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Sample records for affairs branch rab

  1. Specific interactions of Mss4 with members of the Rab GTPase subfamily.

    PubMed

    Burton, J L; Burns, M E; Gatti, E; Augustine, G J; De Camilli, P

    1994-12-01

    Mss4 is a mammalian protein that was identified as a suppressor of a yeast secretory mutant harboring a mutation in the GTPase Sec4 and was found to stimulate GDP release from this protein. We have now performed a biochemical characterization of the Mss4 protein and examined the specificity of its association with mammalian GTPases. Mss4 is primarily a soluble protein with a widespread tissue distribution. Recombinant Mss4 binds GTPases present in tissue extracts, and by a gel overlay assay binds specifically Rab Rab10proteins. We further define the Mss4-GTPase interaction to a subset of Rabs belonging to the same subfamily branch which include Rab1, Rab3, Rab8, Rab10, Sec4 and Ypt1 but not Rab2, Rab4, Rab5, Rab6, Rab9 and Rab11. Accordingly, Mss4 co-precipitates from a brain extract with Rab3a but not Rab5. Mss4 only stimulates GDP release from, and the association of GTP gamma S with, this Rab subset. Recombinant Mss4 and Rab3a form a stable complex in solution that is dissociated with either GDP or GTP gamma S. Injection of Mss4 into the squid giant nerve terminal enhances neurotransmitter release. These results suggest that Mss4 behaves as a guanylnucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for a subset of Rabs to influence distinct vesicular transport steps along the secretory pathway.

  2. [Rab GTPases networks in membrane traffic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Nagano, Makoto; Toshima, Junko Y; Toshima, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular membrane trafficking between membranous compartments is essential for organelle biogenesis, structure, and identity. Rab/Ypt GTPases are well-characterized regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking, functioning as molecular switches that alternate between GTP- and GDP-bound forms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 11 Rab/Ypt GTPases have been identified and their functions are known to be conserved in their mammalian counterparts. In yeast, the secretory pathway is regulated by sequential activation and inactivation (the so-called Rab cascade) of three types of yeast Rab protein -Ypt1p, Ypt31p/32p and Sec4p -via specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). In addition to these Rabs, we and others have recently demonstrated that Ypt6p is predominantly localized to the early Golgi compartment, and functions as another regulator of anterograde transport for intra-Golgi trafficking in the secretory pathway. On the other hand, the endocytic pathway is known to be regulated by three yeast Rab5s (Vps21p, Ypt52p and Ypt53p) and one Rab7 (Ypt7p). Rab5 and Rab7 are key determinants of endosome identity, and the Rab5-Rab7 cascade is important for the progression from early to late endosome. Our recent study demonstrates that the endocytic pathway branches into two vacuolar targeting pathways, the Rab5-dependent vacuole protein sorting (VPS) pathway and the Rab5-independent pathway. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms that regulate the localization and activity of yeast Rab GTPases in intracellular membrane trafficking.

  3. Novel interaction of Rab13 and Rab8 with endospanins☆

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, Mirkka J.; Büki, Kálmán G.; Sun, Yi; Mulari, Mika T.K.; Härkönen, Pirkko L.; Väänänen, Kalervo H.

    2013-01-01

    Rab GTPases regulate vesicular traffic in eukaryotic cells by cycling between the active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. Their functions are modulated by the diverse selection of effector proteins that bind to specific Rabs in their activated state. We previously described the expression of Rab13 in bone cells. To search for novel Rab13 interaction partners, we screened a newborn rat bone marrow cDNA library for Rab13 effectors with a bacterial two-hybrid system. We found that Rab13 binds to the C-terminus of Endospanin-2, a small transmembrane protein. In addition to Rab13 also Rab8 bound to Endospanin-2, while no binding of Rab7, Rab10, Rab11 or Rab32 was observed. Rab13 and Rab8 also interacted with Endospanin-1, a close homolog of Endospanin-2. Rab13 and Endospanin-2 colocalised in perinuclear vesicular structures in Cos1 cells suggesting direct binding also in vivo. Endospanin-2 is implicated in the regulation of the cell surface growth hormone receptor (GHR), but the inhibition of Rab13 expression did not affect GHR cell surface expression. This suggests that the Rab13–Endospanin-2 interaction may have functions other than GHR regulation. In conclusion, we have identified a novel interaction for Rab13 and Rab8 with Endospanin-2 and Endospanin-1. The role of this interaction in cell physiology, however, remains to be elucidated. PMID:23772379

  4. Recombinant Leishmania Rab6 (rLdRab6) is recognized by sera from visceral leishmaniasis patients.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Indira Singh; Shukla, Rantidev; Krishna, Shagun; Sekhri, Savita; Kaushik, Umesh; Baby, Sabitha; Pal, Chiranjib; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Sundar, Shyam; Singh, Neeloo

    2016-11-01

    Rab proteins form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. Rab proteins are key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport and membrane trafficking. Although RabGTPases are well-recognized targets in human diseases but are under-explored therapeutically in the Leishmania parasite. Using a quantitative cytofluorimetric assay, we analyzed the composition and organization of Rab6GTPase protein which was found to be primarily localized on the parasite subpellicular membrane and flagellum due to its association with kinesin motor proteins in the cytoskeletal microtubules. Our aim was to also assess the diagnostic role of recombinant Rab6 protein from Leishmania donovani (rLdRab6) using sera/plasma of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for rLdRab6-based ELISA which was almost similar in comparison to recombinant K39-based ELISA (95.83% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Sera of patients from another intracellular pathogenic infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, did not contain any significant levels of anti-rLdRab6 antibody. Thus rLdRab6 accuracy in visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis makes it a promising antigen for clinical use.

  5. Rab24 interacts with the Rab7/Rab interacting lysosomal protein complex to regulate endosomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Celina; Militello, Rodrigo D; Calligaris, Sebastián D; Colombo, María I

    2016-11-01

    Endocytosis is a multistep process engaged in extracellular molecules internalization. Several proteins including the Rab GTPases family coordinate the endocytic pathway. The small GTPase Rab7 is present in late endosome (LE) compartments being a marker of endosome maturation. The Rab interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) is a downstream effector of Rab7 that recruits the functional dynein/dynactin motor complex to late compartments. In the present study, we have found Rab24 as a component of the endosome-lysosome degradative pathway. Rab24 is an atypical protein of the Rab GTPase family, which has been attributed a function in vesicle trafficking and autophagosome maturation. Using a model of transiently expressed proteins in K562 cells, we found that Rab24 co-localizes in vesicular structures labeled with Rab7 and LAMP1. Moreover, using a dominant negative mutant of Rab24 or a siRNA-Rab24 we showed that the distribution of Rab7 in vesicles depends on a functional Rab24 to allow DQ-BSA protein degradation. Additionally, by immunoprecipitation and pull down assays, we have demonstrated that Rab24 interacts with Rab7 and RILP. Interestingly, overexpression of the Vps41 subunit from the homotypic fusion and protein-sorting (HOPS) complex hampered the co-localization of Rab24 with RILP or with the lysosomal GTPase Arl8b, suggesting that Vps41 would affect the Rab24/RILP association. In summary, our data strongly support the hypothesis that Rab24 forms a complex with Rab7 and RILP on the membranes of late compartments. Our work provides new insights into the molecular function of Rab24 in the last steps of the endosomal degradative pathway.

  6. Rab6-interacting protein 1 links Rab6 and Rab11 function.

    PubMed

    Miserey-Lenkei, Stéphanie; Waharte, François; Boulet, Annick; Cuif, Marie-Hélène; Tenza, Danielle; El Marjou, Amed; Raposo, Graça; Salamero, Jean; Héliot, Laurent; Goud, Bruno; Monier, Solange

    2007-10-01

    Rab11 and Rab6 guanosine triphosphatases are associated with membranes of the recycling endosomes (REs) and Golgi complex, respectively. Evidence indicates that they sequentially regulate a retrograde transport pathway between these two compartments, suggesting the existence of proteins that must co-ordinate their functions. Here, we report the characterization of two isoforms of a protein, Rab6-interacting protein 1 (R6IP1), originally identified as a Rab6-binding protein. R6IP1 also binds to Rab11A in its GTP-bound conformation. In interphase cells, R6IP1 is targeted to the Golgi in a Rab6-dependent manner but can associate with Rab11-positive compartments when the level of Rab11A is increased within the cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis using fluorescence lifetime imaging shows that the overexpression of R6IP1 promotes an interaction between Rab11A and Rab6 in living cells. Accordingly, the REs marked by Rab11 and transferrin receptor are depleted from the cell periphery and accumulate in the pericentriolar area. However, endosomal and Golgi membranes do not appear to fuse with each other. We also show that R6IP1 function is required during metaphase and cytokinesis, two mitotic steps in which a role of Rab6 and Rab11 has been previously documented. We propose that R6IP1 may couple Rab6 and Rab11 function throughout the cell cycle.

  7. RAB-10-Dependent Membrane Transport Is Required for Dendrite Arborization.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Yadav, Smita; DeVault, Laura; Nung Jan, Yuh; Sherwood, David R

    2015-01-01

    Formation of elaborately branched dendrites is necessary for the proper input and connectivity of many sensory neurons. Previous studies have revealed that dendritic growth relies heavily on ER-to-Golgi transport, Golgi outposts and endocytic recycling. How new membrane and associated cargo is delivered from the secretory and endosomal compartments to sites of active dendritic growth, however, remains unknown. Using a candidate-based genetic screen in C. elegans, we have identified the small GTPase RAB-10 as a key regulator of membrane trafficking during dendrite morphogenesis. Loss of rab-10 severely reduced proximal dendritic arborization in the multi-dendritic PVD neuron. RAB-10 acts cell-autonomously in the PVD neuron and localizes to the Golgi and early endosomes. Loss of function mutations of the exocyst complex components exoc-8 and sec-8, which regulate tethering, docking and fusion of transport vesicles at the plasma membrane, also caused proximal dendritic arborization defects and led to the accumulation of intracellular RAB-10 vesicles. In rab-10 and exoc-8 mutants, the trans-membrane proteins DMA-1 and HPO-30, which promote PVD dendrite stabilization and branching, no longer localized strongly to the proximal dendritic membranes and instead were sequestered within intracellular vesicles. Together these results suggest a crucial role for the Rab10 GTPase and the exocyst complex in controlling membrane transport from the secretory and/or endosomal compartments that is required for dendritic growth.

  8. RAB-10-Dependent Membrane Transport Is Required for Dendrite Arborization

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Yadav, Smita; DeVault, Laura; Jan, Yuh Nung; Sherwood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of elaborately branched dendrites is necessary for the proper input and connectivity of many sensory neurons. Previous studies have revealed that dendritic growth relies heavily on ER-to-Golgi transport, Golgi outposts and endocytic recycling. How new membrane and associated cargo is delivered from the secretory and endosomal compartments to sites of active dendritic growth, however, remains unknown. Using a candidate-based genetic screen in C. elegans, we have identified the small GTPase RAB-10 as a key regulator of membrane trafficking during dendrite morphogenesis. Loss of rab-10 severely reduced proximal dendritic arborization in the multi-dendritic PVD neuron. RAB-10 acts cell-autonomously in the PVD neuron and localizes to the Golgi and early endosomes. Loss of function mutations of the exocyst complex components exoc-8 and sec-8, which regulate tethering, docking and fusion of transport vesicles at the plasma membrane, also caused proximal dendritic arborization defects and led to the accumulation of intracellular RAB-10 vesicles. In rab-10 and exoc-8 mutants, the trans-membrane proteins DMA-1 and HPO-30, which promote PVD dendrite stabilization and branching, no longer localized strongly to the proximal dendritic membranes and instead were sequestered within intracellular vesicles. Together these results suggest a crucial role for the Rab10 GTPase and the exocyst complex in controlling membrane transport from the secretory and/or endosomal compartments that is required for dendritic growth. PMID:26394140

  9. Characterisation of the Rab binding properties of Rab coupling protein (RCP) by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Andrew J; McCaffrey, Mary W

    2004-07-30

    Rab coupling protein (RCP) is a member of the Rab11-family of interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs). Family members are characterised by their ability to interact with Rab11. This property is mediated by a conserved Rab binding domain (RBD) located at their carboxy-termini. Several Rab11-FIPs can also interact with other small GTPases. RCP interacts with Rab4 in addition to Rab11. To dissect out the individual properties of the Rab4 and Rab11 interactions with RCP, conserved amino acids within the RBD of RCP were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. The effect of these mutations on Rab4 and Rab11 binding, and the intracellular localisation of RCP, was examined. Our results indicate that Rab11, rather than Rab4, mediates the intracellular localisation of RCP, and that the class I Rab11-FIPs compete for binding to Rab11.

  10. Assay of Rab17 and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabex-5 in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasunori; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2015-01-01

    Neurons are functionally and morphologically compartmentalized into axons and dendrites, and the localization of specific proteins within these compartments is critical to the proper formation of neuronal networks, which includes neurite morphogenesis and synapse formation. The small GTPase Rab17 is specifically localized in dendrites and is not found in axons, and it regulates the dendrite morphogenesis and postsynaptic development of mouse hippocampal neurons. However, the spatiotemporal regulation of Rab17 is poorly understood. We recently identified Rabex-5, originally described as a Rab5-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), as a physiological Rab17-GEF that promotes translocation of Rab17 from the cell body to the dendrites of developing hippocampal neurons. Knockdown of Rab17 in mouse hippocampal neurons resulted in reductions in dendrite growth, branch numbers, filopodium density, and active synapse numbers. Knockdown of Rab17-GEF Rabex-5 in hippocampal neurons resulted in decreased targeting of Rab17 to the dendrites, which led to a reduction in dendrite growth. In this chapter we describe the assay procedures for analyzing Rab17 and Rabex-5 in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, and we particularly focus on the measurement of total dendrite (or axon) length and total dendrite (or axon) branch numbers, filopodium density, number of active synapses, and dendritic Rab17 signals.

  11. Rab coupling protein (RCP), a novel Rab4 and Rab11 effector protein.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Andrew J; Hendrick, Alan G; Cantalupo, Giuseppina; Senic-Matuglia, Francesca; Goud, Bruno; Bucci, Cecilia; McCaffrey, Mary W

    2002-04-05

    Rab4 and Rab11 are small GTPases belonging to the Ras superfamily. They both function as regulators along the receptor recycling pathway. We have identified a novel 80-kDa protein that interacts specifically with the GTP-bound conformation of Rab4, and subsequent work has shown that it also interacts strongly with Rab11. We name this protein Rab coupling protein (RCP). RCP is predominantly membrane-bound and is expressed in all cell lines and tissues tested. It colocalizes with early endosomal markers including Rab4 and Rab11 as well as with the transferrin receptor. Overexpression of the carboxyl-terminal region of RCP, which contains the Rab4- and Rab11-interacting domain, results in a dramatic tubulation of the transferrin compartment. Furthermore, expression of this mutant causes a significant reduction in endosomal recycling without affecting ligand uptake or degradation in quantitative assays. RCP is a homologue of Rip11 and therefore belongs to the recently described Rab11-FIP family.

  12. Rab18 and a Rab18 GEF complex are required for normal ER structure

    PubMed Central

    Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Anderson, Rachel; Carpanini, Sarah; Aligianis, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The ancestral Rab GTPase Rab18 and both subunits of the Rab3GAP complex are mutated in the human neurological and developmental disorder Warburg Micro syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that the Rab3GAP complex is a specific Rab18 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). The Rab3GAP complex localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is necessary for ER targeting of Rab18. It is also sufficient to promote membrane recruitment of Rab18. Disease-associated point mutations of conserved residues in either the Rab3GAP1 (T18P and E24V) or Rab3GAP2 (R426C) subunits result in loss of the Rab18 GEF and membrane-targeting activities. Supporting the view that Rab18 activity is important for ER structure, in the absence of either Rab3GAP subunit or Rab18 function, ER tubular networks marked by reticulon 4 were disrupted, and ER sheets defined by CLIMP-63 spread out into the cell periphery. Micro syndrome is therefore a disease characterized by direct loss of Rab18 function or loss of Rab18 activation at the ER by its GEF Rab3GAP. PMID:24891604

  13. 32 CFR 202.10 - RAB adjournment and dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false RAB adjournment and dissolution. 202.10 Section... dissolution. (a) RAB adjournment—(1) Requirements for RAB adjournment. An Installation Commander may adjourn a... Commander decides to adjourn the RAB. (b) RAB dissolution—(1) Requirements for RAB dissolution....

  14. 32 CFR 202.10 - RAB adjournment and dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false RAB adjournment and dissolution. 202.10 Section... dissolution. (a) RAB adjournment—(1) Requirements for RAB adjournment. An Installation Commander may adjourn a... Commander decides to adjourn the RAB. (b) RAB dissolution—(1) Requirements for RAB dissolution....

  15. 32 CFR 202.10 - RAB adjournment and dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false RAB adjournment and dissolution. 202.10 Section... dissolution. (a) RAB adjournment—(1) Requirements for RAB adjournment. An Installation Commander may adjourn a... Commander decides to adjourn the RAB. (b) RAB dissolution—(1) Requirements for RAB dissolution....

  16. 32 CFR 202.10 - RAB adjournment and dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false RAB adjournment and dissolution. 202.10 Section... dissolution. (a) RAB adjournment—(1) Requirements for RAB adjournment. An Installation Commander may adjourn a... Commander decides to adjourn the RAB. (b) RAB dissolution—(1) Requirements for RAB dissolution....

  17. 32 CFR 202.10 - RAB adjournment and dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false RAB adjournment and dissolution. 202.10 Section... dissolution. (a) RAB adjournment—(1) Requirements for RAB adjournment. An Installation Commander may adjourn a... Commander decides to adjourn the RAB. (b) RAB dissolution—(1) Requirements for RAB dissolution....

  18. Distinct actions of Rab3 and Rab27 GTPases on late stages of exocytosis of insulin.

    PubMed

    Cazares, Victor A; Subramani, Arasakumar; Saldate, Johnny J; Hoerauf, Widmann; Stuenkel, Edward L

    2014-09-01

    Rab GTPases associated with insulin-containing secretory granules (SGs) are key in targeting, docking and assembly of molecular complexes governing pancreatic β-cell exocytosis. Four Rab3 isoforms along with Rab27A are associated with insulin granules, yet elucidation of the distinct roles of these Rab families on exocytosis remains unclear. To define specific actions of these Rab families we employ Rab3GAP and/or EPI64A GTPase-activating protein overexpression in β-cells from wild-type or Ashen mice to selectively transit the entire Rab3 family or Rab27A to a GDP-bound state. Ashen mice carry a spontaneous mutation that eliminates Rab27A expression. Using membrane capacitance measurements we find that GTP/GDP nucleotide cycling of Rab27A is essential for generation of the functionally defined immediately releasable pool (IRP) and central to regulating the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). By comparison, nucleotide cycling of Rab3 GTPases, but not of Rab27A, is essential for a kinetically rapid filling of the RRP with SGs. Aside from these distinct functions, Rab3 and Rab27A GTPases demonstrate considerable functional overlap in building the readily releasable granule pool. Hence, while Rab3 and Rab27A cooperate to generate release-ready SGs in β-cells, they also direct unique kinetic and functional properties of the exocytotic pathway.

  19. Restoration Advisory Board (RAB) Implementation Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides recommended procedures for establishing and operating Restoration Advisory Boards (RABs). It is intended as a resource for installation, EPA, and State personnel and citizens who participate in RABs.

  20. Aberrant amino acid signaling promotes growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinomas through Rab1A-dependent activation of mTORC1 by Rab1A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Rao, Hui-Lan; Wang, Hui-Yun; Zheng, X.F. Steven

    2015-01-01

    mTORC1 is a master regulator of cell growth and proliferation, and an established anticancer drug target. Aberrant mTORC1 signaling is common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Rab1A is a newly identified mTORC1 activator that mediates an alternative amino acid (AA) signaling branch to Rag GTPases. Because liver is a physiological hub for nutrient sensing and metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the possible role of Rab1A in HCC. We found that Rab1A is frequently overexpressed in HCC, which enhances hyperactive AA-mTORC1 signaling, promoting malignant growth and metastasis of HCC in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, aberrant Rab1A expression is closely associated with poor prognosis. Strikingly, aberrant Rab1A overexpression leads to increased rapamycin sensitivity, indicating that inappropriate activation of AA signaling is a cancer-driving event in HCC. Our findings further suggest that Rab1A is a valuable biomarker for prognosis and personalized mTORC1-targeted therapy in liver cancer. PMID:26308575

  1. The Rab GTPase Rab8 as a shared regulator of ciliogenesis and immune synapse assembly: From a conserved pathway to diverse cellular structures

    PubMed Central

    Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rab GTPases, which form the largest branch of the Ras GTPase superfamily, regulate almost every step of vesicle-mediated trafficking. Among them, Rab8 is an essential participant in primary cilium formation. In a report recently published in the Journal of Cell Science, Finetti and colleagues identify Rab8 as a novel player in vesicular traffic in the non-ciliated T lymphocytes, which contributes to the assembly of the specialized signaling platform known as the immune synapse. By interacting with the v-SNARE VAMP-3, Rab8 is indeed responsible for the final docking/fusion step in T cell receptor (TCR) recycling to the immune synapse. A second important take-home message which comes to light from this work is that VAMP-3 also interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of Smoothened at the plasma membrane. Hence the data presented in this report, in addition to identifying Rab8 as a novel player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse, reveal how both ciliated and non-ciliated cells take advantage of a conserved pathway to build highly specific cellular structures. PMID:26587735

  2. Structure-Function Analyses of the Interactions between Rab11 and Rab14 Small GTPases with Their Shared Effector Rab Coupling Protein (RCP).

    PubMed

    Lall, Patrick; Lindsay, Andrew J; Hanscom, Sara; Kecman, Tea; Taglauer, Elizabeth S; McVeigh, Una M; Franklin, Edward; McCaffrey, Mary W; Khan, Amir R

    2015-07-24

    Rab GTPases recruit effector proteins, via their GTP-dependent switch regions, to distinct subcellular compartments. Rab11 and Rab25 are closely related small GTPases that bind to common effectors termed the Rab11 family of interacting proteins (FIPs). The FIPs are organized into two subclasses (class I and class II) based on sequence and domain organization, and both subclasses contain a highly conserved Rab-binding domain at their C termini. Yeast two-hybrid and biochemical studies have revealed that the more distantly related Rab14 also interacts with class I FIPs. Here, we perform detailed structural, thermodynamic, and cellular analyses of the interactions between Rab14 and one of the class I FIPs, the Rab-coupling protein (RCP), to clarify the molecular aspects of the interaction. We find that Rab14 indeed binds to RCP, albeit with reduced affinity relative to conventional Rab11-FIP and Rab25-FIP complexes. However, in vivo, Rab11 recruits RCP onto biological membranes. Furthermore, biophysical analyses reveal a noncanonical 1:2 stoichiometry between Rab14-RCP in dilute solutions, in contrast to Rab11/25 complexes. The structure of Rab14-RCP reveals that Rab14 interacts with the canonical Rab-binding domain and also provides insight into the unusual properties of the complex. Finally, we show that both the Rab coupling protein and Rab14 function in neuritogenesis.

  3. Structures of Drosophila melanogaster Rab2 and Rab3 bound to GMPPNP

    PubMed Central

    Lardong, Jennifer A.; Driller, Jan H.; Depner, Harald; Weise, Christoph; Petzoldt, Astrid; Wahl, Markus C.; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Loll, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Rab GTPases belong to the large family of Ras proteins. They act as key regulators of membrane organization and intracellular trafficking. Functionally, they act as switches. In the active GTP-bound form they can bind to effector proteins to facilitate the delivery of transport vesicles. Upon stimulation, the GTP is hydrolyzed and the Rab proteins undergo conformational changes in their switch regions. This study focuses on Rab2 and Rab3 from Drosophila melanogaster. Whereas Rab2 is involved in vesicle transport between the Golgi and the endoplasmatic reticulum, Rab3 is a key player in exocytosis, and in the synapse it is involved in the assembly of the presynaptic active zone. Here, high-resolution crystal structures of Rab2 and Rab3 in complex with GMPPNP and Mg2+ are presented. In the structure of Rab3 a modified cysteine residue is observed with an enigmatic electron density attached to its thiol function. PMID:25615965

  4. 31 Flavors of Drosophila Rab proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Schulze, Karen L.; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Suyama, Kaye; Wang, Stream; Fish, Matthew; Acar, Melih; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, HugoJ.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2007-04-03

    Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles intransport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, association of motor andother proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles atdefined locations. In vertebrates, more than 75 Rab genes have beenidentified, some of which have been intensively studied for their rolesin endosome and synaptic vesicle trafficking. Recent studies of thefunctions of certain Rab proteins have revealed specific roles inmediating developmental signal transduction. We have begun a systematicgenetic study of the 33 Rab genes in Drosophila. Most of the fly proteinsare clearly related to specific vertebrate proteins. We report here thecreation of a set of transgenic fly lines that allow spatially andtemporally regulated expression of Drosophila Rab proteins. We generatedfluorescent protein-tagged wild-type, dominant-negative, andconstitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. We describeDrosophila Rab expression patterns during embryogenesis, the subcellularlocalization of some Rab proteins, and comparisons of the localization ofwild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of selectedRab proteins. The high evolutionary conservation and low redundancy ofDrosophila Rab proteins make these transgenic lines a useful toolkit forinvestigating Rab functions in vivo.

  5. Whacked and Rab35 polarize dynein motor complex-dependent seamless tube growth

    PubMed Central

    Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Ghabrial, Amin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seamless tubes form intracellularly without cell-cell or autocellular junctions. Such tubes have been described across phyla, but remain mysterious despite their simple architecture. In Drosophila, seamless tubes are found within tracheal terminal cells, which have dozens of branched protrusions extending hundreds of microns. We find that mutations in multiple components of the dynein motor complex block seamless tube growth, raising the possibility that the lumenal membrane forms through minus-end directed transport of apical membrane components along microtubules. Growth of seamless tube is polarized along the proximodistal axis by Rab35 and its apical membrane-localized GAP, Whacked. Strikingly, loss of whacked (or constitutive activation of Rab35) leads to tube overgrowth at terminal cell branch tips, while over-expression of whacked (or dominant negative Rab35) causes formation of ectopic tubes surrounding the terminal cell nucleus. Thus, vesicle trafficking plays key roles in making and shaping seamless tubes. PMID:22407366

  6. LMTK1 regulates dendritic formation by regulating movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Tetsuya; Urushibara, Tomoki; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Saito, Taro; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tomomura, Mineko; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Neurons extend two types of neurites—axons and dendrites—that differ in structure and function. Although it is well understood that the cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in neurite differentiation and extension, the mechanisms by which membrane components are supplied to growing axons or dendrites is largely unknown. We previously reported that the membrane supply to axons is regulated by lemur kinase 1 (LMTK1) through Rab11A-positive endosomes. Here we investigate the role of LMTK1 in dendrite formation. Down-regulation of LMTK1 increases dendrite growth and branching of cerebral cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. LMTK1 knockout significantly enhances the prevalence, velocity, and run length of anterograde movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes to levels similar to those expressing constitutively active Rab11A-Q70L. Rab11A-positive endosome dynamics also increases in the cell body and growth cone of LMTK1-deficient neurons. Moreover, a nonphosphorylatable LMTK1 mutant (Ser34Ala, a Cdk5 phosphorylation site) dramatically promotes dendrite growth. Thus LMTK1 negatively controls dendritic formation by regulating Rab11A-positive endosomal trafficking in a Cdk5-dependent manner, indicating the Cdk5-LMTK1-Rab11A pathway as a regulatory mechanism of dendrite development as well as axon outgrowth. PMID:24672056

  7. Bifurcation of the endocytic pathway into Rab5-dependent and -independent transport to the vacuole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshima, Junko Y.; Nishinoaki, Show; Sato, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Wataru; Furukawa, Daiki; Siekhaus, Daria Elisabeth; Sawaguchi, Akira; Toshima, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Rab5 homologue, Vps21p, is known to be involved both in the vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway from the trans-Golgi network to the vacuole, and in the endocytic pathway from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. However, the intracellular location at which these two pathways converge remains unclear. In addition, the endocytic pathway is not completely blocked in yeast cells lacking all Rab5 genes, suggesting the existence of an unidentified route that bypasses the Rab5-dependent endocytic pathway. Here we show that convergence of the endocytic and VPS pathways occurs upstream of the requirement for Vps21p in these pathways. We also identify a previously unidentified endocytic pathway mediated by the AP-3 complex. Importantly, the AP-3-mediated pathway appears mostly intact in Rab5-disrupted cells, and thus works as an alternative route to the vacuole/lysosome. We propose that the endocytic traffic branches into two routes to reach the vacuole: a Rab5-dependent VPS pathway and a Rab5-independent AP-3-mediated pathway.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a GTP-binding protein (MiRab5) in Mangifera indica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-liang; Luo, Cong; Dong, Long; Van Toan, Can; Wei, Peng-xiao; He, Xin-hua

    2014-04-25

    The Rab family, the largest branch of Ras small GTPases, plays a crucial role in the vesicular transport in plants. The members of Rab family act as molecular switches that regulate the fusion of vesicles with target membranes through conformational changes. However, little is known about the Rab5 gene involved in fruit ripening and stress response. In this study, the MiRab5 gene was isolated from stress-induced Mangifera indica. The full-length cDNA sequence was 984bp and contained an open reading frame of 600bp, which encoded a 200 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 21.83kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.99. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high homology with tomato (91% similarity) and contains all five characteristic Rab motifs. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MiRab5 was ubiquitously expressed in various mango tree tissues at different levels. The expression of MiRab5 was up-regulated during later stages of fruit ripening. Moreover, MiRab5 was generally up-regulated in response to various abiotic stresses (cold, salinity, and PEG treatments). Recombinant MiRab5 protein was successfully expressed and purified. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated that the expressed protein was recognized by the anti-6-His antibody. These results provide insights into the role of the MiRab5 gene family in fruit ripening and stress responses in the mango plant.

  9. Drosophila Pkaap regulates Rab4/Rab11-dependent traffic and Rab11 exocytosis of innate immune cargo

    PubMed Central

    Sorvina, Alexandra; Shandala, Tetyana; Brooks, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The secretion of immune-mediators is a critical step in the host innate immune response to pathogen invasion, and Rab GTPases have an important role in the regulation of this process. Rab4/Rab11 recycling endosomes are involved in the sorting of immune-mediators into specialist Rab11 vesicles that can traffic this cargo to the plasma membrane; however, how this sequential delivery process is regulated has yet to be fully defined. Here, we report that Drosophila Pkaap, an orthologue of the human dual-specific A-kinase-anchoring protein 2 or D-AKAP2 (also called AKAP10), appeared to have a nucleotide-dependent localisation to Rab4 and Rab11 endosomes. RNAi silencing of pkaap altered Rab4/Rab11 recycling endosome morphology, suggesting that Pkaap functions in cargo sorting and delivery in the secretory pathway. The depletion of pkaap also had a direct effect on Rab11 vesicle exocytosis and the secretion of the antimicrobial peptide Drosomycin at the plasma membrane. We propose that Pkaap has a dual role in antimicrobial peptide traffic and exocytosis, making it an essential component for the secretion of inflammatory mediators and the defence of the host against pathogens. PMID:27190105

  10. Rabs set the stage for polarity.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sara S; Cox, Christopher; Wilson, Jean M

    2017-01-26

    Cell polarity refers to the asymmetric localization of cellular components that allows cells to carry out their specialized functions, be they epithelial barrier function, transmission of action potentials in nerve cells, or modulation of the immune response. The establishment and maintenance of cell polarity requires the directed trafficking of membrane proteins and lipids - essential processes that are mediated by Rab GTPases. Interestingly, several of the Rabs that impact polarity are present in the earliest eukaryotes, and the Rab polarity repertoire has expanded as cells have become more complex. There is a substantial conservation of Rab function across diverse cell types. Rabs act through an assortment of effector proteins that include scaffolding proteins, cytoskeletal motors, and other small GTPases. In this review we highlight the similarities and differences in Rab function for the instruction of polarity in diverse cell types.

  11. RAB13 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    RAB13 is a member of the Rab family of small G proteins and plays a role in regulating membrane trafficking between trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling endosomes (RE). RAB13 is thought to participate in polarized transport, in the assembly and/or the activity of tight junctions, which are components of the apical junctional complex (AJC) of epithelial cells. There are several alternatively spliced transcript variants for this gene, and a pseudogene located on chromosome 12.

  12. Are There Rab GTPases in Archaea?

    PubMed Central

    Surkont, Jaroslaw; Pereira-Leal, Jose B.

    2016-01-01

    A complex endomembrane system is one of the hallmarks of Eukaryotes. Vesicle trafficking between compartments is controlled by a diverse protein repertoire, including Rab GTPases. These small GTP-binding proteins contribute identity and specificity to the system, and by working as molecular switches, trigger multiple events in vesicle budding, transport, and fusion. A diverse collection of Rab GTPases already existed in the ancestral Eukaryote, yet, it is unclear how such elaborate repertoire emerged. A novel archaeal phylum, the Lokiarchaeota, revealed that several eukaryotic-like protein systems, including small GTPases, are present in Archaea. Here, we test the hypothesis that the Rab family of small GTPases predates the origin of Eukaryotes. Our bioinformatic pipeline detected multiple putative Rab-like proteins in several archaeal species. Our analyses revealed the presence and strict conservation of sequence features that distinguish eukaryotic Rabs from other small GTPases (Rab family motifs), mapping to the same regions in the structure as in eukaryotic Rabs. These mediate Rab-specific interactions with regulators of the REP/GDI (Rab Escort Protein/GDP dissociation Inhibitor) family. Sensitive structure-based methods further revealed the existence of REP/GDI-like genes in Archaea, involved in isoprenyl metabolism. Our analysis supports a scenario where Rabs differentiated into an independent family in Archaea, interacting with proteins involved in membrane biogenesis. These results further support the archaeal nature of the eukaryotic ancestor and provide a new insight into the intermediate stages and the evolutionary path toward the complex membrane-associated signaling circuits that characterize the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, and specifically Rab proteins. PMID:27034425

  13. Small GTPases Rab8a and Rab11a Are Dispensable for Rhodopsin Transport in Mouse Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Guoxin; Gerstner, Cecilia D.; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Boye, Sanford L.; Hauswirth, William W.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Rab11a and Rab8a are ubiquitous small GTPases shown as required for rhodopsin transport in Xenopus laevis and zebrafish photoreceptors by dominant negative (dn) disruption of function. Here, we generated retina-specific Rab11a (retRab11a) and Rab8a (retRab8a) single and double knockout mice to explore the consequences in mouse photoreceptors. Rhodopsin and other outer segment (OS) membrane proteins targeted correctly to OS and electroretinogram (ERG) responses in all three mutant mouse lines were indistinguishable from wild-type (WT). Further, AAV (adeno-associated virus)-mediated expression of dnRab11b in retRab11a-/- retina, or expression of dnRab8b in retRab8a-/- retina did not cause OS protein mislocalization. Finally, a retRab8a-/- retina injected at one month of age with AAVs expressing dnRab11a, dnRab11b, dnRab8b, and dnRab10 (four dn viruses on Rab8a-/- background) and harvested three months later exhibited normal OS protein localization. In contrast to results obtained with dnRab GTPases in Xenopus and zebrafish, mouse Rab11a and Rab8a are dispensable for proper rhodopsin and outer segment membrane protein targeting. Absence of phenotype after expression of four dn Rab GTPases in a Rab8a-/- retina suggests that Rab8b and Rab11b paralogs maybe dispensable as well. Our data thus demonstrate significant interspecies variation in photoreceptor membrane protein and rhodopsin trafficking. PMID:27529348

  14. RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 Promote Retrograde Transport in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donglei; Dubey, Jyoti; Koushika, Sandhya P; Rongo, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde transport is a critical mechanism for recycling certain membrane cargo. Following endocytosis from the plasma membrane, retrograde cargo is moved from early endosomes to Golgi followed by transport (recycling) back to the plasma membrane. The complete molecular and cellular mechanisms of retrograde transport remain unclear. The small GTPase RAB-6.2 mediates the retrograde recycling of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunit GLR-1 in C. elegans neurons. Here we show that RAB-6.2 and a close paralog, RAB-6.1, together regulate retrograde transport in both neurons and non-neuronal tissue. Mutants for rab-6.1 or rab-6.2 fail to recycle GLR-1 receptors, resulting in GLR-1 turnover and behavioral defects indicative of diminished GLR-1 function. Loss of both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 results in an additive effect on GLR-1 retrograde recycling, indicating that these two C. elegans Rab6 isoforms have overlapping functions. MIG-14 (Wntless) protein, which undergoes retrograde recycling, undergoes a similar degradation in intestinal epithelia in both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 mutants, suggesting a broader role for these proteins in retrograde transport. Surprisingly, MIG-14 is localized to separate, spatially segregated endosomal compartments in rab-6.1 mutants compared to rab-6.2 mutants. Our results indicate that RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 have partially redundant functions in overall retrograde transport, but also have their own unique cellular- and subcellular functions.

  15. RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 Promote Retrograde Transport in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donglei; Dubey, Jyoti; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Rongo, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde transport is a critical mechanism for recycling certain membrane cargo. Following endocytosis from the plasma membrane, retrograde cargo is moved from early endosomes to Golgi followed by transport (recycling) back to the plasma membrane. The complete molecular and cellular mechanisms of retrograde transport remain unclear. The small GTPase RAB-6.2 mediates the retrograde recycling of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunit GLR-1 in C. elegans neurons. Here we show that RAB-6.2 and a close paralog, RAB-6.1, together regulate retrograde transport in both neurons and non-neuronal tissue. Mutants for rab-6.1 or rab-6.2 fail to recycle GLR-1 receptors, resulting in GLR-1 turnover and behavioral defects indicative of diminished GLR-1 function. Loss of both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 results in an additive effect on GLR-1 retrograde recycling, indicating that these two C. elegans Rab6 isoforms have overlapping functions. MIG-14 (Wntless) protein, which undergoes retrograde recycling, undergoes a similar degradation in intestinal epithelia in both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 mutants, suggesting a broader role for these proteins in retrograde transport. Surprisingly, MIG-14 is localized to separate, spatially segregated endosomal compartments in rab-6.1 mutants compared to rab-6.2 mutants. Our results indicate that RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 have partially redundant functions in overall retrograde transport, but also have their own unique cellular- and subcellular functions. PMID:26891225

  16. Public Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    military assistance to civil authorities ( MACA ), including consequence management activities. The Armed Forces of the United States support the NSHS...mission and the close relationship between HD and homeland security, homeland defense missions may be conducted in a manner similar to MACA (i.e., with a...during a major event. 4. Public Affairs Operations Under the National Response Plan a. The NRP outlines the federal (including DOD MACA ) response to

  17. RAB21 Activity Assay Using GST-fused APPL1

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Steve; Kiger, Amy A.

    2016-01-01

    The Rab family of small GTPases are essential regulators of membrane trafficking events. As with other small GTPase families, Rab GTPases cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) promote Rab activation with the exchange of bound GDP for GTP, while GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) regulate Rab inactivation with GTP hydrolysis. Numerous methods have been established to monitor the activation status of Rab GTPases. Of those, FRET-based methods are used to identify when and where a Rab GTPase is activated in cells. Unfortunately, the generation of such probes is complex, and only a limited number of Rabs have been probed this way. Biochemical purification of activated Rabs from cell or tissue extracts is easily achievable through the use of a known Rab effector domain to pull down a specific GTP-bound Rab form. Although this method is not ideal for detailed subcellular localization, it can offer temporal resolution of Rab activity. The identification of a growing number of specific effectors now allows tests for activation levels of many Rab GTPases in specific conditions. Here, we described an affinity purification approach using GST fused APPL1 (a known RAB21 effector) to test RAB21 activation in mammalian cells. This method was successfully used to assay changes in RAB21 activation status under nutrient rich versus starved conditions and to test the requirement of the MTMR13 RAB21 GEF in this process. PMID:28251173

  18. PpRab1, a Rab GTPase from maritime pine is differentially expressed during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Cairney, John; Rodríguez, María Pérez; Cánovas, Francisco; Oliveira, Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2007-09-01

    Rab-related small GTP-binding proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of the vesicular transport system in eukaryotic cells. We report the characterization of a previously isolated full-length cDNA PpRab1 from Pinus pinaster. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed the presence of G1-G5 conserved domains of the GTPase Ras superfamily and a double cysteine motif in the C-terminal, characteristic of Rab proteins. The PpRab1 protein shows high sequence similarity to several Rab1 GTP-binding proteins in plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, within the Ras superfamily, PpRab1 is more closely related to the Rab family and within this, PpRab1 protein was found to cluster with Arabidopsis subfamily AtRABE, whose members are known to regulate ER-to-Golgi membrane trafficking steps. PpRab1 transcripts were expressed at constitutively high levels for the initial stages of zygotic embryo development, and then their relative abundance decreased as embryo matures. The PpRab1 transcript is not embryo-specific as it was found in roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. An increase in PpRab1 expression level was observed when seeds are germinated and collected at successive time points of development. In situ RT-PCR analysis revealed an expression signal in early zygotic embryos. In view of the proposed roles of Rab1 GTP-binding protein, the possible function of the protein encoded by PpRab1 in embryogenesis is discussed.

  19. The Rab interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) homology domain functions as a novel effector domain for small GTPase Rab36: Rab36 regulates retrograde melanosome transport in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takahide; Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2012-08-17

    Small GTPase Rab functions as a molecular switch that drives membrane trafficking through specific interaction with its effector molecule. Thus, identification of its specific effector domain is crucial to revealing the molecular mechanism that underlies Rab-mediated membrane trafficking. Because of the large numbers of Rab isoforms in higher eukaryotes, however, the effector domains of most of the vertebrate- or mammalian-specific Rabs have yet to be determined. In this study we screened for effector molecules of Rab36, a previously uncharacterized Rab isoform that is largely conserved in vertebrates, and we succeeded in identifying nine Rab36-binding proteins, including RILP (Rab interacting lysosomal protein) family members. Sequence comparison revealed that five of nine Rab36-binding proteins, i.e. RILP, RILP-L1, RILP-L2, and JIP3/4, contain a conserved coiled-coil domain. We identified the coiled-coil domain as a RILP homology domain (RHD) and characterized it as a common Rab36-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the RHD of RILP revealed the different contributions by amino acids in the RHD to binding activity toward Rab7 and Rab36. Expression of RILP in melanocytes, but not expression of its Rab36 binding-deficient mutants, induced perinuclear aggregation of melanosomes, and this effect was clearly attenuated by knockdown of endogenous Rab36 protein. Moreover, knockdown of Rab36 in Rab27A-deficient melanocytes, which normally exhibit perinuclear melanosome aggregation because of increased retrograde melanosome transport activity, caused dispersion of melanosomes from the perinucleus to the cell periphery, but knockdown of Rab7 did not. Our findings indicated that Rab36 mediates retrograde melanosome transport in melanocytes through interaction with RILP.

  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Rab7 by Src kinase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaosi; Zhang, Jiaming; Chen, Lingqiu; Chen, Yongjun; Xu, Xiaohui; Hong, Wanjin; Wang, Tuanlao

    2017-03-20

    The small molecular weight GTPase Rab7 is a key regulator for late endosomal/lysosomal membrane trafficking, it was known that Rab7 is phosphorylated, but the corresponding kinase and the functional regulation of Rab7 phosphorylation remain unclear. We provide evidence here that Rab7 is a substrate of Src kinase, and is tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src, withY183 residue of Rab7 being the optimal phosphorylation site for Src. Further investigations demonstrated that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Rab7 depends on the guanine nucleotide binding activity of Rab7 and the activity of Src kinase. The tyrosine phosphorylation of Rab7 is physiologically induced by EGF, and impairs the interaction of Rab7 with RILP, consequently inhibiting EGFR degradation and sustaining Akt signaling. These results suggest that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Rab7 may be involved in coordinating membrane trafficking and cell signaling.

  1. The RCP-Rab11 complex regulates endocytic protein sorting.

    PubMed

    Peden, Andrew A; Schonteich, Eric; Chun, John; Junutula, Jagath R; Scheller, Richard H; Prekeris, Rytis

    2004-08-01

    Rab 11 GTPase is an important regulator of endocytic membrane traffic. Recently, we and others have identified a novel family of Rab11 binding proteins, known as Rab11-family interacting proteins (FIPs). One of the family members, Rab coupling protein (RCP), was identified as a protein binding to both Rab4 and Rab11 GTPases. RCP was therefore suggested to serve a dual function as Rab4 and Rab11 binding protein. In this study, we characterized the cellular functions of RCP and mapped its interactions with Rab4 and Rab11. Our data show that RCP interacts only weakly with Rab4 in vitro and does not play the role of coupling Rab11 and Rab4 in vivo. Furthermore, our data indicate that the RCP-Rab11 complex regulates the sorting of transferrin receptors from the degradative to the recycling pathway. We therefore propose that RCP functions primarily as a Rab11 binding protein that regulates protein sorting in tubular endosomes.

  2. RAB5A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: The small GTPases Rab are key regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking, from the formation of transport vesicles to their fusion with membranes. Rabs cycle between an inactive GDP-bound form and an active GTP-bound form that is able to recruit to membranes different sets of downstream effectors directly responsible for vesicle formation, movement, tethering and fusion. RAB5A is required for the fusion of plasma membranes and early endosomes. Contributes to the regulation of filopodia extension.

  3. The Ccz1-Mon1-Rab7 module and Rab5 control distinct steps of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Hegedűs, Krisztina; Takáts, Szabolcs; Boda, Attila; Jipa, András; Nagy, Péter; Varga, Kata; Kovács, Attila L.; Juhász, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 promotes recruitment of the Ccz1-Mon1 guanosine exchange complex to endosomes to activate Rab7, which facilitates endosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes. How these factors function during autophagy is incompletely understood. Here we show that autophagosomes accumulate due to impaired fusion with lysosomes upon loss of the Ccz1-Mon1-Rab7 module in starved Drosophila fat cells. In contrast, autophagosomes generated in Rab5-null mutant cells normally fuse with lysosomes during the starvation response. Consistent with that, Rab5 is dispensable for the Ccz1-Mon1–dependent recruitment of Rab7 to PI3P-positive autophagosomes, which are generated by the action of the Atg14-containing Vps34 PI3 kinase complex. Finally, we find that Rab5 is required for proper lysosomal function. Thus the Ccz1-Mon1-Rab7 module is required for autophagosome-lysosome fusion, whereas Rab5 loss interferes with a later step of autophagy: the breakdown of autophagic cargo within lysosomes. PMID:27559127

  4. A complete Rab screening reveals novel insights in Weibel-Palade body exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zografou, Sofia; Basagiannis, Dimitris; Papafotika, Alexandra; Shirakawa, Ryutaro; Horiuchi, Hisanori; Auerbach, Daniel; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Christoforidis, Savvas

    2012-10-15

    Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are endothelial-cell-specific organelles that, upon fusion with the plasma membrane, release cargo molecules that are essential in blood vessel abnormalities, such as thrombosis and inflammation, as well as in angiogenesis. Despite the importance of WPBs, the basic mechanisms that mediate their secretion are only poorly understood. Rab GTPases play fundamental role in the trafficking of intracellular organelles. Yet, the only known WPB-associated Rabs are Rab27a and Rab3d. To determine the full spectrum of WPB-associated Rabs we performed a complete Rab screening by analysing the localisation of all Rabs in WPBs and their involvement in the secretory process in endothelial cells. Apart from Rab3 and Rab27, we identified three additional Rabs, Rab15 (a previously reported endocytic Rab), Rab33 and Rab37, on the WPB limiting membrane. A knockdown approach using siRNAs showed that among these five WPB Rabs only Rab3, Rab27 and Rab15 are required for exocytosis. Intriguingly, we found that Rab15 cooperates with Rab27a in WPB secretion. Furthermore, a specific effector of Rab27, Munc13-4, appears to be also an effector of Rab15 and is required for WPB exocytosis. These data indicate that WPB secretion requires the coordinated function of a specific group of Rabs and that, among them, Rab27a and Rab15, as well as their effector Munc13-4, cooperate to drive exocytosis.

  5. Thousands of rab GTPases for the cell biologist.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Yoan; Seixas, Elsa; Gouw, Marc; Tavares-Cadete, Filipe; Seabra, Miguel C; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2011-10-01

    Rab proteins are small GTPases that act as essential regulators of vesicular trafficking. 44 subfamilies are known in humans, performing specific sets of functions at distinct subcellular localisations and tissues. Rab function is conserved even amongst distant orthologs. Hence, the annotation of Rabs yields functional predictions about the cell biology of trafficking. So far, annotating Rabs has been a laborious manual task not feasible for current and future genomic output of deep sequencing technologies. We developed, validated and benchmarked the Rabifier, an automated bioinformatic pipeline for the identification and classification of Rabs, which achieves up to 90% classification accuracy. We cataloged roughly 8.000 Rabs from 247 genomes covering the entire eukaryotic tree. The full Rab database and a web tool implementing the pipeline are publicly available at www.RabDB.org. For the first time, we describe and analyse the evolution of Rabs in a dataset covering the whole eukaryotic phylogeny. We found a highly dynamic family undergoing frequent taxon-specific expansions and losses. We dated the origin of human subfamilies using phylogenetic profiling, which enlarged the Rab repertoire of the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor with Rab14, 32 and RabL4. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the Choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis Rab family pinpointed the changes that accompanied the emergence of Metazoan multicellularity, mainly an important expansion and specialisation of the secretory pathway. Lastly, we experimentally establish tissue specificity in expression of mouse Rabs and show that neo-functionalisation best explains the emergence of new human Rab subfamilies. With the Rabifier and RabDB, we provide tools that easily allows non-bioinformaticians to integrate thousands of Rabs in their analyses. RabDB is designed to enable the cell biology community to keep pace with the increasing number of fully-sequenced genomes and change the scale at which we perform

  6. Isolation, sequence identification and expression profile of three novel genes Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A from Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    He, Y D; Liu, D D; Xi, D M; Yang, L Y; Tan, Y W; Liu, Q; Mao, H M; Deng, W D

    2010-01-01

    Complete coding sequences of three Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries) genes Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A were amplified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved sequence information of cattle or other mammals known to be highly homologous to sheep ESTs. The Black-boned sheep Rab2A gene encodes a protein of 226 amino acids which contains the conserved putative RabL2 domain and is highly homologous to the Rab2A proteins of seven other species--cattle (96%), human (83%), Sumatran orangutan (82%), rat (81%), mouse (80%), African clawed frog (72%) and zebrafish (71%). The Black-boned sheep Rab3A gene encodes a protein of 220 amino acids that contains the conserved putative Rab3 domain and is very similar to the Rab3A proteins of four species--cattle (99%), African clawed frog (99%), Western clawed frog (98%) and zebrafish (95%). And the Black-boned sheep Rab7A gene encodes a protein of 207 amino acids that contains the conserved putative Rab7 domain and has high homology with the Rab7A proteins of six other species--human (99%), dog (99%), Sumatran orangutan (99%), zebrafish (97%), rabbit (97%) and African clawed frog (96%). Analysis of the phylogenetic tree has demonstrated that the Black-boned sheep Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A proteins share a common ancestor and the tissue expression analysis has shown that the corresponding genes are expressed in a range of tissues including leg muscle, kidney, skin, longissimus dorsi muscle, spleen, heart and liver. Our experiment is the first to provide the primary foundation for a further insight into these three sheep genes.

