALL, DNA methylation loss was enriched at enhancers and for certain transcription factor binding sites such as BCL11A, EBF, and MEF2A. In summary, DNA methylation changes in KMT2Ar ALL target enhancers, genes involved in leukemogenesis and normal hematopoiesis, as well as transcription factor networks.

  1. Learning factorizations in estimation of distribution algorithms using affinity propagation.

    PubMed

    Santana, Roberto; Larrañaga, Pedro; Lozano, José A

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs) that use marginal product model factorizations have been widely applied to a broad range of mainly binary optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce the affinity propagation EDA (AffEDA) which learns a marginal product model by clustering a matrix of mutual information learned from the data using a very efficient message-passing algorithm known as affinity propagation. The introduced algorithm is tested on a set of binary and nonbinary decomposable functions and using a hard combinatorial class of problem known as the HP protein model. The results show that the algorithm is a very efficient alternative to other EDAs that use marginal product model factorizations such as the extended compact genetic algorithm (ECGA) and improves the quality of the results achieved by ECGA when the cardinality of the variables is increased.

  2. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 2. Laboratory Sample Production.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    N "YQ NAN ADDRSi affe(4a dII*m, 1 C..e,.A*Me Ott. .) 1S. SECURITY CLASS. (. 1 geas reo") Unclassified...from cracking were anticipated to be aromatic in -8- ~~~ 1 ~ l . i t -u 𔃺N0 0 Awl - v - v~4 ea0 I4 ’ N [I mmml - - - - - -- 0 m -9 j* I 1 v1 v v 1 N N U...candidate for the Phase III work. -10- LI ~ N a -4c c - . r-4 CN;- IN . c ~ OcM1 NM 1 (~ C r >~ 6 41 -- 1r 1 0- - C 4 . o a z𔃺]I wE C6 0 C >L S P4 IS

  3. A revision of Trimuricea Gordon, 1926 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Plexauridae) with the description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Ofwegen, Leen P Van

    2016-04-19

    The genus Trimuricea Gordon, 1926 is revised. An overview and identification key of all presently known Trimuricea species is given. The type material of Trimuricea africana Gordon, 1926, T. reticulata (Thomson & Simpson, 1909), T. merguiensis Gordon, 1926, T. inermis (Nutting, 1910), T. magna (Nutting, 1910) and T. caledonica Grasshoff, 1999, is re-examined. Trimuricea andamanensis (Thomson & Simpson, 1909) is assigned to Echinogorgia Kölliker, 1865, Trimuricea aff. reticulata (Samimi-Namin & van Ofwegen 2009a) is synonymised with T. persica n. sp.; and T. magna (Nutting, 1910) with T. inermis (Nutting, 1910). Furthermore, six new species are described and depicted, T. bicolor, T. flava, T. omanensis, T. persica, T. tuberculosa, and T. spinosa, increasing the number of known Trimuricea species to eleven.

  4. A novel middleware solution to improve ubiquitous healthcare systems aided by affective information.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Tarik; Bottazzi, Dario; Nasser, Nidal

    2010-03-01

    The arousal of emotion might have consequences for physical health is a broadly acknowledged idea. Therapy for depression, prevention for heart pathologies, and rehabilitation treatments for drug addiction are just a few examples of application domains that may benefit from technologies capable of monitoring, detecting, representing, and disseminating information pertaining to patients' physical and psychological/emotional states. However, the design and development of healthcare applications of this kind is a rather challenging issue that requires to integrate sensor infrastructures, which are able to detect changes in patients' physiological and emotional states, and of sharing this information to interested caregivers, such as professional medical staff, relatives, and friends. This paper proposes the Pervasive Environment for AffeCtive Healthcare (PEACH) framework, a middleware level support for affective healthcare that incarnates these ideas and describes its effective functions in a drug addiction treatment application scenario.