  7. Distinct yet overlapping roles of Rab GTPases on synaptic vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Pavlos, Nathan J

    2011-01-01

    Exo-endocytotic cycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is one of the most intensely studied membrane trafficking pathways. It is governed by sets of conserved proteins including Rab GTPases. Long considered to define the identity and composition of a subcellular organelle, it has become increasingly evident that multiple Rabs co-exist on intracellular compartments, each contributing to its membrane organization and specialised function. Indeed, we have recently demonstrated that at least 11 distinct Rab proteins co-exist on highly purified SVs. These include Rabs involved in exocytosis (Rab3a/b/c and Rab27b) and intermediates of SV recycling such as early endosomes (Rab4, Rab5, Rab10, Rab11b and Rab14). Interestingly, we found that while two of these proteins, namely Rab3a and Rab27b, exhibited differential cycling dynamics on SV membranes; they played complementary roles during Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release. The implications of these findings in the SV trafficking cycle are discussed. PMID:21776405

  8. Structural Insights into Rab27 Recruitment by its Effectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. G. Chavas, Leonard; Ihara, Kentaro; Kawasaki, Masato; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    An increasing number of Rab GTPases associated with partial dysfunction has been linked to several human diseases characterized by a diminution in vesicle transport. Due to its direct implication in human disorders, the Rab27 subfamily is considered as a standard for vesicle docking studies. By which mechanism Rab27 effectors distinguish among the pool of Rab GTPases? What is the underneath machinery rendering the interaction of eleven distinct effectors specific of Rab27 when compared to other Rabs of the secretory pathway? By solving the X-ray structures of Rab27, both in its inactive form and active form bound to the effector protein Slp2-a, attempts have been given to unravel the molecular basis of regulation of the delivering process of vesicles to fusion by the Rab27 subfamily.

  9. Small RAB GTPases Regulate Multiple Steps of Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Miserey-Lenkei, Stéphanie; Colombo, María I.

    2016-01-01

    GTPases of the RAB family are key regulators of multiple steps of membrane trafficking. Several members of the RAB GTPase family have been implicated in mitotic progression. In this review, we will first focus on the function of endosome-associated RAB GTPases reported in early steps of mitosis, spindle pole maturation, and during cytokinesis. Second, we will discuss the role of Golgi-associated RAB GTPases at the metaphase/anaphase transition and during cytokinesis. PMID:26925400

  10. The role of the small GTPase Rab31 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Christelle En Lin; Tang, Bor Luen

    2015-01-01

    Members of the small GTPase family Rab are emerging as potentially important factors in cancer development and progression. A good number of Rabs have been implicated or associated with various human cancers, and much recent excitement has been associated with the roles of the Rab11 subfamily member Rab25 and its effector, the Rab coupling protein (RCP), in tumourigenesis and metastasis. In this review, we focus on a Rab5 subfamily member, Rab31, and its implicated role in cancer. Well recognized as a breast cancer marker with good prognostic value, recent findings have provided some insights as to the mechanism underlying Rab31's influence on oncogenesis. Levels of Oestrogen Receptor α (ERα)- responsive Rab31 could be elevated through stabilization of its transcript by the RNA binding protein HuR, or though activation by the oncoprotein mucin1-C (MUC1-C), which forms a transcriptional complex with ERα. Elevated Rab31 stabilizes MUC1-C levels in an auto-inductive loop that could lead to aberrant signalling and gene expression associated with cancer progression. Rab31 and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor GAPex-5 have, however, also been shown to enhance early endosome-late endosome transport and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The multifaceted action and influences of Rab31 in cancer is discussed in the light of its new interacting partners and pathways. PMID:25472813

  11. Rab24 is required for normal cell division.

    PubMed

    Militello, Rodrigo D; Munafó, Daniela B; Berón, Walter; López, Luis A; Monier, Solange; Goud, Bruno; Colombo, María I

    2013-05-01

    Rab24 is an atypical member of the Rab GTPase family whose distribution in interphase cells has been characterized; however, its function remains largely unknown. In this study, we have analyzed the distribution of Rab24 throughout cell division. We have observed that Rab24 was located at the mitotic spindle in metaphase, at the midbody during telophase and in the furrow during cytokinesis. We have also observed partial co-localization of Rab24 and tubulin and demonstrated its association to microtubules. Interestingly, more than 90% of transiently transfected HeLa cells with Rab24 presented abnormal nuclear connections (i.e., chromatin bridges). Furthermore, in CHO cells stably transfected with GFP-Rab24wt, we observed a large percentage of binucleated and multinucleated cells. In addition, these cells presented an extremely large size and multiple failures in mitosis, as aberrant spindle formation (metaphase), delayed chromosomes (telophase) and multiple cytokinesis. A marked increase in binucleated, multinucleated and multilobulated nucleus formation was observed in HeLa cells depleted of Rab24. We also present evidence that a fraction of Rab24 associates with microtubules. In addition, Rab24 knock down resulted in misalignment of chromosomes and abnormal spindle formation in metaphase leading to the appearance of delayed chromosomes during late telophase and failures in cytokinesis. Our findings suggest that an adequate level of Rab24 is necessary for normal cell division. In summary, Rab24 modulates several mitotic events, including chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, perhaps through the interaction with microtubules.

  12. 32 CFR 202.9 - Conducting RAB meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... public will have a designated time on the agenda to speak to the RAB committee as a whole. (b) Nature of...) MISCELLANEOUS RESTORATION ADVISORY BOARDS Operating Requirements § 202.9 Conducting RAB meetings. (a) Public participation. RAB meetings shall be open to the public. (1) The installation co-chair shall prepare and...

  13. Prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of a novel Rab-like protein mRabL5.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Guo, Shi-Ying; Pan, Fei-Yan; Geng, Hui-Xia; Gong, Yi; Lou, Dan; Shu, Yong-Qian; Li, Chao-Jun

    2007-05-01

    Rab GTPases, which belong to the Ras superfamily, represent a group of small molecular weight GTP binding proteins that are involved in various steps along the exocytic and endocytic pathways. We first identified mRabL5 (GenBank Accession No. NP_080349), a novel Mus musculus Rab-like protein, present as a Golgi-associated protein. Here we presented the results of the cloning, prokaryotic expression, purification, and polyclonal antibody production of the novel Rab-like protein. In order to obtain a specific antibody against mRabL5, we prepared two GST fusion proteins, full-length mRabL5 GST fusion protein and mRabL5 C terminus GST fusion protein, to immunize rabbits. Western blot analysis showed that both antibodies prepared against full length of mRabL5 and its C terminus, respectively, can recognize mRabL5 protein. Immunofluorescence of mRabL5 in NIH3T3 cells using the two antibodies showed its perinuclear clustering distribution pattern. The polyclonal antibodies preparation against mRabL5 provided a good tool for us to study the functional involvement of mRabL5.

  14. Myosin Vc Interacts with Rab32 and Rab38 Proteins and Works in the Biogenesis and Secretion of Melanosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Bultema, Jarred J.; Boyle, Judith A.; Malenke, Parker B.; Martin, Faye E.; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C.; Cheney, Richard E.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2014-01-01

    Class V myosins are actin-based motors with conserved functions in vesicle and organelle trafficking. Herein we report the discovery of a function for Myosin Vc in melanosome biogenesis as an effector of melanosome-associated Rab GTPases. We isolated Myosin Vc in a yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with Rab38, a Rab protein involved in the biogenesis of melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles. Rab38 and its close homolog Rab32 bind to Myosin Vc but not to Myosin Va or Myosin Vb. Binding depends on residues in the switch II region of Rab32 and Rab38 and regions of the Myosin Vc coiled-coil tail domain. Myosin Vc also interacts with Rab7a and Rab8a but not with Rab11, Rab17, and Rab27. Although Myosin Vc is not particularly abundant on pigmented melanosomes, its knockdown in MNT-1 melanocytes caused defects in the trafficking of integral membrane proteins to melanosomes with substantially increased surface expression of Tyrp1, nearly complete loss of Tyrp2, and significant Vamp7 mislocalization. Knockdown of Myosin Vc in MNT-1 cells more than doubled the abundance of pigmented melanosomes but did not change the number of unpigmented melanosomes. Together the data demonstrate a novel role for Myosin Vc in melanosome biogenesis and secretion. PMID:25324551

  15. Rabifier2: an improved bioinformatic classifier of Rab GTPases.

    PubMed

    Surkont, Jaroslaw; Diekmann, Yoan; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2016-10-22

    The Rab family of small GTPases regulates and provides specificity to the endomembrane trafficking system; each Rab subfamily is associated with specific pathways. Thus, characterization of Rab repertoires provides functional information about organisms and evolution of the eukaryotic cell. Yet, the complex structure of the Rab family limits the application of existing methods for protein classification. Here, we present a major redesign of the Rabifier, a bioinformatic pipeline for detection and classification of Rab GTPases. It is more accurate, significantly faster than the original version and is now open source, both the code and the data, allowing for community participation.

  16. Crystal structure of inactive form of Rab3B

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yang; Jiao, Ronghong; Liu, Yanli; Deng, Lingfu; Qi, Chao

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first structural information of human Rab3B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To provides a structural basis for the GDP/GTP switch in controlling the activity of Rab3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The charge distribution of Rab3B indicates its unique roles in vesicular trafficking. -- Abstract: Rab proteins are the largest family of ras-related GTPases in eukaryotic cells. They act as directional molecular switches at membrane trafficking, including vesicle budding, cargo sorting, transport, tethering, and fusion. Here, we generated and crystallized the Rab3B:GDP complex. The structure of the complex was solved to 1.9 A resolution and the structural base comparison with other Rab3 members provides a structural basis for the GDP/GTP switch in controlling the activity of small GTPase. The comparison of charge distribution among the members of Rab3 also indicates their different roles in vesicular trafficking.

  17. Multiple Roles of the Small GTPase Rab7

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Flora; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Rab7 is a small GTPase that belongs to the Rab family and controls transport to late endocytic compartments such as late endosomes and lysosomes. The mechanism of action of Rab7 in the late endocytic pathway has been extensively studied. Rab7 is fundamental for lysosomal biogenesis, positioning and functions, and for trafficking and degradation of several signaling receptors, thus also having implications on signal transduction. Several Rab7 interacting proteins have being identified leading to the discovery of a number of different important functions, beside its established role in endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab7 has specific functions in neurons. This review highlights and discusses the role and the importance of Rab7 on different cellular pathways and processes. PMID:27548222

  18. China Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is China Report include Economic Affairs. It contains the issues with different topics on People’s Republic of China: Provincial Affairs, Economic Planning, Economic Management, Finance and Banking, Mineral Resources , Industry, Transportation.

  19. Rab 7: an important regulator of late endocytic membrane traffic

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Rab5 and rab7 proteins belong to a superfamily of small molecular weight GTPases known to be associated with early and late endosomes, respectively. The rab5 protein plays an important regulatory role in early endocytosis, yet the function of rab7 protein was previously uncharacterized. This question was addressed by comparing the kinetics of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G protein internalization in baby hamster kidney cells overexpressing wild-type or dominant negative mutant forms of the rab7 protein (rab7N125I and rab7T22N). Overexpression of wild-type rab7 protein allowed normal transport to late endosomes (mannose 6-phosphate receptor positive), while the rab7N125I mutant caused the VSV G protein to accumulate specifically in early (transferrin receptor positive) endosomes. Horseradish peroxidase and paramyxovirus SV5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) were used in quantitative biochemical assays to further demonstrate that rab7 function was not required for early internalization events, but was crucial in downstream degradative events. The characteristic cleavage of SV5 HN in the late endosome distinguishes internalization from transport to later stages of the endocytic pathway. Mutant rab7N125I or rab7T22N proteins had no effect on the internalization of either horseradish peroxidase or SV5 HN protein. In contrast, the mutant proteins markedly inhibited the subsequent cleavage of the SV5 HN protein. Taken together, these data support a key role for rab7, downstream of rab5, in regulating membrane transport leading from early to late endosomes. We compare our findings to those obtained for the yeast homologues Ypt51p, Ypt52p, Ypt53p, and Ypt7p. PMID:8522602

  20. Rab8a/Rab11a regulate intercellular communications between neural cells via tunneling nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; Xue, Chengbin; Xu, Xi; Guo, Yibing; Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Jingjing; Ju, Shaoqing; Wang, Yongjun; Cao, Zheng; Gu, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are F-actin-based membrane tubes, and can form between cultured cells and within vital tissues. TNTs mediate intercellular communications that range from electrical signaling to the transfer of organelles. Following peripheral nerve injury, the orchestrated intercellular communications among neural and non-neural cells are required for effective nerve regeneration. It remains unknown whether TNTs exist between neural cells in the peripheral nerve system and how TNTs affect neural regeneration. To address these interesting questions, we investigated the transfer of neurotropic factors, membrane protein, cytoplasmic protein, mitochondria and RNA in functional TNTs formed between cultured Schwann cells (SCs). TNT-like structures were increased not only in cultured SCs after exposure to serum depletion but also in longitudinal sections of proximal sciatic nerve stump harvested after rat peripheral nerve transection. Meanwhile, downregulation of Rab8a or Rab11a in cultured SCs inhibited the formation of functional TNTs and vesicle transfer and led to decrease in cell migration, increase in SCs apoptosis. Likewise, knockdown of Rab8a or Rab11a in primary SCs also suppressed axonal outgrowth from co-cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Overall, our results suggested that the gene of Rab8a or Rab11a might be involved in the formation of TNTs structures in the peripheral nerve system, while TNTs structures were likely to affect peripheral nerve regeneration through the regulation of neural cell communications. PMID:28005071

  1. Characterization of a RAB5 homologue in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Araripe, Júlia Rolão; Ramos, Fabiane Pereira; Cunha e Silva, Narcisa Leal; Urményi, Turán Péter; Silva, Rosane; Leite Fontes, Carlos Frederico; da Silveira, José Franco; Rondinelli, Edson

    2005-04-08

    RAB proteins are small GTPases involved in exocytic and endocytic pathways of eukaryotic cells, controlling vesicle docking and fusion. RABs show a remarkable specificity in subcellular localization, so they can be used as molecular markers for studying protein trafficking in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' disease. RAB5 is a component of early endosomes. It has been identified in kinetoplastids such as Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania donovani. In this work, we describe the characterization of the complete coding sequence of a RAB5 gene homologue in T. cruzi (TcRAB5, GenBank Accession No. AY730667). It is present as a single copy gene, located at chromosomal bands XIII and XIV. TcRAB5 shares the highest degrees of similarity (71%) and identity (63%) with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense RAB5a and contains all five characteristic RAB motifs. TcRAB5 is transcribed as a single 1.5kb mRNA in epimastigotes. Its transcript was also detected in the other two forms of the parasite, metacyclic trypomastigotes and spheromastigotes. The recombinant TcRAB5 protein was able to bind and hydrolyze GTP. The identification of proteins involved in T. cruzi endo- and exocytic pathways may generate cellular compartment markers, an invaluable tool to better understand the vesicular transport in this parasite.

  2. A family of Rab27-binding proteins. Melanophilin links Rab27a and myosin Va function in melanosome transport.

    PubMed

    Strom, Molly; Hume, Alistair N; Tarafder, Abul K; Barkagianni, Eleni; Seabra, Miguel C

    2002-07-12

    The Rab27a GTPase regulates diverse processes involving lysosome-related organelles, including melanosome motility in melanocytes, and lytic granule release in cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Toward an understanding of Rab27a function, we searched for proteins that interact with Rab27a(GTP) using the yeast two-hybrid system and identified JFC1/Slp1, a protein of unknown function. JFC1/Slp1 and related proteins, including melanophilin, contain a conserved amino-terminal domain similar to the Rab3a-binding domain of Rabphilin-3. We used several methods to demonstrate that this conserved amino-terminal domain is a Rab27-binding domain. We show that this domain interacts directly, and in a GTP-dependent manner with Rab27a. Furthermore, overexpression of this domain in melanocytes results in perinuclear clustering of melanosomes, suggesting that this region is sufficient for interaction with, and perturbation of function of, Rab27a in a physiological context. Thus, we identified a novel family of Rab27-binding proteins. We also show that melanophilin associates with Rab27a and myosin Va on melanosomes in melanocytes, and present evidence that a domain within the carboxyl-terminal region of melanophilin interacts with the carboxyl-terminal tail of the melanocyte-specific splice isoform of myosin Va. Thus, melanophilin can associate simultaneously with activated Rab27a and myosin Va via distinct regions, and serve as a linker between these proteins.

  3. Phosphonocarboxylates Inhibit the Second Geranylgeranyl Addition by Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Rudi A.; Tavaré, Richard; Figueiredo, Ana C.; Błażewska, Katarzyna M.; Kashemirov, Boris A.; McKenna, Charles E.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Taylor, Adam; Rogers, Michael J.; Coxon, Fraser P.; Seabra, Miguel C.

    2009-01-01

    Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT) catalyzes the post-translational geranylgeranyl (GG) modification of (usually) two C-terminal cysteines in Rab GTPases. Here we studied the mechanism of the Rab geranylgeranylation reaction by bisphosphonate analogs in which one phosphonate group is replaced by a carboxylate (phosphonocarboxylate, PC). The phosphonocarboxylates used were 3-PEHPC, which was previously reported, and 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid ((+)-3-IPEHPC), a >25-fold more potent related compound as measured by both IC50 and Ki.(+)-3-IPEHPC behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to GG pyrophosphate (GGPP) and an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to Rab substrates. We propose that phosphonocarboxylates prevent only the second GG transfer onto Rabs based on the following evidence. First, geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins ending with a single cysteine motif such as CAAX, is not affected by the inhibitors, either in vitro or in vivo. Second, the addition of an -AAX sequence onto Rab-CC proteins protects the substrate from inhibition by the inhibitors. Third, we demonstrate directly that in the presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC, Rab-CC and Rab-CXC proteins are modified by only a single GG addition. The presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC resulted in a preference for the Rab N-terminal cysteine to be modified first, suggesting an order of cysteine geranylgeranylation in RGGT catalysis. Our results further suggest that the inhibitor binds to a site distinct from the GGPP-binding site on RGGT. We suggest that phosphonocarboxylate inhibitors bind to a GG-cysteine binding site adjacent to the active site, which is necessary to align the mono-GG-Rab for the second GG addition. These inhibitors may represent a novel therapeutic approach in Rab-mediated diseases. PMID:19074143

  4. Rab5 Isoforms Orchestrate a “Division of Labor” in the Endocytic Network; Rab5C Modulates Rac-Mediated Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-I; Schauer, Kristine; Kong, Chen; Harding, Andrew R.; Goud, Bruno; Stahl, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Rab5, the prototypical Rab GTPase and master regulator of the endocytic pathway, is encoded as three differentially expressed isoforms, Rab5A, Rab5B and Rab5C. Here, we examined the differential effects of Rab5 isoform silencing on cell motility and report that Rab5C, but neither Rab5A nor Rab5B, is selectively associated with the growth factor-activation of Rac1 and with enhanced cell motility. Initial observations revealed that silencing of Rab5C expression, but neither Rab5A nor Rab5C, led to spindle-shaped cells that displayed reduced formation of membrane ruffles. When subjected to a scratch wound assay, cells depleted of Rab5C, but not Rab5A or Rab5B, demonstrated reduced cell migration. U937 cells depleted of Rab5C also displayed reduced cell motility in a Transwell plate migration assay. To examine activation of Rac, HeLa cells stably expressing GFP-Rac1 were independently depleted of Rab5A, Rab5B or Rab5C and seeded onto coverslips imprinted with a crossbow pattern. 3-D GFP-Rac1 images of micro-patterned cells show that GFP-Rac1 was less localized to the cell periphery in the absence of Rab5C. To confirm the connection between Rab5C and Rac activation, HeLa cells depleted of Rab5 isoforms were starved and then stimulated with EGF. Rac1 pull-down assays revealed that EGF-stimulated Rac1 activity was significantly suppressed in Rab5C-suppressed cells. To determine whether events upstream of Rac activation were affected by Rab5C, we observed that EGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in cells depleted of Rab5C. Finally, since spatio-temporal assembly/disassembly of adhesion complexes are essential components of cell migration, we examined the effect of Rab5 isoform depletion on the formation of focal adhesion complexes. Rab5C-depleted HeLa cells have significantly fewer focal adhesion foci, in accordance with the lack of persistent lamellipodial protrusions and reduced directional migration. We conclude that Rab5 isoforms selectively oversee the

  5. Crystal structure of inactive form of Rab3B

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yang; Jiao, Ronghong; Liu, Yanli; Deng, Lingfu; Qi, Chao

    2012-06-28

    Rab proteins are the largest family of ras-related GTPases in eukaryotic cells. They act as directional molecular switches at membrane trafficking, including vesicle budding, cargo sorting, transport, tethering, and fusion. Here, we generated and crystallized the Rab3B:GDP complex. The structure of the complex was solved to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution and the structural base comparison with other Rab3 members provides a structural basis for the GDP/GTP switch in controlling the activity of small GTPase. The comparison of charge distribution among the members of Rab3 also indicates their different roles in vesicular trafficking.

  6. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  7. A Paired RNAi and RabGAP Overexpression Screen Identifies Rab11 as a Regulator of β-Amyloid Production

    PubMed Central

    Udayar, Vinod; Buggia-Prévot, Virginie; Guerreiro, Rita L.; Siegel, Gabriele; Rambabu, Naresh; Soohoo, Amanda L.; Ponnusamy, Moorthi; Siegenthaler, Barbara; Bali, Jitin; Guerreiro, Rita; Brás, José; Sassi, Celeste; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Hernandez, Dena; Lupton, Michelle K.; Brown, Kristelle; Morgan, Kevin; Powell, John; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Simons, Mikael; Ries, Jonas; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Hardy, John; Thinakaran, Gopal; Rajendran, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Summary Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by cerebral deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, which are generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. APP and the secretases are membrane associated, but whether membrane trafficking controls Aβ levels is unclear. Here, we performed an RNAi screen of all human Rab-GTPases, which regulate membrane trafficking, complemented with a Rab-GTPase-activating protein screen, and present a road map of the membrane-trafficking events regulating Aβ production. We identify Rab11 and Rab3 as key players. Although retromers and retromer-associated proteins control APP recycling, we show that Rab11 controlled β-secretase endosomal recycling to the plasma membrane and thus affected Aβ production. Exome sequencing revealed a significant genetic association of Rab11A with late-onset AD, and network analysis identified Rab11A and Rab11B as components of the late-onset AD risk network, suggesting a causal link between Rab11 and AD. Our results reveal trafficking pathways that regulate Aβ levels and show how systems biology approaches can unravel the molecular complexity underlying AD. PMID:24373285

  8. Small GTPase Rab2B and Its Specific Binding Protein Golgi-associated Rab2B Interactor-like 4 (GARI-L4) Regulate Golgi Morphology*

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Megumi; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2015-01-01

    Rab small GTPases are crucial regulators of the membrane traffic that maintains organelle identity and morphology. Several Rab isoforms are present in the Golgi, and it has been suggested that they regulate the compacted morphology of the Golgi in mammalian cells. However, the functional relationships among the Golgi-resident Rabs, e.g. whether they are functionally redundant or different, are poorly understood. In this study, we used specific siRNAs to perform genome-wide screening for human Rabs that are involved in Golgi morphology in HeLa-S3 cells. The results showed that knockdown of any one of the six Rab isoforms (Rab1A/1B/2A/2B/6B/8A) induced fragmentation of the Golgi in HeLa-S3 cells and that its phenotype was rescued by re-expression of their respective siRNA-resistant construct. We then performed systematic knockdown-rescue experiments in relation to each of the six Rabs. Interestingly, with the exception of the Rab8A knockdown, the Golgi fragmentation phenotype induced by knockdown of a single Rab isoform, e.g. Rab2B, was efficiently rescued by re-expression of its siRNA-resistant Rab alone, not by any of the other five Rabs, e.g. Rab2A, which is highly homologous to Rab2B, indicating that these Rab isoforms non-redundantly regulate Golgi morphology possibly through interaction with isoform-specific effector molecules. In addition, we identified Golgi-associated Rab2B interactor-like 4 (GARI-L4) as a novel Golgi-resident Rab2B-specific binding protein whose knockdown also induced fragmentation of the Golgi. Our findings suggest that the compacted Golgi morphology of mammalian cells is finely tuned by multiple sets of Rab (or Rab-effector complexes) that for the most part function independently. PMID:26209634

  9. RAB24 facilitates clearance of autophagic compartments during basal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Mikkonen, Elisa; Happonen, Kaisa E; Holland, Petter; Ueno, Takashi; Simonsen, Anne; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    RAB24 belongs to a family of small GTPases and has been implicated to function in autophagy. Here we confirm the intracellular localization of RAB24 to autophagic vacuoles with immuno electron microscopy and cell fractionation, and show that prenylation and guanine nucleotide binding are necessary for the targeting of RAB24 to autophagic compartments. Further, we show that RAB24 plays a role in the maturation and/or clearance of autophagic compartments under nutrient-rich conditions, but not during short amino acid starvation. Quantitative electron microscopy shows an increase in the numbers of late autophagic compartments in cells silenced for RAB24, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe and autophagy flux experiments indicate that this is due to a hindrance in their clearance. Formation of autophagosomes is shown to be unaffected by RAB24-silencing with siRNA. A defect in aggregate clearance in the absence of RAB24 is also shown in cells forming polyglutamine aggregates. This study places RAB24 function in the termination of the autophagic process under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26325487

  10. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  11. Rubicon controls endosome maturation as a Rab7 effector.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiming; Westphal, Wiebke; Wong, Kwun Ngok; Tan, Irena; Zhong, Qing

    2010-11-09

    The activation and recruitment of the small GTPase Rab7 to early endosome is a critical step for early to late endosome maturation, a process that requires the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KC3) and GTPase regulators. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Rab7 activation and endosome maturation is still poorly defined. Here we report that Rubicon, a component of the PI3KC3 complex, prevents endosome maturation through differential interactions with Rab7 and UVRAG. UVRAG activates PI3KC3 and C-VPS/HOPS, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab7. We demonstrate that Rubicon sequesters UVRAG from C-VPS/HOPS. Active GTP-bound Rab7 competes for Rubicon binding and releases UVRAG to associate with C-VPS/HOPS, which in turn promotes further loading of Rab7 with GTP. This feed-forward loop ensures rapid amplification of GTP-bound Rab7 and consequent stimulation of endosome maturation. Hence, Rubicon serves as a previously unknown Rab7 effector to ensure the proper progression of the endocytic pathway.

  12. Multivalent Rab interactions determine tether-mediated membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lürick, Anna; Gao, Jieqiong; Kuhlee, Anne; Yavavli, Erdal; Langemeyer, Lars; Perz, Angela; Raunser, Stefan; Ungermann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion at endomembranes requires cross-talk between Rab GTPases and tethers to drive SNARE-mediated lipid bilayer mixing. Several tethers have multiple Rab-binding sites with largely untested function. Here we dissected the lysosomal HOPS complex as a tethering complex with just two binding sites for the Rab7-like Ypt7 protein to determine their relevance for fusion. Using tethering and fusion assays combined with HOPS mutants, we show that HOPS-dependent fusion requires both Rab-binding sites, with Vps39 being the stronger Ypt7 interactor than Vps41. The intrinsic amphipathic lipid packaging sensor (ALPS) motif within HOPS Vps41, a target of the vacuolar kinase Yck3, is dispensable for tethering and fusion but can affect tethering if phosphorylated. In combination, our data demonstrate that a multivalent tethering complex uses its two Rab bindings to determine the place of SNARE assembly and thus fusion at endomembranes. PMID:27852901

  13. Rab27a Targeting to Melanosomes Requires Nucleotide Exchange but Not Effector Binding

    PubMed Central

    Tarafder, Abul K; Wasmeier, Christina; Figueiredo, Ana C; Booth, Antonia E G; Orihara, Asumi; Ramalho, Jose S; Hume, Alistair N; Seabra, Miguel C

    2011-01-01

    Rab GTPases are important determinants of organelle identity and regulators of vesicular transport pathways. Consequently, each Rab occupies a highly specific subcellular localization. However, the precise mechanisms governing Rab targeting remain unclear. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), putative membrane-resident targeting factors and effector binding have all been implicated as critical regulators of Rab targeting. Here, we address these issues using Rab27a targeting to melanosomes as a model system. Rab27a regulates motility of lysosome-related organelles and secretory granules. Its effectors have been characterized extensively, and we have identified Rab3GEP as the non-redundant Rab27a GEF in melanocytes (Figueiredo AC et al. Rab3GEP is the non-redundant guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab27a in melanocytes. J Biol Chem 2008;283:23209–23216). Using Rab27a mutants that show impaired binding to representatives of all four Rab27a effector subgroups, we present evidence that effector binding is not essential for targeting of Rab27a to melanosomes. In contrast, we observed that knockdown of Rab3GEP resulted in mis-targeting of Rab27a, suggesting that Rab3GEP activity is required for correct targeting of Rab27a. However, the identification of Rab27a mutants that undergo efficient GDP/GTP exchange in the presence of Rab3GEP in vitro but are mis-targeted in a cellular context indicates that nucleotide loading is not the sole determinant of subcellular targeting of Rab27a. Our data support a model in which exchange activity, but not effector binding, represents one essential factor that contributes to membrane targeting of Rab proteins. PMID:21554507

  14. Rab5 Isoforms Specifically Regulate Different Modes of Endocytosis in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ruchir; Verma, Jitender Kumar; Kapoor, Anjali; Langsley, Gordon; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-07-08

    Differential functions of Rab5 isoforms in endocytosis are not well characterized. Here, we cloned, expressed, and characterized Rab5a and Rab5b from Leishmania and found that both of them are localized in the early endosome. To understand the role of LdRab5 isoforms in different modes of endocytosis in Leishmania, we generated transgenic parasites overexpressing LdRab5a, LdRab5b, or their dominant-positive (LdRab5a:Q93L and LdRab5b:Q80L) or dominant-negative mutants (LdRab5a:N146I and LdRab5b:N133I). Using LdRab5a or its mutants overexpressing parasites, we found that LdRab5a specifically regulates the fluid-phase endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase and also specifically induced the transport of dextran-Texas Red to the lysosomes. In contrast, cells overexpressing LdRab5b or its mutants showed that LdRab5b explicitly controls receptor-mediated endocytosis of hemoglobin, and overexpression of LdRab5b:WT enhanced the transport of internalized Hb to the lysosomes in comparison with control cells. To unequivocally demonstrate the role of Rab5 isoforms in endocytosis in Leishmania, we tried to generate null-mutants of LdRab5a and LdRab5b parasites, but both were lethal indicating their essential functions in parasites. Therefore, we used heterozygous LdRab5a(+/-) and LdRab5b(+/-) cells. LdRab5a(+/-) Leishmania showed 50% inhibition of HRP uptake, but hemoglobin endocytosis was uninterrupted. In contrast, about 50% inhibition of Hb endocytosis was observed in LdRab5b(+/-) cells without any significant effect on HRP uptake. Finally, we tried to identify putative LdRab5a and LdRab5b effectors. We found that LdRab5b interacts with clathrin heavy chain and hemoglobin receptor. However, LdRab5a failed to interact with the clathrin heavy chain, and interaction with hemoglobin receptor was significantly less. Thus, our results showed that LdRab5a and LdRab5b differentially regulate fluid phase and receptor-mediated endocytosis in Leishmania.

  15. bMERB domains are bivalent Rab8 family effectors evolved by gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amrita; Oprisko, Anastasia; Campos, Jeremy; Fu, Yangxue; Friese, Timon; Itzen, Aymelt; Goody, Roger S; Gazdag, Emerich Mihai; Müller, Matthias P

    2016-08-23

    In their active GTP-bound form, Rab proteins interact with proteins termed effector molecules. In this study, we have thoroughly characterized a Rab effector domain that is present in proteins of the Mical and EHBP families, both known to act in endosomal trafficking. Within our study, we show that these effectors display a preference for Rab8 family proteins (Rab8, 10, 13 and 15) and that some of the effector domains can bind two Rab proteins via separate binding sites. Structural analysis allowed us to explain the specificity towards Rab8 family members and the presence of two similar Rab binding sites that must have evolved via gene duplication. This study is the first to thoroughly characterize a Rab effector protein that contains two separate Rab binding sites within a single domain, allowing Micals and EHBPs to bind two Rabs simultaneously, thus suggesting previously unknown functions of these effector molecules in endosomal trafficking.

  16. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Resource Utilization and Supply; Regional Development ; and Introduction of New Technology;

  17. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-22

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Planning and Plan Implementation; Investment, Prices, Budget and Finance; Resource Utilization and Supply; and Regional Development .

  18. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-16

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Investment, Prices, Budget and Finance; Resource Utilization and Supply and Regional Development .

  19. China Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is China Report include Economic Affairs. It contains the issues with different topics on People’s Republic of China: National Policy and Issues, Finance and Banking, Mineral Resources , Domestic Trade, Foreign Trade.

  20. Rab2a and Rab27a cooperatively regulate the transition from granule maturation to exocytosis through the dual effector Noc2.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Kohichi; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki; Izumi, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    Exocytosis of secretory granules entails budding from the trans-Golgi network, sorting and maturation of cargo proteins, and trafficking and fusion to the plasma membrane. Rab27a regulates the late steps in this process, such as granule recruitment to the fusion site, whereas Rab2a functions in the early steps, such as granule biogenesis and maturation. Here, we demonstrate that these two small GTPases simultaneously bind to Noc2 (also known as RPH3AL) in a GTP-dependent manner, although Rab2a binds only after Rab27a has bound. In pancreatic β-cells, the ternary Rab2a-Noc2-Rab27a complex specifically localizes on perinuclear immature granules, whereas the binary Noc2-Rab27a complex localizes on peripheral mature granules. In contrast to the wild type, Noc2 mutants defective in binding to Rab2a or Rab27a fail to promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Although knockdown of any component of the ternary complex markedly inhibits insulin secretion, only knockdown of Rab2a or Noc2, and not that of Rab27a, impairs cargo processing from proinsulin to insulin. These results suggest that the dual effector, Noc2, regulates the transition from Rab2a-mediated granule biogenesis to Rab27a-mediated granule exocytosis.

  1. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Imperialist Expansion (KNIZHNOYE OBOZRENIYE, No 37, 12 Sep 86) 2 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS Responses to PRAVDA Query on Direct Economic...Ties’ (Ya. Macheyevich, Yu. Shiryayev; PRAVDA, 13 Oct 86) 4 CEMA Economic Integration Defended Against Bourgeois Attacks (A. Nikolskiy...countries; they also reap a profit of 5 billion dollars. 13080/12859 CSO: 1807/039 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS RESPONSES TO PRAVDA QUERY ON

  2. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AFFAIRS CONTENTS SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS International Scientific Coordinating Conference in USSR (ZARYA VOSTOKA, 30 Oct 86) • ■ • • 1 ...Czechoslovak Meeting on S&T Cooperation With CEMA (EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 1 , Jan 87) 2 Non-Use of CEMA Economic Experience Queried (V. G...U.S. Export Control Laws Revised (Moscow in English to North America, 1 Mar 87) 64 Reagan’s 1984 Directive on Concentration Camps Noted (Vadim

  3. Rab20 regulates phagosome maturation in RAW264 macrophages during Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Egami, Youhei; Araki, Nobukazu

    2012-01-01

    Rab20, a member of the Rab GTPase family, is known to be involved in membrane trafficking, however its implication in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es) in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20, it was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with the phagosomal membranes. During the early stage of phagosome formation, Rab20 was not localized on the membranes of phagocytic cups, but was gradually recruited to the newly formed phagosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 to some extent, the association of Rab20 with the phagosomes persisted even after the loss of Rab5 from the phagosomal membranes. Then, Rab20 was colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on the internalized phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of Rab20 mutant expression revealed that the maturation of phagosomes was significantly delayed in cells expressing the GDP-bound mutant Rab20-T19N. These data suggest that Rab20 is an important component of phagosome and regulates the phagosome maturation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  4. Functional Characterization of Monomeric GTPase Rab1 in the Secretory Pathway of Leishmania*

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Surbhi; Parashar, Smriti; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania secretes a large number of its effectors to the extracellular milieu. However, regulation of the secretory pathway in Leishmania is not well characterized. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the Rab1 homologue from Leishmania. We have found that LdRab1 localizes in Golgi in Leishmania. To understand the role of LdRab1 in the secretory pathway of Leishmania, we have generated transgenic parasites overexpressing GFP-LdRab1:WT, GFP-LdRab1:Q67L (a GTPase-deficient dominant positive mutant of Rab1), and GFP-LdRab1:S22N (a GDP-locked dominant negative mutant of Rab1). Surprisingly, our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N does not disrupt the trafficking and localization of hemoglobin receptor in Leishmania. To determine whether the Rab1-dependent secretory pathway is conserved in parasites, we have analyzed the role of LdRab1 in the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase and Ldgp63 in Leishmania. Our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N significantly inhibits the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania. We have also found that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N retains RFP-Ldgp63 in Golgi and blocks the secretion of Ldgp63, whereas the trafficking of RFP-Ldgp63 in GFP-LdRab1:WT-expressing cells is unaltered in comparison with control cells. Taken together, our results have shown that the Rab1-regulated secretory pathway is well conserved, and hemoglobin receptor trafficking follows an Rab1-independent secretory pathway in Leishmania. PMID:26499792

  5. Munc13-4 Is a Rab11-binding Protein That Regulates Rab11-positive Vesicle Trafficking and Docking at the Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer L.; He, Jing; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Pestonjamasp, Kersi; Kiosses, William B.; Zhang, Jinzhong; Catz, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab11 and its effectors control trafficking of recycling endosomes, receptor replenishment and the up-regulation of adhesion and adaptor molecules at the plasma membrane. Despite recent advances in the understanding of Rab11-regulated mechanisms, the final steps mediating docking and fusion of Rab11-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane are not fully understood. Munc13-4 is a docking factor proposed to regulate fusion through interactions with SNAREs. In hematopoietic cells, including neutrophils, Munc13-4 regulates exocytosis in a Rab27a-dependent manner, but its possible regulation of other GTPases has not been explored in detail. Here, we show that Munc13-4 binds to Rab11 and regulates the trafficking of Rab11-containing vesicles. Using a novel Time-resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (TR-FRET) assay, we demonstrate that Munc13-4 binds to Rab11a but not to dominant negative Rab11a. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the specificity of the interaction between Munc13-4 and Rab11, and super-resolution microscopy studies support the interaction of endogenous Munc13-4 with Rab11 at the single molecule level in neutrophils. Vesicular dynamic analysis shows the common spatio-temporal distribution of Munc13-4 and Rab11, while expression of a calcium binding-deficient mutant of Munc13-4 significantly affected Rab11 trafficking. Munc13-4-deficient neutrophils showed normal endocytosis, but the trafficking, up-regulation, and retention of Rab11-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane was significantly impaired. This correlated with deficient NADPH oxidase activation at the plasma membrane in response to Rab11 interference. Our data demonstrate that Munc13-4 is a Rab11-binding partner that regulates the final steps of Rab11-positive vesicle docking at the plasma membrane. PMID:26637356

  6. Munc13-4 Is a Rab11-binding Protein That Regulates Rab11-positive Vesicle Trafficking and Docking at the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer L; He, Jing; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Pestonjamasp, Kersi; Kiosses, William B; Zhang, Jinzhong; Catz, Sergio D

    2016-02-12

    The small GTPase Rab11 and its effectors control trafficking of recycling endosomes, receptor replenishment and the up-regulation of adhesion and adaptor molecules at the plasma membrane. Despite recent advances in the understanding of Rab11-regulated mechanisms, the final steps mediating docking and fusion of Rab11-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane are not fully understood. Munc13-4 is a docking factor proposed to regulate fusion through interactions with SNAREs. In hematopoietic cells, including neutrophils, Munc13-4 regulates exocytosis in a Rab27a-dependent manner, but its possible regulation of other GTPases has not been explored in detail. Here, we show that Munc13-4 binds to Rab11 and regulates the trafficking of Rab11-containing vesicles. Using a novel Time-resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (TR-FRET) assay, we demonstrate that Munc13-4 binds to Rab11a but not to dominant negative Rab11a. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the specificity of the interaction between Munc13-4 and Rab11, and super-resolution microscopy studies support the interaction of endogenous Munc13-4 with Rab11 at the single molecule level in neutrophils. Vesicular dynamic analysis shows the common spatio-temporal distribution of Munc13-4 and Rab11, while expression of a calcium binding-deficient mutant of Munc13-4 significantly affected Rab11 trafficking. Munc13-4-deficient neutrophils showed normal endocytosis, but the trafficking, up-regulation, and retention of Rab11-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane was significantly impaired. This correlated with deficient NADPH oxidase activation at the plasma membrane in response to Rab11 interference. Our data demonstrate that Munc13-4 is a Rab11-binding partner that regulates the final steps of Rab11-positive vesicle docking at the plasma membrane.

  7. Cloning and characterization of ApRab4, a recycling Rab protein of Aiptasia pulchella, and its implication in the symbiosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Sen; Song, Pa-Ching; Lin, Wen-Wen; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Ming-Chyuan

    2009-01-01

    The biogenesis of Symbiodinium symbiosome in the host cells of the sea anemone, Aiptasia pulchella, involves retention of ApRab5 on and exclusion of ApRab11 from the organelle. One predicted consequence of this differential Rab association is the constant membrane fusion of symbiosomes with endocytic vesicles in the absence of parallel membrane retrieval and the subsequent formation of spacious symbiosomes, which nevertheless, contradicts the common perception. To solve this discrepancy, we determined whether membrane fusion occurs between symbiosomes and endocytic vesicles, and whether ApRab11-independent recycling is involved in symbiosome biogenesis. By using the biotin-avidin detection system, we found evidence for symbiosome-endocytic vesicle fusion. Cloning and characterization of ApRab4, an A. pulchella homolog of Rab4, showed that ApRab4 is associated with both the early endocytic and the perinuclear recycling compartments, and its normal function is required for the organization of the recycling compartments. Immunostaining localized ApRab4 to the symbiosome membrane, partially overlapping with ApRab5-decorated microdomains. Significantly, a treatment that impaired Symbiodinium photosynthesis also abolished symbiosome association of ApRab4. Furthermore, ApRab4 was quickly recruited to newly formed phagosomes, but prolonged association only occurred in those harboring live zooxanthelllae. We propose that ApRab4 retention on the symbiosome is an essential part of the mechanism for the biogenesis of Symbiodinium symbiosome.

  8. Public affairs plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  9. 32 CFR 202.4 - Composition of a RAB.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate. At closing installations where BRAC Cleanup Teams (BCT) exist, representatives of the BCT may.... Community RAB members should live and/or work in the affected community or be affected by the...

  10. 32 CFR 202.4 - Composition of a RAB.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate. At closing installations where BRAC Cleanup Teams (BCT) exist, representatives of the BCT may.... Community RAB members should live and/or work in the affected community or be affected by the...

  11. Direct targeting of Rab-GTPase-effector interactions.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Jochen; Cromm, Philipp M; Itzen, Aymelt; Goody, Roger S; Grossmann, Tom N; Waldmann, Herbert

    2014-02-24

    Small GTPases are molecular switches using GDP/GTP alternation to control numerous vital cellular processes. Although aberrant function and regulation of GTPases are implicated in various human diseases, direct targeting of this class of proteins has proven difficult, as GTPase signaling and regulation is mediated by extensive and shallow protein interfaces. Here we report the development of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions involving Rab proteins, a subfamily of GTPases, which are key regulators of vesicular transport. Hydrocarbon-stapled peptides were designed based on crystal structures of Rab proteins bound to their interaction partners. These modified peptides exhibit significantly increased affinities and include a stapled peptide (StRIP3) that selectively binds to activated Rab8a and inhibits a Rab8a-effector interaction in vitro.

  12. Rab8A regulates insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Hanbing; Ou, Liting; Fan, Jiannan; Xiao, Mei; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu; Sun, Yonghong; Xu, Yingke

    2017-02-01

    Rab proteins are important regulators of GLUT4 trafficking in muscle and adipose cells. It is still unclear which Rabs are involved in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in C2C12 myoblasts. In this study, we detect the colocalization of Rab8A with GLUT4 and the presence of Rab8A at vesicle exocytic sites by TIRFM imaging. Overexpression of dominant-negative Rab8A (T22N) diminishes insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, while constitutively active Rab8A (Q67L) augments it. In addition, knockdown of Rab8A inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, which is rescued by replenishment of RNAi-resistant Rab8A. Together, these results indicate an indispensable role for Rab8A in insulin-regulated GLUT4 trafficking in C2C12 cells.

  13. α1B-Adrenergic Receptors Differentially Associate with Rab Proteins during Homologous and Heterologous Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Badillo, Jean A.; Sánchez-Reyes, Omar B.; Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A.; Romero-Ávila, M. Teresa; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; García-Sáinz, J. Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Internalization of G protein-coupled receptors can be triggered by agonists or by other stimuli. The process begins within seconds of cell activation and contributes to receptor desensitization. The Rab GTPase family controls endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, and endosomal fusion. Among their remarkable properties is the differential distribution of its members on the surface of various organelles. In the endocytic pathway, Rab 5 controls traffic from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, whereas Rab 4 and Rab 11 regulate rapid and slow recycling from early endosomes to the plasma membrane, respectively. Moreover, Rab 7 and Rab 9 regulate the traffic from late endosomes to lysosomes and recycling to the trans-Golgi. We explore the possibility that α1B-adrenergic receptor internalization induced by agonists (homologous) and by unrelated stimuli (heterologous) could involve different Rab proteins. This possibility was explored by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using cells coexpressing α1B-adrenergic receptors tagged with the red fluorescent protein, DsRed, and different Rab proteins tagged with the green fluorescent protein. It was observed that when α1B-adrenergic receptors were stimulated with noradrenaline, the receptors interacted with proteins present in early endosomes, such as the early endosomes antigen 1, Rab 5, Rab 4, and Rab 11 but not with late endosome markers, such as Rab 9 and Rab 7. In contrast, sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation induced rapid and transient α1B-adrenergic receptor interaction of relatively small magnitude with Rab 5 and a more pronounced and sustained one with Rab 9; interaction was also observed with Rab 7. Moreover, the GTPase activity of the Rab proteins appears to be required because no FRET was observed when dominant-negative Rab mutants were employed. These data indicate that α1B-adrenergic receptors are directed to different endocytic vesicles depending on the desensitization type (homologous vs

  14. Rab proteins: the key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes.

  15. Managing Legal Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…

  16. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  17. Rab27b regulates number and secretion of platelet dense granules.

    PubMed

    Tolmachova, Tanya; Abrink, Magnus; Futter, Clare E; Authi, Kalwant S; Seabra, Miguel C

    2007-04-03

    The Rab27 GTPase subfamily consists of two closely related homologs, Rab27a and Rab27b. Rab27a has been shown previously to regulate organelle movement and regulated exocytosis in a wide variety of secretory cells. However, the role of the more restrictedly expressed Rab27b remains unclear. Here we describe the creation of Rab27b knockout (KO) strain that was subsequently crossed with the naturally occurring Rab27a KO line, ashen, to produce double KO (Rab27a(ash/ash) Rab27b(-/-)) mice. Rab27b KO (and double KO) exhibit significant hemorrhagic disease in contrast to ashen mice. In vitro assays demonstrated impaired aggregation with collagen and U46619 and reduced secretion of dense granules in both Rab27b and double KO strains. Additionally, we detected a 50% reduction in the number of dense granules per platelet and diminished platelet serotonin content, possibly due to a dense granule packaging defect into proplatelets during megakaryocyte maturation. The presence of Rab27a partially compensated for the secretory defect but not the reduced granule number. The morphology and function of platelet alpha-granules were unaffected. Our data suggest that Rab27b is a key regulator of dense granule secretion in platelets and thus a candidate gene for delta-storage pool deficiency in humans.

  18. Small GTPase Rab40c Associates with Lipid Droplets and Modulates the Biogenesis of Lipid Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ran; Wang, Weijie; Wang, Shicong; Wang, Zhen; Sun, Lixiang; He, Wei; Fan, Rong; Zhou, Yunhe; Xu, Xiaohui; Hong, Wanjin; Wang, Tuanlao

    2013-01-01

    The subcellular location and cell biological function of small GTPase Rab40c in mammalian cells have not been investigated in detail. In this study, we demonstrated that the exogenously expressed GFP-Rab40c associates with lipid droplets marked by neutral lipid specific dye Oil red or Nile red, but not with the Golgi or endosomal markers. Further examination demonstrated that Rab40c is also associated with ERGIC-53 containing structures, especially under the serum starvation condition. Rab40c is increasingly recruited to the surface of lipid droplets during lipid droplets formation and maturation in HepG2 cells. Rab40c knockdown moderately decreases the size of lipid droplets, suggesting that Rab40c is involved in the biogenesis of lipid droplets. Stimulation for adipocyte differentiation increases the expression of Rab40c in 3T3-L1 cells. Rab40c interacts with TIP47, and is appositionally associated with TIP47-labeled lipid droplets. In addition, over-expression of Rab40c causes the clustering of lipid droplets independent of its GTPase activity, but completely dependent of the intact SOCS box domain of Rab40c. In addition, Rab40c displayed self-interaction as well as interaction with TIP47 and the SOCS box is essential for its ability to induce clustering of lipid droplets. Our results suggest that Rab40c is a novel Rab protein associated with lipid droplets, and is likely involved in modulating the biogenesis of lipid droplets. PMID:23638186

  19. Real-time imaging of Rab5 activity using a prequenched biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ke; Xie, Hexin; Gall, Jessica; Ma, Manlung; Griesbeck, Oliver; Salehi, Ahmad; Rao, Jianghong

    2011-07-15

    A key regulator of receptor-mediated endocytosis, Rab5, plays a pivotal role in cargo receptor internalization, endosomal maturation, and transduction and degradation of internalized signaling molecules and recycling cargo receptor. Stressful conditions within cells lead to increased Rab5 activation, and increasing evidence correlates Rab5 activity abnormalities with certain diseases. Current antibody-based imaging methods cannot distinguish active Rab5 from total Rab5 population and provide dynamic information on magnitude and duration of Rab5 activation in cellular events and pathogenesis. We report here novel molecular imaging probes that specifically target GTP-bound Rab5 associated with the early endosome membrane in live cells and fixed mouse brain tissues. Our Rab5 activity fluorescent biosensor (RAFB) contains the Rab5 binding domain of the Rab5 effector Rabaptin 5, a fluorophore (a quantum dot or fluorescent dye) and a cell-penetrating peptide for live-cell delivery. The quantum dot conjugated RAFB was able to image the elevated Rab5 activity in both the cortex and hippocampi tissues of a Ts65Dn mouse. A prequenched RAFB based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) can image cytosolic active Rab5 in single live cells. This novel method should enable imaging of the biological process in which Rab5 activity is regulated in various cellular systems.

  20. Student Affairs Researcher: Information Broker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Thomas D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the skills and research tools necessary for the student affairs researcher to become an agent for organizational learning within the student affairs division and the institution. Draws upon Peter Senge's theory of "The Learning Organization" and discusses the resulting implications for student affairs researchers. (GCP)

  1. Characterization of the molecular defects in Rab27a, caused by RAB27A missense mutations found in patients with Griscelli syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Philippe; Busca, Roser; Chiaverini, Christine; Westbroek, Wendy; Lambert, Jo; Bille, Karine; Valony, Gäelle; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Naeyaert, Jean-Marie; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Ballotti, Robert

    2003-03-28

    Rab27a plays a pivotal role in the transport of melanosomes to dendrite tips of melanocytes and mutations in RAB27A, which impair melanosome transport cause the pigmentary dilution and the immune deficiency found in several patients with Griscelli syndrome (GS). Interestingly, three GS patients present single homozygous missense mutations in RAB27A, leading to W73G, L130P, and A152P transitions that affect highly conserved residues among Rab proteins. However, the functional consequences of these mutations have not been studied. In the present report, we evaluated the effect of overexpression of these mutants on melanosome, melanophilin, and myosin-Va localization in B16 melanoma cells. Then we studied several key parameters for Rab27a function, including GTP binding and interaction with melanophilin/myosin-Va complex, which links melanosomes to the actin network. Our results showed that Rab27a-L130P cannot bind GTP, does not interact with melanophilin, and consequently cannot allow melanosome transport on the actin filaments. Interestingly, Rab27a-W73G binds GTP but does not interact with melanophilin. Thus, Rab27a-W73G cannot support the actin-dependent melanosome transport. Finally, Rab27a-A152P binds both GTP and melanophilin. However, Rab27a-A152P does not allow melanosome transport and acts as a dominant negative mutant, because its overexpression, in B16 melanoma cells, mimics a GS phenotype. Hence, the interaction of Rab27a with melanophilin/myosin-Va is not sufficient to ensure a correct melanosome transport. Our results pointed to an unexpected complexity of Rab27a function and open the way to the search for new Rab27a effectors or regulators that control the transport of Rab27a-dependent vesicles.

  2. China Report, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Banque Indosuez, Standard Chartered Bank and Societe Generale. Speaking after yesterday’s opening ceremony of Societe Generale’s Zhenzhen branch, Mr...Luo said China had not yet approved an application from Banque Nationale de Paris to upgrade its representative office to branch status. But banking

  3. Mevalonate kinase deficiency leads to decreased prenylation of Rab GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Jurczyluk, Julie; Munoz, Marcia A; Skinner, Oliver P; Chai, Ryan C; Ali, Naveid; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Quinn, Julian MW; Preston, Alexandra; Tangye, Stuart G; Brown, Andrew J; Argent, Elizabeth; Ziegler, John B; Mehr, Sam; Rogers, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in a key enzyme of the mevalonate–cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, leading to recurrent autoinflammatory disease characterised by enhanced release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). It is currently believed that the inflammatory phenotype of MKD is triggered by temperature-sensitive loss of mevalonate kinase activity and reduced biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids required for the prenylation of small GTPase proteins. However, previous studies have not clearly shown any change in protein prenylation in patient cells under normal conditions. With lymphoblast cell lines from two compound heterozygous MKD patients, we used a highly sensitive in vitro prenylation assay, together with quantitative mass spectrometry, to reveal a subtle accumulation of unprenylated Rab GTPases in cells cultured for 3 days or more at 40 °C compared with 37 °C. This included a 200% increase in unprenylated Rab7A, Rab14 and Rab1A. Inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activation by fatostatin led to more pronounced accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins in MKD cells but not parent cells, suggesting that cultured MKD cells may partially overcome the loss of isoprenoid lipids by SREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes required for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, while inhibition of Rho/Rac/Rap prenylation promoted the release of IL-1β, specific inhibition of Rab prenylation by NE10790 had no effect in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human THP-1 monocytic cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time that mutations in mevalonate kinase can lead to a mild, temperature-induced defect in the prenylation of small GTPases, but that loss of prenylated Rab GTPases is not the cause of enhanced IL-1β release in MKD. PMID:27377765

  4. Mevalonate kinase deficiency leads to decreased prenylation of Rab GTPases.

    PubMed

    Jurczyluk, Julie; Munoz, Marcia A; Skinner, Oliver P; Chai, Ryan C; Ali, Naveid; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Quinn, Julian Mw; Preston, Alexandra; Tangye, Stuart G; Brown, Andrew J; Argent, Elizabeth; Ziegler, John B; Mehr, Sam; Rogers, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in a key enzyme of the mevalonate-cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, leading to recurrent autoinflammatory disease characterised by enhanced release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). It is currently believed that the inflammatory phenotype of MKD is triggered by temperature-sensitive loss of mevalonate kinase activity and reduced biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids required for the prenylation of small GTPase proteins. However, previous studies have not clearly shown any change in protein prenylation in patient cells under normal conditions. With lymphoblast cell lines from two compound heterozygous MKD patients, we used a highly sensitive in vitro prenylation assay, together with quantitative mass spectrometry, to reveal a subtle accumulation of unprenylated Rab GTPases in cells cultured for 3 days or more at 40 °C compared with 37 °C. This included a 200% increase in unprenylated Rab7A, Rab14 and Rab1A. Inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activation by fatostatin led to more pronounced accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins in MKD cells but not parent cells, suggesting that cultured MKD cells may partially overcome the loss of isoprenoid lipids by SREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes required for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, while inhibition of Rho/Rac/Rap prenylation promoted the release of IL-1β, specific inhibition of Rab prenylation by NE10790 had no effect in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human THP-1 monocytic cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time that mutations in mevalonate kinase can lead to a mild, temperature-induced defect in the prenylation of small GTPases, but that loss of prenylated Rab GTPases is not the cause of enhanced IL-1β release in MKD.

  5. Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Arie; Simons, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tubular structures are a fundamental anatomical theme recurring in a wide range of animal species. In mammals, tubulogenesis underscores the development of several systems and organs, including the vascular system, the lungs, and the kidneys. All tubular systems are hierarchical, branching into segments of gradually diminishing diameter. There are only two cell types that form the lumen of tubular systems – either endothelial cells in the vascular system, or epithelial cells in all other organs. The most important feature in determining the morphology of the tubular systems is the frequency and geometry of branching. Hence, deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the sprouting of new branches from pre-existing ones is the key to understanding the formation of tubular systems. The morphological similarity between the various tubular systems is underscored by similarities between the signaling pathways which control their branching. A prominent feature common to these pathways is their duality – an agonist counterbalanced by an inhibitor. The formation of the tracheal system in Drosophila melanogaster is driven by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and inhibited by Sprouty/Notch. In vertebrates, the analogous pathways are FGF and transforming growth factor β in epithelial tubular systems, or vascular endothelial growth factor and Notch in the vascular system. PMID:19179661

  6. The Rab1 GTPase of Sciaenops ocellatus modulates intracellular bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong-hua; Deng, Tian; Sun, Li

    2011-12-01

    The Rab family proteins belong to the Ras-like GTPase superfamily and play important roles in intracellular membrane trafficking. To date no studies on fish Rab have been documented, though rab-like sequences have been found in a number of teleosts. In this study, we identified and analyzed a Rab homologue, SoRab1, from red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. The cDNA of SoRab1 contains a 5'- untranslated region (UTR) of 358 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 612 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 265 bp. The ORF encodes a putative protein of 203 residues, which shares 92-99% overall sequence identities with the Rab1 from fish, human, and mouse. SoRab1 possesses a typical Rab1 GTPase domain with the conserved G box motifs and the switch I and switch II regions. Recombinant SoRab1 purified from Escherichia coli exhibits apparent GTPase activity. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that SoRab1 expression was detected in a number of tissues, with the lowest expression found in blood and highest expression found in muscle. Bacterial and lipopolysaccharide challenges significantly upregulated SoRab1 expression in liver, kidney, and spleen in time-dependent manners. Transient overexpression of SoRab1 in primary hepatocytes reduced intracellular bacterial infection, whereas interference with SoRab1 expression by RNAi enhanced intracellular bacterial invasion. These results provide the first indication that a fish Rab1 GTPase, SoRab1, regulates intracellular bacterial infection and thus is likely to play a role in bacteria-induced host immune defense.

  7. Rab11 Regulates the Mast Cell Exocytic Response.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joshua D; Shelby, Sarah A; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated exocytic events provide a means for physiological communication and are a hallmark of the mast cell-mediated allergic response. In mast cells these processes are triggered by antigen crosslinking of IgE bound to its high-affinity receptor, FcϵRI, on the cell surface. Here we use the endosomal v-SNARE VAMP8, and the lysosomal hydrolase β-hexosaminidase (β-Hex), each C-terminally fused to super-ecliptic pHluorin, to monitor stimulated exocytosis. Using these pHluorin-tagged constructs, we monitor stimulated exocytosis by fluorimetry and visualize individual exocytic events with total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy. Similar to constitutive recycling endosome (RE) trafficking, we find that stimulated RE exocytosis, monitored by VAMP8, is attenuated by expression of dominant negative (S25N) Rab11. Stimulated β-Hex exocytosis is also reduced in the presence of S25N Rab11, suggesting that expression of this mutant broadly impacts exocytosis. Interestingly, pretreatment with inhibitors of actin polymerization, cytochalasin D or latrunculin A, substantially restores both RE and lysosome exocytosis in cells expressing S25N Rab11. Conversely, stabilizing F-actin with jasplakinolide inhibits antigen-stimulated exocytosis but is not additive with S25N Rab11-mediated inhibition, suggesting that these reagents inhibit related processes. Together, our results suggest that Rab11 participates in the regulation necessary for depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton during stimulated exocytosis in mast cells.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Yeast Yip1p Function Reveals a Requirement for Golgi-Localized Rab Proteins and Rab-Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Catherine Z.; Calero, Monica; DeRegis, Carol J.; Heidtman, Matthew; Barlowe, Charles; Collins, Ruth N.

    2004-01-01

    Yip1p is the first identified Rab-interacting membrane protein and the founder member of the YIP1 family, with both orthologs and paralogs found in all eukaryotic genomes. The exact role of Yip1p is unclear; YIP1 is an essential gene and defective alleles severely disrupt membrane transport and inhibit ER vesicle budding. Yip1p has the ability to physically interact with Rab proteins and the nature of this interaction has led to suggestions that Yip1p may function in the process by which Rab proteins translocate between cytosol and membranes. In this study we have investigated the physiological requirements for Yip1p action. Yip1p function requires Rab-GDI and Rab proteins, and several mutations that abrogate Yip1p function lack Rab-interacting capability. We have previously shown that Yip1p in detergent extracts has the capability to physically interact with Rab proteins in a promiscuous manner; however, a genetic analysis that covers every yeast Rab reveals that the Rab requirement in vivo is exclusively confined to a subset of Rab proteins that are localized to the Golgi apparatus. PMID:15611160

  9. Genetic analysis of yeast Yip1p function reveals a requirement for Golgi-localized rab proteins and rab-Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Catherine Z; Calero, Monica; DeRegis, Carol J; Heidtman, Matthew; Barlowe, Charles; Collins, Ruth N

    2004-12-01

    Yip1p is the first identified Rab-interacting membrane protein and the founder member of the YIP1 family, with both orthologs and paralogs found in all eukaryotic genomes. The exact role of Yip1p is unclear; YIP1 is an essential gene and defective alleles severely disrupt membrane transport and inhibit ER vesicle budding. Yip1p has the ability to physically interact with Rab proteins and the nature of this interaction has led to suggestions that Yip1p may function in the process by which Rab proteins translocate between cytosol and membranes. In this study we have investigated the physiological requirements for Yip1p action. Yip1p function requires Rab-GDI and Rab proteins, and several mutations that abrogate Yip1p function lack Rab-interacting capability. We have previously shown that Yip1p in detergent extracts has the capability to physically interact with Rab proteins in a promiscuous manner; however, a genetic analysis that covers every yeast Rab reveals that the Rab requirement in vivo is exclusively confined to a subset of Rab proteins that are localized to the Golgi apparatus.

  10. USSR Report Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the after- math of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and the mobilization of labor and technology in the clean-up effort will be published...in the series USSR REPORT: POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS under the subtitle AFTERMATH OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT. This is a...EDITORIALIZES CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT Kiev PRAVDA UKRAINY in Russian 14 May 86 p 1 TRANSPORT WORKERS» EFFORTS AT CHERNOBYL DETAILED Moscow SOTSIALISnCHESKAYA

  11. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-29

    math of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and the mobilization of labor and technology in the clean-up effort will be published in the series...USSR REPORT: POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS under the subtitle AFTERMATH OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT. This is a represen- tative... CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT Kiev PRAVDA UKRAINY in Russian 14 May 86 p 1 TRANSPORT WORKERS’ EFFORTS AT CHERNOBYL DETAILED Moscow SOTSIALISTiaESKAYA INDUSTRIYA

  12. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    4 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS CEMA Secretary Descibes Priorities, Tasks (V. V. Sychev; EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 48, Nov 86...7 Improvement in CEMA Trade Situation Noted by UN (Moscow Domestic Service, 1 Dec 86) 13 CEMA Science, Technology Goals Outlined (Vladimir...Pasko; Moscow Domestic Service, 17 Dec 86) ... 15 Role of Soviet Republics Under CEMA Division of Labor CN. Stepanova; KOMMUNIST MOLDAVII, No 9, Sep

  13. USSR Report. International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Opens Soviet Envoy Addresses Forum 2 EAST-WEST RELATIONS History, Prospects for EC- CEMA Cooperation (Vladimir G. Baranovskiy; OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI...No 6, 1986) 4 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS USSR Exports and Cooperation With CEMA Countries (B. A. Kheyfets; IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK...EAST-WEST RELATIONS HISTORY, PROSPECTS FOR EC- CEMA COOPERATION Moscow OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI in Russian No 6, 1986 pp 95-108 [Article by Vladimir

  14. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts...Pyongyang Domestic Service, 23 Dec 86) l Commentary on White Paper About Kumgangsan Dam (Cho Tu-ul; Pyongyang Domestic Service, 26 Dec 86) 3 Party...ruin. /8309 CSO: 4110/056 INTER-KOREAN AFFAIRS COMMENTARY ON WHITE PAPER ABOUT KUMGANGSAN DAM SK280105 Pyongyang Domestic Service in Korean 1150

  15. China Report, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    namely: No clear distinction was drawn between the functions of the government and those of the enterprises; barriers exist between different...enterprise functions in state-owned enterprises became more manifest, administrative control by state organs over economic affairs was strengthened...planned economy as incompatible with the commodity economy; seeing the functions of the socialist state in managing the economy as a monopoly in which

  16. Overexpression of Rab22a hampers the transport between endosomes and the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mesa, Rosana; Magadan, Javier; Barbieri, Alejandro; Lopez, Cecilia; Stahl, Philip D.; Mayorga, Luis S. . E-mail: lmayorga@fcm.uncu.edu.ar

    2005-04-01

    The transport and sorting of soluble and membrane-associated macromolecules arriving at endosomal compartments require a complex set of Rab proteins. Rab22a has been localized to the endocytic compartment; however, very little is known about the function of Rab22a and inconsistent results have been reported in studies performed in different cell lines. To characterize the function of Rab22a in endocytic transport, the wild-type protein (Rab22a WT), a hydrolysis-deficient mutant (Rab22a Q64L), and a mutant with reduced affinity for GTP (Rab22a S19N) were expressed in CHO cells. None of the three Rab22a constructs affected the transport of rhodamine-dextran to lysosomes, the digestion of internalized proteins, or the lysosomal localization of cathepsin D. In contrast with the mild effect of Rab22a on the endosome-lysosome route, cells expressing Rab22a WT and Rab22a Q64L presented a strong delay in the retrograde transport of cholera toxin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Moreover, these cells accumulated the cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor in endosomes. These observations indicate that Rab22a can affect the trafficking from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus probably by promoting fusion among endosomes and impairing the proper segregation of membrane domains required for targeting to the trans-Golgi network (TGN)

  17. Rab22 controls NGF signaling and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Liang, Zhimin; Li, Guangpu

    2011-10-01

    Rab22 is a small GTPase that is localized on early endosomes and regulates early endosomal sorting. This study reports that Rab22 promotes nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling-dependent neurite outgrowth and gene expression in PC12 cells by sorting NGF and the activated/phosphorylated receptor (pTrkA) into signaling endosomes to sustain signal transduction in the cell. NGF binding induces the endocytosis of pTrkA into Rab22-containing endosomes. Knockdown of Rab22 via small hairpin RNA (shRNA) blocks NGF-induced pTrkA endocytosis into the endosomes and gene expression (VGF) and neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of human Rab22 can rescue the inhibitory effects of the Rab22 shRNA, suggesting a specific Rab22 function in NGF signal transduction, rather than off-target effects. Furthermore, the Rab22 effector, Rabex-5, is necessary for NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and gene expression, as evidenced by the inhibitory effect of shRNA-mediated knockdown of Rabex-5. Disruption of the Rab22-Rabex-5 interaction via overexpression of the Rab22-binding domain of Rabex-5 in the cell also blocks NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, suggesting a critical role of Rab22-Rabex-5 interaction in the biogenesis of NGF-signaling endosomes to sustain the signal for neurite outgrowth. These data provide the first evidence for an early endosomal Rab GTPase as a positive regulator of NGF signal transduction and cell differentiation.

  18. Effect of the Secretory Small GTPase Rab27B on Breast Cancer Growth, Invasion, and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, An; Maynard, Dawn; Pauwels, Patrick; Braems, Geert; Denys, Hannelore; Van den Broecke, Rudy; Lambert, Jo; Van Belle, Simon; Cocquyt, Veronique; Gespach, Christian; Bracke, Marc; Seabra, Miguel C.; Gahl, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Secretory GTPases like Rab27B control vesicle exocytosis and deliver critical proinvasive growth regulators into the tumor microenvironment. The expression and role of Rab27B in breast cancer were unknown. Methods Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with wild-type Rab3D, Rab27A, or Rab27B, or Rab27B point mutants defective in GTP/GDP binding or geranylgeranylation, or transient silencing RNA to the same proteins was used to study Rab27B in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and ZR75.1). Cell cycle progression was evaluated by flow cytometry, western blotting, and measurement of cell proliferation rates, and invasion was assessed using Matrigel and native type I collagen substrates. Orthotopic tumor growth, local invasion, and metastasis were analyzed in mouse xenograft models. Mass spectrometry identified proinvasive growth regulators that were secreted in the presence of Rab27B. Rab27B protein levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 59 clinical breast cancer specimens, and Rab3D, Rab27A, and Rab27B mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 20 specimens. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results Increased expression of Rab27B promoted G1 to S phase cell cycle transition, proliferation and invasiveness of cells in culture, and invasive tumor growth and hemorrhagic ascites production in a xenograft mouse model (n = 10; at 10 weeks, survival of MCF-7 GFP- vs GFP-Rab27B–injected mice was 100% vs 62.5%, hazard ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval = 0.08 to 0.88, P = .03). Mass spectrometric analysis of purified Rab27B-secretory vesicles identified heat-shock protein 90α as key proinvasive growth regulator. Heat-shock protein 90α secretion was Rab27B-dependent and was required for matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation. All Rab27B-mediated functional responses were GTP- and geranylgeranyl-dependent. Presence of endogenous Rab27B mRNA and protein, but

  19. Characterization of RAB-like4, the first identified RAB-like protein from Trypanosoma cruzi with GTPase activity.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fabiane Pereira; Araripe, Júlia Rolão; Urményi, Turán Péter; Silva, Rosane; Cunha e Silva, Narcisa Leal; Leite Fontes, Carlos Frederico; da Silveira, José Franco; Rondinelli, Edson

    2005-08-05

    RAB proteins, which belong to the RAS superfamily, regulate exocytic and endocytic pathways of eukaryotic cells, controlling vesicle docking and fusion. Few RAB proteins have been identified in parasites. Molecular markers for cellular compartments are important to studies concerning about the protein traffic in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease. In this work, we describe the characterization of TcRABL4, the first RAB-like gene identified in T. cruzi (GenBank Accession No.: ), present as a single-copy gene. TcRABL4 contains all five consensus RAB motifs but lacks cysteine residues at the C terminus, which are essential to isoprenylation, an absolute prerequisite for membrane association of these proteins. TcRABL4 is a functional GTPase that is able to bind and hydrolyze GTP, and its gene is transcribed as a single 1.2 kb mRNA in epimastigotes. TcRABL4 appears to be differentially regulated in the three cell forms of the parasite, and the protein is not associated to membranes, unlike other RAB proteins. It is possible that TcRABL4 may be a member of a novel family of small GTPases.

  20. The Rab11-FIP1/RCP gene codes for multiple protein transcripts related to the plasma membrane recycling system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Goldenring, James R

    2006-06-01

    Rab11a is a member of the Rab11 small GTPase family, and plays an important role in plasma membrane recycling. Rab11-Family Interacting Protein 1 (Rab11-FIP1) binds to Rab11 through a carboxyl-terminal amphipathic alpha helix. We have identified eight alternatively spliced Rab11-FIP1 gene transcripts from human chromosome 8. Among them, Rab11-FIP1A-D have carboxyl terminal Rab11 binding domains, while Rab11-FIP1E-H do not contain the Rab11 binding domain. While Rab11-FIP1B and F gene transcripts are ubiquitous, other Rab11-FIP1 transcripts demonstrate more limited patterns of expression in human tissue cDNAs. EGFP-Rab11-FIP1A-D proteins over-expressed in HeLa cells targeted to Rab11a-containing membranes, while EGFP-Rab11-FIP1E/F and H proteins did not localize with recycling system membranes. However, transferrin trafficking was not significantly altered in HeLa cells over-expressing expressing any of the EGFP-Rab11-FIP1 proteins. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific for Rab11-FIP1B and Rab11-FIP1C/RCP demonstrated that Rab11-FIP1B and Rab11-FIP1C/RCP are expressed endogenously. Strikingly, endogenous staining for Rab11-FIP1C/RCP only partially co-localized with EGFP-Rab11-FIP1A, EGFP-Rab11-FIP1B, and EGFP-Rab11a in the perinuclear region, indicating that Rab11-FIP1C/RCP resides in a differentiable subcellular compartment within the plasma membrane recycling system compared with Rab11-FIP1A and Rab11-FIP1B. These data suggest that Rab11-FIP1 proteins may play coordinated roles in regulating plasma membrane recycling with regional specificity within the Rab11a-containing recycling system.

  1. Role for Rab10 in Methamphetamine-Induced Behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderwerf, Scott M; Buck, David C; Wilmarth, Phillip A; Sears, Leila M; David, Larry L; Morton, David B; Neve, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts are specialized, cholesterol-rich membrane compartments that help to organize transmembrane signaling by restricting or promoting interactions with subsets of the cellular proteome. The hypothesis driving this study was that identifying proteins whose relative abundance in rafts is altered by the abused psychostimulant methamphetamine would contribute to fully describing the pathways involved in acute and chronic effects of the drug. Using a detergent-free method for preparing rafts from rat brain striatal membranes, we identified density gradient fractions enriched in the raft protein flotillin but deficient in calnexin and the transferrin receptor, markers of non-raft membranes. Dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor binding activity was highly enriched in the raft fractions, but pretreating rats with methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) once or repeatedly for 11 days did not alter the distribution of the receptors. LC-MS analysis of the protein composition of raft fractions from rats treated once with methamphetamine or saline identified methamphetamine-induced changes in the relative abundance of 23 raft proteins, including the monomeric GTP-binding protein Rab10, whose abundance in rafts was decreased 2.1-fold by acute methamphetamine treatment. Decreased raft localization was associated with a selective decrease in the abundance of Rab10 in a membrane fraction that includes synaptic vesicles and endosomes. Inhibiting Rab10 activity by pan-neuronal expression of a dominant-negative Rab10 mutant in Drosophila melanogaster decreased methamphetamine-induced activity and mortality and decreased caffeine-stimulated activity but not mortality, whereas inhibiting Rab10 activity selectively in cholinergic neurons had no effect. These results suggest that activation and redistribution of Rab10 is critical for some of the behavioral effects of psychostimulants.

  2. Role for Rab10 in Methamphetamine-Induced Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwerf, Scott M.; Buck, David C.; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; Sears, Leila M.; David, Larry L.; Morton, David B.; Neve, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts are specialized, cholesterol-rich membrane compartments that help to organize transmembrane signaling by restricting or promoting interactions with subsets of the cellular proteome. The hypothesis driving this study was that identifying proteins whose relative abundance in rafts is altered by the abused psychostimulant methamphetamine would contribute to fully describing the pathways involved in acute and chronic effects of the drug. Using a detergent-free method for preparing rafts from rat brain striatal membranes, we identified density gradient fractions enriched in the raft protein flotillin but deficient in calnexin and the transferrin receptor, markers of non-raft membranes. Dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor binding activity was highly enriched in the raft fractions, but pretreating rats with methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) once or repeatedly for 11 days did not alter the distribution of the receptors. LC-MS analysis of the protein composition of raft fractions from rats treated once with methamphetamine or saline identified methamphetamine-induced changes in the relative abundance of 23 raft proteins, including the monomeric GTP-binding protein Rab10, whose abundance in rafts was decreased 2.1-fold by acute methamphetamine treatment. Decreased raft localization was associated with a selective decrease in the abundance of Rab10 in a membrane fraction that includes synaptic vesicles and endosomes. Inhibiting Rab10 activity by pan-neuronal expression of a dominant-negative Rab10 mutant in Drosophila melanogaster decreased methamphetamine-induced activity and mortality and decreased caffeine-stimulated activity but not mortality, whereas inhibiting Rab10 activity selectively in cholinergic neurons had no effect. These results suggest that activation and redistribution of Rab10 is critical for some of the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. PMID:26291453

  3. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi: TcRAB7 protein is localized at the Golgi apparatus in epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Araripe, Júlia R; Cunha e Silva, Narcisa L; Leal, Simone T; de Souza, Wanderley; Rondinelli, Edson

    2004-08-20

    In mammalian cells, the Rab7 protein is a key element of late endocytic membrane traffic. Several results suggest that it is involved in the transport from early to late endosome or from late endosome to lysosome. We have previously characterized a Rab7 gene homologue (TcRAB7) in Trypanosoma cruzi. Now, using an affinity-purified antibody specific to TcRAB7 protein we have determined that it is localized at the Golgi apparatus of the parasite. Our results indicate that the T. cruzi Rab7 homologue may function in a different route than its counterparts in mammalian cells.

  5. Loss of RAB-3/A in Caenorhabditis elegans and the mouse affects behavioral response to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kapfhamer, D; Bettinger, J C; Davies, A G; Eastman, C L; Smail, E A; Heberlein, U; McIntire, S L

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms by which ethanol induces changes in behavior are not well understood. Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans loss-of-function mutations in the synaptic vesicle-associated RAB-3 protein and its guanosine triphosphate exchange factor AEX-3 confer resistance to the acute locomotor effects of ethanol. Similarly, mice lacking one or both copies of Rab3A are resistant to the ataxic and sedative effects of ethanol, and Rab3A haploinsufficiency increases voluntary ethanol consumption. These data suggest a conserved role of RAB-3-/RAB3A-regulated neurotransmitter release in ethanol-related behaviors.

  6. Is Rab25 a tumor promoter or suppressor--context dependency on RCP status?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2010-08-01

    Conflicting reports in the literature suggest that Rab25 could either be a context dependent promoter or suppressor of tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that whether Rab25 acts as a promoter or suppressor in tumor progression depends on the expression status of its effector, the Rab coupling protein (RCP). An elevated expression of RCP resulting from genomic amplification may enhance Rab25's tumor progression activity. Elevation of Rab25 alone may sequester endogenous RCP, and attenuates its activating effect on other oncogenic products, such as mutant Ras.

  7. The Interaction of JRAB/MICAL-L2 with Rab8 and Rab13 Coordinates the Assembly of Tight Junctions and Adherens Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Yamamura, Rie; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroyoshi; Arase, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) is regulated by the transport of integral TJ and AJ proteins to and/or from the plasma membrane (PM) and it is tightly coordinated in epithelial cells. We previously reported that Rab13 and a junctional Rab13-binding protein (JRAB)/molecule interacting with CasL-like 2 (MICAL-L2) mediated the endocytic recycling of an integral TJ protein occludin and the formation of functional TJs. Here, we investigated the role of Rab13 and JRAB/MICAL-L2 in the transport of other integral TJ and AJ proteins claudin-1 and E-cadherin to the PM by using a Ca2+-switch model. Although knockdown of Rab13 specifically suppressed claudin-1 and occludin but not E-cadherin transport, knockdown of JRAB/MICAL-L2 and expression of its Rab13-binding domain (JRAB/MICAL-L2-C) inhibited claudin-1, occludin, and E-cadherin transport. We then identified Rab8 as another JRAB/MICAL-L2-C-binding protein. Knockdown of Rab8 inhibited the Rab13-independent transport of E-cadherin to the PM. Rab8 and Rab13 competed with each other for the binding to JRAB/MICAL-L2 and functionally associated with JRAB/MICAL-L2 at the perinuclear recycling/storage compartments and PM, respectively. These results suggest that the interaction of JRAB/MICAL-L2 with Rab8 and Rab13 coordinates the assembly of AJs and TJs. PMID:18094055

  8. Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Poliakov, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Theoretical stress analysis for a propagating shear rupture suggests that the propensity of the rupture path to branch is determined by rupture speed and by the preexisting stress state. See Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR, submitted April 2001, URL below). Deviatoric stresses near a mode II rupture tip are found to be much higher to both sides of the fault plane than directly ahead, when rupture speed becomes close to the Rayleigh speed. However, the actual pattern of predicted Coulomb failure on secondary faults is strongly dependent on the angle between the fault and the direction of maximum compression Smax in the pre-stress field. Steep Smax angles lead to more extensive failure on the extensional side, whereas shallow angles give comparable failure regions on both. Here we test such concepts against natural examples. For crustal thrust faults we may assume that Smax is horizontal. Thus nucleation on a steeply dipping plane, like the 53 ° dip for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, is consistent with rupture path kinking to the extensional side, as inferred. Nucleation on a shallow dip, like for the 12 ° -18 ° of the 1985 Kettleman Hills event, should activate both sides, as seems consistent with aftershock patterns. Similarly, in a strike slip example, Smax is inferred to be at approximately 60 ° with the Johnson Valley fault where it branched to the extensional side onto the Landers-Kickapoo fault in the 1992 event, and this too is consistent. Further, geological examination of the activation of secondary fault features along the Johnson Valley fault and the Homestead Valley fault consistently shows that most activity occurs on the extensional side. Another strike-slip example is the Imperial Valley 1979 earthquake. The approximate Smax direction is north-south, at around 35 ° with the main fault, where it branched, on the extensional side, onto Brawley fault, again interpretable with the concepts developed.

  9. Identification of Rab41/6d Effectors Provides an Explanation for the Differential Effects of Rab41/6d and Rab6a/a' on Golgi Organization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shijie; Majeed, Waqar; Kudlyk, Tetyana; Lupashin, Vladimir; Storrie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Unexpectedly, members of the Rab VI subfamily exhibit considerable variation in their effects on Golgi organization and trafficking. By fluorescence microscopy, neither depletion nor overexpression of the GDP-locked form of Rab6a/a', the first trans Golgi-associated Rab protein discovered, affects Golgi ribbon organization while, on the other hand, both Rab41/6d depletion and overexpression of GDP-locked form cause Golgi fragmentation into a cluster of punctate elements, suggesting that Rab41/6d has an active role in maintenance of Golgi ribbon organization. To establish a molecular basis for these differences, we screened for Rab41/6d interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid assay. 155 non-repetitive hits were isolated and sequenced, and after searching in NCBI database, 102 different proteins and protein fragments were identified. None of these hits overlapped with any published Rab6a/a' effector. Eight putative Rab41 interactors involved in membrane trafficking were found. Significantly, these exhibited a preferential interaction with GTP- vs. GDP-locked Rab41/6d. Of the 8 hits, the dynactin 6, syntaxin 8, and Kif18A plasmids were the only ones expressing the full-length protein. Hence, these 3 proteins were selected for further study. We found that depletion of dynactin 6 or syntaxin 8, but not Kif18A, resulted in a fragmented Golgi apparatus that displayed a Rab41/6d knockdown phenotype, i.e., the Golgi apparatus was disrupted into a cluster of punctate Golgi elements. Co-immunoprecipation experiments verified that the interaction of dynactin 6 and syntaxin 8 with GTP-locked Rab41/6d was stronger than that with wild type Rab41/6d and least with the GDP-locked form. In contrast, co-immunoprecipitation interaction with Rab6a was greatest with the GDP-locked Rab6a, suggestive of a non-physiological interaction. In conclusion, we suggest that dynactin 6, a subunit of dynactin complex, the minus-end-directed, dynein motor, provides a sufficient molecular basis to

  10. Identification of Rab41/6d Effectors Provides an Explanation for the Differential Effects of Rab41/6d and Rab6a/a' on Golgi Organization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Majeed, Waqar; Kudlyk, Tetyana; Lupashin, Vladimir; Storrie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Unexpectedly, members of the Rab VI subfamily exhibit considerable variation in their effects on Golgi organization and trafficking. By fluorescence microscopy, neither depletion nor overexpression of the GDP-locked form of Rab6a/a', the first trans Golgi-associated Rab protein discovered, affects Golgi ribbon organization while, on the other hand, both Rab41/6d depletion and overexpression of GDP-locked form cause Golgi fragmentation into a cluster of punctate elements, suggesting that Rab41/6d has an active role in maintenance of Golgi ribbon organization. To establish a molecular basis for these differences, we screened for Rab41/6d interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid assay. 155 non-repetitive hits were isolated and sequenced, and after searching in NCBI database, 102 different proteins and protein fragments were identified. None of these hits overlapped with any published Rab6a/a' effector. Eight putative Rab41 interactors involved in membrane trafficking were found. Significantly, these exhibited a preferential interaction with GTP- vs. GDP-locked Rab41/6d. Of the 8 hits, the dynactin 6, syntaxin 8, and Kif18A plasmids were the only ones expressing the full-length protein. Hence, these 3 proteins were selected for further study. We found that depletion of dynactin 6 or syntaxin 8, but not Kif18A, resulted in a fragmented Golgi apparatus that displayed a Rab41/6d knockdown phenotype, i.e., the Golgi apparatus was disrupted into a cluster of punctate Golgi elements. Co-immunoprecipation experiments verified that the interaction of dynactin 6 and syntaxin 8 with GTP-locked Rab41/6d was stronger than that with wild type Rab41/6d and least with the GDP-locked form. In contrast, co-immunoprecipitation interaction with Rab6a was greatest with the GDP-locked Rab6a, suggestive of a non-physiological interaction. In conclusion, we suggest that dynactin 6, a subunit of dynactin complex, the minus-end-directed, dynein motor, provides a sufficient molecular basis to

  11. Identification of an immune-regulated phagosomal Rab cascade in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Gang; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been shown to regulate phagosome trafficking and function in macrophages, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we identify Rab20 as part of the machinery by which IFN-γ controls phagosome maturation. We found that IFN-γ stimulates the association of Rab20 with early phagosomes in macrophages. By using imaging of single phagosomes in live cells, we found that Rab20 induces an early delay in phagosome maturation and extends the time for which Rab5a and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) remain associated with phagosomes. Moreover, Rab20 depletion in macrophages abrogates the delay in phagosome maturation induced by IFN-γ. Finally, we demonstrate that Rab20 interacts with the Rab5a guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabex-5 (also known as RABGEF1) and that Rab20 knockdown impairs the IFN-γ-dependent recruitment of Rabex-5 and Rab5a into phagosomes. Taken together, here, we uncover Rab20 as a key player in the Rab cascade by which IFN-γ induces a delay in phagosome maturation in macrophages. PMID:24569883

  12. [Alterations in recruitment and activation of Rab proteins during mycobacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Castaño, Diana; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    At the phagosome level, Mycobacterium spp. alters activation and recruitment of several "Ras gene from rat brain" proteins, commonly known as Rab. Mycobacterial phagosomes have a greater and sustained expression of Rab5, Rab11, Rab14 and Rab22a, and lowered or no expression of Rab7, Rab9 and Rab6. This correlates with increased fusion of the phagosomes with early and recycling endosomes acquiring some features of early phagosomes, allowing the bacteria to gain access to nutrients and preventing the activation of anti-mycobacterial mechanisms. The expression of constitutively active mutants of Rab from the early stage endosomes prevents the maturation of phagosomes containing latex beads or heat-inactivated mycobacteria. Silencing of these mutants by interference RNA or dominant negative forms induces the maturation of mycobacterial phagosomes. The mechanisms have not been established by which mycobacteria alter the expression of these GTPases and thereby shift the phagolysosomal maturation. The problem can be explained by alterations in the recruitment of proteins that interact with Rab, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinases and early endosomal antigen 1. Identifying the mechanisms used by Mycobacterium spp. to disrupt the cycle of Rab activation will be essential to understand the pathophysiology of mycobacterial infections and usefully to potential drug targets.

  13. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and 24 brigades were destroyed and taken prisoner. The Wehrmacht lost 1,600,000 soldiers and officers. According to German data , irreplaceable...health, taking psychological data into acount, and their physical and general-education preparation. In so doing, how sincere the youth are in...Hospital for Political Affairs Lt-Col Aleksey Tel’nov bade them farewell heartily. The soldiers answered: "Thanks for the help and the care. Thanks, dear military doctors!..." 11409 CSO: 1801/207 END 58

  14. Public affairs committee actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  15. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  16. Supra-Earth affairs.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mazlan

    2011-02-13

    The United Nations briefly considered the issue of extra-terrestrial intelligence at the 32nd session of the General Assembly in 1977. As a result, the Office of Outer Space Affairs was tasked to prepare a document on issues related to 'messages to extra-terrestrial civilizations', but this area has not been followed through in more recent times. This discussion paper describes the United Nations' activities in the field of near-Earth objects in some detail, and suggests that this might be used as a model of how Member States could proceed with dealing with this issue in case the existence of extra-terrestrial life/intelligence is established.

  17. Rab Family Proteins Regulate the Endosomal Trafficking and Function of RGS4*

    PubMed Central

    Bastin, Guillaume; Heximer, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    RGS4, a heterotrimeric G-protein inhibitor, localizes to plasma membrane (PM) and endosomal compartments. Here, we examined Rab-mediated control of RGS4 internalization and recycling. Wild type and constitutively active Rab5 decreased RGS4 PM levels while increasing its endosomal targeting. Rab5, however, did not appreciably affect the PM localization or function of the M1 muscarinic receptor (M1R)/Gq signaling cascade. RGS4-containing endosomes co-localized with subsets of Rab5-, transferrin receptor-, and Lamp1/Lysotracker-marked compartments suggesting RGS4 traffics through PM recycling or acidified endosome pathways. Rab7 activity promoted TGN association, whereas Rab7(dominant negative) trapped RGS4 in late endosomes. Furthermore, RGS4 was found to co-localize with an endosomal pool marked by Rab11, the protein that mediates recycling/sorting of proteins to the PM. The Cys-12 residue in RGS4 appeared important for its Rab11-mediated trafficking to the PM. Rab11(dominant negative) decreased RGS4 PM levels and increased the number of RGS4-containing endosomes. Inhibition of Rab11 activity decreased RGS4 function as an inhibitor of M1R activity without affecting localization and function of the M1R/Gq signaling complex. Thus, both Rab5 activation and Rab11 inhibition decreased RGS4 function in a manner that is independent from their effects on the localization and function of the M1R/Gq signaling complex. This is the first study to implicate Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of an RGS protein. Thus, Rab GTPases may be novel molecular targets for the selective regulation of M1R-mediated signaling via their specific effects on RGS4 trafficking and function. PMID:23733193

  18. Comprehensive analysis reveals dynamic and evolutionary plasticity of Rab GTPases and membrane traffic in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Bright, Lydia J; Kambesis, Nichole; Nelson, Scott Brent; Jeong, Byeongmoon; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2010-10-14

    Cellular sophistication is not exclusive to multicellular organisms, and unicellular eukaryotes can resemble differentiated animal cells in their complex network of membrane-bound structures. These comparisons can be illuminated by genome-wide surveys of key gene families. We report a systematic analysis of Rabs in a complex unicellular Ciliate, including gene prediction and phylogenetic clustering, expression profiling based on public data, and Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) tagging. Rabs are monomeric GTPases that regulate membrane traffic. Because Rabs act as compartment-specific determinants, the number of Rabs in an organism reflects intracellular complexity. The Tetrahymena Rab family is similar in size to that in humans and includes both expansions in conserved Rab clades as well as many divergent Rabs. Importantly, more than 90% of Rabs are expressed concurrently in growing cells, while only a small subset appears specialized for other conditions. By localizing most Rabs in living cells, we could assign the majority to specific compartments. These results validated most phylogenetic assignments, but also indicated that some sequence-conserved Rabs were co-opted for novel functions. Our survey uncovered a rare example of a nuclear Rab and substantiated the existence of a previously unrecognized core Rab clade in eukaryotes. Strikingly, several functionally conserved pathways or structures were found to be associated entirely with divergent Rabs. These pathways may have permitted rapid evolution of the associated Rabs or may have arisen independently in diverse lineages and then converged. Thus, characterizing entire gene families can provide insight into the evolutionary flexibility of fundamental cellular pathways.

  19. Rab family proteins regulate the endosomal trafficking and function of RGS4.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Guillaume; Heximer, Scott P

    2013-07-26

    RGS4, a heterotrimeric G-protein inhibitor, localizes to plasma membrane (PM) and endosomal compartments. Here, we examined Rab-mediated control of RGS4 internalization and recycling. Wild type and constitutively active Rab5 decreased RGS4 PM levels while increasing its endosomal targeting. Rab5, however, did not appreciably affect the PM localization or function of the M1 muscarinic receptor (M1R)/Gq signaling cascade. RGS4-containing endosomes co-localized with subsets of Rab5-, transferrin receptor-, and Lamp1/Lysotracker-marked compartments suggesting RGS4 traffics through PM recycling or acidified endosome pathways. Rab7 activity promoted TGN association, whereas Rab7(dominant negative) trapped RGS4 in late endosomes. Furthermore, RGS4 was found to co-localize with an endosomal pool marked by Rab11, the protein that mediates recycling/sorting of proteins to the PM. The Cys-12 residue in RGS4 appeared important for its Rab11-mediated trafficking to the PM. Rab11(dominant negative) decreased RGS4 PM levels and increased the number of RGS4-containing endosomes. Inhibition of Rab11 activity decreased RGS4 function as an inhibitor of M1R activity without affecting localization and function of the M1R/Gq signaling complex. Thus, both Rab5 activation and Rab11 inhibition decreased RGS4 function in a manner that is independent from their effects on the localization and function of the M1R/Gq signaling complex. This is the first study to implicate Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of an RGS protein. Thus, Rab GTPases may be novel molecular targets for the selective regulation of M1R-mediated signaling via their specific effects on RGS4 trafficking and function.

  20. Student Affairs Capitalism and Early-Career Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Helm, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study explores student affairs capitalism as the alteration of professional practice towards the financial interests of institutions. Student affairs capitalism has the potential to create dynamics in which the interests of students become secondary to the institution's economic needs. This study examined this phenomenon from the perspectives…

  1. Endocytic turnover of Rab8 controls cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Quadras, Maite; Holst, Mikkel R.; Larsson, Elin; Hachimi, Mariam; Yau, Wai-Lok; Peränen, Johan; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adaptation of cell shape and polarization through the formation and retraction of cellular protrusions requires balancing of endocytosis and exocytosis combined with fine-tuning of the local activity of small GTPases like Rab8. Here, we show that endocytic turnover of the plasma membrane at protrusions is directly coupled to surface removal and inactivation of Rab8. Removal is induced by reduced membrane tension and mediated by the GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1, also known as ARHGAP26), a regulator of clathrin-independent endocytosis. GRAF1-depleted cells were deficient in multi-directional spreading and displayed elevated levels of GTP-loaded Rab8, which was accumulated at the tips of static protrusions. Furthermore, GRAF1 depletion impaired lumen formation and spindle orientation in a 3D cell culture system, indicating that GRAF1 activity regulates polarity establishment. Our data suggest that GRAF1-mediated removal of Rab8 from the cell surface restricts its activity during protrusion formation, thereby facilitating dynamic adjustment of the polarity axis. PMID:28137756

  2. Endocytic turnover of Rab8 controls cell polarization.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Quadras, Maite; Holst, Mikkel R; Francis, Monika K; Larsson, Elin; Hachimi, Mariam; Yau, Wai-Lok; Peränen, Johan; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando; Lundmark, Richard

    2017-03-15

    Adaptation of cell shape and polarization through the formation and retraction of cellular protrusions requires balancing of endocytosis and exocytosis combined with fine-tuning of the local activity of small GTPases like Rab8. Here, we show that endocytic turnover of the plasma membrane at protrusions is directly coupled to surface removal and inactivation of Rab8. Removal is induced by reduced membrane tension and mediated by the GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1, also known as ARHGAP26), a regulator of clathrin-independent endocytosis. GRAF1-depleted cells were deficient in multi-directional spreading and displayed elevated levels of GTP-loaded Rab8, which was accumulated at the tips of static protrusions. Furthermore, GRAF1 depletion impaired lumen formation and spindle orientation in a 3D cell culture system, indicating that GRAF1 activity regulates polarity establishment. Our data suggest that GRAF1-mediated removal of Rab8 from the cell surface restricts its activity during protrusion formation, thereby facilitating dynamic adjustment of the polarity axis.

  3. House Divided: The Splitting of Active Duty Civil Affairs Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    training of Active Duty Civil Affairs. This will allow the reader to become familiar with the Active branch as a whole and show the different...readers are extremely familiar with the large-scale environment given the nightly news coverage, but the small-scale environment is decidedly different...apparatus and are familiar with operating in conjunction with embassies and country teams. While conventional forces also have their own intelligence

  4. Development and quality evaluation of value added instant rab mixes.

    PubMed

    Mogra, Renu; Choudhry, Maya

    2014-06-01

    Rab is a traditional Rajasthani preparation prepared by boiling maize grits and or flour in buttermilk for 2-3 h. It is sour in taste with curd and cumin seed flavour and has thick soup like consistency. Two instant mixes of rab were developed using two types of curds prepared from two different culture combination (i) S. lactis + S. thermophilus + S. diacetylactis and (ii) L. bulgaricus + S. diacetylactis. Processed greengram dhal and spinach leaves powder were added to the mixes for their value addition. In all, six mixes were developed from two types of curd. The mixes were analysed for nutritional composition at zero month and sensory characteristics and shelf life was evaluated for 4 months. The rab mixes provided moisture 4.0-5.5 g; protein 15.1-17.6 g; carbohydrate 62.3-70.29 g; energy 357-394 kcal; fat 4.4-6.1 g; iron 3.15-3.89 mg and calcium 346-386 mg per 100 g of mixes. There was an increase in protein, ash, fiber and iron content of mixes through value addition. Sensory evaluation of rab reconstituted from mixes revealed that the scores ranged between 7 and 8 depicting that rab was liked very much. The mixes were free from coliforms and S.aureus bacteria and the counts for TVC, yeast and molds were within safe limits during storage of 4 months at 28-30°C and RH 55-65%.

  5. Gender Diversity within the Student Affairs Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Marylu K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated issue of representation of women and men in student affairs profession. Preparation program data, professional association data, and perceptions of student affairs professionals demonstrated a clear shift toward greater proportions of women in student affairs. (Author/NB)

  6. Rab 11 regulates constitutive dopamine transporter trafficking and function in N2A neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Furman, Cheryse A; Lo, Charles B; Stokes, Stephanie; Esteban, Jose A; Gnegy, Margaret E

    2009-09-29

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission which undergoes constitutive and substrate-mediated trafficking to and from the membrane. Although, considerable research has been done to elucidate the regulation of substrate-stimulated DAT trafficking, less is known about which trafficking proteins are involved in constitutive DAT trafficking. Rab proteins are GTPases known to regulate the trafficking of proteins to and from specific endocytic compartments. Rabs 8 and 11, in particular, are involved in trafficking proteins from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. In this study, we sought to determine whether Rabs 8 and 11 would modulate DAT activity and trafficking in N2A neuroblastoma cells. We used Rab mutations known to confer constitutively active or dominant negative activity of these proteins to investigate the role of Rab activity in constitutive DAT trafficking and function. We found that constitutively active Rab 11 upregulates DAT function and surface expression while neither the constitutively active nor the dominant negative mutant of Rab 8 had any effect on DA uptake. Furthermore, immunofluorescence experiments revealed that dominant negative Rab 11 overexpression results in decreased surface DAT indicating a necessary function of Rab 11 in DAT trafficking to the plasma membrane. These data show for the first time a functional role of Rab proteins in the constitutive recycling of DAT to the plasma membrane.

  7. bMERB domains are bivalent Rab8 family effectors evolved by gene duplication

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Amrita; Oprisko, Anastasia; Campos, Jeremy; Fu, Yangxue; Friese, Timon; Itzen, Aymelt; Goody, Roger S; Gazdag, Emerich Mihai; Müller, Matthias P

    2016-01-01

    In their active GTP-bound form, Rab proteins interact with proteins termed effector molecules. In this study, we have thoroughly characterized a Rab effector domain that is present in proteins of the Mical and EHBP families, both known to act in endosomal trafficking. Within our study, we show that these effectors display a preference for Rab8 family proteins (Rab8, 10, 13 and 15) and that some of the effector domains can bind two Rab proteins via separate binding sites. Structural analysis allowed us to explain the specificity towards Rab8 family members and the presence of two similar Rab binding sites that must have evolved via gene duplication. This study is the first to thoroughly characterize a Rab effector protein that contains two separate Rab binding sites within a single domain, allowing Micals and EHBPs to bind two Rabs simultaneously, thus suggesting previously unknown functions of these effector molecules in endosomal trafficking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18675.001 PMID:27552051

  8. [Isolation, phylogenetic analysis and developmental expression parttern of AmphiRab23b in amphioxus].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Wei; Lin, Yu-Shuang; Chen, Dong-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2009-12-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays an important role during the embryonic development and is related to the progression of cancers. Rab23 is a crucial functional molecule in Hh pathway. However, there is no report about amphioxus Rab23 up to now except the annotations of two isoforms in the genome of Florida lancelet (Branchiostoma floridae). Here a 2062 bp full-length cDNA sequence of the Rab23, AmphiRab23b, was isolated from Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri), which included the UTRs and an open reading frame of 714 bp, encoding a protein of 237 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that AmphiRab23b falled outside the vertebrate clade. But sequence analysis indicated that this putative AmphiRab23b protein contained a specific Rab23_lke domain, which implied that Rab23 gene was functional conservative during evolution. And its developmental expression pattern showed that AmphiRab23b was expressed in the differentiating neural plate and alimentary canal, as the same as the expression pattern of the homologous vertebrate genes, which suggested that AmphiRab23b may function in the development of nervous system and alimentary canal.