  5. Lichenomphalia altoandina, a new species of Hygrophoraceae from the Chilean Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Leiva, P; Niveiro, N; Urbina-Casanova, R; Scherson, R

    2017-01-01

    Lichenomphalia is a lichenized agaric genus characterized by its omphalinoid basidiomes. Lichenomphalia species are associated with unicellular green algae in the genus Coccomyxa and are mainly distributed in polar and alpine habitats. The aim of this work is to describe L. altoandina, a new species from northern Chile that grows among cushion plants over 3000 m above sea level in the Andes Mountains. The species is remarkable for living in highly saline environments, in some cases virtually on salt crusts. Lichenomphalia altoandina differs from other known species and particularly from L. aurantiaca, the most morphologically similar species, in its smooth and broader stipe and its slightly larger spores. Lichenomphalia altoandina is also morphologicaly and ecologically more similar to the core Lichenomphalia clade. Our phylogenetic study based on nuclear rDNA ITS and partial 28S sequences shows that L. altoandina belongs to the Protolichenomphalia clade and is sister to an unknown lineage, L. aff. umbellifera, from New Zealand.

  6. First report on the Early Devonian (Lochkovian) brachiopods from eastern Central Pamirs, Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modzalevskaya, Tatiana L.; Popov, Leonid E.; Ghobadi Pour, Mansoureh; Dufour, MiKhail S.

    2017-05-01

    A low diversity brachiopod fauna including Meristella? aksuensis sp. nov., Ouraniorhynchus dronovi gen. et. sp. nov., Nikiforovaena sp., Nucleospira sp., and Protathyris sp. aff. P. sibirica, has been recovered from quartzites assigned to the Burak Member. It is suggested the presence of Early Devonian (Lochkovian) deposits not previously reported from the Central Pamirs (south-eastern Tajikistan). The Pamirs brachiopod fauna shows mixed faunal signatures suggesting links with Lochkovian brachiopod faunas of the Rhenish-Bohemian Region of the Old World Realm, the Australian segment of Gondwana, the Zerafshan-Hyssar Region, and South China, while it was probably located outside the Silurian Sino-Australian Province. In addition, the paper gives a brief review of the poorly known Ordovician and Silurian stratigraphy of the Central Pamirs.

  7. Chromosome Mapping of 18S Ribosomal RNA Genes in Eleven Hypostomus Species (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): Diversity Analysis of the Sites.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Marceléia; da Rosa, Renata; Zawadzki, Claudio H; Mariotto, Sandra; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the chromosomal distribution of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in different populations of 11 species of Hypostomus collected in important Brazilian basins, namely South Atlantic, Upper Paraná, and Paraguay applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Hypostomus cochliodon, Hypostomus commersoni, Hypostomus hermanni, Hypostomus regani, Hypostomus albopunctatus, Hypostomus paulinus, Hypostomus aff. paulinus, Hypostomus iheringii, and Hypostomus mutucae presented multiple 18S rDNA sites while Hypostomus strigaticeps and Hypostomus nigromaculatus exhibited a single pair of chromosomes with 18S rDNA sites. The studied species presented variations in the number and position of these sites. The results accomplished were similar to those obtained by the analysis of AgNORs, revealing the same interspecific variability. Each species exhibited distinctive patterns of AgNOR and 18S rDNA distribution, which can be considered cytogenetic markers in each species of the genus and help improve the discussions on the phylogeny of the group.

  8. Mosasaurs (Reptilia) from the late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of northern Patagonia (Río Negro, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Marta; Martin, James; Casadío, Silvio

    2008-03-01

    A diverse assemblage of mosasaurs was recently recovered from the Jagüel Formation (late Maastrichtian) exposed at three localities of northern Patagonia (Río Negro, Argentina). Four taxa (three mosasaurines and a plioplatecarpine) have been identified, and three of these marine reptiles can be identified at lower taxonomic levels: Mosasaurus sp. aff. M. hoffmanni, Plioplatecarpus sp., and Prognathodon sp. These occurrences are significant because they represent the first diagnostic material at generic level exhumed from Patagonia and include one of the youngest mosasaurs found worldwide. One of the specimens described herein was found only 1.5 m below the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Only mosasaurs from Antarctica found within a meter of the boundary are known to occur higher in the geologic section.

  9. Reconstructing the development of Baltic sea eutrophication 1850-2006.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Bo G; Schenk, Frederik; Blenckner, Thorsten; Eilola, Kari; Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Savchuk, Oleg P; Zorita, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive reconstruction of the