  9. Yersinia pestis Requires Host Rab1b for Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Michael G.; Pulsifer, Amanda R.; Price, Christopher T.; Abu Kwaik, Yousef; Lawrenz, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease known as plague. During infection of macrophages Y. pestis actively evades the normal phagosomal maturation pathway to establish a replicative niche within the cell. However, the mechanisms used by Y. pestis to subvert killing by the macrophage are unknown. Host Rab GTPases are central mediators of vesicular trafficking and are commonly targeted by bacterial pathogens to alter phagosome maturation and killing by macrophages. Here we demonstrate for the first time that host Rab1b is required for Y. pestis to effectively evade killing by macrophages. We also show that Rab1b is specifically recruited to the Yersinia containing vacuole (YCV) and that Y. pestis is unable to subvert YCV acidification when Rab1b expression is knocked down in macrophages. Furthermore, Rab1b knockdown also altered the frequency of association between the YCV with the lysosomal marker Lamp1, suggesting that Rab1b recruitment to the YCV directly inhibits phagosome maturation. Finally, we show that Rab1b knockdown also impacts the pH of the Legionella pneumophila containing vacuole, another pathogen that recruits Rab1b to its vacuole. Together these data identify a novel role for Rab1b in the subversion of phagosome maturation by intracellular pathogens and suggest that recruitment of Rab1b to the pathogen containing vacuole may be a conserved mechanism to control vacuole pH. PMID:26495854

  10. Interferon-γ-inducible Rab20 regulates endosomal morphology and EGFR degradation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pei, Gang; Schnettger, Laura; Bronietzki, Marc; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the molecular players that regulate changes in the endocytic pathway during immune activation. Here we investigate the role of Rab20 in the endocytic pathway during activation of macrophages. Rab20 is associated with endocytic structures, but the function of this Rab GTPase in the endocytic pathway remains poorly characterized. We find that in macrophages, Rab20 expression and endosomal association significantly increase after interferon-γ (IFN-γ) treatment. Moreover, IFN-γ and Rab20 expression induce a dramatic enlargement of endosomes. These enlarged endosomes are the result of homotypic fusion promoted by Rab20 expression. The expression of Rab20 or the dominant-negative mutant Rab20T19N does not affect transferrin or dextran 70 kDa uptake. However, knockdown of Rab20 accelerates epidermal growth factor (EGF) trafficking to LAMP-2-positive compartments and EGF receptor degradation. Thus this work defines a function for Rab20 in the endocytic pathway during immune activation of macrophages.

  11. Phosphorylation of Rab11-FIP2 regulates polarity in MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre, Lynne A.; Avant, Kenya M.; Caldwell, Cathy M.; Oztan, Asli; Apodaca, Gerard; Knowles, Byron C.; Roland, Joseph T.; Ducharme, Nicole A.; Goldenring, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Rab11 effector Rab11-family interacting protein 2 (Rab11-FIP2) regulates transcytosis through its interactions with Rab11a and myosin Vb. Previous studies implicated Rab11-FIP2 in the establishment of polarity in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells through phosphorylation of Ser-227 by MARK2. Here we examine the dynamic role of Rab11-FIP2 phosphorylation on MDCK cell polarity. Endogenous Rab11-FIP2 phosphorylated on Ser-227 coalesces on vesicular plaques during the reestablishment of polarity after either monolayer wounding or calcium switch. Whereas expression of the nonphosphorylatable Rab11-FIP2(S227A) elicits a loss in lumen formation in MDCK cell cysts grown in Matrigel, the putative pseudophosphorylated Rab11-FIP2(S227E) mutant induces the formation of cysts with multiple lumens. On permeable filters, Rab11-FIP2(S227E)–expressing cells exhibit alterations in the composition of both the adherens and tight junctions. At the adherens junction, p120 catenin and K-cadherin are retained, whereas the majority of the E-cadherin is lost. Although ZO-1 is retained at the tight junction, occludin is lost and the claudin composition is altered. Of interest, the effects of Rab11-FIP2 on cellular polarity did not involve myosin Vb or Rab11a. These results indicate that Ser-227 phosphorylation of Rab11-FIP2 regulates the composition of both adherens and tight junctions and is intimately involved in the regulation of polarity in epithelial cells. PMID:22553350

  12. Arabidopsis RabF1 (ARA6) Is Involved in Salt Stress and Dark-Induced Senescence (DIS)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Congfei; Karim, Sazzad; Zhang, Hongsheng; Aronsson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis small GTPase RabF1 (ARA6) functions in endosomal vesicle transport and may play a crucial role in recycling and degradation of molecules, thus involved in stress responses. Here we have reported that complementary overexpression lines RabF1OE (overexpression), GTPase mutants RabF1Q93L (constitutively active) and RabF1S47N (dominant negative) lines show longer root growth than wild-type, rabF1 knockout and N-myristoylation deletion (Δ1−29, N-terminus) complementary overexpression mutant plants under salt induced stress, which indicates that N-myristoylation of RabF1 is indispensable for salt tolerance. Moreover, RabF1 is highly expressed during senescence and RabF1OE lines were more tolerant of dark-induced senescence (DIS) than wild-type and rabF1. PMID:28157156

  13. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-25

    kilograms of ethylene oxide, a central explosive charge, two detonators, an electronic and a mechanical fuse and a solid- propel lant sustainer motor. The... electronic fuse is equipped with a safety which keeps it from operating when the shell is flying through the branches of trees and shrubs. The...Against a background of music a man who has lived in the village all of his life says that at present they have a good harvest of various crops

  14. RAB-5- and RAB-11-dependent vesicle-trafficking pathways are required for plasma membrane repair after attack by bacterial pore-forming toxin.

    PubMed

    Los, Ferdinand C O; Kao, Cheng-Yuan; Smitham, Jane; McDonald, Kent L; Ha, Christine; Peixoto, Christina A; Aroian, Raffi V

    2011-02-17

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) secreted by pathogenic bacteria are the most common bacterial protein toxins and are important virulence factors for infection. PFTs punch holes in host cell plasma membranes, and although cells can counteract the resulting membrane damage, the underlying mechanisms at play remain unclear. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we demonstrate in vivo and in an intact epithelium that intestinal cells respond to PFTs by increasing levels of endocytosis, dependent upon RAB-5 and RAB-11, which are master regulators of endocytic and exocytic events. Furthermore, we find that RAB-5 and RAB-11 are required for protection against PFT and to restore integrity to the plasma membrane. One physical mechanism involved is the RAB-11-dependent expulsion of microvilli from the apical side of the intestinal epithelial cells. Specific vesicle-trafficking pathways thus protect cells against an attack by PFTs on plasma membrane integrity, via altered plasma membrane dynamics.

  15. Analysis of the Rab GTPase Interactome in Dendritic Cells Reveals Anti-microbial Functions of the Rab32 Complex in Bacterial Containment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yu; Zou, Liyun; Tang, Xiangyu; Yang, Yi; Ma, Li; Jia, Qingzhu; Ni, Qingshan; Liu, Siqi; Tang, Lizhang; Lin, Regina; Wong, Elizabeth; Sun, Wei; Wang, Liting; Wei, Quanfang; Ran, Haiying; Zhang, Liqun; Lian, Hengning; Huang, Wei; Wu, Yuzhang; Li, Qi-Jing; Wan, Ying

    2016-02-16

    Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate complex membrane trafficking through an interconnected transportation network linked together by Rab GTPases. Through a tandem affinity purification strategy and mass spectrometry, we depicted an interactomic landscape of major members of the mammalian Rab GTPase family. When complemented with imaging tools, this proteomic analysis provided a global view of intracellular membrane organization. Driven by this analysis, we investigated dynamic changes to the Rab32 subnetwork in DCs induced by L. monocytogenes infection and uncovered an essential role of this subnetwork in controlling the intracellular proliferation of L. monocytogenes. Mechanistically, Rab32 formed a persistent complex with two interacting proteins, PHB and PHB2, to encompass bacteria both during early phagosome formation and after L. monocytogenes escaped the original containment vacuole. Collectively, we have provided a functional compartmentalization overview and an organizational framework of intracellular Rab-mediated vesicle trafficking that can serve as a resource for future investigations.

  16. Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A L; Erdman, R A; Castellano, F; Maltese, W A

    1998-01-01

    Rab GTPases are post-translationally modified by addition of geranylgeranyl moieties to carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. For Rab proteins ending with xxCC xCxC and CCxx motifs this modification is catalysed by geranylgeranyltransferase type II (GGTaseII), and is entirely dependent on the Rab substrate being bound to Rab escort protein (REP). Several Rab proteins contain carboxyl-terminal CaaL prenylation motifs typical of members of the Rho family, which are modified in a REP-independent manner by geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTaseI). The present studies show that one such Rab protein (Rab8), which ends with a CVLL motif, is uniquely able to serve as a substrate for either REP/GGTaseII or GGTaseI in cell-free assays. The modification of Rab8 by GGTaseI did not require REP, indicating that a REP-induced conformational change is not essential for exposure of the Rab carboxyl-terminal cysteine prenylation site. To determine whether one enzyme plays a predominant role in Rab8 prenylation in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into Rab8 was measured in human embryonal kidney 293 cells under conditions where the activity of GGTaseI, but not GGTaseII, was blocked by the peptidomimetic inhibitor GGTI-298. The GGTaseI inhibitor did not prevent prenylation of either overexpressed Myc-tagged Rab8 or endogenous Rab8, whereas prenylation of a known GGTaseI substrate with the same carboxyl-terminal motif, Cdc42Hs, was completely blocked. To rule out the possibility that the apparent prenylation of Rab8 by GGTaseII occurs only when GGTaseI activity is eliminated, metabolic labelling studies were carried out in the absence of the GGTaseI inhibitor, using a REP-binding-deficient Rab8 construct (Y78D) that cannot serve as a substrate for GGTaseII, but is indistinguishable from wild-type Rab8 as a substrate for GGTaseI. Prenylation of the Y78D mutant was reduced by 60-70% in intact cells, consistent with the conclusion that the majority of Rab8 is prenylated by the

  17. Recycling and Endosomal Sorting of Protease-activated Receptor-1 Is Distinctly Regulated by Rab11A and Rab11B Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Grimsey, Neil J.; Coronel, Luisa J.; Cordova, Isabel Canto; Trejo, JoAnn

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that undergoes proteolytic irreversible activation by coagulant and anti-coagulant proteases. Given the irreversible activation of PAR1, signaling by the receptor is tightly regulated through desensitization and intracellular trafficking. PAR1 displays both constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of PAR1 is important for generating an internal pool of naïve receptors that replenish the cell surface and facilitate resensitization, whereas agonist-induced internalization of PAR1 is critical for terminating G protein signaling. We showed that PAR1 constitutive internalization is mediated by the adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), whereas AP-2 and epsin control agonist-induced PAR1 internalization. However, the mechanisms that regulate PAR1 recycling are not known. In the present study we screened a siRNA library of 140 different membrane trafficking proteins to identify key regulators of PAR1 intracellular trafficking. In addition to known mediators of PAR1 endocytosis, we identified Rab11B as a critical regulator of PAR1 trafficking. We found that siRNA-mediated depletion of Rab11B and not Rab11A blocks PAR1 recycling, which enhanced receptor lysosomal degradation. Although Rab11A is not required for PAR1 recycling, depletion of Rab11A resulted in intracellular accumulation of PAR1 through disruption of basal lysosomal degradation of the receptor. Moreover, enhanced degradation of PAR1 observed in Rab11B-deficient cells is blocked by depletion of Rab11A and the autophagy related-5 protein, suggesting that PAR1 is shuttled to an autophagic degradation pathway in the absence of Rab11B recycling. Together these findings suggest that Rab11A and Rab11B differentially regulate intracellular trafficking of PAR1 through distinct endosomal sorting mechanisms. PMID:26635365

  18. Endogenously Tagged Rab Proteins: A Resource to Study Membrane Trafficking in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dunst, Sebastian; Kazimiers, Tom; von Zadow, Felix; Jambor, Helena; Sagner, Andreas; Brankatschk, Beate; Mahmoud, Ali; Spannl, Stephanie; Tomancak, Pavel; Eaton, Suzanne; Brankatschk, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Summary Membrane trafficking is key to the cell biological mechanisms underlying development. Rab GTPases control specific membrane compartments, from core secretory and endocytic machinery to less-well-understood compartments. We tagged all 27 Drosophila Rabs with YFPMYC at their endogenous chromosomal loci, determined their expression and subcellular localization in six tissues comprising 23 cell types, and provide this data in an annotated, searchable image database. We demonstrate the utility of these lines for controlled knockdown and show that similar subcellular localization can predict redundant functions. We exploit this comprehensive resource to ask whether a common Rab compartment architecture underlies epithelial polarity. Strikingly, no single arrangement of Rabs characterizes the five epithelia we examine. Rather, epithelia flexibly polarize Rab distribution, producing membrane trafficking architectures that are tissue- and stage-specific. Thus, the core machinery responsible for epithelial polarization is unlikely to rely on polarized positioning of specific Rab compartments. PMID:25942626

  19. Endogenously tagged rab proteins: a resource to study membrane trafficking in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dunst, Sebastian; Kazimiers, Tom; von Zadow, Felix; Jambor, Helena; Sagner, Andreas; Brankatschk, Beate; Mahmoud, Ali; Spannl, Stephanie; Tomancak, Pavel; Eaton, Suzanne; Brankatschk, Marko

    2015-05-04

    Membrane trafficking is key to the cell biological mechanisms underlying development. Rab GTPases control specific membrane compartments, from core secretory and endocytic machinery to less-well-understood compartments. We tagged all 27 Drosophila Rabs with YFP(MYC) at their endogenous chromosomal loci, determined their expression and subcellular localization in six tissues comprising 23 cell types, and provide this data in an annotated, searchable image database. We demonstrate the utility of these lines for controlled knockdown and show that similar subcellular localization can predict redundant functions. We exploit this comprehensive resource to ask whether a common Rab compartment architecture underlies epithelial polarity. Strikingly, no single arrangement of Rabs characterizes the five epithelia we examine. Rather, epithelia flexibly polarize Rab distribution, producing membrane trafficking architectures that are tissue- and stage-specific. Thus, the core machinery responsible for epithelial polarization is unlikely to rely on polarized positioning of specific Rab compartments.

  20. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression pattern of Rab18 gene from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Xinli, Xiao; Lei, Peng

    2015-03-04

    The complete mRNA sequence of watermelon Rab18 gene was amplified through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length mRNA was 1010 bp containing a 645 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 214 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 protein shares high homology with the Rab18 of cucumber (99%), muskmelon (98%), Morus notabilis (90%), tomato (89%), wine grape (89%) and potato (88%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 gene has a closer genetic relationship with Rab18 gene of cucumber and muskmelon. Tissue expression profile analysis indicated that watermelon Rab18 gene was highly expressed in root, stem and leaf, moderately expressed in flower and weakly expressed in fruit.

  1. A Rab3a-dependent complex essential for lysosome positioning and plasma membrane repair

    PubMed Central

    Encarnação, Marisa; Mateus, Denisa; Michelet, Xavier; Santarino, Inês; Hsu, Victor W.; Brenner, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Lysosome exocytosis plays a major role in resealing plasma membrane (PM) disruptions. This process involves two sequential steps. First, lysosomes are recruited to the periphery of the cell and then fuse with the damaged PM. However, the trafficking molecular machinery involved in lysosome exocytosis and PM repair (PMR) is poorly understood. We performed a systematic screen of the human Rab family to identify Rabs required for lysosome exocytosis and PMR. Rab3a, which partially localizes to peripheral lysosomes, was one of the most robust hits. Silencing of Rab3a or its effector, synaptotagmin-like protein 4a (Slp4-a), leads to the collapse of lysosomes to the perinuclear region and inhibition of PMR. Importantly, we have also identified a new Rab3 effector, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA, as part of the complex formed by Rab3a and Slp4-a that is responsible for lysosome positioning at the cell periphery and lysosome exocytosis. PMID:27325790

  2. Rab8 directs furrow ingression and membrane addition during epithelial formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mavor, Lauren M; Miao, Hui; Zuo, Zhongyuan; Holly, Ryan M; Xie, Yi; Loerke, Dinah; Blankenship, J Todd

    2016-03-01

    One of the most fundamental changes in cell morphology is the ingression of a plasma membrane furrow. The Drosophila embryo undergoes several cycles of rapid furrow ingression during early development that culminate in the formation of an epithelial sheet. Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for intracellular trafficking pathways in furrow ingression; however, the pathways that link compartmental behaviors with cortical furrow ingression events are unclear. Here, we show that Rab8 has striking dynamic behaviors in vivo. As furrows ingress, cytoplasmic Rab8 puncta are depleted and Rab8 accumulates at the plasma membrane in a location that coincides with known regions of directed membrane addition. We additionally use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to N-terminally tag Rab8, which is then used to address endogenous localization and function. Endogenous Rab8 displays partial coincidence with Rab11 and the Golgi, and this colocalization is enriched during the fast phase of cellularization. When Rab8 function is disrupted, furrow formation in the early embryo is completely abolished. We also demonstrate that Rab8 behaviors require the function of the exocyst complex subunit Sec5 as well as the recycling endosome protein Rab11. Active, GTP-locked Rab8 is primarily associated with dynamic membrane compartments and the plasma membrane, whereas GDP-locked Rab8 forms large cytoplasmic aggregates. These studies suggest a model in which active Rab8 populations direct furrow ingression by guiding the targeted delivery of cytoplasmic membrane stores to the cell surface through interactions with the exocyst tethering complex.

  3. Rab25 upregulation correlates with the proliferation, migration, and invasion of renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanyuan; Jia, Qingzhu; Zhang, Qian; Wan, Ying

    2015-03-20

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common urological cancer with a poor prognosis. A recent cohort study revealed that the median survival of RCC patients was only 1.5 years and that <10% of the patients in the study survived up to 5 years. In tumor development, Rab GTPase are known to play potential roles such as regulation of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, communication, and drug resistance in multiple tumors. However, the correlation between Rabs expression and the occurrence, development, and metastasis of RCC remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional levels of 52 Rab GTPases in RCC patients. Our results showed that high levels of Rab25 expression were significantly correlated with RCC invasion classification (P < 0.01), lymph-node metastasis (P < 0.001), and pathological stage (P < 0.01). Conversely, in 786-O and A-498 cells, knocking down Rab25 protein expression inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Our results also demonstrated that Rab25 is a target gene of let-7d, and further suggested that Rab25 upregulation in RCC is due to diminished expression of let-7d. These findings indicate that Rab25 might be a novel candidate molecule involved in RCC development, thus identifying a potential biological therapeutic target for RCC. - Highlights: • The transcriptional levels of 52 Rab GTPases were analyzed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). • High levels of Rab25 expression were significantly correlated with clinicopathological factors of RCC. • Knockdown of Rab25 protein expression reduced RCC cells proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Rab25 is a target gene of let-7d in RCC.

  4. Insights into endosomal maturation of human holo-transferrin in the enteric parasite Entamoeba histolytica: essential roles of Rab7A and Rab5 in biogenesis of giant early endocytic vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kuldeep; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Datta, Sunando

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica is one of the causative agents of health hazards in tropical countries. It causes amoebic dysentery, colitis and liver abscesses in human. Iron is one of the essential nutritional resources for survival and chronic infection caused by the amoeba. The parasite has developed multiple ways to import, sequester and utilize iron from various iron-binding proteins from its host. In spite of its central role in pathogenesis, the mechanism of iron uptake by the parasite is largely unknown. Here, we carried out a systematic study to understand the role of some of the amoebic homologues of mammalian endocytic Rab GTPases (Rab5 and Rab21, Rab7A and Rab7B) in intracellular transport of human holo-transferrin by the parasite. Flow cytometry and quantitative microscopic image analysis revealed that Rab5 and Rab7A are required for the biogenesis of amoebic giant endocytic vacuoles (GEVs) and regulate the early phase of intracellular trafficking of transferrin. Rab7B is involved in the late phase, leading to the degradation of transferrin in the amoebic lysosome-like compartments. Using time-lapse fluorescence imaging in fixed trophozoites, we determined the kinetics of the vesicular transport of transferrin through Rab5-, Rab7A- and Rab7B-positive compartments. The involvement of Rab7A in the early phase of endocytosis by the parasite marks a significant divergence from its host in terms of spatiotemporal regulation by the Rab GTPases.

  5. Critical importance of RAB proteins for synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Maria Lidia; D'Adamo, Patrizia

    2017-02-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells that exhibit one of the more complex morphology and function. Neuronal intracellular trafficking plays a key role in dictating the directionality and specificity of vesicle formation, transport and fusion, allowing the transmission of information in sophisticate cellular network. Thus, the integrity of protein trafficking and spatial organization is especially important in neuronal cells. RAB proteins, small monomeric GTPases belonging to the RAS superfamily, spatially and temporally orchestrate specific vesicular trafficking steps. In this review we summarise the known roles of RAB GTPases involved in the maintenance of neuronal vesicular trafficking in the central nervous system. In particular, we discriminate the axonal pre-synaptic trafficking and dendritic post-synaptic trafficking, to better underlie how a correct orchestration of vesicle movement is necessary to maintain neuronal polarity and then, to permit an accurate architecture and functionality of synaptic activity.

  6. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    SciTech Connect

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K.; James, John; Prescott, Alan; Haga, Ismar R.; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the role of the small GTPase RAB1A in VACV replication. • RAB1A is not required for production of the primary virion form (IMV). • RAB1A is required for production of processed virion forms (IEVs, CEVs and EEVs). • Consistent with known role of RAB1A in ER to Golgi transport.

  7. Drosophila Rab14 mediates phagocytosis in the immune response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Aprajita; Wu, Louisa P.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila hemocytes are essential for the animal to resist Staphylococcus aureus infections. Phagocytosis is a central component of the hemocyte-mediated immune response. It involves regulated interaction between the phagocytic and the endocytic compartments. Rab GTPases are pivotal for the membrane trafficking and fusion events, and thus are often targets of intracellular pathogens that subvert phagocytosis. An in vivo screen identified Rab2 and Rab14 as candidates for proteins regulating phagosome maturation. Since Rab14 is often targeted by intracellular pathogens, an understanding of its function during phagocytosis and the overall immune response can give insight into the pathogenesis of intracellular microbes. We generated a Drosophila Rab14 mutant and characterized the resulting immune defects in animals and specifically in hemocytes in response to an S. aureus infection. Hemocyte based immunofluorescence studies indicate that Rab14 is recruited to the phagosome and like Rab7, a well-characterized regulator of the phagocytic pathway, is essential for progression of phagosome maturation. Rab14 mutant hemocytes show impaired recruitment of Rab7 and of a lysosomal marker onto S. aureus phagosomes. The defect in phagocytosis is associated with higher bacterial load and increased susceptibility to S. aureus in the animal. PMID:24119134

  8. Association of the GTP-binding protein Rab3A with bovine adrenal chromaffin granules

    SciTech Connect

    Darchen, F.; Hammel, F.; Monteils, M.P.; Scherman, D. ); Zahraoui, A.; Tavitian, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The Rab3A protein belongs to a large family of small GTP-binding proteins that are present in eukaryotic cells and that share amino acid identities with the Ras proteins (products of the ras protooncogenes). Rab3A, which is specifically located in nervous and endocrine tissues, is suspected to play a key role in secretion. Its localization was investigated in bovine adrenal gland by using a polyclonal antibody. Rab3A was detected in adrenal medulla but not in adrenal cortex. In cultured adrenal medulla cells, Rab3A was specifically expressed in the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells. Subcellular fractionation suggested that Rab3A is about 30% cytosolic and that particulate Rab3A is associated with the membrane of chromaffin granules (the catecholamine storage organelles) and with a second compartment likely to be the plasma membrane. The Rab3A localization on chromaffin granule membranes was confirmed by immunoadsorption with an antibody against dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase. Rab3A was not extracted from this membrane by NaCl or KBr but was partially extracted by urea and totally solubilized by Triton X-100, suggesting either an interaction with an intrinsic protein or a membrane association through fatty acid acylation. This study suggests that Rab3A, which may also be located on other secretory vesicles containing noncharacterized small GTP-binding proteins, is involved in their biogenesis or in the regulated secretion process.

  9. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Patricio; Soto, Nicolás; Díaz, Jorge; Mendoza, Pablo; Díaz, Natalia; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Torres, Vicente A.

    2015-08-21

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo.

  10. Rab14 Act as Oncogene and Induce Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cells via AKT Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenghao; Li, Qian; Zhou, Kaiyue; Zhao, Lingyu; Wang, Lumin; Yang, Juan; Huang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Rab14 is a member of RAS oncogene family, and its dysfunction has been reported to be involved in various types of human cancer. However, its expression and function were still unclear in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the function and mechanism of Rab14 in gastric cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed in 17 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 4 cell lines to detect the expression of Rab14. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), colony formation and flow cytometry assays were employed to determine the proliferative ability, cell cycle transition and apoptosis in vitro in BGC-823 or SGC-7901 cells. Western blot was performed to investigate the pathways and mechanism of Rab14 regulation. In this study, we show that Rab14 presents a significant up-regulated expression among the paired tissue samples and cell lines in gastric cancer. When we overexpressed Rab14 in SGC-7901 cells or silenced Rab14 in BGC-823 cells, we found that Rab14 could modify cell growth, cell cycle or apoptosis, which accompanied with an obvious regulation of CCND1, CDK2 and BAX involving in AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study provides a new evidence on that Rab14 functions as a novel tumor oncogene and could be a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:28107526

  11. Increased Rab35 expression is a potential biomarker and implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Szu-Chia; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Chen, Rou-Shayn; Huang, Ying-Zu; Hung, June; Chen, Chiung-Chu; Lin, Wey-Yil; Chang, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Yu-Jie; Chen, Chao-Lang; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Yan-Wei; Wu-Chou, Yah-Huei; Wang, Hung-Li; Lu, Chin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second common neurodegenerative disease. Identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis and prediction of disease progression is important. The present comparative proteomic study of serum samples using two-dimensional fluorescence differential gel electrophoresis followed by ELISA confirmation demonstrated that protein expression of Rab35 was increased in PD patients compared with matched control subjects and other parkinsonian disorders, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The serum level of Rab35 was significantly correlated with the age at onset of PD. The median age of onset in patients with higher Rab35 serum level was 5 years younger than those with lower Rab35 serum level. There was a positive correlation between the Rab35 level and disease duration of PD. Moreover, the protein expression of Rab35 was increased in the substantia nigra but not in the striatum of mouse models of PD, including MPTP-treated mice, rotenone-treated mice, (R1441C) LRRK2 or (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice. Furthermore, overexpression of Rab35 increased the aggregation and secretion of mutant A53T α-synuclein in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Co-expression of Rab35 with wild-type or A53T α-synuclein in SH-SY5Y cells deteriorated cell death. Our results suggest that Rab35 is potentially useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders and is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:27509057

  12. Rab from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    With the destruction of the ecological environment, shrimp cultivation in China has been seriously affected by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Rab, which belong to small GTPase Ras superfamily, can regulate multiple steps in eukaryotic vesicle trafficking including vesicle budding, vesicle tethering, and membrane fusion. Knowledge of Rab in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we analyzed the functions of Rab from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNA of Rab was obtained, which was 751 bp long, with open reading frame encoding 206 amino acids. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of Rab of L. vannamei was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that Rab is sensitive and involved in bacteria, pH, and Cd stress responses and Rab is more sensitive to bacteria than other stresses. Therefore we infer that Rab may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp and Rab could be used as critical biomarkers for environmental quality assessment.

  13. The small GTPase Rab29 is a common regulator of immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Onnis, A; Finetti, F; Patrussi, L; Gottardo, M; Cassioli, C; Spanò, S; Baldari, C T

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence underscores the T-cell immune synapse (IS) as a site of intense vesicular trafficking, on which productive signaling and cell activation crucially depend. Although the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) is known to exploit recycling to accumulate to the IS, the specific pathway that controls this process remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the small GTPase Rab29 is centrally implicated in TCR trafficking and IS assembly. Rab29 colocalized and interacted with Rab8, Rab11 and IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport system that regulates ciliogenesis and participates in TCR recycling in the non-ciliated T cell, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analysis. Rab29 depletion resulted in the inability of TCRs to undergo recycling to the IS, thereby compromizing IS assembly. Under these conditions, recycling TCRs accumulated in Rab11+ endosomes that failed to polarize to the IS due to defective Rab29-dependent recruitment of the dynein microtubule motor. Remarkably, Rab29 participates in a similar pathway in ciliated cells to promote primary cilium growth and ciliary localization of Smoothened. These results provide a function for Rab29 as a regulator of receptor recycling and identify this GTPase as a shared participant in IS and primary cilium assembly. PMID:26021297

  14. Rab7b at the intersection of intracellular trafficking and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Distefano, Marita Borg; Kjos, Ingrid; Bakke, Oddmund; Progida, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rab proteins are small GTPases essential for controlling and coordinating intracellular traffic. The small GTPase Rab7b regulates the retrograde transport from late endosomes toward the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN), and is important for the proper trafficking of several receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and sorting receptors. We recently identified the actin motor protein myosin II as a new interaction partner for Rab7b, and found that Rab7b transport is dependent on myosin II. Interestingly, we also discovered that Rab7b influences the phosphorylation state of myosin II by controlling the activation status of the small GTPase RhoA. Consequently, Rab7b is important for the remodeling of actin filaments in processes such as stress fiber formation, cell adhesion, polarization and cell migration. Our finding that Rab7b can control actomyosin reorganization reveals yet another important role for Rab proteins, in addition to their already established role as master regulators of intracellular transport. Here we discuss our findings and speculate how they can explain the importance of Rab7b in dendritic cells (DCs). PMID:27066171

  15. Rab7b at the intersection of intracellular trafficking and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Marita Borg; Kjos, Ingrid; Bakke, Oddmund; Progida, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Rab proteins are small GTPases essential for controlling and coordinating intracellular traffic. The small GTPase Rab7b regulates the retrograde transport from late endosomes toward the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN), and is important for the proper trafficking of several receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and sorting receptors. We recently identified the actin motor protein myosin II as a new interaction partner for Rab7b, and found that Rab7b transport is dependent on myosin II. Interestingly, we also discovered that Rab7b influences the phosphorylation state of myosin II by controlling the activation status of the small GTPase RhoA. Consequently, Rab7b is important for the remodeling of actin filaments in processes such as stress fiber formation, cell adhesion, polarization and cell migration. Our finding that Rab7b can control actomyosin reorganization reveals yet another important role for Rab proteins, in addition to their already established role as master regulators of intracellular transport. Here we discuss our findings and speculate how they can explain the importance of Rab7b in dendritic cells (DCs).

  16. Hypoxia promotes Rab5 activation, leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patricio; Mendoza, Pablo; Rivas, Solange; Díaz, Jorge; Moraga, Carolina; Quest, Andrew F G; Torres, Vicente A

    2016-05-17

    Hypoxia, a common condition of the tumor microenvironment, is associated with poor patient prognosis, tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia alters endosome dynamics in tumor cells, leading to augmented cell proliferation and migration and this is particularly relevant, because endosomal components have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The early endosome protein Rab5 is a small GTPase that promotes integrin trafficking, focal adhesion turnover, Rac1 activation, tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the role of Rab5 and downstream events in hypoxia remain unknown. Here, we identify Rab5 as a critical player in hypoxia-driven tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma, ZR-75, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells to hypoxia increased Rab5 activation, followed by its re-localization to the leading edge and association with focal adhesions. Importantly, Rab5 was required for hypoxia-driven cell migration, FAK phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, as shown by shRNA-targeting and transfection assays with Rab5 mutants. Intriguingly, the effect of hypoxia on both Rab5 activity and migration was substantially higher in metastatic B16-F10 cells than in poorly invasive B16-F0 cells. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Rab5 in B16-F0 cells predisposed to hypoxia-induced migration, whereas expression of the inactive mutant Rab5/S34N prevented the migration of B16-F10 cells induced by hypoxia. Finally, using an in vivo syngenic C57BL/6 mouse model, Rab5 expression was shown to be required for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In summary, these findings identify Rab5 as a key mediator of hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

  17. High Rab11-FIP4 expression predicts poor prognosis and exhibits tumor promotion in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yun; Ye, Mengsi; Zhou, Lingling; Shan, Yunfeng; Lu, Guangrong; Zhou, Yuhui; Zhong, Jinwei; Zheng, Jihang; Xue, Zhanxiong; Cai, Zhenzhai

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) are connected with the tumorigenesis, and they may act as tumor promoters in some cancers. The clinicopathological significance of Rab11-family interacting protein 4 (Rab11-FIP4) expression and its possible effects on pancreatic cancer (PC) are still undiscovered. In this study, Rab11-FIP4 protein expression level in 60 PC specimens and pair-matched non-cancerous samples were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis. The results were analysed and compared with each patients' clinical data. Rab11-FIP4 expression in PC tissues increased significantly more than that of adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P=0.0001). Overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 in the PC tissues was significantly related to tumor size (P=0.0001), histological grade (P=0.028), metastasis (P=0.001) and TNM stage (P=0.004) but not with age (P=0.832), gender (P=0.228) or tumor site (P=0.875). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 was significantly related to overall survival time (P=0.0036). In addition, Rab11-FIP4 in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells were successfully knocked-out using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Rab11-FIP4 knockout in PANC-1 cells inhibited cell growth, invasion and metastasis, and arrested cell cycle progression, but did not alter apoptosis. Our findings suggest that overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 predicts poor clinical outcomes for pancreatic cancer and contributes to pancreatic tumor progression. PMID:28035375

  18. Hypoxia promotes Rab5 activation, leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patricio; Mendoza, Pablo; Rivas, Solange; Díaz, Jorge; Moraga, Carolina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Torres, Vicente A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, a common condition of the tumor microenvironment, is associated with poor patient prognosis, tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia alters endosome dynamics in tumor cells, leading to augmented cell proliferation and migration and this is particularly relevant, because endosomal components have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The early endosome protein Rab5 is a small GTPase that promotes integrin trafficking, focal adhesion turnover, Rac1 activation, tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the role of Rab5 and downstream events in hypoxia remain unknown. Here, we identify Rab5 as a critical player in hypoxia-driven tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma, ZR-75, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells to hypoxia increased Rab5 activation, followed by its re-localization to the leading edge and association with focal adhesions. Importantly, Rab5 was required for hypoxia-driven cell migration, FAK phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, as shown by shRNA-targeting and transfection assays with Rab5 mutants. Intriguingly, the effect of hypoxia on both Rab5 activity and migration was substantially higher in metastatic B16-F10 cells than in poorly invasive B16-F0 cells. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Rab5 in B16-F0 cells predisposed to hypoxia-induced migration, whereas expression of the inactive mutant Rab5/S34N prevented the migration of B16-F10 cells induced by hypoxia. Finally, using an in vivo syngenic C57BL/6 mouse model, Rab5 expression was shown to be required for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In summary, these findings identify Rab5 as a key mediator of hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. PMID:27121131

  19. Rab4GTPase modulates CFTR function by impairing channel expression at plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Sunil K. . E-mail: ssaxena@stevens.edu; Kaur, Simarna; George, Constantine

    2006-03-03

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or the function of a membrane cAMP-activated chloride channel, CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include recruitment of channel proteins to the cell surface from intracellular pools and by protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in regulated trafficking controlling vesicle docking and fusion. Rab4 controls recycling events from endosome to the plasma membrane, fusion, and degradation. The colorectal cell line HT-29 natively expresses CFTR and responds to cAMP stimulation with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. Rab4 over-expression in HT-29 cells inhibits both basal and cAMP-stimulated CFTR-mediated currents. GTPase-deficient Rab4Q67L and GDP locked Rab4S22N both inhibit channel activity, which appears characteristically different. Active status of Rab4 was confirmed by GTP overlay assay, while its expression was verified by Western blotting. The pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Rab4 physically interacts with CFTR through protein-protein interaction. Biotinylation with cell impermeant NHS-Sulfo-SS-Biotin implies that Rab4 impairs CFTR expression at cell surface. The enhanced cytosolic CFTR indicates that Rab4 expression restrains CFTR appearance at the cell membrane. The study suggests that Rab4 regulates the channel through multiple mechanisms that include protein-protein interaction, GTP/GDP exchange, and channel protein trafficking. We propose that Rab4 is a dynamic molecule with a significant role in CFTR function.

  20. Subcellular Localization and Functional Analysis of the Arabidopsis GTPase RabE1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Speth, Elena Bray; Imboden, Lori; Hauck, Paula; He, Sheng Yang

    2009-01-01

    Membrane trafficking plays a fundamental role in eukaryotic cell biology. Of the numerous known or predicted protein components of the plant cell trafficking system, only a relatively small subset have been characterized with respect to their biological roles in plant growth, development, and response to stresses. In this study, we investigated the subcellular localization and function of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) small GTPase belonging to the RabE family. RabE proteins are phylogenetically related to well-characterized regulators of polarized vesicle transport from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane in animal and yeast cells. The RabE family of GTPases has also been proposed to be a putative host target of AvrPto, an effector protein produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, based on yeast two-hybrid analysis. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that constitutively expressed one of the five RabE proteins (RabE1d) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-RabE1d and endogenous RabE proteins were found to be associated with the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis leaf cells. RabE down-regulation, due to cosuppression in transgenic plants, resulted in drastically altered leaf morphology and reduced plant size, providing experimental evidence for an important role of RabE GTPases in regulating plant growth. RabE down-regulation did not affect plant susceptibility to pathogenic P. syringae bacteria; conversely, expression of the constitutively active RabE1d-Q74L enhanced plant defenses, conferring resistance to P. syringae infection. PMID:19233904

  1. Synaptic Function of Rab11Fip5: Selective Requirement for Hippocampal Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mohiuddin; Jurado, Sandra; Malenka, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are among the major determinants of synaptic strength and can be trafficked into and out of synapses. Neuronal activity regulates AMPAR trafficking during synaptic plasticity to induce long-term changes in synaptic strength, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Rab family GTPases regulate most membrane trafficking in eukaryotic cells; particularly, Rab11 and its effectors are implicated in mediating postsynaptic AMPAR insertion during LTP. To explore the synaptic function of Rab11Fip5, a neuronal Rab11 effector and a candidate autism-spectrum disorder gene, we performed shRNA-mediated knock-down and genetic knock-out (KO) studies. Surprisingly, we observed robust shRNA-induced synaptic phenotypes that were rescued by a Rab11Fip5 cDNA but that were nevertheless not observed in conditional KO neurons. Both in cultured neurons and acute slices, KO of Rab11Fip5 had no significant effect on basic parameters of synaptic transmission, indicating that Rab11Fip5 is not required for fundamental synaptic operations, such as neurotransmitter release or postsynaptic AMPAR insertion. KO of Rab11Fip5 did, however, abolish hippocampal LTD as measured both in acute slices or using a chemical LTD protocol in cultured neurons but did not affect hippocampal LTP. The Rab11Fip5 KO mice performed normally in several behavioral tasks, including fear conditioning, but showed enhanced contextual fear extinction. These are the first findings to suggest a requirement for Rab11Fip5, and presumably Rab11, during LTD. PMID:25972173

  2. Rab7 Regulates CDH1 Endocytosis, Circular Dorsal Ruffles Genesis, and Thyroglobulin Internalization in a Thyroid Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Mascia, Anna; Gentile, Flaviana; Izzo, Antonella; Mollo, Nunzia; De Luca, Maria; Bucci, Cecilia; Nitsch, Lucio; Calì, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    Rab7 regulates the biogenesis of late endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes. It has been proposed that a functional and physical interaction exists between Rab7 and Rac1 GTPases in CDH1 endocytosis and ruffled border formation. In FRT cells over-expressing Rab7, increased expression and activity of Rac1 was observed, whereas a reduction of Rab7 expression by RNAi resulted in reduced Rac1 activity, as measured by PAK1 phosphorylation. We found that CDH1 endocytosis was extremely reduced only in Rab7 over-expressing cells but was unchanged in Rab7 silenced cells. In Rab7 under or over-expressing cells, Rab7 and LC3B-II co-localized and co-localization in large circular structures occurred only in Rab7 over-expressing cells. These large circular structures occurred in about 10% of the cell population; some of them (61%) showed co-localization of Rab7 with cortactin and f-actin and were identified as circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs), the others as mature autophagosomes. We propose that the over-expression of Rab7 is sufficient to induce CDRs. Furthermore, in FRT cells, we found that the expression of the insoluble/active form of Rab7, rather than Rab5, or Rab8, was inducible by cAMP and that cAMP-stimulated FRT cells showed increased PAK1 phosphorylation and were no longer able to endocytose CDH1. Finally, we demonstrated that Rab7 over-expressing cells are able to endocytose exogenous thyroglobulin via pinocytosis/CDRs more efficiently than control cells. We propose that the major thyroglobulin endocytosis described in thyroid autonomous adenomas due to Rab7 increased expression, occurs via CDRs. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1695-1708, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Marked amplification and diversification of products of ras genes from rat brain, Rab GTPases, in the ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nakahara, Tohru; Nakano, Kentaro; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Numata, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Small GTPase Rab (products of ras genes from rat brain) is a widely conserved molecular switch among eukaryotes and regulates membrane trafficking pathways. It is generally considered that the number of Rab encoded in the genome correlates with multicellularity; however, we found that unicellular ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila (Tt) and Paramecium tetraurelia (Pt) possess many more Rab genes in their genome than the 64 HsRab genes in the human genome. We succeeded in isolating 86 cDNA clones of 88 TtRab genes in the Tetrahymena genome. By comparing the amino acid sequence of Rab in humans and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 42 TtRab belonged to subfamilies functionally characterized and designated as conventional Rab, while the remaining 44 TtRab were considered to be species-specific. To examine the diversity of Rab in ciliates, we searched for Rab genes in the genome database of P. tetraurelia. Overall, 229 PtRab genes were found and categorized as 157 conventional and 72 species-specific PtRab, respectively. Among them, nine PtRab genes showed high homology to seven TtRab, suggesting the conservation of ciliate-specific Rab. These data suggested that the range of Rab is markedly amplified and diversified in ciliates, which may support the elaborate cellular structures and vigorous phagocytosis of those organisms.

  4. Dynamic Changes in the Intracellular Association of Selected Rab Small GTPases with MHC Class II and DM during Dendritic Cell Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; López-Ortega, Orestes; Piedra-Reyes, Jessica; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Moreno, José

    2017-01-01

    Antigen processing for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules requires the latter to travel through the endocytic pathway together with its chaperons: the invariant chain (Ii) and DM. Nevertheless, the nature of the compartments where MHCII molecules travel to acquire peptides lacks definition regarding molecules involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, such as Rab small GTPases. We aimed to define which Rab proteins are present during the intracellular transport of MHCII, DM, and Ii through the endocytic pathway on their route to the cell surface during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. We examined, by means of three-color confocal microscopy, the association of MHCII, DM, and Ii with Rab5, Rab7, Rab9, and Rab11 during the maturation of bone marrow-derived or spleen DC in response to LPS as an inflammatory stimulus. Prior to the stage of immature DC, MHCII migrated from diffuse small cytoplasmic vesicles, predominantly Rab5+Rab7− and Rab5+Rab7+ into a pericentriolar Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ cluster, with Rab11+ areas. As DC reached the mature phenotype, MHCII left the pericentriolar endocytic compartments toward the cell surface in Rab11+ and Rab9+Rab11+ vesicles. The invariant chain and MHCII transport pathways were not identical. DM and MHCII appeared to arrive to pericentriolar endocytic compartments of immature DC through partially different routes. The association of MHCII molecules with distinct Rab GTPases during DC maturation suggests that after leaving the biosynthetic pathway, MHCII sequentially traffic from typical early endosomes to multivesicular late endosomes to finally arrive at the cell surface in Rab11+ recycling-type endosomes. In immature DCs, DM encounters transiently MHCII in the Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ compartments, to remain there in mature DC.

  5. Heterologous expression of rab4 reduces glucose transport and GLUT4 abundance at the cell surface in oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mora, S; Monden, I; Zorzano, A; Keller, K

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the small rab GTP-binding proteins in glucose transporter trafficking, we have heterologously co-expressed rab4 or rab5 and GLUT4 or GLUT1 glucose transporters in Xenopus oocytes. Co-injection of rab4 and GLUT4 cRNAs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in glucose transport; this effect was specific for rab4, since co-injection of an inactive rab4 mutant or rab5 cRNA did not have any effect on glucose transport. The effect of rab4 was selective for GLUT4, since no effect was detected in GLUT1-expressing oocytes. The inhibitory effect of rab4 on GLUT4-induced glucose transport was not the result of a change in overall cellular levels of GLUT4 glucose transporters. However, rab4 expression caused a marked decrease in the abundance of GLUT4 transporters present at the cell surface. Finally, rab4 and inhibitors of PtdIns 3-kinase showed additive effects in decreasing glucose transport in GLUT4-expressing oocytes. We conclude that rab4 plays an important role in the regulation of the intracellular GLUT4 trafficking pathway, by contributing to the intracellular retention of GLUT4 through a PtdIns 3-kinase-independent mechanism. PMID:9182703

  6. A Rab escort protein integrates the secretion system with TOR signaling and ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspal; Tyers, Mike

    2009-08-15

    The coupling of environmental conditions to cell growth and division is integral to cell fitness. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Sfp1 couples nutrient status to cell growth rate by controlling the expression of ribosome biogenesis (Ribi) and ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Sfp1 is localized to the nucleus in rich nutrients, but upon nutrient limitation or target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway inhibition by rapamycin, Sfp1 rapidly exits the nucleus, leading to repression of the Ribi/RP regulons. Through systematic cell-based screens we found that many components of the secretory system influence Sfp1 localization. Notably, the essential Rab escort protein Mrs6 exhibited a nutrient-sensitive interaction with Sfp1. Overexpression of Mrs6 prevented nuclear localization of Sfp1 in rich nutrients, whereas loss of Mrs6 resulted in nuclear Sfp1 localization in poor nutrients. These effects were specific to Sfp1 and independent of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, suggesting that Mrs6 lies in a distinct branch of TOR and ribosome biogenesis regulation. Rapamycin-resistant alleles of MRS6 were defective in the cytoplasmic retention of Sfp1, the control of cell size, and in the repression of the Ribi/RP regulons. The Sfp1-Mrs6 interaction is a nexus for growth regulation that links the secretory system and TOR-dependent nutrient signaling to ribosome biogenesis.

  7. Rab10 delivers GLUT4 storage vesicles to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2013-05-01

    The glucose transporter, GLUT4, redistributes to the plasma membrane (PM) upon insulin stimulation, but also recycles through endosomal compartments. Different Rab proteins control these transport itineraries of GLUT4. However, the specific roles played by different Rab proteins in GLUT4 trafficking has been difficult to assess, primarily due to the complexity of endomembrane organization and trafficking. To address this problem, we recently performed advanced live cell imaging using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, which images objects ~150 nm from the PM, directly visualizing GLUT4 trafficking in response to insulin stimulation. Using IRAP-pHluorin to selectively label GSVs undergoing PM fusion in response to insulin, we identified Rab10 as the only Rab protein that binds this compartment. Rab14 was found to label transferrin-positive, endosomal compartments containing GLUT4. These also could fuse with the PM in response to insulin, albeit more slowly. Several other Rab proteins, including Rab4A, 4B and 8A, were found to mediate GLUT4 intra-endosomal recycling, serving to internalize surface-bound GLUT4 into endosomal compartments for ultimate delivery to GSVs. Thus, multiple Rab proteins regulate the circulation of GLUT4 molecules within the endomembrane system, maintaining optimal insulin responsiveness within cells.

  8. Role of the small GTPase Rab27a during Herpes simplex virus infection of oligodendrocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) comprises several events, of which some are not completely understood. It has been shown that HSV-1 glycoproteins accumulate in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and in TGN-derived vesicles. It is also accepted that HSV-1 acquires its final morphology through a secondary envelopment by budding into TGN-derived vesicles coated with viral glycoproteins and tegument proteins. Nevertheless, several aspects of this process remain elusive. The small GTPase Rab27a has been implicated in regulated exocytosis, and it seems to play a key role in certain membrane trafficking events. Rab27a also seems to be required for human cytomegalovirus assembly. However, despite the involvement of various Rab GTPases in HSV-1 envelopment, there is, to date, no data reported on the role of Rab27a in HSV-1 infection. Results Herein, we show that Rab27a colocalized with GHSV-UL46, a tegument-tagged green fluorescent protein-HSV-1, in the TGN. In fact, this small GTPase colocalized with viral glycoproteins gH and gD in that compartment. Functional analysis through Rab27a depletion showed a significant decrease in the number of infected cells and viral production in Rab27a-silenced cells. Conclusions Altogether, our results indicate that Rab27a plays an important role in HSV-1 infection of oligodendrocytic cells. PMID:23164453

  9. Molecular imaging analysis of Rab GTPases in the regulation of phagocytosis and macropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Egami, Youhei

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis and macropinocytosis, actin-dependent endocytic pathways that mediate the uptake of particles and fluid, respectively, are fundamental routes that enable cells to sample their environment, eliminate pathogens and endogenous cell debris, and contribute to immunoprotection and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. These processes require a well-organized network of actin cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane transport, which are spatiotemporally regulated by small GTPases. The Rab family of small GTPases, which functions as molecular switches, plays central roles in intracellular membrane trafficking. Although multiple Rab proteins are localized to phagosomes and regulate phagosome maturation, the precise role of each Rab family member in Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis is not fully characterized. Recently, we revealed that Rab35 and Rab20 are important regulators of phagosome formation and maturation, respectively. This review summarizes the functional implication of these Rab GTPases during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages. Currently, compared with our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of receptor-mediated endocytosis including phagocytosis, the molecular components and signaling cascades of macropinocytosis remain poorly elucidated. Our time-lapse imaging showed that several Rab GTPases are sequentially recruited to the membrane of macropinosomes. Based on our observations, these findings regarding the spatiotemporal localization of Rab GTPases during macropinocytosis are introduced.

  10. Rab and Arl GTPase family members cooperate in the localization of the golgin GCC185.

    PubMed

    Burguete, Alondra Schweizer; Fenn, Timothy D; Brunger, Axel T; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2008-01-25

    GCC185 is a large coiled-coil protein at the trans Golgi network that is required for receipt of transport vesicles inbound from late endosomes and for anchoring noncentrosomal microtubules that emanate from the Golgi. Here, we demonstrate that recruitment of GCC185 to the Golgi is mediated by two Golgi-localized small GTPases of the Rab and Arl families. GCC185 binds Rab6, and mutation of residues needed for Rab binding abolishes Golgi localization. The crystal structure of Rab6 bound to the GCC185 Rab-binding domain reveals that Rab6 recognizes a two-fold symmetric surface on a coiled coil immediately adjacent to a C-terminal GRIP domain. Unexpectedly, Rab6 binding promotes association of Arl1 with the GRIP domain. We present a structure-derived model for dual GTPase membrane attachment that highlights the potential ability of Rab GTPases to reach binding partners at a significant distance from the membrane via their unstructured and membrane-anchored, hypervariable domains.

  11. Rab3 is involved in cellular immune responses of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Song, Cai-Xia; Li, Yu-Ping; Li, Li; Wei, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Jia-Lin; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Rab3, a member of the Rab GTPase family, has been found to be involved in innate immunity. However, the precise function of this GTPase in innate immunity remains unknown. In this study, we identified a Rab3 gene (Ha-Rab3) from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera and studied its roles in innate immune responses. Expression of Ha-Rab3 was upregulated in the hemocytes of H. armigera larvae after the injection of Escherichia coli or chromatography beads. The dsRNA-mediated knockdown of Ha-Rab3 gene in H. armigera larval hemocytes led to significant reduction in the phagocytosis and nodulation activities of hemocytes against E. coli, significant increase in the bacterial load in larval hemolymph, and significant reduction in the encapsulation activities of hemocytes toward invading chromatography beads. Furthermore, Ha-Rab3 knockdown significantly suppressed spreading of plasmatocytes. These results suggest that Ha-Rab3 plays important roles in H. armigera cellular immune responses, possibly by mediating spreading of hemocytes.

  12. Rab6 is increased in Alzheimer's disease brain and correlates with endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Scheper, W; Hoozemans, J J M; Hoogenraad, C C; Rozemuller, A J M; Eikelenboom, P; Baas, F

    2007-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposits of aggregated proteins. Accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins activates protein quality control mechanisms, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We previously reported upregulation of the UPR marker BiP in AD brain. In this study, we investigated the small GTPase Rab6, which is involved in retrograde Golgi-ER trafficking and may function as a post-ER quality control system. Using immunohistochemistry and semiquantitative Western blotting, the expression of Rab6 was analysed in hippocampus, entorhinal and temporal cortex of 10 AD patients and six nondemented control subjects. Rab6 is upregulated in AD temporal cortex from Braak stage 3/4, the same stage that UPR activation is found. We observe increased neuronal Rab6 immunoreactivity in all brain areas examined. Although some neurones show colocalization of immunoreactivity for Rab6 and hyperphosphorylated tau, strong Rab6 staining does not colocalize with tangles. We find a highly significant correlation between the Rab6 and BiP levels. In vitro data show that Rab6 is not upregulated as a result of UPR activation or proteasome inhibition indicating an independent regulatory mechanism. Our data suggest that ER and post-ER protein quality control mechanisms are activated early in the pathology of AD.

  13. Rab5a-mediated autophagy regulates the phenotype and behavior of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jin-Yun; Jia, Luo-Qi; Shi, Wei-Hao; He, Qing; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Rab5a, a key member of the Rab family of GTPases, was determined to be a regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. However, the exact regulatory mechanism remains unclear. As Rab5a has been shown to be associated with autophagy, which is essential for the conversion of VSMCs from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype in order to prevent cell death due to oxidative stress. The present study hypothesized that autophagy may be responsible for the proliferation and migration of VSMCs via the Rab5a protein. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Rab5a on autophagy in VSMCs. The human aorta vascular smooth muscle cell line, T/G HA-VSMCs, was treated with small interfering (si)RNA against Rab5a and/or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Following treatment, the phenotype transition of the VSMCs was evaluated by detecting the mRNA and protien expression levels of VSMC molecular markers using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. In addition, autophagy in VSMCs was evaluated by western blotting for autophagy-associated proteins, flow cytometry of acidic vesicular organelles, punctate fluorescence of microtubule associated protein light chain 3 and transmission electron microscopy of typical scattered double-membrane vacuolar structures. Additionally, the proliferation, migration, cell cycle and apoptotic response of VSMCs were detected by sulforhodamine B assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The results revealed that transfection with siRNA against Rab5a led to a significant decrease in Rab5a protein expression, while the reduced expression trend of Rab5a was rescued by intervention with PDGF. Furthermore, cells transfected with siRNA against Rab5a inhibited the autophagy of VSMCs. Downregulated Rab5a inhibited the phenotype transition of VSMCs. Additionally, downregulated Rab5a led to slowed cell growth, decreased numbers of migrated

  14. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    PubMed Central

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K.; James, John; Prescott, Alan; Haga, Ismar R.; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. PMID:25462347

  15. Lgl1 activation of rab10 promotes axonal membrane trafficking underlying neuronal polarization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Liu, Yang; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Cai-Yun; Wu, Kong-Yan; Zhu, Ji; Fu, Xiu-Qing; He, Miao; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2011-09-13

    Directed membrane trafficking is believed to be crucial for axon development during neuronal morphogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report a role of Lgl1, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila tumor suppressor Lethal giant larvae, in controlling membrane trafficking underlying axonal growth. We find that Lgl1 is associated with plasmalemmal precursor vesicles and enriched in developing axons. Lgl1 upregulation promoted axonal growth, whereas downregulation attenuated it as well as directional membrane insertion. Interestingly, Lgl1 interacted with and activated Rab10, a small GTPase that mediates membrane protein trafficking, by releasing GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) from Rab10. Furthermore, Rab10 lies downstream of Lgl1 in axon development and directional membrane insertion. Finally, both Lgl1 and Rab10 are required for neocortical neuronal polarization in vivo. Thus, the Lgl1 regulation of Rab10 stimulates the trafficking of membrane precursor vesicles, whose fusion with the plasmalemma is crucial for axonal growth.

  16. Phosphorylation Provides a Negative Mode of Regulation for the Yeast Rab GTPase Sec4p

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Christopher D.; Wrann, Christiane D.; Collins, Ruth N.

    2011-01-01

    The Rab family of Ras-related GTPases are part of a complex signaling circuitry in eukaryotic cells, yet we understand little about the mechanisms that underlie Rab protein participation in such signal transduction networks, or how these networks are integrated at the physiological level. Reversible protein phosphorylation is widely used by cells as a signaling mechanism. Several phospho-Rabs have been identified, however the functional consequences of the modification appear to be diverse and need to be evaluated on an individual basis. In this study we demonstrate a role for phosphorylation as a negative regulatory event for the action of the yeast Rab GTPase Sec4p in regulating polarized growth. Our data suggest that the phosphorylation of the Rab Sec4p prevents interactions with its effector, the exocyst component Sec15p, and that the inhibition may be relieved by a PP2A phosphatase complex containing the regulatory subunit Cdc55p. PMID:21931684

  17. Mutant Huntingtin Impairs BDNF Release from Astrocytes by Disrupting Conversion of Rab3a-GTP into Rab3a-GDP

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Zhao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neuronal differentiation and survival. We know that BDNF levels decline in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expression of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt), and furthermore that administration of BDNF in HD mice is protective against HD neuropathology. BDNF is produced in neurons, but astrocytes are also an important source of BDNF in the brain. Nonetheless, whether mHtt affects astrocytic BDNF in the HD brain remains unknown. Here we investigated astrocytes from HD140Q knock-in mice and uncovered evidence that mHtt decreases BDNF secretion from astrocytes, which is mediated by exocytosis in astrocytes. Our results demonstrate that mHtt associates with Rab3a, a small GTPase localized on membranes of dense-core vesicles, and prevents GTP-Rab3a from binding to Rab3-GAP1, disrupting the conversion of GTP-Rab3a into GDP-Rab3a and thus impairing the docking of BDNF vesicles on plasma membranes of astrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of Rab3a rescues impaired BDNF vesicle docking and secretion from HD astrocytes. Moreover, ATP release and the number of ATP-containing dense-core vesicles docking are decreased in HD astrocytes, suggesting that the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles is impaired by mHtt in HD astrocytes. Further, Rab3a overexpression reduces reactive astrocytes in the striatum of HD140Q knock-in mice. Our results indicate that compromised exocytosis of BDNF in HD astrocytes contributes to the decreased BDNF levels in HD brains and underscores the importance of improving glial function in the treatment of HD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that affects one in every 10,000 Americans. To date, there is no effective treatment for HD, in part because the pathogenic mechanism driving the disease is not fully understood. The dysfunction of astrocytes is known to contribute to the

  18. Identification of a Rab GTPase-activating protein cascade that controls recycling of the Rab5 GTPase Vps21 from the vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Meenakshi; Lachmann, Jens; Ungermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Transport within the endocytic pathway depends on a consecutive function of the endosomal Rab5 and the late endosomal/lysosomal Rab7 GTPases to promote membrane recycling and fusion in the context of endosomal maturation. We previously identified the hexameric BLOC-1 complex as an effector of the yeast Rab5 Vps21, which also recruits the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Msb3. This raises the question of when Vps21 is inactivated on endosomes. We provide evidence for a Rab cascade in which activation of the Rab7 homologue Ypt7 triggers inactivation of Vps21. We find that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of Ypt7 (the Mon1-Ccz1 complex) and BLOC-1 both localize to the same endosomes. Overexpression of Mon1-Ccz1, which generates additional Ypt7-GTP, or overexpression of activated Ypt7 promotes relocalization of Vps21 from endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is indicative of Vps21 inactivation. This ER relocalization is prevented by loss of either BLOC-1 or Msb3, but it also occurs in mutants lacking endosome–vacuole fusion machinery such as the HOPS tethering complex, an effector of Ypt7. Importantly, BLOC-1 interacts with the HOPS on vacuoles, suggesting a direct Ypt7-dependent cross-talk. These data indicate that efficient Vps21 recycling requires both Ypt7 and endosome–vacuole fusion, thus suggesting extended control of a GAP cascade beyond Rab interactions. PMID:25971802

  19. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  20. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  1. Office Automation in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon L.; Hamrick, Florence A.

    1987-01-01

    Offers recommendations to assist in introducing or expanding computer assistance in student affairs. Describes need for automation and considers areas of choosing hardware and software, funding and competitive bidding, installation and training, and system management. Cites greater efficiency in handling tasks and data and increased levels of…

  2. Joint Doctrine for Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Authorities ( MACA ), DODD 5525.5, DOD Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Officials, and JP 3-07.7, Joint Doctrine for Civil Support. II-15 Civil Affairs...Joint Operation Planning and Execution System JP joint publication JTF joint task force LOAC law of armed conflict MACA military assistance to civil

  3. Recent Developments in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The rapid development and application to universities and colleges of the constitutional principles of the First Amendment are analyzed with special reference to Healy v. James and its present and possible future ramifications in the area of student affairs including use of university facilities, student conduct, and organizational activities. (JT)

  4. Sustainability, Student Affairs, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kathleen G.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are developing both the next generation of leaders as well as state-of-the-art technology that allow climate reduction aspirations and triple bottom-line outcomes to become realities. Divisions of student affairs play a crucial role in the sustainability movement in colleges and universities. The technology-savvy,…

  5. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  6. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  7. Spatial-Temporal Study of Rab1b Dynamics and Function at the ER-Golgi Interface.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Hernán; García, Iris A; Sampieri, Luciana; Alvarez, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The GTPase Rab1b is involved in ER to Golgi transport, with multiple Rab1b effectors (located at ERES, VTCs and the Golgi complex) being required for its function. In this study, we performed live-cell dual-expression studies to analyze the dynamics of Rab1b and some effectors located at the ERES-Golgi interface. Rab1b occupied widely distributed mobile punctate and tubular structures, displaying a transient overlaps with its effectors and showing that these overlaps occurred at the same time in spatially distinct steps of ER to Golgi transport. In addition, we assessed Rab1b dynamics during cargo sorting by analyzing the concentration at ERES of a Golgi protein (SialT2-CFP) during Brefeldin A washout (BFA WO). Rab1b was associated to most of the ERES structures, but at different times during BFA WO, and recurrently SialT2-CFP was sorted in the ERES-Rab1b positive structures. Furthermore, we reveal for first time that Rab1b localization time at ERES depended on GBF1, a Rab1b effector that acts as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor of Arf1, and that Rab1b membrane association/dissociation dynamics at ERES was dependent on the GBF1 membrane association and activity, which strongly suggests that GBF1 activity modulates Rab1b membrane cycling dynamic.

  8. Spatial-Temporal Study of Rab1b Dynamics and Function at the ER-Golgi Interface

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Hernán; García, Iris A.; Sampieri, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    The GTPase Rab1b is involved in ER to Golgi transport, with multiple Rab1b effectors (located at ERES, VTCs and the Golgi complex) being required for its function. In this study, we performed live-cell dual-expression studies to analyze the dynamics of Rab1b and some effectors located at the ERES-Golgi interface. Rab1b occupied widely distributed mobile punctate and tubular structures, displaying a transient overlaps with its effectors and showing that these overlaps occurred at the same time in spatially distinct steps of ER to Golgi transport. In addition, we assessed Rab1b dynamics during cargo sorting by analyzing the concentration at ERES of a Golgi protein (SialT2-CFP) during Brefeldin A washout (BFA WO). Rab1b was associated to most of the ERES structures, but at different times during BFA WO, and recurrently SialT2-CFP was sorted in the ERES-Rab1b positive structures. Furthermore, we reveal for first time that Rab1b localization time at ERES depended on GBF1, a Rab1b effector that acts as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor of Arf1, and that Rab1b membrane association/dissociation dynamics at ERES was dependent on the GBF1 membrane association and activity, which strongly suggests that GBF1 activity modulates Rab1b membrane cycling dynamic. PMID:27500526

  9. The novel Rab11-FIP/Rip/RCP family of proteins displays extensive homo- and hetero-interacting abilities.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Deborah M; Lindsay, Andrew J; Hendrick, Alan G; McCaffrey, Mary W

    2002-04-12

    The Rab11-FIP/Rip/RCP proteins are a recently described novel protein family, whose members interact with Rab GTPases that function in endosomal recycling. To date, five such proteins have been described in humans, all of which interact with Rab11, and one (RCP) also interacts with Rab4. Here, we characterise several of these proteins with respect to their ability to interact with Rab4, as well as their ability to self-interact, and to interact with each other. We now demonstrate that two of the family members-pp75/Rip11 and Rab11-FIP3 do not bind Rab4 and show that several members of the family can self-interact and interact with each other. These interactions primarily involve their C-terminal end which includes the Rab binding domain (RBD) that is contained within a predicted coiled-coil, or ERM motif. We identify a new (sixth) member of the protein family, which we propose to name Rab11-FIP4, and report the family evolutionary complexity and chromosomal distribution. Furthermore, we propose that the ability of these proteins to bind each other will be important in effecting membrane trafficking events by forming protein 'platforms,' regulated by Rab11 and/or Rab4 activity.

  10. A Role for Na+,K+-ATPase α1 in Regulating Rab27a Localisation on Melanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Antonia E. G.; Tarafder, Abul K.; Hume, Alistair N.; Recchi, Chiara; Seabra, Miguel C.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which Rab GTPases are specifically recruited to distinct intracellular membranes remains elusive. Here we used Rab27a localisation onto melanosomes as a model to investigate Rab targeting. We identified the α1 subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase (ATP1a1) as a novel Rab27a interacting protein in melanocytes and showed that this interaction is direct with the intracellular M4M5 loop of ATP1a1 and independent of nucleotide bound status of the Rab. Knockdown studies in melanocytes revealed that ATP1a1 plays an essential role in Rab27a-dependent melanosome transport. Specifically, expression of ATP1a1, like the Rab27a GDP/GTP exchange factor (Rab3GEP), is essential for targeting and activation of Rab27a to melanosomes. Finally, we showed that the ability of Rab27a mutants to target to melanosomes correlates with the efficiency of their interaction with ATP1a1. Altogether these studies point to a new role for ATP1a1 as a regulator of Rab27a targeting and activation. PMID:25051489

  11. Expression of Rab1A is upregulated in human lung cancer and associated with tumor size and T stage

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyu; Huang, Tinglei; Huang, Bo; Zhang, Yanjie; Jiang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Rab1A expression is associated with malignant phenotypes in several human tumors; however, the role of Rab1A in lung cancer is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to establish the role of Rab1A in major human lung cancer subtypes. Rab1A expression in different histological types of human lung cancer was analyzed in lung cancer tissues with paired adjacent noncancerous tissues and a large panel of lung cancer cell lines. The effect of Rab1A expression on multiple cancer-associated signaling pathways was also examined. The results demonstrated that Rab1A was significantly overexpressed in the different histological types of lung cancer as compared to non-cancerous tissues, and Rab1A expression was correlated with tumor volume and stage. In a large panel of lung cancer cell lines, high Rab1A expression was observed as compared to a normal lung/bronchus epithelial cell line. However, Rab1A protein levels were not correlated with mTORC1 (P-S6K1), mTORC2 (P-AKT), MEK (P-ERK), JNK (P-c-Jun) or p38MAPK (P-MK2) signaling. Rab1A knockdown had no effect on mTOR signaling or cell growth. These data suggested that Rab1A may be involved in the pathogenesis of human lung cancer in an mTOR- and MAPK-independent manner. PMID:27902464

  12. Starvation-induced MTMR13 and RAB21 activity regulates VAMP8 to promote autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Jean, Steve; Cox, Sarah; Nassari, Sonya; Kiger, Amy A

    2015-03-01

    Autophagy, the process for recycling cytoplasm in the lysosome, depends on membrane trafficking. We previously identified Drosophila Sbf as a Rab21 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that acts with Rab21 in endosomal trafficking. Here, we show that Sbf/MTMR13 and Rab21 have conserved functions required for starvation-induced autophagy. Depletion of Sbf/MTMR13 or Rab21 blocked endolysosomal trafficking of VAMP8, a SNARE required for autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We show that starvation induces Sbf/MTMR13 GEF and RAB21 activity, as well as their induced binding to VAMP8 (or closest Drosophila homolog, Vamp7). MTMR13 is required for RAB21 activation, VAMP8 interaction and VAMP8 endolysosomal trafficking, defining a novel GEF-Rab-effector pathway. These results identify starvation-responsive endosomal regulators and trafficking that tunes membrane demands with changing autophagy status.

  13. Yearlong evaluation of performance and durability of a pilot-scale Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Wen, Zhiyou

    2014-11-01

    Current algal cultivation has been mainly performed in open ponds or photobioreactors in which algal cells are suspended and harvested through flocculation and centrifugation. A unique attachment based Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) cultivation system was recently developed for easy biomass harvest with enhanced biomass productivity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance (durability, algal growth, and the geometry) of the RAB system at pilot-scale. A yearlong test of the RAB system was successfully conducted at a greenhouse facility at Boone, Iowa, USA. The RAB resulted in an average of 302% increase in biomass productivity compared to a standard raceway pond, with a maximum biomass productivity (ash free) of 18.9 g/m(2)-day being achieved. The RAB with a vertical configuration generated higher productivity than the triangular RAB. Collectively, the research shows that the RAB as an efficient algal culture system has great potential for being deployed at commercial scale.

  14. The Digital Identity of Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlquist, Josie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter highlights opportunities in the digital space for student affairs professionals. A blended approach, grounded in the new technology competency recently added in the ACPA and NASPA student affairs professional competencies, is proposed for student affairs professionals' digital identity development. It includes the awareness of one's…

  15. The interplay between the Rab27A effectors Slp4-a and MyRIP controls hormone-evoked Weibel-Palade body exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bierings, Ruben; Hellen, Nicola; Kiskin, Nikolai; Knipe, Laura; Fonseca, Ana-Violeta; Patel, Bijal; Meli, Athina; Rose, Marlene; Hannah, Matthew J; Carter, Tom

    2012-09-27

    Weibel-Palade body (WPB) exocytosis underlies hormone-evoked VWF secretion from endothelial cells (ECs). We identify new endogenous components of the WPB: Rab3B, Rab3D, and the Rab27A/Rab3 effector Slp4-a (granuphilin), and determine their role in WPB exocytosis. We show that Rab3B, Rab3D, and Rab27A contribute to Slp4-a localization to WPBs. siRNA knockdown of Slp4-a, MyRIP, Rab3B, Rab3D, Rab27A, or Rab3B/Rab27A, or overexpression of EGFP-Slp4-a or EGFP-MyRIP showed that Slp4-a is a positive and MyRIP a negative regulator of WPB exocytosis and that Rab27A alone mediates these effects. We found that ECs maintain a constant amount of cellular Rab27A irrespective of the WPB pool size and that Rab27A (and Rab3s) cycle between WPBs and a cytosolic pool. The dynamic redistribution of Rab proteins markedly decreased the Rab27A concentration on individual WPBs with increasing WPB number per cell. Despite this, the probability of WPB release was independent of WPB pool size showing that WPB exocytosis is not determined simply by the absolute amount of Rab27A and its effectors on WPBs. Instead, we propose that the probability of release is determined by the fractional occupancy of WPB-Rab27A by Slp4-a and MyRIP, with the balance favoring exocytosis.

  16. RNAi KNOCKDOWN OF BmRab3 LED TO LARVA AND PUPA LETHALITY IN SILKWORM Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Xin, Hu-hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Wang, Mei-xian; Liang, Shuang; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Zhang, Deng-pan; Miao, Yun-gen

    2015-06-01

    Rab3 GTPases are known to play key a role in vesicular trafficking, and express highest in brain and endocrine tissues. In mammals, Rab3 GTPases are paralogs unlike in insect. In this study, we cloned Rab3 from the silk gland tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, and identified it as BmRab3. Our in silico analysis indicated that BmRab3 is an isoform with a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 5.52 and 24.3 kDa, respectively. Further, BmRab3 showed the C-terminal hypervariability for GGT2 site but having two other putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor/GDP dissociation inhibitor interaction sites. Multiple alignment sequence indicated high similarities of BmRab3 with Rab3 isoforms of other species. The phylogeny tree showed BmRab3 clustered between the species of Tribolium castaneum and Aedes aegypti. Meanwhile, the expression analysis of BmRab3 showed the highest expression in middle silk glands (MSGs) than all other tissues in the third day of fifth-instar larva. Simultaneously, we showed the differential expression of BmRab3 in the early instar larva development, followed by higher expression in male than female pupae. In vivo dsRNA interference of BmRab3 reduced the expression of BmRab3 by 75% compared to the control in the MSGs in the first day. But as the worm grew to the third day, the difference of BmRab3 between knockdown and control was only about 10%. The knockdown later witnessed underdevelopment of the larvae and pharate pupae lethality in the overall development of silkworm B. mori L.

  17. Rab3A, a possible marker of cortical granules, participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs.

    PubMed

    Bello, Oscar Daniel; Cappa, Andrea Isabel; de Paola, Matilde; Zanetti, María Natalia; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Fissore, Rafael A; Mayorga, Luis S; Michaut, Marcela A

    2016-09-10

    Fusion of cortical granules with the oocyte plasma membrane is the most significant event to prevent polyspermy. This particular exocytosis, also known as cortical reaction, is regulated by calcium and its molecular mechanism is still not known. Rab3A, a member of the small GTP-binding protein superfamily, has been implicated in calcium-dependent exocytosis and is not yet clear whether Rab3A participates in cortical granules exocytosis. Here, we examine the involvement of Rab3A in the physiology of cortical granules, particularly, in their distribution during oocyte maturation and activation, and their participation in membrane fusion during cortical granule exocytosis. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis showed that Rab3A and cortical granules have a similar migration pattern during oocyte maturation, and that Rab3A is no longer detected after cortical granule exocytosis. These results suggested that Rab3A might be a marker of cortical granules. Overexpression of EGFP-Rab3A colocalized with cortical granules with a Pearson correlation coefficient of +0.967, indicating that Rab3A and cortical granules have almost a perfect colocalization in the egg cortical region. Using a functional assay, we demonstrated that microinjection of recombinant, prenylated and active GST-Rab3A triggered cortical granule exocytosis, indicating that Rab3A has an active role in this secretory pathway. To confirm this active role, we inhibited the function of endogenous Rab3A by microinjecting a polyclonal antibody raised against Rab3A prior to parthenogenetic activation. Our results showed that Rab3A antibody microinjection abolished cortical granule exocytosis in parthenogenetically activated oocytes. Altogether, our findings confirm that Rab3A might function as a marker of cortical granules and participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs.

  18. Rab25 acts as an oncogene in luminal B breast cancer and is causally associated with Snail driven EMT

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Shreya; Federico, Lorenzo; Zhao, Wei; Dennison, Jennifer; Sarkar, Tapasree Roy; Zhang, Fan; Takiar, Vinita; Cheng, Kwai W.; Mani, Sendurai; Lee, Ju Seog; Mills, Gordon B.

    2016-01-01

    The Rab GTPases regulate vesicular trafficking machinery that transports and delivers a diverse pool of cargo, including growth factor receptors, integrins, nutrient receptors and junction proteins to specific intracellular sites. The trafficking machinery is indeed a major posttranslational modifier and is critical for cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of this stringently controlled system leads to a wide spectrum of disorders including cancer. Herein we demonstrate that Rab25, a key GTPase, mostly decorating the apical recycling endosome, is a dichotomous variable in breast cancer cell lines with higher mRNA and protein expression in Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+ve) lines. Rab25 and its effector, Rab Coupling Protein (RCP) are frequently coamplified and coordinately elevated in ER+ve breast cancers. In contrast, Rab25 levels are decreased in basal-like and almost completely lost in claudin-low tumors. This dichotomy exists despite the presence of the 1q amplicon that hosts Rab25 across breast cancer subtypes and is likely due to differential methylation of the Rab25 promoter. Functionally, elevated levels of Rab25 drive major hallmarks of cancer including indefinite growth and metastasis but in case of luminal B breast cancer only. Importantly, in such ER+ve tumors, coexpression of Rab25 and its effector, RCP is significantly associated with a markedly worsened clinical outcome. Importantly, in claudin-low cell lines, exogenous Rab25 markedly inhibits cell migration. Similarly, during Snail-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) exogenous Rab25 potently reverses Snail-driven invasion. Overall, this study substantiates a striking context dependent role of Rab25 in breast cancer where Rab25 is amplified and enhances aggressiveness in luminal B cancers while in claudin-low tumors, Rab25 is lost indicating possible anti-tumor functions. PMID:27259233

  19. Rab1 recruits WHAMM during membrane remodeling but limits actin nucleation.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ashley J; Mathiowetz, Alyssa J; Hong, Steven; Welch, Matthew D; Campellone, Kenneth G

    2016-03-15

    Small G-proteins are key regulatory molecules that activate the actin nucleation machinery to drive cytoskeletal rearrangements during plasma membrane remodeling. However, the ability of small G-proteins to interact with nucleation factors on internal membranes to control trafficking processes has not been well characterized. Here we investigated roles for members of the Rho, Arf, and Rab G-protein families in regulating WASP homologue associated with actin, membranes, and microtubules (WHAMM), an activator of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. We found that Rab1 stimulated the formation and elongation of WHAMM-associated membrane tubules in cells. Active Rab1 recruited WHAMM to dynamic tubulovesicular structures in fibroblasts, and an active prenylated version of Rab1 bound directly to an N-terminal domain of WHAMM in vitro. In contrast to other G-protein-nucleation factor interactions, Rab1 binding inhibited WHAMM-mediated actin assembly. This ability of Rab1 to regulate WHAMM and the Arp2/3 complex represents a distinct strategy for membrane remodeling in which a Rab G-protein recruits the actin nucleation machinery but dampens its activity.

  20. Rab27A regulates exosome secretion from lung adenocarcinoma cells A549: involvement of EPI64.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhai; Hu, Yunsheng; Jiang, Tao; Han, Yong; Han, Guoliang; Chen, Jiakuan; Li, Xiaofei

    2014-11-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted into the extracellular compartment by exocytosis. The unique composition of exosomes can be transported to other cells which allow cells to exert biological functions at distant sites. However, in lung cancer, the regulation of exosome secretion was poorly understood. In this study, we employed human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to determine the exosome secretion and involved regulation mechanism. We found that Rab27A was expressed in A549 cells and the reduction of Rab27A by Rab27A-specific shRNA could significantly decrease the secretion of exosome by A549 cells. EPI64, a candidate GAP that is specific for Rab27, was also detected in A549 cells. By pull-down assay, we found that EPI64 participated in the exosome secretion of A549 cells by acting as a specific GAP for Rab27A, not Rab27B. Overexpression of EPI64 enhanced exosome secretion. Taken together, in A549 cells, EPI64 could regulate the exosome secretion by functioning as a GAP specific for Rab27A.

  1. A Bacterial Pathogen Targets a Host Rab-Family GTPase Defense Pathway with a GAP.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Stefania; Gao, Xiang; Hannemann, Sebastian; Lara-Tejero, María; Galán, Jorge E

    2016-02-10

    Cell-autonomous defense mechanisms are potent strategies that protect individual cells against intracellular pathogens. The Rab-family GTPase Rab32 was previously shown to restrict the intracellular human pathogen Salmonella Typhi, but its potential broader role in antimicrobial defense remains unknown. We show that Rab32 represents a general cell-autonomous, antimicrobial defense that is counteracted by two Salmonella effectors. Mice lacking Rab-32 or its nucleotide exchange factor BLOC-3 are permissive to S. Typhi infection and exhibit increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium. S. Typhimurium counters this defense pathway by delivering two type III secretion effectors, SopD2, a Rab32 GAP, and GtgE, a specific Rab32 protease. An S. Typhimurium mutant strain lacking these two effectors exhibits markedly reduced virulence, which is fully restored in BLOC-3-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that a cell-autonomous, Rab32-dependent host defense pathway plays a central role in the defense against vacuolar pathogens and describe a mechanism evolved by a bacterial pathogen to counter it.

  2. Rab8b Regulates Transport of West Nile Virus Particles from Recycling Endosomes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shintaro; Suzuki, Tadaki; Kawaguchi, Akira; Phongphaew, Wallaya; Yoshii, Kentaro; Iwano, Tomohiko; Harada, Akihiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) particles assemble at and bud into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are secreted from infected cells through the secretory pathway. However, the host factor related to these steps is not fully understood. Rab proteins, belonging to the Ras superfamily, play essential roles in regulating many aspects of vesicular trafficking. In this study, we sought to determine which Rab proteins are involved in intracellular trafficking of nascent WNV particles. RNAi analysis revealed that Rab8b plays a role in WNV particle release. We found that Rab8 and WNV antigen were colocalized in WNV-infected human neuroblastoma cells, and that WNV infection enhanced Rab8 expression in the cells. In addition, the amount of WNV particles in the supernatant of Rab8b-deficient cells was significantly decreased compared with that of wild-type cells. We also demonstrated that WNV particles accumulated in the recycling endosomes in WNV-infected cells. In summary, these results suggest that Rab8b is involved in trafficking of WNV particles from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane.

  3. Rab35 regulates cadherin-mediated adherens junction formation and myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Charrasse, Sophie; Comunale, Franck; De Rossi, Sylvain; Echard, Arnaud; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Cadherins are homophilic cell–cell adhesion molecules implicated in many fundamental processes, such as morphogenesis, cell growth, and differentiation. They accumulate at cell–cell contact sites and assemble into large macromolecular complexes named adherens junctions (AJs). Cadherin targeting and function are regulated by various cellular processes, many players of which remain to be uncovered. Here we identify the small GTPase Rab35 as a new regulator of cadherin trafficking and stabilization at cell–cell contacts in C2C12 myoblasts and HeLa cells. We find that Rab35 accumulates at cell–cell contacts in a cadherin-dependent manner. Knockdown of Rab35 or expression of a dominant-negative form of Rab35 impaired N- and M-cadherin recruitment to cell–cell contacts, their stabilization at the plasma membrane, and association with p120 catenin and led to their accumulation in transferrin-, clathrin-, and AP-2–positive intracellular vesicles. We also find that Rab35 function is required for PIP5KIγ accumulation at cell–cell contacts and phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate production, which is involved in cadherin stabilization at contact sites. Finally, we show that Rab35 regulates myoblast fusion, a major cellular process under the control of cadherin-dependent signaling. Taken together, these results reveal that Rab35 regulates cadherin-dependent AJ formation and myoblast fusion. PMID:23197472

  4. Rab5-mediated VE-cadherin internalization regulates the barrier function of the lung microvascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junjun; Yao, Wei; Qian, Guisheng; Wei, Zhenghua

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 has been well defined to control the vesicle-mediated plasma membrane protein transport to the endosomal compartment. However, its function in the internalization of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, an important component of adherens junctions, and as a result regulating the endothelial cell polarity and barrier function remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) simulation markedly enhanced the activation and expression of Rab5 in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), which is accompanied by VE-cadherin internalization. In parallel, LPS challenge also induced abnormal cell polarity and dysfunction of the endothelial barrier in HPMECs. LPS stimulation promoted the translocation of VE-cadherin from the plasma membrane to intracellular compartments, and intracellularly expressed VE-cadherin was extensively colocalized with Rab5. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of Rab5a expression attenuated the disruption of LPS-induced internalization of VE-cadherin and the disorder of cell polarity. Furthermore, knockdown of Rab5 inhibited the vascular endothelial hyperpermeability and protected endothelial barrier function from LPS injury, both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Rab5 is a critical mediator of LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction, which is likely mediated through regulating VE-cadherin internalization. These findings provide evidence, implicating that Rab5a is a potential therapeutic target for preventing endothelial barrier disruption and vascular inflammation. PMID:26112597

  5. Rab5-mediated VE-cadherin internalization regulates the barrier function of the lung microvascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjun; Yao, Wei; Qian, Guisheng; Wei, Zhenghua; Wu, Guangyu; Wang, Guansong

    2015-12-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 has been well defined to control the vesicle-mediated plasma membrane protein transport to the endosomal compartment. However, its function in the internalization of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, an important component of adherens junctions, and as a result regulating the endothelial cell polarity and barrier function remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) simulation markedly enhanced the activation and expression of Rab5 in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), which is accompanied by VE-cadherin internalization. In parallel, LPS challenge also induced abnormal cell polarity and dysfunction of the endothelial barrier in HPMECs. LPS stimulation promoted the translocation of VE-cadherin from the plasma membrane to intracellular compartments, and intracellularly expressed VE-cadherin was extensively colocalized with Rab5. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of Rab5a expression attenuated the disruption of LPS-induced internalization of VE-cadherin and the disorder of cell polarity. Furthermore, knockdown of Rab5 inhibited the vascular endothelial hyperpermeability and protected endothelial barrier function from LPS injury, both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Rab5 is a critical mediator of LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction, which is likely mediated through regulating VE-cadherin internalization. These findings provide evidence, implicating that Rab5a is a potential therapeutic target for preventing endothelial barrier disruption and vascular inflammation.

  6. Rab25 regulates invasion and metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Rechache, Kamil; Thompson, Jamie; Masedunskas, Andrius; Leelahavanichkul, Kantima; Patel, Vyomesh; Molinolo, Alfredo; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Weigert, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the ten most common cancers with a 50% five-year survival rate, which has remained unchanged for the past three decades. One of the major reasons for the aggressiveness of this cancer is that HNSCCs readily metastasize to cervical lymph nodes that are abundant in the head and neck region. Hence, discovering new molecules controlling the metastatic process as well as understanding their regulation at the molecular level are essential for effective therapeutic strategies. Experimental Design Rab25 expression level was analyzed in HNSCC tissue microarray. We used a combination of intravital microscopy in live animals and immunofluorescence in an in vitro invasion assay, to study role of Rab25 in tumor cells migration and invasion. Results In this study, we identified the small GTPase Rab25 as a key regulator of HNSCC metastasis. We observed that Rab25 is downregulated in HNSCC patients. Next, we determined that re-expression of Rab25 in a metastatic cell line is sufficient to block invasion in a 3D collagen matrix and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes in a mouse model for oral cancer. Specifically, Rab25 affects the organization of F-actin at the cell surface, rather than cell proliferation, apoptosis or tumor angiogenesis. Conclusion These findings suggest that Rab25 plays an important role in tumor migration and metastasis, and that understanding its function may lead to the development of new strategies to prevent metastasis in oral cancer patients. PMID:23340300

  7. Purification and characterization of Ras related protein, Rab5a from Tinospora cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohd; Wahiduzzaman; Dar, Mohammad Aasif; Haque, Md Anzarul; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    Ras related protein (Rab5a) is one of the most important member of the Rab family which regulates the early endosome fusion in endocytosis, and it also helps in the regulation of the budding process. Here, for the first time we report a simple and reproducible method for the purification of the Rab5a from a medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia. We have used weak cation-exchange (CM-Sepharose-FF) followed by gel-filtration chromatography. A purified protein of 22-kDa was observed on SDS-PAGE which was identified as Rab5a using MALDI-TOF/MS. Our purification procedure is fast and simple with high yield. The purified protein was characterized using circular dichroism for the measurement of secondary structure followed by GdmCl- and urea-induced denaturation to calculate the values of Gibbs free energy change (ΔGD), ΔGD°, midpoint of the denaturation Cm, i.e. molar GdmCl [GdmCl] and molar urea [Urea] concentration at which ΔGD=0; and m, the slope (=∂ΔGD/∂[d]) values. Furthermore, thermodynamic properties of Rab5a were also measured by differential scanning calorimeter. Here, using isothermal calorimeteric measurements we further showed that Rab5a binds with the GTP. This is a first report on the purification and biophysical characterization of Rab5a protein from T. cordifolia.

  8. Distinct Sets of Rab6 Effectors Contribute to ZW10- and COG-Dependent Golgi Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Waqar; Liu, Shijie; Storrie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the Golgi apparatus is determined in part by the interaction of Rab proteins and their diverse array of effectors. Here, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize a small subset of effectors that mimicked the effects of Rab6 on Golgi ribbon organization. In a visual-based, candidate-protein screen, we found that the individual depletion of any of three Rab6 effectors, myosin IIA (MyoIIA), Kif20A, and Bicaudal D (BicD), was sufficient to suppress Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal coupled to retrograde tether proteins in a manner paralleling Rab6. MyoIIA and Kif20A depletion were pathway selective and suppressed ZW10-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal only while BicD depletion, like Rab6, suppressed both ZW10- and COG-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation. The MyoIIA effects could be produced in short term assays by the reversible myosin inhibitor, blebbistatin. At the electron microscope level, the effects of BicD-depletion mimicked many of those of Rab6-depletion: longer and more continuous Golgi cisternae and a pronounced accumulation of coated vesicles. Functionally, BicD-depleted cells were inhibited in transport of newly synthesized VSV-G protein to the cell surface. In sum, our results indicate small, partially overlapping subsets of Rab6 effectors are differentially important to two tether-dependent pathways essential to Golgi organization and function. PMID:24575842

  9. Disease Mutations in Rab7 Result in Unregulated Nucleotide Exchange and Inappropriate Activation

    SciTech Connect

    B McCray; E Skordalakes; J Taylor

    2011-12-31

    Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate vesicular trafficking, maturation and fusion by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form, and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins. Missense mutations of the GTPase Rab7 cause a dominantly inherited axonal degeneration known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B through an unknown mechanism. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of GTP-bound L129F mutant Rab7 which reveals normal conformations of the effector binding regions and catalytic site, but an alteration to the nucleotide binding pocket that is predicted to alter GTP binding. Through extensive biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that disease-associated mutations in Rab7 do not lead to an intrinsic GTPase defect, but permit unregulated nucleotide exchange leading to both excessive activation and hydrolysis-independent inactivation. Consistent with augmented activity, mutant Rab7 shows significantly enhanced interaction with a subset of effector proteins. In addition, dynamic imaging demonstrates that mutant Rab7 is abnormally retained on target membranes. However, we show that the increased activation of mutant Rab7 is counterbalanced by unregulated, GTP hydrolysis-independent membrane cycling. Notably, disease mutations are able to rescue the membrane cycling of a GTPase-deficient mutant. Thus, we demonstrate that disease mutations uncouple Rab7 from the spatial and temporal control normally imposed by regulatory proteins and cause disease not by a gain of novel toxic function, but by misregulation of native Rab7 activity.

  10. Korean Affairs Report No. 308.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-14

    Dropouts Can Enter Underenrolled Departments Editorial on Education System Change. FOREIGN RELATIONS Daily Editorial on President Chon’s ’Vision...than 521,000 million won from "old politicians," "minister and vice-ministers of the government," "high-ranking officials" and big entrepreneurs to...revision of the controversial college gradua- tion system, while the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committees are for the recent defection of a Chinese

  11. Specialized sorting of GLUT4 and its recruitment to the cell surface are independently regulated by distinct Rabs.

    PubMed

    Sadacca, L Amanda; Bruno, Joanne; Wen, Jennifer; Xiong, Wenyong; McGraw, Timothy E

    2013-08-01

    Adipocyte glucose uptake in response to insulin is essential for physiological glucose homeostasis: stimulation of adipocytes with insulin results in insertion of the glucose transporter GLUT4 into the plasma membrane and subsequent glucose uptake. Here we establish that RAB10 and RAB14 are key regulators of GLUT4 trafficking that function at independent, sequential steps of GLUT4 translocation. RAB14 functions upstream of RAB10 in the sorting of GLUT4 to the specialized transport vesicles that ferry GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. RAB10 and its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) AS160 comprise the principal signaling module downstream of insulin receptor activation that regulates the accumulation of GLUT4 transport vesicles at the plasma membrane. Although both RAB10 and RAB14 are regulated by the GAP activity of AS160 in vitro, only RAB10 is under the control of AS160 in vivo. Insulin regulation of the pool of RAB10 required for GLUT4 translocation occurs through regulation of AS160, since activation of RAB10 by DENND4C, its GTP exchange factor, does not require insulin stimulation.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Intercepts Golgi-Derived Sphingolipids through a Rab14-Mediated Transport Required for Bacterial Development and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Capmany, Anahí; Damiani, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular bacteria that survive and replicate in a bacterial-modified phagosome called inclusion. As other intracellular parasites, these bacteria subvert the phagocytic pathway to avoid degradation in phagolysosomes and exploit trafficking pathways to acquire both energy and nutrients essential for their survival. Rabs are host proteins that control intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab14, a Golgi-related Rab, controls Golgi to endosomes transport. Since Chlamydia establish a close relationship with the Golgi apparatus, the recruitment and participation of Rab14 on inclusion development and bacteria growth were analyzed. Time course analysis revealed that Rab14 associated with inclusions by 10 h post infection and was maintained throughout the entire developmental cycle. The recruitment was bacterial protein synthesis-dependent but independent of microtubules and Golgi integrity. Overexpression of Rab14 dominant negative mutants delayed inclusion enlargement, and impaired bacteria replication as determined by IFU. Silencing of Rab14 by siRNA also decreased bacteria multiplication and infectivity. By electron microscopy, aberrant bacteria were observed in cells overexpressing the cytosolic negative Rab14 mutant. Our results showed that Rab14 facilitates the delivery of sphingolipids required for bacterial development and replication from the Golgi to chlamydial inclusions. Novel anti-chlamydial therapies could be developed based on the knowledge of how bacteria subvert host vesicular transport events through Rabs manipulation. PMID:21124879

  13. α-Synuclein Membrane Association Is Regulated by the Rab3a Recycling Machinery and Presynaptic Activity*♦

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert H. C.; Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Samuel, Filsy; Visanji, Naomi P.; Zhang, Gang; Marsilio, Diana; Langman, Tammy; Fraser, Paul E.; Tandon, Anurag

    2013-01-01

    α-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein and a primary component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease. Although its pathogenic role remains unclear, in healthy nerve terminals α-synuclein undergoes a cycle of membrane binding and dissociation. An α-synuclein binding assay was used to screen for vesicle proteins involved in α-synuclein membrane interactions and showed that antibodies directed to the Ras-related GTPase Rab3a and its chaperone RabGDI abrogated α-synuclein membrane binding. Biochemical analyses, including density gradient sedimentation and co-immunoprecipitation, suggested that α-synuclein interacts with membrane-associated GTP-bound Rab3a but not to cytosolic GDP-Rab3a. Accumulation of membrane-bound α-synuclein was induced by the expression of a GTPase-deficient Rab3a mutant, by a dominant-negative GDP dissociation inhibitor mutant unable to recycle Rab3a off membranes, and by Hsp90 inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, which are known to inhibit Rab3a dissociation from membranes. Thus, all treatments that inhibited Rab3a recycling also increased α-synuclein sequestration on intracellular membranes. Our results suggest that membrane-bound GTP-Rab3a stabilizes α-synuclein on synaptic vesicles and that the GDP dissociation inhibitor·Hsp90 complex that controls Rab3a membrane dissociation also regulates α-synuclein dissociation during synaptic activity. PMID:23344955

  14. Innate immunity kinase TAK1 phosphorylates Rab1 on a hotspot for posttranslational modifications by host and pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Rebecca S.; Hertz, Nicholas T.; Burlingame, Alma L.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Mukherjee, Shaeri

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a critical signaling hub responsible for translating antigen binding signals to immune receptors for the activation of the AP-1 and NF-κB master transcriptional programs. Despite its importance, known substrates of TAK1 are limited to kinases of the MAPK and IKK families and include no direct effectors of biochemical processes. Here, we identify over 200 substrates of TAK1 using a chemical genetic kinase strategy. We validate phosphorylation of the dynamic switch II region of GTPase Rab1, a mediator of endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicular transport, at T75 to be regulated by TAK1 in vivo. TAK1 preferentially phosphorylates the inactive (GDP-bound) state of Rab1. Phosphorylation of Rab1 disrupts interaction with GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 (GDI1), but not guanine exchange factor (GEF) or GTPase-activating protein (GAP) enzymes, and is exclusive to membrane-localized Rab1, suggesting phosphorylation may stimulate Rab1 membrane association. Furthermore, we found phosphorylation of Rab1 at T75 to be essential for Rab1 function. Previous studies established that the pathogen Legionella pneumophila is capable of hijacking Rab1 function through posttranslational modifications of the switch II region. Here, we present evidence that Rab1 is regulated by the host in a similar fashion, and that the innate immunity kinase TAK1 and Legionella effectors compete to regulate Rab1 by switch II modifications during infection. PMID:27482120

  15. IL4/PGE{sub 2} induction of an enlarged early endosomal compartment in mouse macrophages is Rab5-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Wainszelbaum, Marisa J.; Proctor, Brandon M.; Pontow, Suzanne E.; Stahl, Philip D. . E-mail: pstahl@cellbiology.wustl.edu; Barbieri, M. Alejandro

    2006-07-15

    The endosomal compartment and the plasma membrane form a complex partnership that controls signal transduction and trafficking of different molecules. The specificity and functionality of the early endocytic pathway are regulated by a growing number of Rab GTPases, particularly Rab5. In this study, we demonstrate that IL4 (a Th-2 cytokine) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) synergistically induce Rab5 and several Rab effector proteins, including Rin1 and EEA1, and promote the formation of an enlarged early endocytic (EEE) compartment. Endosome enlargement is linked to a substantial induction of the mannose receptor (MR), a well-characterized macrophage endocytic receptor. Both MR levels and MR-mediated endocytosis are enhanced approximately 7-fold. Fluid-phase endocytosis is also elevated in treated cells. Light microscopy and fractionation studies reveal that MR colocalizes predominantly with Rab5a and partially with Rab11, an endosomal recycling pathway marker. Using retroviral expression of Rab5a:S34N, a dominant negative mutant, and siRNA Rab5a silencing, we demonstrate that Rab5a is essential for the large endosome phenotype and for localization of MR in these structures. We speculate that the EEE is maintained by activated Rab5, and that the EEE phenotype is part of some macrophage developmental program such as cell fusion, a characteristic of IL4-stimulated cells.

  16. Identification and subcellular localization of human rab5b, a new member of the ras-related superfamily of GTPases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D B; Wilson, M P

    1992-01-01

    Members of the mammalian rab family of GTPases are associated with specific subcellular compartments, where these proteins are postulated to function in vesicular transport. By screening a human umbilical vein endothelial cell library with degenerate oligonucleotide probes, we have isolated a 1.6-kb cDNA clone encoding a 215-amino-acid protein belonging to the rab family of GTPases. This newly identified rab protein is 81% identical to human rab5, the canine counterpart of which has been localized to the plasma membrane and early endosomes. In light of this homology, we have named this new member of the GTPase superfamily "rab5b." Northern analysis using the rab5b cDNA as a probe revealed a 3.6-kb mRNA in a variety of cell types, including human umbilical vein endothelial cells, K562 erythroleukemia cells, U937 monoblastic cells, and HeLa cells. A fusion protein between glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and rab5b was expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein was shown to bind GTP and GDP. As is typical of other recombinant rab proteins, the rab5b-GST fusion protein displayed a low intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis (0.005/min). An antiserum to rab5b was prepared and used to determine the apparent molecular size and subcellular distribution of the protein. Western blotting with this antibody revealed a 25-kD protein in COS cells transfected with rab5b and in nontransfected HeLa cells. Indirect immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation showed that rab5b localizes to the plasma membrane. We speculate that rab5b plays a role in vesicular trafficking at the plasma membrane in various cell types. Images PMID:1541686

  17. Modulation of Plant RAB GTPase-Mediated Membrane Trafficking Pathway at the Interface Between Plants and Obligate Biotrophic Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Inada, Noriko; Betsuyaku, Shigeyuki; Shimada, Takashi L; Ebine, Kazuo; Ito, Emi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Takano, Yoshitaka; Fukuda, Hiroo; Nakano, Akihiko; Ueda, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    RAB5 is a small GTPase that acts in endosomal trafficking. In addition to canonical RAB5 members that are homologous to animal RAB5, land plants harbor a plant-specific RAB5, the ARA6 group, which regulates trafficking events distinct from canonical RAB5 GTPases. Here, we report that plant RAB5, both canonical and plant-specific members, accumulate at the interface between host plants and biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens. Biotrophic fungi and oomycetes colonize living plant tissues by establishing specialized infection hyphae, the haustorium, within host plant cells. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana ARA6/RABF1, a plant-specific RAB5, is localized to the specialized membrane that surrounds the haustorium, the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM), formed by the A. thaliana-adapted powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces orontii Whereas the conventional RAB5 ARA7/RABF2b was also localized to the EHM, endosomal SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) and RAB5-activating proteins were not, which suggests that the EHM has modified endosomal characteristic. The recruitment of host RAB5 to the EHM was a property shared by the barley-adapted powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei and the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, but the extrahyphal membrane surrounding the hypha of the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum at the biotrophic stage was devoid of RAB5. The localization of RAB5 to the EHM appears to correlate with the functionality of the haustorium. Our discovery sheds light on a novel relationship between plant RAB5 and obligate biotrophic pathogens.

  18. Rab11 is a useful tool for the diagnosis of microvillous inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Talmon, Geoffrey; Holzapfel, Melissa; DiMaio, Dominick J; Muirhead, David

    2012-06-01

    Microvillous inclusion disease (MVID) is a congenital condition presenting with intractable diarrhea. Biopsies demonstrate abnormal apical PAS and CD10 staining in surface enterocytes correlating with the presence of characteristic cytoplasmic inclusions. MVID has been linked to mutations in myosin Vb, important in apical membrane recycling. Rab11 associates with myosin Vb in vesicle membranes and is also integral in recycling plasma membrane components. The authors performed Rab11 immunostaining on biopsies from 7 MVID cases, 10 normal small intestines, and 10 with chronic enteritis. In MVID cases, Rab11 showed diffuse apical cytoplasmic staining of surface enterocytes in a pattern similar to PAS and CD10, which was absent in all the 20 control cases. Ultrastructural examination confirmed localization to the external surface of MVID cytoplasmic inclusions. Rab11 staining may be a useful adjunct in MVID diagnosis and the results support that myosin Vb dysfunction is important in the pathogenesis of MVID.

  19. Structure of the Drosophila melanogaster Rab6 GTPase at 1.4 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Miriam; Jenkins, Huw T.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Rab6 is a small GTPase that belongs to the p21 Ras superfamily. It is involved in vesicle trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and endosomes/ER in eukaryotes. The GDP-bound inactive protein undergoes conformational changes when the nucleotide is exchanged to GTP, allowing Rab6 to interact with a variety of different effector proteins. To further understand how these changes affect downstream protein binding, the crystal structure of Rab6 from Drosophila melanogaster has been solved to 1.4 Å resolution, the highest resolution for a Rab6 structure to date. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 116.5, b = 42.71, c = 86.86 Å, α = 90, β = 133.12, γ = 90°. The model was refined to an R factor of 14.5% and an R free of 17.3%. PMID:21795785

  20. A Rab1 mutant affecting guanine nucleotide exchange promotes disassembly of the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a dynamic organelle whose structure is sensitive to vesicular traffic and to cell cycle control. We have examined the potential role for rab1a, a GTPase previously associated with ER to Golgi and intra-Golgi transport, in the formation and maintenance of Golgi structure. Bacterially expressed, recombinant rab1a protein was microinjected into rat embryonic fibroblasts, followed by analysis of Golgi morphology by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Three recombinant proteins were tested: wild-type rab, mutant rab1a(S25N), a constitutively GDP-bound form (Nuoffer, C., H. W. Davidson, J. Matteson, J. Meinkoth, and W. E. Balch, 1994. J. Cell Biol. 125: 225- 237), and mutant rab1a(N124I) defective in guanine nucleotide binding. Microinjection of wild-type rab1a protein or a variety of negative controls (injection buffer alone or activated ras protein) did not affect the appearance of the Golgi, as visualized by immunofluorescence of alpha-mannosidase II (Man II), used as a Golgi marker. In contrast, microinjection of the mutant forms promoted the disassembly of the Golgi stacks into dispersed vesicular structures visualized by immunofluorescence. When S25N-injected cells were analyzed by EM after immunoperoxidase labeling, Man II was found in isolated ministacks and large vesicular elements that were often surrounded by numerous smaller unlabeled vesicles resembling carrier vesicles. Golgi disassembly caused by rab1a mutants differs from BFA-induced disruption, since beta- COP remains membrane associated, and Man II does not redistribute to the ER. BFA can still cause these residual Golgi elements to fuse and disperse, albeit at a slower rate. Moreover, BFA recovery is incomplete in the presence of rab1 mutants or GTP gamma S. We conclude that GTP exchange and hydrolysis by GTPases, specifically rab1a, are required to form and maintain normal Golgi stacks. The similarity of Golgi disassembly seen with rab1a mutants to that occurring during

  1. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation.

  2. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation. PMID:23392104

  3. Loss of Rab27 function results in abnormal lung epithelium structure in mice.

    PubMed

    Bolasco, Giulia; Tracey-White, Dhani C; Tolmachova, Tanya; Thorley, Andrew J; Tetley, Teresa D; Seabra, Miguel C; Hume, Alistair N

    2011-03-01

    Rab27 small GTPases regulate secretion and movement of lysosome-related organelles such as T cell cytolytic granules and platelet-dense granules. Previous studies indicated that Rab27a and Rab27b are expressed in the murine lung suggesting that they regulate secretory processes in the lung. Consistent with those studies, we found that Rab27a and Rab27b are expressed in cell types that contain secretory granules: alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) and Clara cells. We then used Rab27a/Rab27b double knockout (DKO) mice to examine the functional consequence of loss of Rab27 proteins in the murine lung. Light and electron microscopy revealed a number of morphological changes in lungs from DKO mice when compared with those in control animals. In aged DKO mice we observed atrophy of the bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium with reduction of cells numbers, thinning of the bronchiolar epithelium and alveolar walls, and enlargement of alveolar airspaces. In these samples we also observed increased numbers of activated foamy alveolar macrophages and granulocyte containing infiltrates together with reduction in the numbers of Clara cells and AEII cells compared with control. At the ultrastructural level we observed accumulation of cytoplasmic membranes and vesicles in Clara cells. Meanwhile, AEII cells in DKO accumulated large mature lamellar bodies and lacked immature/precursor lamellar bodies. We hypothesize that the morphological changes observed at the ultrastructural level in DKO samples result from secretory defects in AEII and Clara cells and that over time these defects lead to atrophy of the epithelium.

  4. Deficient Rab11 activity underlies glucose hypometabolism in primary neurons of Huntington's disease mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xueyi; Valencia, Antonio; McClory, Hollis; Sapp, Ellen; Kegel, Kimberly B.; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary Huntington's disease neurons are impaired in taking up glucose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rab11 modulates glucose uptake in neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing Rab11 activity attenuates the glucose uptake defect in disease neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in Huntington's disease. -- Abstract: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Positron emission tomography studies have revealed a decline in glucose metabolism in the brain of patients with HD by a mechanism that has not been established. We examined glucose utilization in embryonic primary cortical neurons of wild-type (WT) and HD knock-in mice, which have 140 CAG repeats inserted in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene (HD{sup 140Q/140Q}). Primary HD{sup 140Q/140Q} cortical neurons took up significantly less glucose than did WT neurons. Expression of permanently inactive and permanently active forms of Rab11 correspondingly altered glucose uptake in WT neurons, suggesting that normal activity of Rab11 is needed for neuronal uptake of glucose. It is known that Rab11 activity is diminished in HD{sup 140Q/140Q} neurons. Expression of dominant active Rab11 to enhance the activity of Rab11 normalized glucose uptake in HD{sup 140Q/140Q} neurons. These results suggest that deficient activity of Rab11 is a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in HD.

  5. MIR144 and MIR451 regulate human erythropoiesis via RAB14

    PubMed Central

    Kim, MinJung; Tan, Yee Sun; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Kingsbury, Tami J.; Heimfeld, Shelly; Civin, Curt I.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Expression levels of MIR144 and MIR451 increase during erythropoiesis, a pattern that is conserved from zebrafish to humans. As these two miRs are expressed from the same polycistronic transcript, we manipulated MIR144 and MIR451 in human erythroid cells individually and together to investigate their effects on human erythropoiesis. Inhibition of endogenous human MIR451 resulted in decreased numbers of erythroid (CD71hiCD235ahiCD34−) cells, consistent with prior studies in zebrafish and mice. In addition, inhibition of MIR144 impaired human erythroid differentiation, unlike in zebrafish and mouse studies where the functional effect of MIR144 on erythropoiesis was minimal. In this study, we found RAB14 is a direct target of both MIR144 and MIR451. As MIR144 and MIR451 expression increased during human erythropoiesis, RAB14 protein expression decreased. Enforced RAB14 expression phenocopied the effect of MIR144 and/or MIR451 depletion, whereas shRNA-mediated RAB14 knockdown protected cells from MIR144 and/or MIR451 depletion-mediated erythropoietic inhibition. RAB14 knockdown increased the frequency and number of erythroid cells, increased β-haemoglobin expression, and decreased CBFA2T3 expression during human erythropoiesis. In summary, we utilized MIR144 and MIR451 to identify RAB14 as a novel physiological inhibitor of human erythropoiesis. PMID:25312678

  6. Rab35, acting through ACAP2 switching off Arf6, negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamori, Natsuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells differentiate to produce myelin sheaths that insulate axons to ensure fast propagation of action potentials. Many aspects of differentiation are regulated by multiple extracellular signals. However, their intracellular signalings remain elusive. We show that Rab35 and its effector, ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein that switches off Arf6 activity, negatively regulate oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. Knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 with their respective small interfering RNAs promotes differentiation. As differentiation initiates, the activities of Rab35 and ACAP2 are down-regulated. The activity of Arf6, in contrast, is up-regulated. Arf6 knockdown inhibits differentiation, indicating that Rab35 and ACAP2 negatively regulate differentiation by down-regulating Arf6. Importantly, as differentiation proceeds, the activity of cytohesin-2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that switches on Arf6 activity, is up-regulated. Pharmacological inhibition of cytohesin-2 inhibits differentiation, suggesting that cytohesin-2 promotes differentiation by activating Arf6. Furthermore, using oligodendrocyte-neuronal cocultures, we find that knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 promotes myelination, whereas inhibition of cytohesin-2 or knockdown of Arf6 inhibits myelination. Thus Rab35/ACAP2 and cytohesin-2 antagonistically control oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination through Arf6 regulation, presenting a unique small GTPase on/off switching mechanism. PMID:24600047

  7. MT1-MMP proinvasive activity is regulated by a novel Rab8-dependent exocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Cordero, Jose J; Marrero-Diaz, Raquel; Megías, Diego; Genís, Laura; García-Grande, Aranzazu; García, Maria A; Arroyo, Alicia G; Montoya, María C

    2007-03-21

    MT1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is one of the most critical factors in the invasion machinery of tumor cells. Subcellular localization to invasive structures is key for MT1-MMP proinvasive activity. However, the mechanism driving this polarized distribution remains obscure. We now report that polarized exocytosis of MT1-MMP occurs during MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma cell migration into collagen type I three-dimensional matrices. Polarized trafficking of MT1-MMP is triggered by beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to collagen, and is required for protease localization at invasive structures. Localization of MT1-MMP within VSV-G/Rab8-positive vesicles, but not in Rab11/Tf/TfRc-positive compartment in invasive cells, suggests the involvement of the exocytic traffic pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rab8 mutants induce MT1-MMP exocytic traffic, collagen degradation and invasion, whereas Rab8- but not Rab11-knockdown inhibited these processes. Altogether, these data reveal a novel pathway of MT1-MMP redistribution to invasive structures, exocytic vesicle trafficking, which is crucial for its role in tumor cell invasiveness. Mechanistically, MT1-MMP delivery to invasive structures, and therefore its proinvasive activity, is regulated by Rab8 GTPase.

  8. Overexpression of Rab16A gene in indica rice variety for generating enhanced salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Moumita; Datta, Karabi; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Gayen, Dipak; Sengupta, Dibyendu N; Datta, Swapan K

    2012-04-01

    We report here the overexpression of Rab16A full length gene (promoter + ORF), from the salt-tolerant indica rice Pokkali, in the salt-susceptible indica rice variety Khitish, via particle bombardment. Molecular analysis of the transgenics revealed stable integration of the transgene upto T2 generation. High level of expression of the transgene (driven by its own stress-inducible promoter), as well as the protein, was detectable in the leaves under simulated salinity stress (250 mM NaCl, 24 h); the expression level being higher than wild type (WT) plants. The Rab16A transcript also increased gradually with seed maturity, with its maximal accumulation at 30 d after pollination (DAP) i.e., fully matured seeds, explaining the protective role of Rab16A gene during seed maturation. Enhanced tolerance to salinity was observed in the plants transformed with Rab16A. The superior physiological performances of the transgenics under salt treatment were also reflected in lesser shoot or root length inhibition, reduced chlorophyll damages, lesser accumulation of Na(+) and reduced loss of K(+), increased proline content as compared with the WT plants. All these results indicated that the overproduction of RAB16A protein in the transgenics enable them to display enhanced tolerance to salinity stress with improved physiological traits. Our work demonstrates the profound potential of Group 2 LEA proteins (to which RAB16A belongs to) in conferring stress tolerance in crop plants through their genetic manipulation.

  9. Rab27a/Slp2-a complex is involved in Schwann cell myelination

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen-feng; Gu, Yun; Wei, Zhong-ya; Shen, Yun-tian; Jin, Zi-han; Yuan, Ying; Gu, Xiao-song; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Myelination of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system is an intricate process involving myelin protein trafficking. Recently, the role and mechanism of the endosomal/lysosomal system in myelin formation were emphasized. Our previous results demonstrated that a small GTPase Rab27a regulates lysosomal exocytosis and myelin protein trafficking in Schwann cells. In this present study, we established a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron and Schwann cell co-culture model to identify the signals associated with Rab27a during myelination. First, Slp2-a, as the Rab27a effector, was endogenously expressed in Schwann cells. Second, Rab27a expression significantly increased during Schwann cell myelination. Finally, Rab27a and Slp2-a silencing in Schwann cells not only reduced myelin protein expression, but also impaired formation of myelin-like membranes in DRG neuron and Schwann cell co-cultures. Our findings suggest that the Rab27a/Slp2-a complex affects Schwann cell myelination in vitro. PMID:28123429

  10. Calmodulin interacts with Rab3D and modulates osteoclastic bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Sipin; Chim, Shek Man; Cheng, Taksum; Ang, Estabelle; Ng, Benjamin; Lim, Baysie; Chen, Kai; Qiu, Heng; Tickner, Jennifer; Xu, Huazi; Pavlos, Nathan; Xu, Jiake

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulin is a highly versatile protein that regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis and is involved in a variety of cellular functions including cardiac excitability, synaptic plasticity and signaling transduction. During osteoclastic bone resorption, calmodulin has been reported to concentrate at the ruffled border membrane of osteoclasts where it is thought to modulate bone resorption activity in response to calcium. Here we report an interaction between calmodulin and Rab3D, a small exocytic GTPase and established regulator osteoclastic bone resorption. Using yeast two-hybrid screening together with a series of protein-protein interaction studies, we show that calmodulin interacts with Rab3D in a calcium dependent manner. Consistently, expression of a calcium insensitive form of calmodulin (i.e. CaM1234) perturbs calmodulin-Rab3D interaction as monitored by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays. In osteoclasts, calmodulin and Rab3D are constitutively co-expressed during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, co-occupy plasma membrane fractions by differential gradient sedimentation assay and colocalise in the ruffled border as revealed by confocal microscopy. Further, functional blockade of calmodulin-Rab3D interaction by calmidazolium chloride coincides with an attenuation of osteoclastic bone resorption. Our data imply that calmodulin- Rab3D interaction is required for efficient bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitro. PMID:27897225

  11. Structure of doubly prenylated Ypt1:GDI complex and the mechanism of GDI-mediated Rab recycling

    PubMed Central

    Pylypenko, Olena; Rak, Alexey; Durek, Thomas; Kushnir, Susanna; Dursina, Beatrice E; Thomae, Nicolas H; Constantinescu, Alexandru T; Brunsveld, Luc; Watzke, Anja; Waldmann, Herbert; Goody, Roger S; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2006-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells Rab/Ypt GTPases represent a family of key membrane traffic controllers that associate with their targeted membranes via C-terminally conjugated geranylgeranyl groups. GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) is a general and essential regulator of Rab recycling that extracts prenylated Rab proteins from membranes at the end of their cycle of activity and facilitates their delivery to the donor membranes. Here, we present the structure of a complex between GDI and a doubly prenylated Rab protein. We show that one geranylgeranyl residue is deeply buried in a hydrophobic pocket formed by domain II of GDI, whereas the other lipid is more exposed to solvent and is skewed across several atoms of the first moiety. Based on structural information and biophysical measurements, we propose mechanistic and thermodynamic models for GDI and Rab escort protein-mediated interaction of RabGTPase with intracellular membranes. PMID:16395334

  12. Rab28 is a TBC1D1/TBC1D4 substrate involved in GLUT4 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Menzel, Franziska; Benninghoff, Tim; Chadt, Alexandra; Du, Chen; Holman, Geoffrey D; Al-Hasani, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    The Rab-GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 play important roles in the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane in muscle cells and adipocytes. We identified Rab28 as a substrate for the GAP domains of both TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in vitro. Rab28 is expressed in adipose cells and skeletal muscle, and its GTP-binding state is acutely regulated by insulin. We found that in intact isolated mouse skeletal muscle, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rab28 decreases basal glucose uptake. Conversely, in primary rat adipose cells, overexpression of Rab28-Q72L, a constitutively active mutant, increases basal cell surface levels of an epitope-tagged HA-GLUT4. Our results indicate that Rab28 is a novel GTPase involved in the intracellular retention of GLUT4 in insulin target cells.

  13. Rab3 reversibly recruits rabphilin to synaptic vesicles by a mechanism analogous to raf recruitment by ras.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, B; Chou, J H; Li, C; Südhof, T C; Jahn, R

    1996-01-01

    GTP activates the interaction between the synaptic vesicle proteins rabphilin and rab3. This raises the question of whether rabphilin is a resident vesicle protein that recruits rab3 in a stage-dependent fashion, or if it is instead an effector protein recruited by rab3. We now show that rabphilin, like rab3, dissociates from synaptic vesicles after exocytosis in a manner requiring both Ca2+ and membrane fusion. Rabphilin interacts with GTP-rab3 via a N-terminal domain comprising a novel Zn2+(-)finger motif, and this interaction is essential for rabphilin binding to synaptic vesicles. Thus, in the same way that ras recruits raf to the plasma membrane, rab3 reversibly recruits rabphilin to synaptic vesicles in a stage-dependent manner. These results reveal an unexpected similarity between the molecular mechanisms by which small G protein function in recruiting effector proteins to membranes during membrane traffic and signal transduction. Images PMID:8617225

  14. Anterograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized epithelia is Rab1- and Rab8-dependent and recycling endosome-independent.

    PubMed

    Bertuccio, Claudia A; Lee, Shih-Liang; Wu, Guangyu; Butterworth, Michael B; Hamilton, Kirk L; Devor, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The intermediate conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1) targets to the basolateral (BL) membrane in polarized epithelia where it plays a key role in transepithelial ion transport. However, there are no studies defining the anterograde and retrograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized epithelia. Herein, we utilize Biotin Ligase Acceptor Peptide (BLAP)-tagged KCa3.1 to address these trafficking steps in polarized epithelia, using MDCK, Caco-2 and FRT cells. We demonstrate that KCa3.1 is exclusively targeted to the BL membrane in these cells when grown on filter supports. Following endocytosis, KCa3.1 degradation is prevented by inhibition of lysosomal/proteosomal pathways. Further, the ubiquitylation of KCa3.1 is increased following endocytosis from the BL membrane and PR-619, a deubiquitylase inhibitor, prevents degradation, indicating KCa3.1 is targeted for degradation by ubiquitylation. We demonstrate that KCa3.1 is targeted to the BL membrane in polarized LLC-PK1 cells which lack the μ1B subunit of the AP-1 complex, indicating BL targeting of KCa3.1 is independent of μ1B. As Rabs 1, 2, 6 and 8 play roles in ER/Golgi exit and trafficking of proteins to the BL membrane, we evaluated the role of these Rabs in the trafficking of KCa3.1. In the presence of dominant negative Rab1 or Rab8, KCa3.1 cell surface expression was significantly reduced, whereas Rabs 2 and 6 had no effect. We also co-immunoprecipitated KCa3.1 with both Rab1 and Rab8. These results suggest these Rabs are necessary for the anterograde trafficking of KCa3.1. Finally, we determined whether KCa3.1 traffics directly to the BL membrane or through recycling endosomes in MDCK cells. For these studies, we used either recycling endosome ablation or dominant negative RME-1 constructs and determined that KCa3.1 is trafficked directly to the BL membrane rather than via recycling endosomes. These results are the first to describe the anterograde and retrograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized

  15. A role for Rab14 in the endocytic trafficking of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sam E; Hodgson, Lorna R; Song, Shuang; May, Margaret T; Kelly, Eoin E; McCaffrey, Mary W; Mastick, Cynthia C; Verkade, Paul; Tavaré, Jeremy M

    2013-05-01

    Insulin enhances the uptake of glucose into adipocytes and muscle cells by promoting the redistribution of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. Rab GTPases regulate the trafficking itinerary of GLUT4 and several have been found on immunopurified GLUT4 vesicles. Specifically, Rab14 has previously been implicated in GLUT4 trafficking in muscle although its role, if any, in adipocytes is poorly understood. Analysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes using confocal microscopy demonstrated that endogenous GLUT4 and endogenous Rab14 exhibited a partial colocalisation. However, when wild-type Rab14 or a constitutively-active Rab14Q70L mutant were overexpressed in these cells, the colocalisation with both GLUT4 and IRAP became extensive. Interestingly, this colocalisation was restricted to enlarged 'ring-like' vesicular structures (mean diameter 1.3 µm), which were observed in the presence of overexpressed wild-type Rab14 and Rab14Q70L, but not an inactive Rab14S25N mutant. These enlarged vesicles contained markers of early endosomes and were rapidly filled by GLUT4 and transferrin undergoing endocytosis from the plasma membrane. The Rab14Q70L mutant reduced basal and insulin-stimulated cell surface GLUT4 levels, probably by retaining GLUT4 in an insulin-insensitive early endosomal compartment. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated depletion of Rab14 inhibited the transit of GLUT4 through early endosomal compartments towards vesicles and tubules in the perinuclear region. Given the previously reported role of Rab14 in trafficking between endosomes and the Golgi complex, we propose that the primary role of Rab14 in GLUT4 trafficking is to control the transit of internalised GLUT4 from early endosomes into the Golgi complex, rather than direct GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane.

  16. Rab6a/a’ Are Important Golgi Regulators of Pro-Inflammatory TNF Secretion in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Micaroni, Massimo; Stanley, Amanda C.; Khromykh, Tatiana; Venturato, Juliana; Wong, Colin X. F.; Lim, Jet P.; Marsh, Brad J.; Storrie, Brian; Gleeson, Paul A.; Stow, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to elicit innate immune responses. Secretion of these cytokines is also a major contributing factor in chronic inflammatory disease. In previous studies we have begun to elucidate the pathways and molecules that mediate the intracellular trafficking and secretion of TNF. Rab6a and Rab6a' (collectively Rab6) are trans-Golgi-localized GTPases known for roles in maintaining Golgi structure and Golgi-associated trafficking. We found that induction of TNF secretion by LPS promoted the selective increase of Rab6 expression. Depletion of Rab6 (via siRNA and shRNA) resulted in reorganization of the Golgi ribbon into more compact structures that at the resolution of electron microcopy consisted of elongated Golgi stacks that likely arose from fusion of smaller Golgi elements. Concomitantly, the delivery of TNF to the cell surface and subsequent release into the media was reduced. Dominant negative mutants of Rab6 had similar effects in disrupting TNF secretion. In live cells, Rab6–GFP were localized on trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived tubular carriers demarked by the golgin p230. Rab6 depletion and inactive mutants altered carrier egress and partially reduced p230 membrane association. Our results show that Rab6 acts on TNF trafficking at the level of TGN exit in tubular carriers and our findings suggest Rab6 may stabilize p230 on the tubules to facilitate TNF transport. Both Rab6 isoforms are needed in macrophages for Golgi stack organization and for the efficient post-Golgi transport of TNF. This work provides new insights into Rab6 function and into the role of the Golgi complex in cytokine secretion in inflammatory macrophages. PMID:23437303

  17. Rab6a/a' are important Golgi regulators of pro-inflammatory TNF secretion in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Micaroni, Massimo; Stanley, Amanda C; Khromykh, Tatiana; Venturato, Juliana; Wong, Colin X F; Lim, Jet P; Marsh, Brad J; Storrie, Brian; Gleeson, Paul A; Stow, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to elicit innate immune responses. Secretion of these cytokines is also a major contributing factor in chronic inflammatory disease. In previous studies we have begun to elucidate the pathways and molecules that mediate the intracellular trafficking and secretion of TNF. Rab6a and Rab6a' (collectively Rab6) are trans-Golgi-localized GTPases known for roles in maintaining Golgi structure and Golgi-associated trafficking. We found that induction of TNF secretion by LPS promoted the selective increase of Rab6 expression. Depletion of Rab6 (via siRNA and shRNA) resulted in reorganization of the Golgi ribbon into more compact structures that at the resolution of electron microcopy consisted of elongated Golgi stacks that likely arose from fusion of smaller Golgi elements. Concomitantly, the delivery of TNF to the cell surface and subsequent release into the media was reduced. Dominant negative mutants of Rab6 had similar effects in disrupting TNF secretion. In live cells, Rab6-GFP were localized on trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived tubular carriers demarked by the golgin p230. Rab6 depletion and inactive mutants altered carrier egress and partially reduced p230 membrane association. Our results show that Rab6 acts on TNF trafficking at the level of TGN exit in tubular carriers and our findings suggest Rab6 may stabilize p230 on the tubules to facilitate TNF transport. Both Rab6 isoforms are needed in macrophages for Golgi stack organization and for the efficient post-Golgi transport of TNF. This work provides new insights into Rab6 function and into the role of the Golgi complex in cytokine secretion in inflammatory macrophages.

  18. Extensive in silico analysis of Mimivirus coded Rab GTPase homolog suggests a possible role in virion membrane biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zade, Amrutraj; Sengupta, Malavi; Kondabagil, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Rab GTPases are the key regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. Many viruses and intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved to hijack the host Rab GTPase functions, mainly through activators and effector proteins, for their benefit. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) is one of the largest viruses and belongs to the monophyletic clade of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). The inner membrane lining is integral to the APMV virion structure. APMV assembly involves extensive host membrane modifications, like vesicle budding and fusion, leading to the formation of a membrane sheet that is incorporated into the virion. Intriguingly, APMV and all group I members of the Mimiviridae family code for a putative Rab GTPase protein. APMV is the first reported virus to code for a Rab GTPase (encoded by R214 gene). Our thorough in silico analysis of the subfamily specific (SF) region of Mimiviridae Rab GTPase sequences suggests that they are related to Rab5, a member of the group II Rab GTPases, of lower eukaryotes. Because of their high divergence from the existing three isoforms, A, B, and C of the Rab5-family, we suggest that Mimiviridae Rabs constitute a new isoform, Rab5D. Phylogenetic analysis indicated probable horizontal acquisition from a lower eukaryotic ancestor followed by selection and divergence. Furthermore, interaction network analysis suggests that vps34 (a Class III PI3K homolog, coded by APMV L615), Atg-8 and dynamin (host proteins) are recruited by APMV Rab GTPase during capsid assembly. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that APMV Rab plays a role in the acquisition of inner membrane during virion assembly. PMID:26441866

  19. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  20. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  1. Rab14 limits the sorting of Glut4 from endosomes into insulin-sensitive regulated secretory compartments in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul Duffield; Habtemichael, Estifanos N; Romenskaia, Irina; Coster, Adelle C F; Mastick, Cynthia Corley

    2016-05-15

    Insulin increases glucose uptake by increasing the rate of exocytosis of the facilitative glucose transporter isoform 4 (Glut4) relative to its endocytosis. Insulin also releases Glut4 from highly insulin-regulated secretory compartments (GSVs or Glut4 storage vesicles) into constitutively cycling endosomes. Previously it was shown that both overexpression and knockdown of the small GTP-binding protein Rab14 decreased Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane (PM). To determine the mechanism of this perturbation, we measured the effects of Rab14 knockdown on the trafficking kinetics of Glut4 relative to two proteins that partially co-localize with Glut4, the transferrin (Tf) receptor and low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Our data support the hypothesis that Rab14 limits sorting of proteins from sorting (or 'early') endosomes into the specialized GSV pathway, possibly through regulation of endosomal maturation. This hypothesis is consistent with known Rab14 effectors. Interestingly, the insulin-sensitive Rab GTPase-activating protein Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) affects both sorting into and exocytosis from GSVs. It has previously been shown that exocytosis of GSVs is rate-limited by Rab10, and both Rab10 and Rab14 are in vitro substrates of AS160. Regulation of both entry into and exit from GSVs by AS160 through sequential Rab substrates would provide a mechanism for the finely tuned 'quantal' increases in cycling Glut4 observed in response to increasing concentrations of insulin.

  2. Dual roles for the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive in localizing Rab11 during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Polevoy, Gordon; Wei, Ho-Chun; Wong, Raymond; Szentpetery, Zsofia; Kim, Yeun Ju; Goldbach, Philip; Steinbach, Sarah K; Balla, Tamas; Brill, Julie A

    2009-12-14

    Successful completion of cytokinesis relies on addition of new membrane, and requires the recycling endosome regulator Rab11, which localizes to the midzone. Despite the critical role of Rab11 in this process, little is known about the formation and composition of Rab11-containing organelles. Here, we identify the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase III beta four wheel drive (Fwd) as a key regulator of Rab11 during cytokinesis in Drosophila melanogaster spermatocytes. We show Fwd is required for synthesis of PI 4-phosphate (PI4P) on Golgi membranes and for formation of PI4P-containing secretory organelles that localize to the midzone. Fwd binds and colocalizes with Rab11 on Golgi membranes, and is required for localization of Rab11 in dividing cells. A kinase-dead version of Fwd also binds Rab11 and partially restores cytokinesis to fwd mutant flies. Moreover, activated Rab11 partially suppresses loss of fwd. Our data suggest Fwd plays catalytic and noncatalytic roles in regulating Rab11 during cytokinesis.

  3. Huntingtin differentially regulates the axonal transport of a sub-set of Rab-containing vesicles in vivo

    PubMed Central

    White, Joseph A.; Anderson, Eric; Zimmerman, Katherine; Zheng, Kan Hong; Rouhani, Roza; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2015-01-01

    Loss of huntingtin (HTT), the Huntington's disease (HD) protein, was previously shown to cause axonal transport defects. Within axons, HTT can associate with kinesin-1 and dynein motors either directly or via accessory proteins for bi-directional movement. However, the composition of the vesicle-motor complex that contains HTT during axonal transport is unknown. Here we analyze the in vivo movement of 16 Rab GTPases within Drosophila larval axons and show that HTT differentially influences the movement of a particular sub-set of these Rab-containing vesicles. While reduction of HTT perturbed the bi-directional motility of Rab3 and Rab19-containing vesicles, only the retrograde motility of Rab7-containing vesicles was disrupted with reduction of HTT. Interestingly, reduction of HTT stimulated the anterograde motility of Rab2-containing vesicles. Simultaneous dual-view imaging revealed that HTT and Rab2, 7 or 19 move together during axonal transport. Collectively, our findings indicate that HTT likely influences the motility of different Rab-containing vesicles and Rab-mediated functions. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the complex role HTT plays within neurons normally, which when disrupted may lead to neuronal death and disease. PMID:26450517

  4. Rab13 Is Upregulated During Osteoclast Differentiation and Associates with Small Vesicles Revealing Polarized Distribution in Resorbing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mulari, Mika T. K.; Büki, Kálmán G.; Vihko, Pirkko; Härkönen, Pirkko L.; Väänänen, H. Kalervo

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing multinucleated cells that undergo drastic changes in their polarization due to heavy vesicular trafficking during the resorption cycle. These events require the precise orchestration of membrane traffic in order to maintain the unique characteristics of the different membrane domains in osteoclasts. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in regulation of most, if not all, steps of vesicle trafficking. The investigators studied RAB genes in human osteoclasts and found that at least 26 RABs were expressed in osteoclasts. Out of these, RAB13 gene expression was highly upregulated during differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytic cells into osteoclasts. To study its possible function in osteoclasts, the investigators performed immunolocalization studies for Rab13 and various known markers of osteoclast vesicular trafficking. Rab13 localized to small vesicular structures at the superior parts of the osteoclast between the trans-Golgi network and basolateral membrane domain. Rab13 localization suggests that it is not involved in endocytosis or transcytosis of bone degradation products. In addition, Rab13 did not associate with early endosomes or recycling endosomes labeled with EEA1 or TRITC-conjugated transferrin, respectively. Its involvement in glucose transporter traffic was excluded as well. It is suggested that Rab13 is associated with a putative secretory function in osteoclasts. PMID:22562557

  5. Mutational Analysis of Rab3 Function for Controlling Active Zone Protein Composition at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shirui; Gendelman, Hannah K; Roche, John P; Alsharif, Peter; Graf, Ethan R

    2015-01-01

    At synapses, the release of neurotransmitter is regulated by molecular machinery that aggregates at specialized presynaptic release sites termed active zones. The complement of active zone proteins at each site is a determinant of release efficacy and can be remodeled to alter synapse function. The small GTPase Rab3 was previously identified as playing a novel role that controls the distribution of active zone proteins to individual release sites at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Rab3 has been extensively studied for its role in the synaptic vesicle cycle; however, the mechanism by which Rab3 controls active zone development remains unknown. To explore this mechanism, we conducted a mutational analysis to determine the molecular and structural requirements of Rab3 function at Drosophila synapses. We find that GTP-binding is required for Rab3 to traffick to synapses and distribute active zone components across release sites. Conversely, the hydrolytic activity of Rab3 is unnecessary for this function. Through a structure-function analysis we identify specific residues within the effector-binding switch regions that are required for Rab3 function and determine that membrane attachment is essential. Our findings suggest that Rab3 controls the distribution of active zone components via a vesicle docking mechanism that is consistent with standard Rab protein function.

  6. Tctex-1, a Novel Interaction Partner of Rab3D, Is Required for Osteoclastic Bone Resorption ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pavlos, Nathan J.; Cheng, Tak Sum; Qin, An; Ng, Pei Ying; Feng, Hao-Tian; Ang, Estabelle S. M.; Carrello, Amerigo; Sung, Ching-Hwa; Jahn, Reinhard; Zheng, Ming-Hao; Xu, Jiake

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular transport along microtubules must be strictly regulated to sustain the unique structural and functional polarization of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. However, the molecular mechanisms bridging these vesicle-microtubule interactions remain largely obscure. Rab3D, a member of the Rab3 subfamily (Rab3A/B/C/D) of small exocytotic GTPases, represents a core component of the osteoclastic vesicle transport machinery. Here, we identify a new Rab3D-interacting partner, Tctex-1, a light chain of the cytoplasmic dynein microtubule motor complex, by a yeast two-hybrid screen. We demonstrate that Tctex-1 binds specifically to Rab3D in a GTP-dependent manner and co-occupies Rab3D-bearing vesicles in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Tctex-1 and Rab3D intimately associate with the dynein motor complex and microtubules in osteoclasts. Finally, targeted disruption of Tctex-1 by RNA interference significantly impairs bone resorption capacity and mislocalizes Rab3D vesicles in osteoclasts, attesting to the notion that components of the Rab3D-trafficking pathway contribute to the maintenance of osteoclastic resorptive function. PMID:21262767

  7. Structure-Function Analyses of the Small GTPase Rab35 and Its Effector Protein Centaurin-β2/ACAP2 during Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Etoh, Kan; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab35 is a molecular switch for membrane trafficking that regulates a variety of cellular events. We previously showed that Rab35 promotes neurite outgrowth of nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells through interaction with centaurin-β2 (also called ACAP2). Centaurin-β2 is the only Rab35-binding protein reported thus far that exclusively recognizes Rab35 and does not recognize any of the other 59 Rabs identified in mammals, but the molecular basis for the exclusive specificity of centaurin-β2 for Rab35 has remained completely unknown. In this study, we performed deletion and mutation analyses and succeeded in identifying the residues of Rab35 and centaurin-β2 that are crucial for formation of a Rab35·centaurin-β2 complex. We found that two threonine residues (Thr-76 and Thr-81) in the switch II region of Rab35 are responsible for binding centaurin-β2 and that the same residues are dispensable for Rab35 recognition by other Rab35-binding proteins. We also determined the minimal Rab35-binding site of centaurin-β2 and identified two asparagine residues (Asn-610 and Asn-691) in the Rab35-binding site as key residues for its specific Rab35 recognition. We further showed by knockdown-rescue approaches that neither a centaurin-β2 binding-deficient Rab35(T76S/T81A) mutant nor a Rab35 binding-deficient centaurin-β2(N610A/N691A) mutant supported neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells, thereby demonstrating the functional significance of the Rab35/centaurin-β2 interaction during neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. PMID:25694427

  8. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  9. Rab5-regulated endocytosis plays a crucial role in apical extrusion of transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Sayaka; Maruyama, Takeshi; Yako, Yuta; Kajita, Mihoko; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Ohba, Yusuke; Kasai, Nobuhiro; Sugama, Natsu; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hayashi, Takashi; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Tada, Masazumi; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2017-03-21

    Newly emerging transformed cells are often eliminated from epithelial tissues. Recent studies have revealed that this cancer-preventive process involves the interaction with the surrounding normal epithelial cells; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely unknown. In this study, using mammalian cell culture and zebrafish embryo systems, we have elucidated the functional involvement of endocytosis in the elimination of RasV12-transformed cells. First, we show that Rab5, a crucial regulator of endocytosis, is accumulated in RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, which is accompanied by up-regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Addition of chlorpromazine or coexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Rab5 suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12 cells from the epithelium. We also show in zebrafish embryos that Rab5 plays an important role in the elimination of transformed cells from the enveloping layer epithelium. In addition, Rab5-mediated endocytosis of E-cadherin is enhanced at the boundary between normal and RasV12 cells. Rab5 functions upstream of epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN), which plays a positive role in apical extrusion of RasV12 cells by regulating protein kinase A. Furthermore, we have revealed that epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC) from normal epithelial cells substantially impacts on Rab5 accumulation in the neighboring transformed cells. This report demonstrates that Rab5-mediated endocytosis is a crucial regulator for the competitive interaction between normal and transformed epithelial cells in mammals.

  10. RIM, Munc13, and Rab3A Interplay in Acrosomal Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Oscar D.; Zanetti, M. Natalia; Mayorga, Luis S.; Michaut, Marcela A.

    2012-01-01

    Exocytosis is a highly regulated, multistage process consisting of multiple functionally definable stages, including recruitment, targeting, tethering, priming, and docking of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, followed by calcium-triggered membrane fusion. The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa is a complex, calcium-dependent regulated exocytosis. Fusion at multiple sites between the outer acrosomal membrane and the cell membrane causes the release of the acrosomal contents and the loss of the membranes surrounding the acrosome. Not much is known about the molecules that mediate membrane docking in this particular fusion model. In neurons, the formation of the ternary RIM/Munc13/Rab3A complex has been suggested as a critical component of synaptic vesicles docking. Previously, we demonstrated that Rab3A localizes to the acrosomal region in human sperm, stimulates acrosomal exocytosis, and participates in an early stage during membrane fusion. Here, we report that RIM and Munc13 are also present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. Like Rab3A, RIM and Munc13 participate in a prefusion step before the efflux of intra-acrosomal calcium. By means of a functional assay using antibodies and recombinant proteins, we show that RIM, Munc13 and Rab3A interplay during acrosomal exocytosis. Finally, we report by electron transmission microscopy that sequestering RIM and Rab3A alters the docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane during calcium-activated acrosomal exocytosis. Our results suggest that the RIM/Munc13/Rab3 A complex participates in acrosomal exocytosis and that RIM and Rab3A have a central role in membrane docking. PMID:22248876

  11. Phosphorylation of Rab-coupling protein by LMTK3 controls Rab14-dependent EphA2 trafficking to promote cell:cell repulsion.

    PubMed

    Gundry, Christine; Marco, Sergi; Rainero, Elena; Miller, Bryan; Dornier, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Louise; Caswell, Patrick T; Campbell, Andrew D; Hogeweg, Anna; Sansom, Owen J; Morton, Jennifer P; Norman, Jim C

    2017-03-15

    The Rab GTPase effector, Rab-coupling protein (RCP) is known to promote invasive behaviour in vitro by controlling integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) trafficking, but how RCP influences metastasis in vivo is unclear. Here we identify an RTK of the Eph family, EphA2, to be a cargo of an RCP-regulated endocytic pathway which controls cell:cell repulsion and metastasis in vivo. Phosphorylation of RCP at Ser(435) by Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) and of EphA2 at Ser(897) by Akt are both necessary to promote Rab14-dependent (and Rab11-independent) trafficking of EphA2 which generates cell:cell repulsion events that drive tumour cells apart. Genetic disruption of RCP or EphA2 opposes cell:cell repulsion and metastasis in an autochthonous mouse model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma-whereas conditional knockout of another RCP cargo, α5 integrin, does not suppress pancreatic cancer metastasis-indicating a role for RCP-dependent trafficking of an Eph receptor to drive tumour dissemination in vivo.

  12. Evaluating algal growth performance and water use efficiency of pilot-scale revolving algal biofilm (RAB) culture systems.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Mascarenhas, Vernon; Wen, Zhiyou

    2015-10-01

    A Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) growth system in which algal cells are attached to a flexible material rotating between liquid and gas phases has been developed. In this work, different configurations of RAB systems were developed at pilot-scale by retrofitting the attachment materials to a raceway pond (2000-L with 8.5 m(2) footprint area) and a trough reservoir (150 L with 3.5 m(2) footprint area). The algal growth performance and chemical composition, as well as the water evaporative loss and specific water consumption were evaluated over a period of nine months in a greenhouse environment near Boone, Iowa USA. Additionally a raceway pond was run in parallel, which served as a control. On average the raceway-based RAB and the trough-based RAB outperformed the control pond by 309% and 697%, respectively. A maximum productivity of 46.8 g m(-2) day(-1) was achieved on the trough-based RAB system. The evaporative water loss of the RAB system was modeled based on an energy balance analysis and was experimentally validated. While the RAB system, particularly the trough-based RAB, had higher water evaporative loss, the specific water consumption per unit of biomass produced was only 26% (raceway-based RAB) and 7% (trough-based RAB) of that of the control pond. Collectively, this research shows that the RAB system is an efficient algal culture system and has great potential to commercially produce microalgae with high productivity and efficient water use.

  13. Phos-tag analysis of Rab10 phosphorylation by LRRK2: a powerful assay for assessing kinase function and inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Genta; Katsemonova, Kristina; Tonelli, Francesca; Lis, Pawel; Baptista, Marco A.S.; Shpiro, Natalia; Duddy, Graham; Wilson, Steve; Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Ho, Shu-Leong; Reith, Alastair D.; Alessi, Dario R.

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations that activate the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause inherited Parkinson's disease. Recent work has revealed that LRRK2 directly phosphorylates a conserved threonine/serine residue in the effector-binding switch-II motif of a number of Rab GTPase proteins, including Rab10. Here we describe a facile and robust method to assess phosphorylation of endogenous Rab10 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), lung and spleen-derived B-cells, based on the ability of the Phos-tag reagent to retard the electrophoretic mobility of LRRK2-phosphorylated Rab10. We exploit this assay to show that phosphorylation of Rab10 is ablated in kinase-inactive LRRK2[D2017A] knockin MEFs and mouse lung, demonstrating that LRRK2 is the major Rab10 kinase in these cells/tissue. We also establish that the Phos-tag assay can be deployed to monitor the impact that activating LRRK2 pathogenic (G2019S and R1441G) knockin mutations have on stimulating Rab10 phosphorylation. We show that upon addition of LRRK2 inhibitors, Rab10 is dephosphorylated within 1–2 min, markedly more rapidly than the Ser935 and Ser1292 biomarker sites that require 40–80 min. Furthermore, we find that phosphorylation of Rab10 is suppressed in LRRK2[S910A+S935A] knockin MEFs indicating that phosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 and potentially 14-3-3 binding play a role in facilitating the phosphorylation of Rab10 by LRRK2 in vivo. The Rab Phos-tag assay has the potential to significantly aid with evaluating the effect that inhibitors, mutations and other factors have on the LRRK2 signalling pathway. PMID:27474410

  14. Rab11 and Actin Cytoskeleton Participate in Giardia lamblia Encystation, Guiding the Specific Vesicles to the Cyst Wall

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Romero, Araceli; Leon-Avila, Gloria; Wang, Ching C.; Perez Rangel, Armando; Camacho Nuez, Minerva; Garcia Tovar, Carlos; Ayala-Sumuano, Jorge Tonatiuh; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; Hernandez, Jose Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Giardia passes through two stages during its life cycle, the trophozoite and the cyst. Cyst formation involves the synthesis of cyst wall proteins (CWPs) and the transport of CWPs into encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs). Active vesicular trafficking is essential for encystation, but the molecular machinery driving vesicular trafficking remains unknown. The Rab proteins are involved in the targeting of vesicles to several intracellular compartments through their association with cytoskeletal motor proteins. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we found a relationship between Rab11 and the actin cytoskeleton in CWP1 transport. Confocal microscopy showed Rab11 was distributed throughout the entire trophozoite, while in cysts it was translocated to the periphery of the cell, where it colocalized with ESVs and microfilaments. Encystation was also accompanied by changes in rab11 mRNA expression. To evaluate the role of microfilaments in encystation, the cells were treated with latrunculin A. Scanning electron microscopy showed this treatment resulted in morphological damages to encysted parasites. The intensity of fluorescence-labeled Rab11 and CWP1 in ESVs and cyst walls was reduced, and rab11 and cwp1 mRNA levels were down-regulated. Furthermore, knocking down Rab11 with a hammerhead ribozyme resulted in an up to 80% down-regulation of rab11 mRNA. Although this knockdown did not appear lethal for trophozoites and did not affect cwp1 expression during the encystation, confocal images showed CWP1 was redistributed throughout the cytosol. Conclusions and Significance Our results indicate that Rab11 participates in the early and late encystation stages by regulating CWP1 localization and the actin-mediated transport of ESVs towards the periphery. In addition, alterations in the dynamics of actin affected rab11 and cwp1 expression. Our results provide new information about the molecules involved in Giardia encystation and suggest that Rab11 and

  15. RabGAP22 Is Required for Defense to the Vascular Pathogen Verticillium longisporum and Contributes to Stomata Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Jonas; Bejai, Sarosh; Oide, Shinichi; Dixelius, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne pathogen with a preference for plants within the family Brassicaceae. Following invasion of the roots, the fungus proliferates in the plant vascular system leading to stunted plant growth, chlorosis and premature senescence. RabGTPases have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in regulating multiple responses in plants. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of the Rab GTPase-activating protein RabGAP22 gene from Arabidopsis, as an activator of multiple components in the immune responses to V. longisporum. RabGAP22Pro:GUS transgenic lines showed GUS expression predominantly in root meristems, vascular tissues and stomata, whereas the RabGAP22 protein localized in the nucleus. Reduced RabGAP22 transcript levels in mutants of the brassinolide (BL) signaling gene BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1, together with a reduction of fungal proliferation following BL pretreatment, suggested RabGAP22 to be involved in BL-mediated responses. Pull-down assays revealed SERINE:GLYOXYLATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (AGT1) as an interacting partner during V. longisporum infection and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) showed the RabGAP22-AGT1 protein complex to be localized in the peroxisomes. Further, fungal-induced RabGAP22 expression was found to be associated with elevated endogenous levels of the plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA). An inadequate ABA response in rabgap22-1 mutants, coupled with a stomata-localized expression of RabGAP22 and impairment of guard cell closure in response to V. longisporum and Pseudomonas syringae, suggest that RabGAP22 has multiple roles in innate immunity. PMID:24505423

  16. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    22201. JPRS-EEI-84-095 20 August 19 84 EAST EUROPE REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS INTERNATIONAL AFPAIRS CEMA Conference Expresses...Soviet Idea of Integration (V. Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 16 Jul 84) 1 CEMA Cooperation in Machine Construction Reviewed (AUSSENWIRTSCHAFT...Viktor Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 17 Jul 84) 69 - b - INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CEMA CONFERENCE EXPRESSES SOVIET IDEA OF INTEGRATION

  17. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS .one QOALST T^CTED a FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE REPRODUCED BY NATIONAL...REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS BULGARIA Foreign Trade Development in First Quarter of 1984 1 Minister Examines New Economic...Effect on Air Pollution 52 Electronic Industry Results Reviewed ’HOSPODARSKE NOVINY . 1 Tun 84) 5 8 Challenges of Environmental Protection

  18. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts…

  19. Does Student Affairs Have an Enduring Mission?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Student affairs is a relatively new profession and has changed in significant ways in response to new developments in higher education, innovations in practice, new conceptual paradigms, and changing economic and political conditions. As a result there is much debate about the core mission and purpose of student affairs and whether it is possible…

  20. Putting the Focus on Current Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Argues for increased attention to current events in social studies instruction. Suggests using mass media sources to supplement contemporary affairs teaching. Recommends that teachers create learning centers and display areas; encourage students to maintain current affairs folders, scrapbooks, journals, and learning logs; give current affairs…

  1. Challenges of Assessment in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how the climate of accountability in higher education is compelling student affairs organizations to develop comprehensive assessment programs, the challenges faced in creating those programs, and ways student affairs professionals can meet those challenges. For the purpose of this chapter, the author has defined assessment…

  2. Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This set of "Professional Competency Areas" is intended to define the broad professional knowledge, skills, and for some competencies, attitudes expected of student affairs professionals working in the U.S., regardless of their area of specialization or positional role within the field. All student affairs professionals should be able to…

  3. Professional Competencies for Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsch, Patty; Cortez, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the integration of the ACPA/NASPA Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners (ACPA/NASPA, 2010) on community college campuses. The competencies provide specific skill sets for a broad range of student affairs practice areas that should be met by professionals throughout their careers.…

  4. Intracellular Transport of Vaccinia Virus in HeLa Cells Requires WASH-VPEF/FAM21-Retromer Complexes and Recycling Molecules Rab11 and Rab22

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chu, Li-Wei; Lo, Yung-Tsun; Lee, Sue-Ping; Chen, Tzu-Jung; Huang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, infects a wide range of cell lines and animals. Vaccinia mature virus particles of the WR strain reportedly enter HeLa cells through fluid-phase endocytosis. However, the intracellular trafficking process of the vaccinia mature virus between cellular uptake and membrane fusion remains unknown. We used live imaging of single virus particles with a combination of various cellular vesicle markers, to track fluorescent vaccinia mature virus particle movement in cells. Furthermore, we performed functional interference assays to perturb distinct vesicle trafficking processes in order to delineate the specific route undertaken by vaccinia mature virus prior to membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in cells. Our results showed that vaccinia virus traffics to early endosomes, where recycling endosome markers Rab11 and Rab22 are recruited to participate in subsequent virus trafficking prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identified WASH-VPEF/FAM21-retromer complexes that mediate endosome fission and sorting of virus-containing vesicles prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia mature virions of the WR strain enter HeLa cells through fluid phase endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that virus-containing vesicles are internalized into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate positive macropinosomes, which are then fused with Rab5-positive early endosomes. However, the subsequent process of sorting the virion-containing vesicles prior to membrane fusion remains unclear. We dissected the intracellular trafficking pathway of vaccinia mature virions in cells up to virus core uncoating in cytoplasm. We show that vaccinia mature virions first travel to early endosomes. Subsequent trafficking events require the important endosome-tethered protein VPEF/FAM21, which recruits WASH and retromer protein complexes to the endosome. There, the complex

  5. Rab17 mediates differential antigen sorting following efferocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Charles; Kim, Yohan; Argintaru, Dean; Heit, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages engulf and destroy pathogens (phagocytosis) and apoptotic cells (efferocytosis), and can subsequently initiate adaptive immune responses by presenting antigens derived from engulfed materials. Both phagocytosis and efferocytosis share a common degradative pathway in which the target is engulfed into a membrane-bound vesicle, respectively, termed the phagosome and efferosome, where they are degraded by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes. Despite this shared maturation pathway, macrophages are immunogenic following phagocytosis but not efferocytosis, indicating that differential processing or trafficking of antigens must occur. Mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence microscopy of efferosomes and phagosomes in macrophages demonstrated that efferosomes lacked the proteins required for antigen presentation and instead recruited the recycling regulator Rab17. As a result, degraded materials from efferosomes bypassed the MHC class II loading compartment via the recycling endosome – a process not observed in phagosomes. Combined, these results indicate that macrophages prevent presentation of apoptotic cell-derived antigens by preferentially trafficking efferocytosed, but not phagocytosed, materials away from the MHC class II loading compartment via the recycling endosome pathway. PMID:28005073

  6. RIM, Munc13, and Rab3A interplay in acrosomal exocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Oscar D.; Zanetti, M. Natalia; Mayorga, Luis S.; Michaut, Marcela A.

    2012-03-10

    Exocytosis is a highly regulated, multistage process consisting of multiple functionally definable stages, including recruitment, targeting, tethering, priming, and docking of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, followed by calcium-triggered membrane fusion. The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa is a complex, calcium-dependent regulated exocytosis. Fusion at multiple sites between the outer acrosomal membrane and the cell membrane causes the release of the acrosomal contents and the loss of the membranes surrounding the acrosome. Not much is known about the molecules that mediate membrane docking in this particular fusion model. In neurons, the formation of the ternary RIM/Munc13/Rab3A complex has been suggested as a critical component of synaptic vesicles docking. Previously, we demonstrated that Rab3A localizes to the acrosomal region in human sperm, stimulates acrosomal exocytosis, and participates in an early stage during membrane fusion. Here, we report that RIM and Munc13 are also present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. Like Rab3A, RIM and Munc13 participate in a prefusion step before the efflux of intra-acrosomal calcium. By means of a functional assay using antibodies and recombinant proteins, we show that RIM, Munc13 and Rab3A interplay during acrosomal exocytosis. Finally, we report by electron transmission microscopy that sequestering RIM and Rab3A alters the docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane during calcium-activated acrosomal exocytosis. Our results suggest that the RIM/Munc13/Rab3 A complex participates in acrosomal exocytosis and that RIM and Rab3A have central roles in membrane docking. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 are present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 are necessary for acrosomal exocytosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 participate before the acrosomal calcium efflux. Black

  7. RUTBC1 Functions as a GTPase-activating Protein for Rab32/38 and Regulates Melanogenic Enzyme Trafficking in Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Marubashi, Soujiro; Shimada, Hikaru; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Ohbayashi, Norihiko

    2016-01-15

    Two cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab32 and Rab38 (Rab32/38), have been proposed as regulating the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes, including tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), to melanosomes in melanocytes. Like other GTPases, Rab32/38 function as switch molecules that cycle between a GDP-bound inactive form and a GTP-bound active form; the cycle is thought to be regulated by an activating enzyme, guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), and an inactivating enzyme, GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which stimulates the GTPase activity of Rab32/38. Although BLOC-3 has already been identified as a Rab32/38-specific GEF that regulates the trafficking of tyrosinase and Tyrp1, no physiological GAP for Rab32/38 in melanocytes has ever been identified, and it has remained unclear whether Rab32/38 is involved in the trafficking of dopachrome tautomerase, another melanogenic enzyme, in mouse melanocytes. In this study we investigated RUTBC1, which was originally characterized as a Rab9-binding protein and GAP for Rab32 and Rab33B in vitro, and the results demonstrated that RUTBC1 functions as a physiological GAP for Rab32/38 in the trafficking of all three melanogenic enzymes in mouse melanocytes. The results of this study also demonstrated the involvement of Rab9A in the regulation of the RUTBC1 localization and in the trafficking of all three melanogenic enzymes. We discovered that either excess activation or inactivation of Rab32/38 achieved by manipulating RUTBC1 inhibits the trafficking of all three melanogenic enzymes. These results collectively indicate that proper spatiotemporal regulation of Rab32/38 is essential for the trafficking of all three melanogenic enzymes in mouse melanocytes.

  8. RUTBC1 Functions as a GTPase-activating Protein for Rab32/38 and Regulates Melanogenic Enzyme Trafficking in Melanocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Marubashi, Soujiro; Shimada, Hikaru; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Ohbayashi, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Two cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab32 and Rab38 (Rab32/38), have been proposed as regulating the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes, including tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), to melanosomes in melanocytes. Like other GTPases, Rab32/38 function as switch molecules that cycle between a GDP-bound inactive form and a GTP-bound active form; the cycle is thought to be regulated by an activating enzyme, guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), and an inactivating enzyme, GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which stimulates the GTPase activity of Rab32/38. Although BLOC-3 has already been identified as a Rab32/38-specific GEF that regulates the trafficking of tyrosinase and Tyrp1, no physiological GAP for Rab32/38 in melanocytes has ever been identified, and it has remained unclear whether Rab32/38 is involved in the trafficking of dopachrome tautomerase, another melanogenic enzyme, in mouse melanocytes. In this study we investigated RUTBC1, which was originally characterized as a Rab9-binding protein and GAP for Rab32 and Rab33B in vitro, and the results demonstrated that RUTBC1 functions as a physiological GAP for Rab32/38 in the trafficking of all three melanogenic enzymes in mouse melanocytes. The results of this study also demonstrated the involvement of Rab9A in the regulation of the RUTBC1 localization and in the trafficking of all three melanogenic enzymes. We discovered that either excess activation or inactivation of Rab32/38 achieved by manipulating RUTBC1 inhibits the trafficking of all three melanogenic enzymes. These results collectively indicate that proper spatiotemporal regulation of Rab32/38 is essential for the trafficking of all three melanogenic enzymes in mouse melanocytes. PMID:26620560

  9. Structure based drug discovery of Rab38 protein- Identification of antagonists as cancer drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Vuruputuri, Uma; Abdelmonsef, Aboubakr Haredi; Dulapalli, Ramasree; Dasari, Thirupathi; Padmarao, Lavanya Souda; Mukkera, Thirupathi

    2016-10-26

    Cancer is responsible for one in eight deaths worldwide. The Rab family members are involved in important processes including membrane trafficking, cell growth and differentiation. It has been shown that Rab38 is located in melanosomes, and overexpressed at the RNA level in melanoma cancers. Rab38 represents a novel class of cellular modulators that can affect both initiation or progression of tumor cells in Homo sapiens. In the present work, the 3D structure of Rab38 (211 residues) was generated using homology modelling method; the structure shows the presence of 6 α- helices and 6 β- strands. The 3D structure was energy minimized and validated using standard protocols. The active site was identified using computational prediction tools like CASTp, efindsite and SiteMap, which show that the residues (Ser35 to Leu63) are important for binding. Protein-protein docking studies were carried out between the target protein and its natural substrate BLOC-3 using patchDock tool. Virtual screening studies were carried out with small ligand databases using glide Schrödinger suite. The ligands which are potential antagonists against the Rab38 protein were prioritized from the results of virtual screening based on glide score, glide energy and acceptable ADME properties.

  10. Photoactivation approaches reveal a role for Rab11 in FGFR4 recycling and signalling.

    PubMed

    Haugsten, Ellen M; Brech, Andreas; Liestøl, Knut; Norman, Jim C; Wesche, Jørgen

    2014-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays important roles during development and in the adult to maintain tissue homeostasis. Moreover, overexpression of FGFR4 or activating mutations in FGFR4 has been identified as tumour-promoting events in several forms of cancer. Endocytosis is important for regulation of signalling receptors and we have previously shown that FGFR4 is mainly localized to transferrin-positive structures after ligand-induced endocytosis. Here, using a cell line with a defined pericentriolar endocytic recycling compartment, we show that FGFR4 accumulates in this compartment after endocytosis. Furthermore, using classical recycling assays and a new, photoactivatable FGFR4-PA-GFP fusion protein combined with live-cell imaging, we demonstrate that recycling of FGFR4 is dependent on Rab11. Upon Rab11b depletion, FGFR4 is trapped in the pericentriolar recycling compartment and the total levels of FGFR4 in cells are increased. Moreover, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced autophosphorylation of FGFR4 as well as phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)-γ is prolonged in cells depleted of Rab11. Interestingly, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT pathways were not prolonged but rather reduced in Rab11-depleted cells, indicating that recycling of FGFR4 is important for the nature of its signalling output. Thus, Rab11-dependent recycling of FGFR4 maintains proper levels of FGFR4 in cells and regulates FGF1-induced FGFR4 signalling.

  11. The Rab6-regulated KIF1C kinesin motor domain contributes to Golgi organization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Peter L; Ohlson, Maikke B; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2015-01-01

    Most kinesins transport cargoes bound to their C-termini and use N-terminal motor domains to move along microtubules. We report here a novel function for KIF1C: it transports Rab6A-vesicles and can influence Golgi complex organization. These activities correlate with KIF1C's capacity to bind the Golgi protein Rab6A directly, both via its motor domain and C-terminus. Rab6A binding to the motor domain inhibits microtubule interaction in vitro and in cells, decreasing the amount of motile KIF1C. KIF1C depletion slows protein delivery to the cell surface, interferes with vesicle motility, and triggers Golgi fragmentation. KIF1C can protect Golgi membranes from fragmentation in cells lacking an intact microtubule network. Rescue of fragmentation requires sequences that enable KIF1C to bind Rab6A at both ends, but not KIF1C motor function. Rab6A binding to KIF1C's motor domain represents an entirely new mode of regulation for a kinesin motor, and likely has important consequences for KIF1C's cellular functions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06029.001 PMID:25821985

  12. Vacuolin-1 potently and reversibly inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion by activating RAB5A

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingying; Dong, Shichen; Hao, Baixia; Li, Chang; Zhu, Kaiyuan; Guo, Wenjing; Wang, Qian; Cheung, King-Ho; Wong, Connie WM; Wu, Wu-Tian; Markus, Huss; Yue, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic lysosomal degradation process essential for cellular homeostasis and cell survival. Dysfunctional autophagy has been associated with a wide range of human diseases, e.g., cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A large number of small molecules that modulate autophagy have been widely used to dissect this process and some of them, e.g., chloroquine (CQ), might be ultimately applied to treat a variety of autophagy-associated human diseases. Here we found that vacuolin-1 potently and reversibly inhibited the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes in mammalian cells, thereby inducing the accumulation of autophagosomes. Interestingly, vacuolin-1 was less toxic but at least 10-fold more potent in inhibiting autophagy compared with CQ. Vacuolin-1 treatment also blocked the fusion between endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in a defect in general endosomal-lysosomal degradation. Treatment of cells with vacuolin-1 alkalinized lysosomal pH and decreased lysosomal Ca2+ content. Besides marginally inhibiting vacuolar ATPase activity, vacuolin-1 treatment markedly activated RAB5A GTPase activity. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of RAB5A or RAB5A knockdown significantly inhibited vacuolin-1-induced autophagosome-lysosome fusion blockage, whereas expression of a constitutive active form of RAB5A suppressed autophagosome-lysosome fusion. These data suggest that vacuolin-1 activates RAB5A to block autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Vacuolin-1 and its analogs present a novel class of drug that can potently and reversibly modulate autophagy. PMID:25483964

  13. RAB-10 Promotes EHBP-1 Bridging of Filamentous Actin and Tubular Recycling Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Ou; Zhang, Jing; Gleason, Adenrele; Yang, Zhenrong; Wang, Hui; Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2016-01-01

    EHBP-1 (Ehbp1) is a conserved regulator of endocytic recycling, acting as an effector of small GTPases including RAB-10 (Rab10). Here we present evidence that EHBP-1 associates with tubular endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] enriched membranes through an N-terminal C2-like (NT-C2) domain, and define residues within the NT-C2 domain that mediate membrane interaction. Furthermore, our results indicate that the EHBP-1 central calponin homology (CH) domain binds to actin microfilaments in a reaction that is stimulated by RAB-10(GTP). Loss of any aspect of this RAB-10/EHBP-1 system in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium leads to retention of basolateral recycling cargo in endosomes that have lost their normal tubular endosomal network (TEN) organization. We propose a mechanism whereby RAB-10 promotes the ability of endosome-bound EHBP-1 to also bind to the actin cytoskeleton, thereby promoting endosomal tubulation. PMID:27272733

  14. Rab, Arf, and Arl-Regulated Membrane Traffic in Cortical Neuron Migration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-07-01

    The migration of projection neurons from its birthplace in the subventricular zone to their final destination in the cortical plate is a complex process that requires a series of highly coordinated cellular events. Amongst the key factors involved in the processes are modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, as well as cellular membrane traffic. Members of the small GTPases family responsible for the latter process, the Rabs and Arfs, have been recently implicated in cortical neuron migration. Rab5 and Rab11, which are key modulators of endocytosis and endocytic recycling respectively, ensure proper surface expression and distribution of N-cadherin, a key adhesion protein that tethers migrating neurons to the radial glia fiber tracts during pia-directed migration. Rab7, which is associated with lysosomal biogenesis and function, is important for the final step of terminal translocation when N-cadherin is downregulated by lysosomal degradation. Arf6 activity, which is known to be important in neuronal processes outgrowth, may negatively impact the multipolar-bipolar transition of cortical neurons undergoing radial migration, but the downstream effector of Arf6 in this regard is not yet known. In addition to the above, members of the Arl family which have been recently shown to be important in radial glia scaffold formation, would also be important for cortical neuron migration. In this short review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the importance of membrane traffic regulated by the Rab, Arf, and Arl family members in cortical neuron migration.

  15. Rab25 increases cellular ATP and glycogen stores protecting cancer cells from bioenergetic stress

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kwai Wa; Agarwal, Roshan; Mitra, Shreya; Lee, Ju-Seog; Carey, Mark; Gray, Joe W; Mills, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells are metabolically stressed during tumour progression due to limited tumour vascularity and resultant nutrient, growth factor and oxygen deficiency that can induce cell death and inhibit tumour growth. We demonstrate that Rab25, a small GTPase involved in endosomal recycling, that is genomically amplified in multiple tumour lineages, is a key regulator of cellular bioenergetics and autophagy. RAB25 enhanced survival during nutrient stress by preventing apoptosis and autophagy via binding and activating AKT leading to increased glucose uptake and improved cellular bioenergetics. Unexpectedly, Rab25 induced the accumulation of glycogen in epithelial cancer cells, a process not previously identified. Strikingly, an increase in basal ATP levels combined with AKT-dependent increases in glucose uptake and glycogen storage allowed maintenance of ATP levels during bioenergetic stress. The clinical relevance of these findings was validated by the ability of a Rab25-dependent expression profile enriched for bioenergetics targets to identify patients with a poor prognosis. Thus, Rab25 is an unexpected regulator of cellular bioenergetics implicated as a useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target. PMID:22253197

  16. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  17. Rab11 is required for membrane trafficking and actomyosin ring constriction in meiotic cytokinesis of Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Maria Grazia; Belloni, Giorgio; Gatti, Maurizio

    2007-12-01

    Rab11 is a small GTPase that regulates several aspects of vesicular trafficking. Here, we show that Rab11 accumulates at the cleavage furrow of Drosophila spermatocytes and that it is essential for cytokinesis. Mutant spermatocytes form regular actomyosin rings, but these rings fail to constrict to completion, leading to cytokinesis failures. rab11 spermatocytes also exhibit an abnormal accumulation of Golgi-derived vesicles at the telophase equator, suggesting a defect in membrane-vesicle fusion. These cytokinesis phenotypes are identical to those elicited by mutations in giotto (gio) and four wheel drive (fwd) that encode a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, respectively. Double mutant analysis and immunostaining for Gio and Rab11 indicated that gio, fwd, and rab11 function in the same cytokinetic pathway, with Gio and Fwd acting upstream of Rab11. We propose that Gio and Fwd mediate Rab11 recruitment at the cleavage furrow and that Rab11 facilitates targeted membrane delivery to the advancing furrow.

  18. Structurally Distinct Bacterial TBC-like GAPs Link Arf GTPase to Rab1 Inactivation to Counteract Host Defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Na; Zhu, Yongqun; Lu, Qiuhe; Hu, Liyan; Zheng, Yuqing; Shao, Feng

    2012-10-10

    Rab GTPases are frequent targets of vacuole-living bacterial pathogens for appropriate trafficking of the vacuole. Here we discover that bacterial effectors including VirA from nonvacuole Shigella flexneri and EspG from extracellular Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) harbor TBC-like dual-finger motifs and exhibits potent RabGAP activities. Specific inactivation of Rab1 by VirA/EspG disrupts ER-to-Golgi trafficking. S. flexneri intracellular persistence requires VirA TBC-like GAP activity that mediates bacterial escape from autophagy-mediated host defense. Rab1 inactivation by EspG severely blocks host secretory pathway, resulting in inhibited interleukin-8 secretion from infected cells. Crystal structures of VirA/EspG-Rab1-GDP-aluminum fluoride complexes highlight TBC-like catalytic role for the arginine and glutamine finger residues and reveal a 3D architecture distinct from that of the TBC domain. Structure of Arf6-EspG-Rab1 ternary complex illustrates a pathogenic signaling complex that rewires host Arf signaling to Rab1 inactivation. Structural distinctions of VirA/EspG further predict a possible extensive presence of TBC-like RabGAP effectors in counteracting various host defenses.

  19. Rab14 specifies the apical membrane through Arf6-mediated regulation of lipid domains and Cdc42

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ruifeng; Wilson, Jean M.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of cell polarity is essential for the development of multi-cellular organisms as well as for the function of epithelial organs in the mature animal. Small GTPases regulate the establishment and maintenance of polarity through effects on cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, and signaling. Using short-term 3-dimensional culture of MDCK cells, we find that the small GTPase Rab14 is required for apical membrane specification. Rab14 knockdown results in disruption of polarized lipid domains and failure of the Par/aPKC/Cdc42 polarity complex to localize to the apical membrane. These effects are mediated through tight control of lipid localization, as overexpression of the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α [PtdIns(4)P5K] activator Arf6 or PtdIns(4)P5K alone, or treatment with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdInsI3K) inhibitor wortmannin, rescued the multiple-apical domain phenotype observed after Rab14 knockdown. Rab14 also co-immunoprecipitates and colocalizes with the small GTPase Cdc42, and Rab14 knockdown results in increased Cdc42 activity. Furthermore, Rab14 regulates trafficking of vesicles to the apical domain, mitotic spindle orientation, and midbody position, consistent with Rab14’s reported localization to the midbody as well as its effects upon Cdc42. These results position Rab14 at the top of a molecular cascade that regulates the establishment of cell polarity. PMID:27901125

  20. Activation-Inactivation Cycling of Rab35 and ARF6 Is Required for Phagocytosis of Zymosan in RAW264 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Egami, Youhei; Fujii, Makoto; Kawai, Katsuhisa; Ishikawa, Yurie; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Araki, Nobukazu

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of zymosan by phagocytes is a widely used model of microbial recognition by the innate immune system. Live-cell imaging showed that fluorescent protein-fused Rab35 accumulated in the membranes of phagocytic cups and then dissociated from the membranes of newly formed phagosomes. By our novel pull-down assay for Rab35 activity, we found that Rab35 is deactivated immediately after zymosan internalization into the cells. Phagosome formation was inhibited in cells expressing the GDP- or GTP-locked Rab35 mutant. Moreover, the simultaneous expression of ACAP2—a Rab35 effector protein—with GTP-locked Rab35 or the expression of plasma membrane-targeted ACAP2 showed a marked inhibitory effect on phagocytosis through ARF6 inactivation by the GAP activity of ACAP2. ARF6, a substrate for ACAP2, was also localized on the phagocytic cups and dissociated from the membranes of internalized phagosomes. In support of the microscopic observations, ARF6-GTP pull-down experiments showed that ARF6 is transiently activated during phagosome formation. Furthermore, the expression of GDP- or GTP-locked ARF6 mutants also suppresses the uptake of zymosan. These data suggest that the activation-inactivation cycles of Rab35 and ARF6 are required for the uptake of zymosan and that ACAP2 is an important component that links Rab35/ARF6 signaling during phagocytosis of zymosan. PMID:26229970

  1. Rab11 Is Required for Membrane Trafficking and Actomyosin Ring Constriction in Meiotic Cytokinesis of Drosophila Males

    PubMed Central

    Belloni, Giorgio; Gatti, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Rab11 is a small GTPase that regulates several aspects of vesicular trafficking. Here, we show that Rab11 accumulates at the cleavage furrow of Drosophila spermatocytes and that it is essential for cytokinesis. Mutant spermatocytes form regular actomyosin rings, but these rings fail to constrict to completion, leading to cytokinesis failures. rab11 spermatocytes also exhibit an abnormal accumulation of Golgi-derived vesicles at the telophase equator, suggesting a defect in membrane–vesicle fusion. These cytokinesis phenotypes are identical to those elicited by mutations in giotto (gio) and four wheel drive (fwd) that encode a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, respectively. Double mutant analysis and immunostaining for Gio and Rab11 indicated that gio, fwd, and rab11 function in the same cytokinetic pathway, with Gio and Fwd acting upstream of Rab11. We propose that Gio and Fwd mediate Rab11 recruitment at the cleavage furrow and that Rab11 facilitates targeted membrane delivery to the advancing furrow. PMID:17914057

  2. Dual GTPase regulation of the GCC185 Golgin: Communication between adjacent Rab6 and Arl1 binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Burguete, Alondra Schweizer; Fenn, Timothy D.; Brunger, Axel T.; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary GCC185 is a large coiled coil protein at the trans Golgi network that is required for receipt of transport vesicles inbound from late endosomes, and for anchoring non-centrosomal microtubules that emanate from the Golgi. Here we demonstrate that recruitment of GCC185 to the Golgi is mediated by two Golgi-localized small GTPases of the Rab and Arl families. GCC185 binds Rab6 and mutation of residues needed for Rab binding abolishes Golgi localization. The crystal structure of Rab6 bound to the GCC185 Rab binding domain reveals that Rab6 recognizes a two-fold symmetric surface on a coiled coil immediately adjacent to a C-terminal GRIP domain. Unexpectedly, Rab6 binding promotes association of Arl1 with the GRIP domain. We present a structure-derived model for dual GTPase membrane attachment that highlights the potential ability of Rab GTPases to reach binding partners at a significant distance from the membrane via their unstructured and membrane-anchored, hypervariable domains. PMID:18243103

  3. Structural basis for the recruitment and activation of the Legionella phospholipase VipD by the host GTPase Rab5

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, María; Gaspar, Andrew H.; Pallara, Chiara; Rojas, Adriana Lucely; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Machner, Matthias P.; Hierro, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    A challenge for microbial pathogens is to assure that their translocated effector proteins target only the correct host cell compartment during infection. The Legionella pneumophila effector vacuolar protein sorting inhibitor protein D (VipD) localizes to early endosomal membranes and alters their lipid and protein composition, thereby protecting the pathogen from endosomal fusion. This process requires the phospholipase A1 (PLA1) activity of VipD that is triggered specifically on VipD binding to the host cell GTPase Rab5, a key regulator of endosomes. Here, we present the crystal structure of VipD in complex with constitutively active Rab5 and reveal the molecular mechanism underlying PLA1 activation. An active site-obstructing loop that originates from the C-terminal domain of VipD is repositioned on Rab5 binding, thereby exposing the catalytic pocket within the N-terminal PLA1 domain. Substitution of amino acid residues located within the VipD–Rab5 interface prevented Rab5 binding and PLA1 activation and caused a failure of VipD mutant proteins to target to Rab5-enriched endosomal structures within cells. Experimental and computational analyses confirmed an extended VipD-binding interface on Rab5, explaining why this L. pneumophila effector can compete with cellular ligands for Rab5 binding. Together, our data explain how the catalytic activity of a microbial effector can be precisely linked to its subcellular localization. PMID:25114243

  4. Structural basis for the recruitment and activation of the Legionella phospholipase VipD by the host GTPase Rab5.

    PubMed

    Lucas, María; Gaspar, Andrew H; Pallara, Chiara; Rojas, Adriana Lucely; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Machner, Matthias P; Hierro, Aitor

    2014-08-26

    A challenge for microbial pathogens is to assure that their translocated effector proteins target only the correct host cell compartment during infection. The Legionella pneumophila effector vacuolar protein sorting inhibitor protein D (VipD) localizes to early endosomal membranes and alters their lipid and protein composition, thereby protecting the pathogen from endosomal fusion. This process requires the phospholipase A1 (PLA1) activity of VipD that is triggered specifically on VipD binding to the host cell GTPase Rab5, a key regulator of endosomes. Here, we present the crystal structure of VipD in complex with constitutively active Rab5 and reveal the molecular mechanism underlying PLA1 activation. An active site-obstructing loop that originates from the C-terminal domain of VipD is repositioned on Rab5 binding, thereby exposing the catalytic pocket within the N-terminal PLA1 domain. Substitution of amino acid residues located within the VipD-Rab5 interface prevented Rab5 binding and PLA1 activation and caused a failure of VipD mutant proteins to target to Rab5-enriched endosomal structures within cells. Experimental and computational analyses confirmed an extended VipD-binding interface on Rab5, explaining why this L. pneumophila effector can compete with cellular ligands for Rab5 binding. Together, our data explain how the catalytic activity of a microbial effector can be precisely linked to its subcellular localization.

  5. Inhibition of RAB1A suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Qian, Mingping; Zhao, Bingkun; Wu, Chenyang; Maskey, Niraj; Song, Hongming; Li, Dengfeng; Song, Jialu; Hua, Kaiyao; Fang, Lin

    2017-03-01

    RAB1A acts as an oncogene in various cancers, and emerging evidence has verified that RAB1A is an mTORC1 activator in hepatocellular and colorectal cancer, but the role of RAB1A in breast cancer remains unclear. In this investigation, RAB1A siRNA was successfully transfected in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and verified by real‑time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Then, MTT cell proliferation, colony formation, cell invasion and wound healing assays were performed to characterize the function of RAB1A in the breast cancer cell lines. Downregulation of RAB1A inhibited cellular growth, cell migration, cell invasion and cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, compared with NC siRNA transfected cells, RAB1A siRNA transfected breast cancer cells inhibited the phosphorylation of S6K1, the effector molecular of mTORC1. Collectively, our data suggested that RAB1A acts as an oncogene by regulating cellular proliferation, growth, invasion and metastasis via activation of mTORC1 pathway in triple-negative breast cancer.

  6. Army Public Affairs Objective Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    division. The campaign in Kosovo had tighter news restrictions than ever, so tight that for the first few weeks the size and scope of the air campaign was...Spruill said.19 Lieutenant Colonel Paul Hilton , Chief, Programs Branch, HQDA G3 Force Management Division confirms this. During a telephone...interview Hilton said that non-deployable assets are “unconstrained by reality, but constrained by budget.” In other words, if the command can afford the

  7. On Minkowskian branching structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroński, Leszek; Placek, Tomasz

    In Belnap's [Branching space-time. Synthese, 92, 385-434. 'Postprint' archived at http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00001003] theory of branching space-times (BST) Our World's possible histories are thought of as space-times, yet the theory has models in which histories do not resemble relativistic space-times or any other physical space-times. The aim of this paper is to define a certain class of BST models, called 'Minkowskian Branching Structures' (MBSs), in which histories are isomorphic to Minkowski space-time. By focusing on these models rather than on general BST models, we hope that one may be able to improve on earlier BST analyses of physical phenomena. Also, introducing MBSs sets the stage for recent discussions about whether or not branching is physically feasible.

  8. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  9. A Research Guide to Materials Relating to Native Americans Available in the Chicago Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, David S.

    The Chicago Archives Branch has a sizeable amount of material pertaining to Indians who once resided in the area of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota which is contained in the records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the District Courts of the United States, the United States Attorneys and Marshals, the Chief of…

  10. MicroRNA-665 suppressed the invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma by directly inhibiting RAB23

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chenhui; Du, Quanyin; Wang, Zimin; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyu; Wang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, short and noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. Increasing evidences have demonstrated that deregulated expression of miRNAs is found in osteosarcoma. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-665 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared to non-tumorous tissues. The overall survival (OS) of osteosarcoma patients with low miR-665 expression was lower than that of these patients with high miR-665 expression. Ectopic expression of miR-665 suppressed the osteosarcoma cell proliferation, EMT and invasion. We identified Rab23 as a direct target gene of miR-665. Rab23 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. The expression of miR-665 was inversely associated with the expression of Rab23 in the osteosarcoma tissues. These results suggested that miR-665 acted as a tumor suppressor gene in the development of osteosarcoma. PMID:27904698

  11. Rab GTPases: The Key Players in the Molecular Pathway of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Meng-meng; Shi, Chang-he; Xu, Yu-ming

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder with multiple non-motor symptoms. Although family genetic mutations only account for a small proportion of the cases, these mutations have provided several lines of evidence for the pathogenesis of PD, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, protein misfolding and aggregation, and the impaired autophagy-lysosome system. Recently, vesicle trafficking defect has emerged as a potential pathogenesis underlying this disease. Rab GTPases, serving as the core regulators of cellular membrane dynamics, may play an important role in the molecular pathway of PD through the complex interplay with numerous factors and PD-related genes. This might shed new light on the potential therapeutic strategies. In this review, we emphasize the important role of Rab GTPases in vesicle trafficking and summarize the interactions between Rab GTPases and different PD-related genes.

  12. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase β subunit is essential for male fertility and tip growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gutkowska, Malgorzata; Wnuk, Marta; Nowakowska, Julita; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Stronkowski, Michal M; Swiezewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Rab proteins, key players in vesicular transport in all eukaryotic cells, are post-translationally modified by lipid moieties. Two geranylgeranyl groups are attached to the Rab protein by the heterodimeric enzyme Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGT) αβ. Partial impairment in this enzyme activity in Arabidopsis, by disruption of the AtRGTB1 gene, is known to influence plant stature and disturb gravitropic and light responses. Here it is shown that mutations in each of the RGTB genes cause a tip growth defect, visible as root hair and pollen tube deformations. Moreover, FM 1-43 styryl dye endocytosis and recycling are affected in the mutant root hairs. Finally, it is demonstrated that the double mutant, with both AtRGTB genes disrupted, is non-viable due to absolute male sterility. Doubly mutated pollen is shrunken, has an abnormal exine structure, and shows strong disorganization of internal membranes, particularly of the endoplasmic reticulum system.

  13. Gluten quality of bread wheat is associated with activity of RabD GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Adam M; Bhandari, Dhan G; Poole, Mervin; Napier, Johnathan A; Jones, Huw D; Lu, Chungui; Lycett, Grantley W

    2015-01-01

    In the developing endosperm of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), seed storage proteins are produced on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to protein bodies, specialized vacuoles for the storage of protein. The functionally important gluten proteins of wheat are transported by two distinct routes to the protein bodies where they are stored: vesicles that bud directly off the ER and transport through the Golgi. However, little is known about the processing of glutenin and gliadin proteins during these steps or the possible impact on their properties. In plants, the RabD GTPases mediate ER-to-Golgi vesicle transport. Available sequence information for Rab GTPases in Arabidopsis, rice, Brachypodium and bread wheat was compiled and compared to identify wheat RabD orthologs. Partial genetic sequences were assembled using the first draft of the Chinese Spring wheat genome. A suitable candidate gene from the RabD clade (TaRabD2a) was chosen for down-regulation by RNA interference (RNAi), and an RNAi construct was used to transform wheat plants. All four available RabD genes were shown by qRT-PCR to be down-regulated in the transgenic developing endosperm. The transgenic grain was found to produce flour with significantly altered processing properties when measured by farinograph and extensograph. SE-HPLC found that a smaller proportion of HMW-GS and large proportion of LMW-GS are incorporated into the glutenin macropolymer in the transgenic dough. Lower protein content but a similar protein profile on SDS-PAGE was seen in the transgenic grain. PMID:25047236

  14. GSK3β-Dzip1-Rab8 Cascade Regulates Ciliogenesis after Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Boyan; Wang, Gang; Chi, Wangfei; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2015-01-01

    The primary cilium, which disassembles before mitotic entry and reassembles after mitosis, organizes many signal transduction pathways that are crucial for cell life and individual development. However, how ciliogenesis is regulated during the cell cycle remains largely unknown. Here we show that GSK3β, Dzip1, and Rab8 co-regulate ciliogenesis by promoting the assembly of the ciliary membrane after mitosis. Immunofluorescence and super-resolution microscopy showed that Dzip1 was localized to the periciliary diffusion barrier and enriched at the mother centriole. Knockdown of Dzip1 by short hairpin RNAs led to failed ciliary localization of Rab8, and Rab8 accumulation at the basal body. Dzip1 preferentially bound to Rab8GDP and promoted its dissociation from its inhibitor GDI2 at the pericentriolar region, as demonstrated by sucrose gradient centrifugation of purified basal bodies, immunoprecipitation, and acceptor-bleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays. By means of in vitro phosphorylation, in vivo gel shift, phospho-peptide identification by mass spectrometry, and GST pulldown assays, we demonstrated that Dzip1 was phosphorylated by GSK3β at S520 in G0 phase, which increased its binding to GDI2 to promote the release of Rab8GDP at the cilium base. Moreover, ciliogenesis was inhibited by overexpression of the GSK3β-nonphosphorylatable Dzip1 mutant or by disabling of GSK3β by specific inhibitors or knockout of GSK3β in cells. Collectively, our data reveal a unique cascade consisting of GSK3β, Dzip1, and Rab8 that regulates ciliogenesis after mitosis. PMID:25860027

  15. Activity-Dependent Degradation of Synaptic Vesicle Proteins Requires Rab35 and the ESCRT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Patricia; Zhu, Mei; Beskow, Anne; Vollmer, Cyndel

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle (SV) pools must maintain a functional repertoire of proteins to efficiently release neurotransmitter. The accumulation of old or damaged proteins on SV membranes is linked to synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. However, despite the importance of SV protein turnover for neuronal health, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. Here, we have used dissociated rat hippocampal neurons to investigate the pathway for SV protein degradation. We find that neuronal activity drives the degradation of a subset of SV proteins and that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and SV-associated GTPase Rab35 are key elements of this use-dependent degradative pathway. Specifically, neuronal activity induces Rab35 activation and binding to the ESCRT-0 protein Hrs, which we have identified as a novel Rab35 effector. These actions recruit the downstream ESCRT machinery to SV pools, thereby initiating SV protein degradation via the ESCRT pathway. Our findings show that the Rab35/ESCRT pathway facilitates the activity-dependent removal of specific proteins from SV pools, thereby maintaining presynaptic protein homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of chemical neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles (SVs). This tightly regulated process requires a functional pool of SVs, necessitating cellular mechanisms for removing old or damaged proteins that could impair SV cycling. Here, we show that a subset of SV proteins is degraded in an activity-dependent manner and that key steps in this degradative pathway are the activation of the small GTPase Rab35 and the subsequent recruitment of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to SV pools. Further, we demonstrate that ESCRT-0 component Hrs is an effector of Rab35, thus providing novel mechanistic insight into the coupling of neuronal activity with SV protein degradation and the

  16. Gluten quality of bread wheat is associated with activity of RabD GTPases.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Adam M; Bhandari, Dhan G; Poole, Mervin; Napier, Johnathan A; Jones, Huw D; Lu, Chungui; Lycett, Grantley W

    2015-02-01

    In the developing endosperm of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), seed storage proteins are produced on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to protein bodies, specialized vacuoles for the storage of protein. The functionally important gluten proteins of wheat are transported by two distinct routes to the protein bodies where they are stored: vesicles that bud directly off the ER and transport through the Golgi. However, little is known about the processing of glutenin and gliadin proteins during these steps or the possible impact on their properties. In plants, the RabD GTPases mediate ER-to-Golgi vesicle transport. Available sequence information for Rab GTPases in Arabidopsis, rice, Brachypodium and bread wheat was compiled and compared to identify wheat RabD orthologs. Partial genetic sequences were assembled using the first draft of the Chinese Spring wheat genome. A suitable candidate gene from the RabD clade (TaRabD2a) was chosen for down-regulation by RNA interference (RNAi), and an RNAi construct was used to transform wheat plants. All four available RabD genes were shown by qRT-PCR to be down-regulated in the transgenic developing endosperm. The transgenic grain was found to produce flour with significantly altered processing properties when measured by farinograph and extensograph. SE-HPLC found that a smaller proportion of HMW-GS and large proportion of LMW-GS are incorporated into the glutenin macropolymer in the transgenic dough. Lower protein content but a similar protein profile on SDS-PAGE was seen in the transgenic grain.

  17. Nutritional, hormonal, and depot-dependent regulation of the expression of the small GTPase Rab18 in rodent adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Marina R; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Almabouada, Farid; Díaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Burrell, María A; Vázquez, María J; Castaño, Justo P; Kineman, Rhonda D; Luque, Raúl M; Diéguez, Carlos; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Malagón, María M

    2013-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that proteins associated with lipid droplets (LDs) play a key role in the coordination of lipid storage and mobilization in adipocytes. The small GTPase, RAB18, has been recently identified as a novel component of the protein coat of LDs and proposed to play a role in both β-adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis and insulin-induced lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In order to better understand the role of Rab18 in the regulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we evaluated the effects of age, fat location, metabolic status, and hormonal milieu on Rab18 expression in rodent white adipose tissue (WAT). Rab18 mRNA was undetectable at postnatal day 15 (P15), but reached adult levels by P45, in both male and female rats. In adult rats, Rab18 immunolocalized around LDs, as well as within the cytoplasm of mature adipocytes. A weak Rab18 signal was also detected in the stromal-vascular fraction of WAT. In mice, fasting significantly increased, though with a distinct time-course pattern, Rab18 mRNA and protein levels in visceral and subcutaneous WAT. The expression of Rab18 was also increased in visceral and subcutaneous WAT of obese mice (diet-induced, ob/ob, and New Zealand obese mice) compared with lean controls. Rab18 expression in rats was unaltered by castration, adrenalectomy, or GH deficiency but was increased by hypophysectomy, as well as hypothyroidism. When viewed together, our results suggest the participation of Rab18 in the regulation of lipid processing in adipose tissue under both normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Rab6 Is Required for Multiple Apical Transport Pathways but Not the Basolateral Transport Pathway in Drosophila Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Iwanami, Nozomi; Nakamura, Yuri; Satoh, Takunori; Liu, Ziguang; Satoh, Akiko K

    2016-02-01

    Polarized membrane trafficking is essential for the construction and maintenance of multiple plasma membrane domains of cells. Highly polarized Drosophila photoreceptors are an excellent model for studying polarized transport. A single cross-section of Drosophila retina contains many photoreceptors with 3 clearly differentiated plasma membrane domains: a rhabdomere, stalk, and basolateral membrane. Genome-wide high-throughput ethyl methanesulfonate screening followed by precise immunohistochemical analysis identified a mutant with a rare phenotype characterized by a loss of 2 apical transport pathways with normal basolateral transport. Rapid gene identification using whole-genome resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism mapping identified a nonsense mutation of Rab6 responsible for the apical-specific transport deficiency. Detailed analysis of the trafficking of a major rhabdomere protein Rh1 using blue light-induced chromophore supply identified Rab6 as essential for Rh1 to exit the Golgi units. Rab6 is mostly distributed from the trans-Golgi network to a Golgi-associated Rab11-positive compartment that likely recycles endosomes or transport vesicles going to recycling endosomes. Furthermore, the Rab6 effector, Rich, is required for Rab6 recruitment in the trans-Golgi network. Moreover, a Rich null mutation phenocopies the Rab6 null mutant, indicating that Rich functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab6. The results collectively indicate that Rab6 and Rich are essential for the trans-Golgi network-recycling endosome transport of cargoes destined for 2 apical domains. However, basolateral cargos are sorted and exported from the trans-Golgi network in a Rab6-independent manner.

  19. Rab8 Interacts with Distinct Motifs in α2B- and β2-Adrenergic Receptors and Differentially Modulates Their Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chunmin; Yang, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Hua; Lam, May L.; Claycomb, William C.; Xia, Houhui; Wu, Guangyu

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying the post-Golgi transport of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remains poorly understood. Here we determine the role of Rab8 GTPase, which modulates vesicular protein transport between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane, in the cell surface targeting of α2B- and β2-adrenergic receptors (AR). Transient expression of GDP- and GTP-bound Rab8 mutants and short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of Rab8 more potently inhibited the cell surface expression of α2B-AR than β2-AR. The GDP-bound Rab8(T22N) mutant attenuated ERK1/2 activation by α2B-AR, but not β2-AR, and arrested α2B-AR in the TGN compartment. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that both α2B-AR and β2-AR physically interacted with Rab8 and glutathione S-transferase fusion protein pulldown assays demonstrated that Rab8 interacted with the C termini of both receptors. Interestingly, mutation of the highly conserved membrane-proximal C terminus dileucine motif selectively blocked β2-AR interaction with Rab8, whereas mutation of residues Val431-Phe432-Asn433-Gln434, Pro447-Trp448, Gln450-Thr451, and Trp453 in the C terminus impaired α2B-AR interaction with Rab8. Furthermore, transport inhibition by Rab8(T22N) of a chimeric β2-AR carrying the α2B-AR C terminus was similar to α2B-AR. These data provide strong evidence indicating that Rab8 GTPase interacts with distinct motifs in the C termini of α2B-AR and β2-AR and differentially modulates their traffic from the TGN to the cell surface. PMID:20424170

  20. A highly sensitive prenylation assay reveals in vivo effects of bisphosphonate drug on the Rab prenylome of macrophages outside the skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naveid; Jurczyluk, Julie; Shay, Gemma; Tnimov, Zakir; Alexandrov, Kirill; Munoz, Marcia A; Skinner, Oliver P; Pavlos, Nathan J; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonate drugs such as zoledronic acid (ZOL), used for the treatment of common bone disorders, target the skeleton and inhibit bone resorption by preventing the prenylation of small GTPases in bone-destroying osteoclasts. Increasing evidence indicates that bisphosphonates also have pleiotropic effects outside the skeleton, most likely via cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage exposed to nanomolar circulating drug concentrations. However, no effects of such low concentrations of ZOL have been reported using existing approaches. We have optimized a highly sensitive in vitro prenylation assay utilizing recombinant geranylgeranyltransferases to enable the detection of subtle effects of ZOL on the prenylation of Rab- and Rho-family GTPases. Using this assay, we found for the first time that concentrations of ZOL as low as 10nM caused inhibition of Rab prenylation in J774 macrophages following prolonged cell culture. By combining the assay with quantitative mass spectrometry we identified an accumulation of 18 different unprenylated Rab proteins in J774 cells after nanomolar ZOL treatment, with a >7-fold increase in the unprenylated form of Rab proteins associated with the endophagosome pathway (Rab1, Rab5, Rab6, Rab7, Rab11, Rab14 and Rab21). Finally, we also detected a clear effect of subcutaneous ZOL administration in vivo on the prenylation of Rab1A, Rab5B, Rab7A and Rab14 in mouse peritoneal macrophages, confirming that systemic treatment with bisphosphonate drug can inhibit prenylation in myeloid cells in vivo outside the skeleton. These observations begin a new era in defining the precise pharmacological actions of bisphosphonate drugs on the prenylation of small GTPases in vivo. PMID:26399387

  1. 2014 - 2015 Civil Affairs Issue Papers: The Future of Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-18

    the future of Civil Affairs includes some hopeful prospects thanks to practical steps recently taken.” All three panels agreed that in looking to...Guard and Reserve forces will continue into the future . This is at odds with the prior, strategic use of those forces, which historically expected...2014 - 2015 CIVIL AFFAIRS ISSUE PAPERS: THE FUTURE OF CIVIL AFFAIRS Edited by Christopher Holshek John C. Church, Jr.ISBN: 978-0-9861865-0-9 USAWC

  2. The APS in Public Affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2000-04-01

    Although the American Physical Society was created for the interchange of scientific ideas, the call to the founding meeting included the observation that the organization "could not fail to have an important influence in all matters affecting the interest of physicists". However for most of its history APS did not behave like "just another interest group in American society". Instead, at the beginning, it limited itself to such successful initiatives as the creation of the Bureau of Standards and such unsuccessful ones as adoption of the metric system. After World War II, speaking out on behalf of the freedom of science and scientists, such as Astin, Condon, and Oppenheimer, became important. In the 1970's, pushed by members, the Society became more "political", sponsoring sessions and studies on defense issues, taking a stand for the Equal Rights Amendment and creating the Panel on Public Affairs and the Forum on Physics and Society. Only in the last fifteen years has the APS unabashedly lobbied for the economic interests of physics and physicists. Adopting this new, if unavoidable role may have unintended consequences for the willingness and effectiveness of APS in speaking out on other public issues.

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report covers 1)Worldwide Topics 2)East-West Relations 3)Socialist Community, CEMA 4)General Economic Affairs 5)West Europe 6)East Europe 7)Latin America 8)China, East Asia and 9)Near East and South Asia.

  4. Public affairs events at Ocean Sciences Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-02-01

    AGU public affairs will be cohosting two special events at Ocean Sciences 2012 that offer scientists opportunities to expand their communication, policy, and media experience. Join the conversations that highlight two important topics to connect science to society.

  5. USSR Report, Economic Affairs, No. 1037.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The articles are PLANNING AND PLAN IMPLEMENTATION: Overall Approach to Solution of Planning, Incentive Problems Urged, and REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT : Union Republic Statistical Officials Quantify Progress.

  6. Professionalism, Scholarly Practice, and Professional Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Stan; Stimpson, Matthew T.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of recent literature on professionalism in student affairs. Attention is given to the nature of professionalism, a discussion of student affairs as a profession, the scholarly practice of student affairs, and professional development in student affairs. The authors note that an assumption of professionalism…

  7. Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor is essential for Rab1 function in budding from the endoplasmic reticulum and transport through the Golgi stack

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab1 is required for vesicular traffic from the ER to the cis-Golgi compartment, and for transport between the cis and medial compartments of the Golgi stack. In the present study, we examine the role of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in regulating the function of Rab1 in the transport of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) in vitro. Incubation in the presence of excess GDI rapidly (t1/2 < 30 s) extracted Rab1 from membranes, inhibiting vesicle budding from the ER and sequential transport between the cis-, medial-, and trans-Golgi cisternae. These results demonstrate a direct role for GDI in the recycling of Rab proteins. Analysis of rat liver cytosol by gel filtration revealed that a major pool of Rab1 fractionates with a molecular mass of approximately 80 kD in the form of a GDI-Rab1 complex. When the GDI-Rab1 complex was depleted from cytosol by use of a Rab1-specific antibody, VSV-G failed to exit the ER. However, supplementation of depleted cytosol with a GDI-Rab1 complex prepared in vitro from recombinant forms of Rab1 and GDI efficiently restored export from the ER, and transport through the Golgi stack. These results provide evidence that a cytosolic GDI-Rab1 complex is required for the formation of non-clathrin-coated vesicles mediating transport through the secretory pathway. PMID:8089173

  8. The Role of Rab3a in Secretory Vesicle Docking Requires Association/Dissociation of Guanidine Phosphates and Munc18-1

    PubMed Central

    van Weering, Jan R.T.; Toonen, Ruud F.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2007-01-01

    Rab3a is a small GTPase that binds selectively to secretory vesicles and switches between active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound conformations. In yeast, Rab and SM-genes interact genetically to promote vesicle targeting/fusion. We tested different Rab3a conformations and genetic interactions with the SM-gene munc18-1 on the docking function of Rab3a in mammalian chromaffin cells. We expressed Rab3a mutants locked in the GTP- or GDP-bound form in wild-type and munc18-1 null mutant cells and analyzed secretory vesicle distribution. We confirmed that wild-type Rab3a promotes vesicle docking in wild-type cells. Unexpectedly, both GTP- and GDP-locked Rab3a mutants did not promote docking. Furthermore, wild-type Rab3a did not promote docking in munc18-1 null cells and GTP- and GDP-Rab3a both decreased the amount of docked vesicles. The results show that GTP- and GDP-locked conformations do not support a Munc18-1 dependent role of Rab3a in docking. This suggests that nucleotide cycling is required to support docking and that this action of Rab3a is upstream of Munc18-1. PMID:17637832

  9. Rab1b overexpression modifies Golgi size and gene expression in HeLa cells and modulates the thyrotrophin response in thyroid cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Romero, Nahuel; Dumur, Catherine I; Martinez, Hernán; García, Iris A; Monetta, Pablo; Slavin, Ileana; Sampieri, Luciana; Koritschoner, Nicolas; Mironov, Alexander A; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Alvarez, Cecilia

    2013-03-01

    Rab1b belongs to the Rab-GTPase family that regulates membrane trafficking and signal transduction systems able to control diverse cellular activities, including gene expression. Rab1b is essential for endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport. Although it is ubiquitously expressed, its mRNA levels vary among different tissues. This work aims to characterize the role of the high Rab1b levels detected in some secretory tissues. We report that, in HeLa cells, an increase in Rab1b levels induces changes in Golgi size and gene expression. Significantly, analyses applied to selected genes, KDELR3, GM130 (involved in membrane transport), and the proto-oncogene JUN, indicate that the Rab1b increase acts as a molecular switch to control the expression of these genes at the transcriptional level, resulting in changes at the protein level. These Rab1b-dependent changes require the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein consensus binding site in those target promoter regions. Moreover, our results reveal that, in a secretory thyroid cell line (FRTL5), Rab1b expression increases in response to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Additionally, changes in Rab1b expression in FRTL5 cells modify the specific TSH response. Our results show, for the first time, that changes in Rab1b levels modulate gene transcription and strongly suggest that a Rab1b increase is required to elicit a secretory response.

  10. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AFFAIRS Xu Dixin on Population Control, Free Economy (Xu Dixin; SHIJIE JINGJI DAOBAO, 26 Nov 84) »o 11 Procuratorial Organs Praised for...NATIONAL AFFAIRS PROCURATORIAL ORGANS PRAISED FOR CORRECTING INJUSTICES Beijing ZHONGGUO FAZHI BAO in Chinese 19 Oct 84 p 1 [Article by Xu Sen [1776...2773]: " Procuratorial Organs Nationwide Handled 6 Million Cases in 6 Years"] [Text] In the past 6 years, procuratorial organs at all levels dealt

  11. Restructuring Civil Affairs for Persistent Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    Simpson II U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas AY 2010...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Major Samuel K. Simpson II, United States Army 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...should increase and realign the force structure of the reserve and active components civil affairs; split the U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological

  12. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    180100 JPRS-EEl-84-053 8 May 1984 East Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS Wfaaöcai üaitoüteö ^^mAUTTmmmcfmiis 19980729 050...Virginia 22201. JPRS-EEI-84-053 8 May 1984 EAST EUROPE REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS CZECHOSLOVAKIA Brigade Khozraschet, Team Work...SVET HOSPODARSTVI, 22 Sep 83) 15 GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC March 1984 EINHEIT: Technology’s Role in SED Economic Strategy (EINHEIT, No

  13. The small GTPase Rab5 homologue Ypt5 regulates cell morphology, sexual development, ion-stress response and vacuolar formation in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Katayama, Chisako; Shinohara, Miki; Shinohara, Akira; Maekawa, Shohei; Miyamoto, Masaaki

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Multiple functions of Rab5 GTPase in fission yeast were found. •Roles of Rab5 in fission yeast were discussed. •Relation between Rab5 and actin cytoskeleton were discussed. -- Abstract: Inner-membrane transport is critical to cell function. Rab family GTPases play an important role in vesicle transport. In mammalian cells, Rab5 is reported to be involved in the regulation of endosome formation, phagocytosis and chromosome alignment. Here, we examined the role of the fission yeast Rab5 homologue Ypt5 using a point mutant allele. Mutant cells displayed abnormal cell morphology, mating, sporulation, endocytosis, vacuole fusion and responses to ion stress. Our data strongly suggest that fission yeast Rab5 is involved in the regulation of various types of cellular functions.

  14. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  15. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  16. Interaction between small GTPase Rab7 and PI3KC3 links autophagy and endocytosis: A new Rab7 effector protein sheds light on membrane trafficking pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mary Grace; Zhong, Qing

    2011-03-01

    Endocytosis and autophagy are both membrane trafficking pathways vital for cell survival. Endocytosis, the primary means by which cells internalize material such as cell-surface receptors and their protein ligands, is essential for proper cell growth and communication. Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades cargo ranging from organelles to protein aggregates to bacteria, and it is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Defects in both endosome and autophagosome maturation lead to an array of human diseases, including cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying endosome and autophagosome maturation are not well characterized. In the case of endocytosis, small GTPases, key players in membrane organization, are required for endosome maturation. Specifically, activation of the small GTPase Rab7 is required for the initiation of the early-to-late endosome transition, although how this is regulated is largely unknown. Now recent findings from our laboratory show that Rubicon, a component of the PI3KC3 complex, inhibits endosome maturation by preventing activation of Rab7. Not only do our results clarify the molecular link between PI3KC3 and Rab7 function in endosome maturation, they lead us to propose new models for PI3KC3 involvement in membrane trafficking, particularly at the convergence between the endosome and autophagosome pathways.

  17. VAP-B binds to Rab3GAP1 at the ER: its implication in nuclear envelope formation through the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment.

    PubMed

    Hantan, Degejirihu; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Sakisaka, Toshiaki

    2014-10-01

    The vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAP-B) is a tail-anchored protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). VAP-B functions as an adaptor protein to recruit target proteins to the ER and execute various cellular functions, lipid transport, membrane traffic, ER stress etc. Recently, VAP-B has been shown to regulate the nuclear envelope protein transport through the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). We showed here that VAP-B directly binds to Rab3 GTPase activating protein 1 (Rab3GAP1), the catalytic subunit of Rab3GAP, through the two phenylalanines (FF) in an acidic tract (FFAT)-like motif of Rab3GAP1. Rab3GAP consists of two subunits, the catalytic subunit Rab3GAP1 and the non-catalytic subunit Rab3GAP2. VAP-B binds to Rab3GAP1 even in the Rab3GAP1/2 heterodimer complex. A single amino acid substitution of the FFAT-like motif reduces the binding activity of Rab3GAP1 to VAP-B. On the other hand, the FFAT-like motif mutation increases the binding activity of Rab3GAP1 to ERGIC-53, the ERGIC marker protein. Overexpression of Rab3GAP1 affects nuclear envelope formation more potently than that of Rab3GAP1 FFAT-like motif mutant. These results suggest that the binding of VAP-B to Rab3GAP1 is implicated in the regulation of nuclear envelope formation through ERGIC.

  18. Rab27a negatively regulates CFTR chloride channel function in colonic epithelia: Involvement of the effector proteins in the regulatory mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Sunil K. . E-mail: ssaxena@stevens.edu; Kaur, Simarna

    2006-07-21

    Cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or function of CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include channel transport to plasma membrane and protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in vesicle transport, docking, and fusion. The colorectal epithelial HT-29 cells natively express CFTR and respond to cAMP with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. DPC-inhibited currents could be completely eliminated with CFTR-specific SiRNA. Over-expression of Rab27a inhibited, while isoform specific SiRNA and Rab27a antibody stimulated CFTR-mediated currents in HT-29 cells. CFTR activity is inhibited both by Rab27a (Q78L) (constitutive active GTP-bound form of Rab27a) and Rab27a (T23N) (constitutive negative form that mimics the GDP-bound form). Rab27a mediated effects could be reversed by Rab27a-binding proteins, the synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 accessory protein (a putative priming factor for exocytosis). The SLP reversal of Rab27a effect was restricted to C2A/C2B domains while the SHD motif imparted little more inhibition. The CFTR-mediated currents remain unaffected by Rab3 though SLP-5 appears to weakly bind it. The immunoprecipitation experiments suggest protein-protein interactions between Rab27a and CFTR. Rab27a appears to impair CFTR appearance at the cell surface by trapping CFTR in the intracellular compartments. Munc13-4 and SLP-5, on the other hand, limit Rab27a availability to CFTR, thus minimizing its effect on channel function. These observations decisively prove that Rab27a is involved in CFTR channel regulation through protein-protein interactions involving Munc13-4 and SLP-5 effector proteins, and thus could be a potential target for cystic fibrosis therapy.

  19. RAB GTPASES ASSOCIATE WITH ISOLATED LIPID DROPLETS (LDS) AND SHOW ALTERED CONTENT AFTER ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION: POTENTIAL ROLE IN ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED LD METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Rasineni, Karuna; McVicker, Benita L.; Tuma, Dean J.; McNiven, Mark A.; Casey, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic liver disease is manifested by the presence of fatty liver, primarily due to accumulation of hepatocellular lipid droplets (LDs). The presence of membrane-trafficking proteins (e.g. Rab GTPases) with LDs indicates that LDs may be involved in trafficking pathways known to be altered in ethanol damaged hepatocytes. Since these Rab GTPases are crucial regulators of protein trafficking, we examined the effect ethanol administration has on hepatic Rab protein content and association with LDs. Methods Male Wistar rats were pair-fed Lieber-DeCarli diets for 5 to 8 weeks. Whole liver and isolated LD fractions were analyzed. Identification of LDs and associated Rab proteins was performed in frozen liver or paraffin-embedded sections followed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results Lipid accumulation was characterized by larger LD vacuoles and increased total triglyceride content in ethanol-fed rats. Rabs 1, 2, 3d, 5, 7 and 18 were analyzed in post-nuclear supernatant (PNS) as well as LDs. All of the Rabs were found in the PNS, and Rabs 1, 2, 5 and 7 did not show alcohol-altered content, while Rab 3d content was reduced by over 80%, and Rab 18 also showed ethanol-induced reduction in content. Rab 3d was not found to associate with LDs, while all other Rabs were found in the LD fractions, and several showed an ethanol-related decrease (Rabs 2, 5, 7, 18). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the enhanced content of a LD-associated protein, perilipin 2 (PLIN2) that was paralleled with an associated decrease of Rab 18 in ethanol-fed rat sections. Conclusion Chronic ethanol feeding was associated with increased PLIN2 and altered Rab GTPase content in enriched LD fractions. Although mechanisms driving these changes are not established, further studies on intracellular protein trafficking and LD biology after alcohol administration will likely contribute to our understanding of fatty liver disease. PMID:24117505

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum‐resident Rab8A GTPase is involved in phagocytosis in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Hanadate, Yuki; Saito‐Nakano, Yumiko; Nakada‐Tsukui, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phagocytosis is indispensable for the pathogenesis of the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we showed that in E. histolytica Rab8A, which is generally involved in trafficking from the trans‐Golgi network to the plasma membrane in other organisms but was previously identified in phagosomes of the amoeba in the proteomic analysis, primarily resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and participates in phagocytosis. We demonstrated that down‐regulation of EhRab8A by small antisense RNA‐mediated transcriptional gene silencing remarkably reduced adherence and phagocytosis of erythrocytes, bacteria and carboxylated latex beads. Surface biotinylation followed by SDS‐PAGE analysis revealed that the surface expression of several proteins presumably involved in target recognition was reduced in the EhRab8A gene‐silenced strain. Further, overexpression of wild‐type EhRab8A augmented phagocytosis, whereas expression of the dominant‐negative form of EhRab8A resulted in reduced phagocytosis. These results indicated that EhRab8A regulates transport of surface receptor(s) for the prey from the ER to the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the ER‐resident Rab GTPase is involved in phagocytosis through the regulation of trafficking of a surface receptor, supporting a premise of direct involvement of the ER in phagocytosis. PMID:26807810

  1. Rab8a vesicles regulate Wnt ligand delivery and Paneth cell maturation at the intestinal stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Vedula, Pavan; Feng, Qiang; Flores, Juan; Hoffman, Andrew; Fu, Jiang; Stypulkowski, Ewa; Rodriguez, Alexis; Dobrowolski, Radek; Harada, Akihiro; Hsu, Wei; Bonder, Edward M.; Verzi, Michael P.; Gao, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Communication between stem and niche supporting cells maintains the homeostasis of adult tissues. Wnt signaling is a crucial regulator of the stem cell niche, but the mechanism that governs Wnt ligand delivery in this compartment has not been fully investigated. We identified that Wnt secretion is partly dependent on Rab8a-mediated anterograde transport of Gpr177 (wntless), a Wnt-specific transmembrane transporter. Gpr177 binds to Rab8a, depletion of which compromises Gpr177 traffic, thereby weakening the secretion of multiple Wnts. Analyses of generic Wnt/β-catenin targets in Rab8a knockout mouse intestinal crypts indicate reduced signaling activities; maturation of Paneth cells – a Wnt-dependent cell type – is severely affected. Rab8a knockout crypts show an expansion of Lgr5+ and Hopx+ cells in vivo. However, in vitro, the knockout enteroids exhibit significantly weakened growth that can be partly restored by exogenous Wnts or Gsk3β inhibitors. Immunogold labeling and surface protein isolation identified decreased plasma membrane localization of Gpr177 in Rab8a knockout Paneth cells and fibroblasts. Upon stimulation by exogenous Wnts, Rab8a-deficient cells show ligand-induced Lrp6 phosphorylation and transcriptional reporter activation. Rab8a thus controls Wnt delivery in producing cells and is crucial for Paneth cell maturation. Our data highlight the profound tissue plasticity that occurs in response to stress induced by depletion of a stem cell niche signal. PMID:26015543

  2. Rab8a vesicles regulate Wnt ligand delivery and Paneth cell maturation at the intestinal stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Vedula, Pavan; Feng, Qiang; Flores, Juan; Hoffman, Andrew; Fu, Jiang; Stypulkowski, Ewa; Rodriguez, Alexis; Dobrowolski, Radek; Harada, Akihiro; Hsu, Wei; Bonder, Edward M; Verzi, Michael P; Gao, Nan

    2015-06-15

    Communication between stem and niche supporting cells maintains the homeostasis of adult tissues. Wnt signaling is a crucial regulator of the stem cell niche, but the mechanism that governs Wnt ligand delivery in this compartment has not been fully investigated. We identified that Wnt secretion is partly dependent on Rab8a-mediated anterograde transport of Gpr177 (wntless), a Wnt-specific transmembrane transporter. Gpr177 binds to Rab8a, depletion of which compromises Gpr177 traffic, thereby weakening the secretion of multiple Wnts. Analyses of generic Wnt/β-catenin targets in Rab8a knockout mouse intestinal crypts indicate reduced signaling activities; maturation of Paneth cells - a Wnt-dependent cell type - is severely affected. Rab8a knockout crypts show an expansion of Lgr5(+) and Hopx(+) cells in vivo. However, in vitro, the knockout enteroids exhibit significantly weakened growth that can be partly restored by exogenous Wnts or Gsk3β inhibitors. Immunogold labeling and surface protein isolation identified decreased plasma membrane localization of Gpr177 in Rab8a knockout Paneth cells and fibroblasts. Upon stimulation by exogenous Wnts, Rab8a-deficient cells show ligand-induced Lrp6 phosphorylation and transcriptional reporter activation. Rab8a thus controls Wnt delivery in producing cells and is crucial for Paneth cell maturation. Our data highlight the profound tissue plasticity that occurs in response to stress induced by depletion of a stem cell niche signal.

  3. Rab1 interacts with GOLPH3 and controls Golgi structure and contractile ring constriction during cytokinesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Stefano; Frappaolo, Anna; Fraschini, Roberta; Capalbo, Luisa; Gottardo, Marco; Belloni, Giorgio; Glover, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires a tight coordination between actomyosin ring constriction and new membrane addition along the ingressing cleavage furrow. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vesicle trafficking to the equatorial site and how this process is coupled with the dynamics of the contractile apparatus are poorly defined. Here we provide evidence for the requirement of Rab1 during cleavage furrow ingression in cytokinesis. We demonstrate that the gene omelette (omt) encodes the Drosophila orthologue of human Rab1 and is required for successful cytokinesis in both mitotic and meiotic dividing cells of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that Rab1 protein colocalizes with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex Cog7 subunit and the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate effector GOLPH3 at the Golgi stacks. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy and 3D-SIM super-resolution microscopy reveals loss of normal Golgi architecture in omt mutant spermatocytes indicating a role for Rab1 in Golgi formation. In dividing cells, Rab1 enables stabilization and contraction of actomyosin rings. We further demonstrate that GTP-bound Rab1 directly interacts with GOLPH3 and controls its localization at the Golgi and at the cleavage site. We propose that Rab1, by associating with GOLPH3, controls membrane trafficking and contractile ring constriction during cytokinesis. PMID:28100664

  4. A novel marRAB operon contributes to the rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiwei; Gao, Long; Zhang, Jiaoling; Li, Weihui; Yang, Min; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Chunhui; He, Zheng-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) plays an important role in modulating bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the regulatory model of the marRAB operon in mycobacteria remains to be characterized. Here we report that a MarR, encoded by Ms6508, and its marRAB operon specifically contribute to rifampicin (RIF) resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We show that the MarR recognizes a conserved 21-bp palindromic motif and negatively regulates the expression of two ABC transporters in the operon, encoded by Ms6509-6510. Unlike other known drug efflux pumps, overexpression of these two ABC transporters unexpectedly increased RIF sensitivity and deletion of these two genes increased mycobacterial resistance to the antibiotic. No change can be detected for the sensitivity of recombinant mycobacterial strains to three other anti-TB drugs. Furthermore, HPLC experiments suggested that Ms6509-Ms6510 could pump RIF into the mycobacterial cells. These findings indicated that the mycobacterial MarR functions as a repressor and constitutively inhibits the expression of the marRAB operon, which specifically contributes to RIF resistance in M. smegmatis. Therefore, our data suggest a new regulatory mechanism of RIF resistance and also provide the new insight into the regulatory model of a marRAB operon in mycobacteria.

  5. Charcot Marie Tooth 2B Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy: How Rab7 Mutations Impact NGF Signaling?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Harry; Wu, Chengbiao

    2017-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2B peripheral sensory neuropathy (CMT2B) is a debilitating autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy. Patients with this disease lose pain sensation and frequently need amputation. Axonal dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral sensory neurons is a major clinical manifestation of CMT2B. However, the cellular and molecular pathogenic mechanisms remain undefined. CMT2B is caused by missense point mutations (L129F, K157N, N161T/I, V162M) in Rab7 GTPase. Strong evidence suggests that the Rab7 mutation(s) enhances the cellular levels of activated Rab7 proteins, thus resulting in increased lysosomal activity and autophagy. As a consequence, trafficking and signaling of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) in the long axons of peripheral sensory neurons are particularly vulnerable to premature degradation. A “gain of toxicity” model has, thus, been proposed based on these observations. However, studies of fly photo-sensory neurons indicate that the Rab7 mutation(s) causes a “loss of function”, resulting in haploinsufficiency. In the review, we summarize experimental evidence for both hypotheses. We argue that better models (rodent animals and human neurons) of CMT2B are needed to precisely define the disease mechanisms. PMID:28165391

  6. Charcot Marie Tooth 2B Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy: How Rab7 Mutations Impact NGF Signaling?

    PubMed

    Liu, Harry; Wu, Chengbiao

    2017-02-04

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2B peripheral sensory neuropathy (CMT2B) is a debilitating autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy. Patients with this disease lose pain sensation and frequently need amputation. Axonal dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral sensory neurons is a major clinical manifestation of CMT2B. However, the cellular and molecular pathogenic mechanisms remain undefined. CMT2B is caused by missense point mutations (L129F, K157N, N161T/I, V162M) in Rab7 GTPase. Strong evidence suggests that the Rab7 mutation(s) enhances the cellular levels of activated Rab7 proteins, thus resulting in increased lysosomal activity and autophagy. As a consequence, trafficking and signaling of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) in the long axons of peripheral sensory neurons are particularly vulnerable to premature degradation. A "gain of toxicity" model has, thus, been proposed based on these observations. However, studies of fly photo-sensory neurons indicate that the Rab7 mutation(s) causes a "loss of function", resulting in haploinsufficiency. In the review, we summarize experimental evidence for both hypotheses. We argue that better models (rodent animals and human neurons) of CMT2B are needed to precisely define the disease mechanisms.

  7. Vangl2 cooperates with Rab11 and Myosin V to regulate apical constriction during vertebrate gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Ossipova, Olga; Chuykin, Ilya; Chu, Chih-Wen; Sokol, Sergei Y

    2015-01-01

    Core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are well known to regulate polarity in Drosophila and vertebrate epithelia; however, their functions in vertebrate morphogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we describe a role for PCP signaling in the process of apical constriction during Xenopus gastrulation. The core PCP protein Vangl2 is detected at the apical surfaces of cells at the blastopore lip, and it functions during blastopore formation and closure. Further experiments show that Vangl2, as well as Daam1 and Rho-associated kinase (Rock), regulate apical constriction of bottle cells at the blastopore and ectopic constriction of ectoderm cells triggered by the actin-binding protein Shroom3. At the blastopore lip, Vangl2 is required for the apical accumulation of the recycling endosome marker Rab11. We also show that Rab11 and the associated motor protein Myosin V play essential roles in both endogenous and ectopic apical constriction, and might be involved in Vangl2 trafficking to the cell surface. Overexpression of Rab11 RNA was sufficient to partly restore normal blastopore formation in Vangl2-deficient embryos. These observations suggest that Vangl2 affects Rab11 to regulate apical constriction during blastopore formation.

  8. Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pylypenko, Olena; Welz, Tobias; Tittel, Janine; Kollmar, Martin; Chardon, Florian; Malherbe, Gilles; Weiss, Sabine; Michel, Carina Ida Luise; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Grasskamp, Andreas Till; Hume, Alistair; Goud, Bruno; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Titus, Margaret A; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17523.001 PMID:27623148

  9. A Rab5 endosomal pathway mediates Parkin-dependent mitochondrial clearance.

    PubMed

    Hammerling, Babette C; Najor, Rita H; Cortez, Melissa Q; Shires, Sarah E; Leon, Leonardo J; Gonzalez, Eileen R; Boassa, Daniela; Phan, Sébastien; Thor, Andrea; Jimenez, Rebecca E; Li, Hong; Kitsis, Richard N; Dorn Ii, Gerald W; Sadoshima, Junichi; Ellisman, Mark H; Gustafsson, Åsa B

    2017-01-30

    Damaged mitochondria pose a lethal threat to cells that necessitates their prompt removal. The currently recognized mechanism for disposal of mitochondria is autophagy, where damaged organelles are marked for disposal via ubiquitylation by Parkin. Here we report a novel pathway for mitochondrial elimination, in which these organelles undergo Parkin-dependent sequestration into Rab5-positive early endosomes via the ESCRT machinery. Following maturation, these endosomes deliver mitochondria to lysosomes for degradation. Although this endosomal pathway is activated by stressors that also activate mitochondrial autophagy, endosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance is initiated before autophagy. The autophagy protein Beclin1 regulates activation of Rab5 and endosomal-mediated degradation of mitochondria, suggesting cross-talk between these two pathways. Abrogation of Rab5 function and the endosomal pathway results in the accumulation of stressed mitochondria and increases susceptibility to cell death in embryonic fibroblasts and cardiac myocytes. These data reveal a new mechanism for mitochondrial quality control mediated by Rab5 and early endosomes.

  10. Legionella pneumophila regulates the small GTPase Rab1 activity by reversible phosphorylcholination

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yunhao; Arnold, Randy J.; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Effectors delivered into host cells by the Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV transporter are essential for the biogenesis of the specialized vacuole that permits its intracellular growth. The biochemical function of most of these effectors is unknown, making it difficult to assign their roles in the establishment of successful infection. We found that several yeast genes involved in membrane trafficking, including the small GTPase Ypt1, strongly suppress the cytotoxicity of Lpg0695(AnkX), a protein known to interfere severely with host vesicle trafficking when overexpressed. Mass spectrometry analysis of Rab1 purified from a yeast strain inducibly expressing AnkX revealed that this small GTPase is modified posttranslationally at Ser76 by a phosphorylcholine moiety. Using cytidine diphosphate-choline as the donor for phosphorylcholine, AnkX catalyzes the transfer of phosphorylcholine to Rab1 in a filamentation-induced by cAMP(Fic) domain-dependent manner. Further, we found that the activity of AnkX is regulated by the Dot/Icm substrate Lpg0696(Lem3), which functions as a dephosphorylcholinase to reverse AnkX-mediated modification on Rab1. Phosphorylcholination interfered with Rab1 activity by making it less accessible to the bacterial GTPase activation protein LepB; this interference can be alleviated fully by Lem3. Our results reveal reversible phosphorylcholination as a mechanism for balanced modulation of host cellular processes by a bacterial pathogen. PMID:22158903

  11. A Rab5 endosomal pathway mediates Parkin-dependent mitochondrial clearance

    PubMed Central

    Hammerling, Babette C.; Najor, Rita H.; Cortez, Melissa Q.; Shires, Sarah E.; Leon, Leonardo J.; Gonzalez, Eileen R.; Boassa, Daniela; Phan, Sébastien; Thor, Andrea; Jimenez, Rebecca E.; Li, Hong; Kitsis, Richard N.; Dorn II, Gerald W.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Ellisman, Mark H.; Gustafsson, Åsa B.

    2017-01-01

    Damaged mitochondria pose a lethal threat to cells that necessitates their prompt removal. The currently recognized mechanism for disposal of mitochondria is autophagy, where damaged organelles are marked for disposal via ubiquitylation by Parkin. Here we report a novel pathway for mitochondrial elimination, in which these organelles undergo Parkin-dependent sequestration into Rab5-positive early endosomes via the ESCRT machinery. Following maturation, these endosomes deliver mitochondria to lysosomes for degradation. Although this endosomal pathway is activated by stressors that also activate mitochondrial autophagy, endosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance is initiated before autophagy. The autophagy protein Beclin1 regulates activation of Rab5 and endosomal-mediated degradation of mitochondria, suggesting cross-talk between these two pathways. Abrogation of Rab5 function and the endosomal pathway results in the accumulation of stressed mitochondria and increases susceptibility to cell death in embryonic fibroblasts and cardiac myocytes. These data reveal a new mechanism for mitochondrial quality control mediated by Rab5 and early endosomes. PMID:28134239

  12. Structural Basis for Rab1 De-AMPylation by the Legionella pneumophila Effector SidD

    PubMed Central

    Neunuebel, M. Ramona; Pallara, Chiara; Brady, Jacqueline; Kinch, Lisa N.; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Rojas, Adriana L.; Machner, Matthias P.; Hierro, Aitor

    2013-01-01

    The covalent attachment of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to proteins, a process called AMPylation (adenylylation), has recently emerged as a novel theme in microbial pathogenesis. Although several AMPylating enzymes have been characterized, the only known virulence protein with de-AMPylation activity is SidD from the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. SidD de-AMPylates mammalian Rab1, a small GTPase involved in secretory vesicle transport, thereby targeting the host protein for inactivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying Rab1 recognition and de-AMPylation by SidD are unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the catalytic region of SidD at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure reveals a phosphatase-like fold with additional structural elements not present in generic PP2C-type phosphatases. The catalytic pocket contains a binuclear metal-binding site characteristic of hydrolytic metalloenzymes, with strong dependency on magnesium ions. Subsequent docking and molecular dynamics simulations between SidD and Rab1 revealed the interface contacts and the energetic contribution of key residues to the interaction. In conjunction with an extensive structure-based mutational analysis, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for a remarkable adaptation of SidD to its host cell target Rab1 which explains how this effector confers specificity to the reaction it catalyses. PMID:23696742

  13. Structural basis for Rab1 de-AMPylation by the Legionella pneumophila effector SidD.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Tascón, Igor; Neunuebel, M Ramona; Pallara, Chiara; Brady, Jacqueline; Kinch, Lisa N; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Rojas, Adriana L; Machner, Matthias P; Hierro, Aitor

    2013-01-01

    The covalent attachment of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to proteins, a process called AMPylation (adenylylation), has recently emerged as a novel theme in microbial pathogenesis. Although several AMPylating enzymes have been characterized, the only known virulence protein with de-AMPylation activity is SidD from the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. SidD de-AMPylates mammalian Rab1, a small GTPase involved in secretory vesicle transport, thereby targeting the host protein for inactivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying Rab1 recognition and de-AMPylation by SidD are unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the catalytic region of SidD at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure reveals a phosphatase-like fold with additional structural elements not present in generic PP2C-type phosphatases. The catalytic pocket contains a binuclear metal-binding site characteristic of hydrolytic metalloenzymes, with strong dependency on magnesium ions. Subsequent docking and molecular dynamics simulations between SidD and Rab1 revealed the interface contacts and the energetic contribution of key residues to the interaction. In conjunction with an extensive structure-based mutational analysis, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for a remarkable adaptation of SidD to its host cell target Rab1 which explains how this effector confers specificity to the reaction it catalyses.

  14. Respiratory chain of the alkalophilic bacterium Bacillus firmus RAB and its non-alkalophilic mutant derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, M.; Lewis, R.J.; Krulwich, T.A.

    1983-04-01

    The membrane-bound respiratory chain components of alkalophilic Bacillus firmus RAB were studied by difference spectroscopy and oxidation-reduction potentiometric titrations. Cytochromes with the following midpoint potentials were identified at pH 9.0: a-type cytochromes, +110 and +210 mV; b-type cytochromes, +20, -120, -280, and -400 mV; and cytochrome c, +60 mV. Only the higher-potential cytochrome a showed an upward shift in midpoint potential when titrated at pH 7.0. Parallel studies of a non-alkalophilic mutant derivate of B. firmus RAB, strain RABN, revealed the presence of only one species each of a-, b-, and c-type cytochromes which exhibited midpoint potentials of +110, -150, and +160 mV, respectively, at pH 7.0. Membranes of both strains were found to contain menaquinone. At pH 9.0, NADH caused the reduction of essentially all of the cytochromes that were seen in fully reduced preparations of wild-type B. firmus RAB membranes. By contrast, at pH 7.0, NADH failed to appreciably reduce the b-type cytochromes. These findings may relate to our recent proposal that an inadequacy in energy transduction (production of a proton motive force) by the alkalophilic respiratory chain at pH 7.0 is what precludes the growth of B. firmus RAB at a neutral pH. 13 references, 7 figures.

  15. The large conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel interacts with the small GTPase Rab11b.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Sophia; Harvey, Margaret; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Jordan, Amy; Sokolowski, Bernd

    2012-09-21

    The transduction of sound by the receptor or hair cells of the cochlea leads to the activation of ion channels found in the basal and lateral regions of these cells. Thus, the processing of these transduced signals to the central nervous system is tied to the regulation of baso-lateral ion channels. The large conductance calcium-activated potassium or BK channel was revealed to interact with the small GTPase, Rab11b, which is one of many Rabs found in various endosomal pathways. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the colocalization of these two proteins in receptor cells and auditory neurons. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells as a heterologous expression system, Rab11b increased or decreased BK expression, depending on the overexpression or RNAi knockdown of Rab, respectively. Additional mutation analyses, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, suggested that this GTPase moderately interacts within a region of BK exclusive of the N- or C-terminal tails. These data suggest that this small GTPase regulates BK in a slow recycling process through the endocytic compartment and to the plasmalemma.

  16. Phosphoproteomics reveals that Parkinson's disease kinase LRRK2 regulates a subset of Rab GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Steger, Martin; Tonelli, Francesca; Ito, Genta; Davies, Paul; Trost, Matthias; Vetter, Melanie; Wachter, Stefanie; Lorentzen, Esben; Duddy, Graham; Wilson, Stephen; Baptista, Marco AS; Fiske, Brian K; Fell, Matthew J; Morrow, John A; Reith, Alastair D; Alessi, Dario R; Mann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Park8, encoding for the multidomain Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) protein, comprise the predominant genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). G2019S, the most common amino acid substitution activates the kinase two- to threefold. This has motivated the development of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors; however, poor consensus on physiological LRRK2 substrates has hampered clinical development of such therapeutics. We employ a combination of phosphoproteomics, genetics, and pharmacology to unambiguously identify a subset of Rab GTPases as key LRRK2 substrates. LRRK2 directly phosphorylates these both in vivo and in vitro on an evolutionary conserved residue in the switch II domain. Pathogenic LRRK2 variants mapping to different functional domains increase phosphorylation of Rabs and this strongly decreases their affinity to regulatory proteins including Rab GDP dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). Our findings uncover a key class of bona-fide LRRK2 substrates and a novel regulatory mechanism of Rabs that connects them to PD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12813.001 PMID:26824392

  17. The large conductance calcium-activated K+ channel interacts with the small GTPase Rab11b

    PubMed Central

    Sokolowski, Sophia; Harvey, Margaret; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Jordan, Amy; Sokolowski, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The transduction of sound by the receptor or hair cells of the cochlea leads to the activation of ion channels found in the basal and lateral regions of these cells. Thus, the processing of these transduced signals to the central nervous system is tied to the regulation of baso-lateral ion channels. The large conductance calcium-activated potassium or BK channel was revealed to interact with the small GTPase, Rab11b, which is one of many Rabs found in various endosomal pathways. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the colocalization of these two proteins in receptor cells and auditory neurons. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells as a heterologous expression system, Rab11b increased or decreased BK expression, depending on the overexpression or RNAi knockdown of Rab, respectively. Additional mutation analyses, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, suggested that this GTPase moderately interacts within a region of BK exclusive of the N- or C-terminal tails. These data suggest that this small GTPase regulates BK in a slow recycling process through the endocytic compartment and to the plasmalemma. PMID:22935415

  18. Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes.

    PubMed

    Pylypenko, Olena; Welz, Tobias; Tittel, Janine; Kollmar, Martin; Chardon, Florian; Malherbe, Gilles; Weiss, Sabine; Michel, Carina Ida Luise; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Grasskamp, Andreas Till; Hume, Alistair; Goud, Bruno; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Titus, Margaret A; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas; Houdusse, Anne; Kerkhoff, Eugen

    2016-09-13

    There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes.

  19. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  20. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  1. Branching space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placek, Tomasz; Müller, Thomas

    The five papers presented below have been selected from among the fourteen read at the European Science Foundation workshop Branching Space-Times (BST), held at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, in October 2005. This event gathered for the first time leading researchers working on this subject.

  2. The Gendered Nature of Student Affairs: Issues of Gender Equity in Student Affairs Professional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Evelyn LaVette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gendered nature of the student affairs profession by investigating how three student affairs professional associations, the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), ACPA: College Student Educators International, and the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I)…

  3. Putting Descartes before the Horse: Opportunities for Advancing the Student Affairs Link with Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarid, Lucas

    1999-01-01

    Article challenges the division between student and academic affairs and encourages a view of learning and reason in a more holistic and integrated fashion. Outlines the historical factors for the separation of student and academic affairs and offers the programs instituted at Bellarmine College as examples of effective collaboration between…

  4. Academic Affairs and Student Affairs Partnerships Promoting Diversity Initiatives on Campus: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePeau, Lucy Anne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education research suggests student affairs and academic affairs partner to address challenges on campus, such as building inclusive environments for diverse students and staff, but evidence about "how" partnerships form is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory was to understand…

  5. Preparing for Fiscal Leadership in Student Affairs: The Senior Student Affairs Officer Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Stephanie C.; Williams, Terry E.

    2010-01-01

    Success within today's challenging economic environment mandates that senior student affairs officers in higher education possess a sophisticated financial and budgetary skill set. Limited research addresses avenues through which professionals might best acquire the financial acumen needed. To address this gap, 19 senior student affairs officers…

  6. Student Affairs and Academic Affairs Collaborations in the Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Needham Yancey; Mullendore, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between academic affairs and student affairs units in higher education settings has traditionally and historically been troubled by the divergent understandings of each other's institutional role and the systematic division of labor between the two. However, for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is a desire to…

  7. Reconstitution of the targeting of Rab6A to the Golgi apparatus in semi-intact HeLa cells: A role of BICD2 in stabilizing Rab6A on Golgi membranes and a concerted role of Rab6A/BICD2 interactions in Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Matsuto, Mariko; Kano, Fumi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    Rab is a small GTP-binding protein family that regulates various pathways of vesicular transport. Although more than 60 Rab proteins are targeted to specific organelles in mammalian cells, the mechanisms underlying the specificity of Rab proteins for the respective organelles remain unknown. In this study, we reconstituted the Golgi targeting of Rab6A in streptolysin O (SLO)-permeabilized HeLa cells in a cytosol-dependent manner and investigated the biochemical requirements of targeting. Golgi-targeting assays identified Bicaudal-D (BICD)2, which is reportedly involved in the dynein-mediated transport of mRNAs during oogenesis and embryogenesis in Drosophila, as a cytosolic factor for the Golgi targeting of Rab6A in SLO-permeabilized HeLa cells. Subsequent immunofluorescence analyses indicated decreased amounts of the GTP-bound active form of Rab6 in BICD2-knockdown cells. In addition, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analyses revealed that overexpression of the C-terminal region of BICD2 decreased the exchange rate of GFP-Rab6A between the Golgi membrane and the cytosol. Collectively, these results indicated that BICD2 facilitates the binding of Rab6A to the Golgi by stabilizing its GTP-bound form. Moreover, several analyses of vesicular transport demonstrated that Rab6A and BICD2 play crucial roles in Golgi tubule fusion with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in brefeldin A (BFA)-treated cells, indicating that BICD2 is involved in coat protein I (COPI)-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde vesicular transport.

  8. Calsyntenin-1 Regulates Axon Branching and Endosomal Trafficking during Sensory Neuron Development In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ponomareva, Olga Y.; Holmen, Ian C.; Sperry, Aiden J.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Precise regulation of axon branching is crucial for neuronal circuit formation, yet the mechanisms that control branch formation are not well understood. Moreover, the highly complex morphology of neurons makes them critically dependent on protein/membrane trafficking and transport systems, although the functions for membrane trafficking in neuronal morphogenesis are largely undefined. Here we identify a kinesin adaptor, Calsyntenin-1 (Clstn-1), as an essential regulator of axon branching and neuronal compartmentalization in vivo. We use morpholino knockdown and a Clstn-1 mutant to show that Clstn-1 is required for formation of peripheral but not central sensory axons, and for peripheral axon branching in zebrafish. We used live imaging of endosomal trafficking in vivo to show that Clstn-1 regulates transport of Rab5-containing endosomes from the cell body to specific locations of developing axons. Our results suggest a model in which Clstn-1 patterns separate axonal compartments and define their ability to branch by directing trafficking of specific endosomes. PMID:25009257

  9. Rab31 and APPL2 enhance FcγR-mediated phagocytosis through PI3K/Akt signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeremy C; Wall, Adam A; Luo, Lin; Stow, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Membrane remodeling in the early stages of phagocytosis enables the engulfment of particles or pathogens and receptor signaling to activate innate immune responses. Members of the Rab GTPase family and their disparate effectors are recruited sequentially to regulate steps throughout phagocytosis. Rab31 (Rab22b) is known for regulating post-Golgi trafficking, and here we show in macrophages that Rab31-GTP is additionally and specifically recruited to early-stage phagosomes. At phagocytic cups, Rab31 is first recruited during the phosphoinositide transition from PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3, and it persists on PI(3)P-enriched phagosomes. During early phagocytosis, we find that Rab31 recruits the signaling adaptor APPL2. siRNA depletion of either Rab31 or APPL2 reduces FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Mechanistically, this corresponds with a delay in the transition to PI(3,4,5)P3 and phagocytic cup closure. APPL2 depletion also reduced PI3K/Akt signaling and enhanced p38 signaling from FcγR. We thus conclude that Rab31/APPL2 is required for key roles in phagocytosis and prosurvival responses of macrophages. Of interest, in terms of localization and function, this Rab31/APPL2 complex is distinct from the Rab5/APPL1 complex, which is also involved in phagocytosis and signaling.

  10. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  11. Structural Insights into a Unique Legionella pneumophila Effector LidA Recognizing Both GDP and GTP Bound Rab1 in Their Active State

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Defen; Li, Bingqing; Zhu, Deyu; Chen, Yuzhen; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Sujuan; Chai, Jijie; Gu, Lichuan

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila hijacks the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicles to create an organelle designated Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) required for bacterial replication. Maturation of the LCV involved acquisition of Rab1, which is mediated by the bacterial effector protein SidM/DrrA. SidM/DrrA is a bifunctional enzyme having the activity of both Rab1-specific GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) displacement factor (GDF) and guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). LidA, another Rab1-interacting bacterial effector protein, was reported to promote SidM/DrrA-mediated recruitment of Rab1 to the LCV as well. Here we report the crystal structures of LidA complexes with GDP- and GTP-bound Rab1 respectively. Structural comparison revealed that GDP-Rab1 bound by LidA exhibits an active and nearly identical conformation with that of GTP-Rab1, suggesting that LidA can disrupt the switch function of Rab1 and render it persistently active. As with GTP, LidA maintains GDP-Rab1 in the active conformation through interaction with its two conserved switch regions. Consistent with the structural observations, biochemical assays showed that LidA binds to GDP- and GTP-Rab1 equally well with an affinity approximately 7.5 nM. We propose that the tight interaction with Rab1 allows LidA to facilitate SidM/DrrA-catalyzed release of Rab1 from GDIs. Taken together, our results support a unique mechanism by which a bacterial effector protein regulates Rab1 recycling. PMID:22416225

  12. Characterization of a small GTP-binding protein gene TaRab18 from wheat involved in the stripe rust resistance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhengning; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Guoqin; Zhao, Renhui; Bie, Tongde; Zhang, Ruiqi; Gao, Derong; Xing, Liping; Cao, Aizhong

    2017-04-01

    The stripe rust resistance gene, Yr26, is commonly used in wheat production. Identification of Yr26 resistance related genes is important for better understanding of the resistance mechanism. TaRab18, a putative small GTP-binding protein, was screened as a resistance regulated gene as it showed differential expression between the Yr26-containing resistant wheat and the susceptible wheat at different time points after Pst inoculation. TaRab18 contains four typical domains (GI to GIV) of the small GTP-binding proteins superfamily and five domains (RabF1 to RabF5) specific to the Rab subfamily. From the phylogenetic tree that TaRab18 was identified as belonging to the RABC1 subfamily. Chromosome location analysis indicated that TaRab18 and its homeoalles were on the homeologous group 7 chromosomes, and the Pst induced TaRab18 was on the 7 B chromosome. Functional analysis by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) indicated that TaRab18 was positively involved in the stripe rust resistance through regulating the hypersensitive response, and Pst can develop on the leaves of TaRab18 silenced 92R137. However, over-expression of TaRab18 in susceptible Yangmai158 did not enhance its resistance dramatically, only from 9 grade in Yangmai158 to 8 grade in the transgenic plant. However, histological observation indicated that the transgenic plants with over-expressed TaRab18 showed a strong hypersensitive response at the early infection stage. The research herein, will improve our understanding of the roles of Rab in wheat resistance.

  13. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Enterprise Reference Terminology strategic overview.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Michael J; Brown, Steven H; Nguyen, Viet; Cromwell, Tim; Carter, John; Erlbaum, Mark; Tuttle, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) branch of the Department of Veterans Affairs has undertaken an Enterprise Reference Terminology (ERT). VHA, arguably the largest integrated healthcare provider in the United States, has completely computerized virtually all clinical transactions, including physician orders and documentation. The VA is now integrating its clinical records across hundreds of sites of care by means of a Health Data Repository (HDR) project. ERT has been designed to provide a terminology development environment, terminology services, and maintenance services for the clinical and business content in HDR and other VHA applications. Drug, laboratory observations, and clinical document title files have been developed, and the ERT will encompass all HDR domains by 2008. Commercial tools are used to host the VHA's ERT terminology development and server environments. We will select and adopt both open-source and licensable terminology systems to provide ERT content, as well as reuse existing VA-specific terminology content.

  14. Glut4 Is Sorted from a Rab10 GTPase-independent Constitutive Recycling Pathway into a Highly Insulin-responsive Rab10 GTPase-dependent Sequestration Pathway after Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul Duffield; Habtemichael, Estifanos N; Romenskaia, Irina; Mastick, Cynthia Corley; Coster, Adelle C F

    2016-01-08

    The RabGAP AS160/TBC1D4 controls exocytosis of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter Glut4 in adipocytes. Glut4 is internalized and recycled through a highly regulated secretory pathway in these cells. Glut4 also cycles through a slow constitutive endosomal pathway distinct from the fast transferrin (Tf) receptor recycling pathway. This slow constitutive pathway is the only Glut4 cycling pathway in undifferentiated fibroblasts. The α2-macroglobulin receptor LRP1 cycles with Glut4 and the Tf receptor through all three exocytic pathways. To further characterize these pathways, the effects of knockdown of AS160 substrates on the trafficking kinetics of Glut4, LRP1, and the Tf receptor were measured in adipocytes and fibroblasts. Rab10 knockdown decreased cell surface Glut4 in insulin-stimulated adipocytes by 65%, but not in basal adipocytes or in fibroblasts. This decrease was due primarily to a 62% decrease in the rate constant of Glut4 exocytosis (kex), although Rab10 knockdown also caused a 1.4-fold increase in the rate constant of Glut4 endocytosis (ken). Rab10 knockdown in adipocytes also decreased cell surface LRP1 by 30% by decreasing kex 30-40%. There was no effect on LRP1 trafficking in fibroblasts or on Tf receptor trafficking in either cell type. These data confirm that Rab10 is an AS160 substrate that limits exocytosis through the highly insulin-responsive specialized secretory pathway in adipocytes. They further show that the slow constitutive endosomal (fibroblast) recycling pathway is Rab10-independent. Thus, Rab10 is a marker for the specialized pathway in adipocytes. Interestingly, mathematical modeling shows that Glut4 traffics predominantly through the specialized Rab10-dependent pathway both before and after insulin stimulation.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of mammalian MSS4–Rab8 GTPase protein complex

    SciTech Connect

    Itzen, Aymelt; Bleimling, Nathalie; Ignatev, Alexander; Pylypenko, Olena; Rak, Alexey

    2006-02-01

    The MSS4 (mammalian suppressor of Sec4) protein in complex with nucleotide-free Rab8 GTPase has been purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure analysis and a complete data set has been collected to 2 Å resolution. Rab GTPases function as ubiquitous key regulators of membrane-vesicle transport in eukaryotic cells. MSS4 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that binds to exocytotic Rabs and facilitates nucleotide release. The MSS4 protein in complex with nucleotide-free Rab8 GTPase has been purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure analysis. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.92, b = 49.85, c = 83.48 Å, α = 102.88, β = 97.46, γ = 90.12°. A complete data set has been collected to 2 Å resolution.

  16. Early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport involves two SNARE complexes and a Rab6 isoform

    PubMed Central

    Mallard, Frédéric; Tang, Bor Luen; Galli, Thierry; Tenza, Danièle; Saint-Pol, Agnès; Yue, Xu; Antony, Claude; Hong, Wanjin; Goud, Bruno; Johannes, Ludger

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport are still not understood. We identified interactions between the TGN-localized putative t-SNAREs syntaxin 6, syntaxin 16, and Vti1a, and two early/recycling endosomal v-SNAREs, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP4. Using a novel permeabilized cell system, these proteins were functionally implicated in the post-Golgi retrograde transport step. The function of Rab6a' was also required, whereas its closely related isoform, Rab6a, has previously been implicated in Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum transport. Thus, our study shows that membrane exchange between the early endocytic and the biosynthetic/secretory pathways involves specific components of the Rab and SNARE machinery, and suggests that retrograde transport between early/recycling endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum is critically dependent on the sequential action of two members of the Rab6 subfamily. PMID:11839770

  17. Early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport involves two SNARE complexes and a Rab6 isoform.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Frédéric; Tang, Bor Luen; Galli, Thierry; Tenza, Danièle; Saint-Pol, Agnès; Yue, Xu; Antony, Claude; Hong, Wanjin; Goud, Bruno; Johannes, Ludger

    2002-02-18

    The molecular mechanisms underlying early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport are still not understood. We identified interactions between the TGN-localized putative t-SNAREs syntaxin 6, syntaxin 16, and Vti1a, and two early/recycling endosomal v-SNAREs, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP4. Using a novel permeabilized cell system, these proteins were functionally implicated in the post-Golgi retrograde transport step. The function of Rab6a' was also required, whereas its closely related isoform, Rab6a, has previously been implicated in Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum transport. Thus, our study shows that membrane exchange between the early endocytic and the biosynthetic/secretory pathways involves specific components of the Rab and SNARE machinery, and suggests that retrograde transport between early/recycling endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum is critically dependent on the sequential action of two members of the Rab6 subfamily.

  18. Antibacterial autophagy occurs at PI(3)P-enriched domains of the endoplasmic reticulum and requires Rab1 GTPase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ju; Birmingham, Cheryl L; Shahnazari, Shahab; Shiu, Jessica; Zheng, Yiyu T; Smith, Adam C; Campellone, Kenneth G; Heo, Won Do; Gruenheid, Samantha; Meyer, Tobias; Welch, Matthew D; Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Kim, Peter Kijun; Klionsky, Daniel J; Brumell, John H

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic components in eukaryotic cells and plays a key role in immunity. The mechanism of autophagosome formation is not clear. Here we examined two potential membrane sources for antibacterial autophagy: the ER and mitochondria. DFCP1, a marker of specialized ER domains known as 'omegasomes,' associated with Salmonella-containing autophagosomes via its PtdIns(3)P and ER-binding domains, while a mitochondrial marker (cytochrome b5-GFP) did not. Rab1 also localized to autophagosomes, and its activity was required for autophagosome formation, clearance of protein aggregates and peroxisomes, and autophagy of Salmonella. Overexpression of Rab1 enhanced antibacterial autophagy. The role of Rab1 in antibacterial autophagy was independent of its role in ER-to-Golgi transport. Our data suggest that antibacterial autophagy occurs at omegasomes and reveal that the Rab1 GTPase plays a crucial role in mammalian autophagy.

  19. Cloning and expression of recombinant shrimp PmRab7 (a virus-binding protein) in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Jupatanakul, Natapong; Wannapapho, Wanphen; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2011-03-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most serious pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. A shrimp WSSV-binding protein called PmRab7 has been isolated and characterized. Since injection of bacterial expressed-rPmRab7 could reduce shrimp mortality caused by WSSV from approximately 95% to 15% mortality, there was potential for its use in protection against WSSV in shrimp aquaculture. To test the feasibility of this, the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system was used for production of rPmRab7 since its expression system has eukaryote post-translational modification capability and since P. pastoris is widely accepted for use in human food or animal feed. Moreover, β-1,3-glucan, a major cell wall component of yeast, has been reported to act as an immunostimulant in shrimp. The recombinant protein was produced intracellularly and the resulting whole yeast cells were lyophilized and stored for supplementation in shrimp feed. The yield of rPmRab7 was 20-30 mg/l of culture medium or 2.67 mg/g yeast dry weight, which was 2-3 times higher than the yield obtained from an Escherichia coli expression system. A two-copy gene expression system was developed to enhance rPmRab7 expression using expression vector pAO815 containing a two-copy PmRab7 expression cassette constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of the PmRab7 gene and two-step overlap, extension PCR. This improved the yield of rPmRab7 2-3 times (40-60 mg/l of culture medium). ELISA was developed to show that the expressed rPmRab7 had WSSV-binding activity. Although some loss of rPmRab7 was found after lyophilization of the yeast cells, projected cost calculations indicated that this production level would make it feasible to use rPmRab7 in shrimp feed for protection against WSSV.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of RabX3, a tandem GTPase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Kumar Srivastava, Vijay; Chandra, Mintu; Datta, Sunando

    2014-07-01

    Ras superfamily GTPases regulate signalling pathways that control multiple biological processes by modulating the GTP/GDP cycle. Various Rab GTPases, which are the key regulators of vesicular trafficking pathways, play a vital role in the survival and virulence of the enteric parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The Rab GTPases act as binary molecular switches that utilize the conformational changes associated with the GTP/GDP cycle to elicit responses from target proteins and thereby regulate a broad spectrum of cellular processes including cell proliferation, cytoskeletal assembly, nuclear transport and intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica RabX3 (EhRabX3) is a unique GTPase in the amoebic genome, the only member in the eukaryotic Ras superfamily that harbours tandem G-domains and shares only 8-16% sequence identity with other GTPases. Recent studies suggested that EhRabX3 binds to a single guanine nucleotide through its N-terminal G-domain (NTD), while the C-terminal G-domain (CTD) plays a potential role in binding of the nucleotide to the NTD. Thus, understanding the intermolecular regulation between the two GTPase domains is expected to reveal valuable information on the overall action of EhRabX3. To provide structural insights into the inclusive action of this unique GTPase, EhRabX3 was crystallized by successive micro-seeding using the vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected to 3.3 Å resolution using a single native EhRabX3 crystal at 100 K on BM14 at the ESRF, Grenoble, France. The crystal belonged to monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=198.6, b=119.3, c=89.2 Å, β=103.1°. Preliminary analysis of the data using the Matthews Probability Calculator suggested the presence of four to six molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  1. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Affairs Council of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Public Session Meeting AGENCY.... Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-5303, Washington, DC 20210; phone (202) 693-4811.... ADDRESSES: The LAC will meet at the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  2. Crystal structure of TBC1D15 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and its activity on Rab GTPases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Na; Gu, Xin; Zhou, X Edward; Wang, Weidong; Cheng, Dandan; Ge, Yinghua; Ye, Fei; Xu, H Eric; Lv, Zhengbing

    2017-04-01

    TBC1D15 belongs to the TBC (Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16) domain family and functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Rab GTPases. So far, the structure of TBC1D15 or the TBC1D15·Rab complex has not been determined, thus, its catalytic mechanism on Rab GTPases is still unclear. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of the Shark and Sus TBC1D15 GAP domains, to 2.8 Å and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. Shark-TBC1D15 and Sus-TBC1D15 belong to the same subfamily of TBC domain-containing proteins, and their GAP-domain structures are highly similar. This demonstrates the evolutionary conservation of the TBC1D15 protein family. Meanwhile, the newly determined crystal structures display new variations compared to the structures of yeast Gyp1p Rab GAP domain and TBC1D1. GAP assays show that Shark and Sus GAPs both have higher catalytic activity on Rab11a·GTP than Rab7a·GTP, which differs from the previous study. We also demonstrated the importance of arginine and glutamine on the catalytic sites of Shark GAP and Sus GAP. When arginine and glutamine are changed to alanine or lysine, the activities of Shark GAP and Sus GAP are lost.

  3. SEC16A is a RAB10 effector required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Joanne; Chaudhary, Natasha; Iaea, David

    2016-01-01

    RAB10 is a regulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane (PM) of adipocytes, which is essential for whole-body glucose homeostasis. We establish SEC16A as a novel RAB10 effector in this process. Colocalization of SEC16A with RAB10 is augmented by insulin stimulation, and SEC16A knockdown attenuates insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation, phenocopying RAB10 knockdown. We show that SEC16A and RAB10 promote insulin-stimulated mobilization of GLUT4 from a perinuclear recycling endosome/TGN compartment. We propose RAB10–SEC16A functions to accelerate formation of the vesicles that ferry GLUT4 to the PM during insulin stimulation. Because GLUT4 continually cycles between the PM and intracellular compartments, the maintenance of elevated cell-surface GLUT4 in the presence of insulin requires accelerated biogenesis of the specialized GLUT4 transport vesicles. The function of SEC16A in GLUT4 trafficking is independent of its previously characterized activity in ER exit site formation and therefore independent of canonical COPII-coated vesicle function. However, our data support a role for SEC23A, but not the other COPII components SEC13, SEC23B, and SEC31, in the insulin stimulation of GLUT4 trafficking, suggesting that vesicles derived from subcomplexes of COPII coat proteins have a role in the specialized trafficking of GLUT4. PMID:27354378

  4. SEC16A is a RAB10 effector required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Joanne; Brumfield, Alexandria; Chaudhary, Natasha; Iaea, David; McGraw, Timothy E

    2016-07-04

    RAB10 is a regulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane (PM) of adipocytes, which is essential for whole-body glucose homeostasis. We establish SEC16A as a novel RAB10 effector in this process. Colocalization of SEC16A with RAB10 is augmented by insulin stimulation, and SEC16A knockdown attenuates insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation, phenocopying RAB10 knockdown. We show that SEC16A and RAB10 promote insulin-stimulated mobilization of GLUT4 from a perinuclear recycling endosome/TGN compartment. We propose RAB10-SEC16A functions to accelerate formation of the vesicles that ferry GLUT4 to the PM during insulin stimulation. Because GLUT4 continually cycles between the PM and intracellular compartments, the maintenance of elevated cell-surface GLUT4 in the presence of insulin requires accelerated biogenesis of the specialized GLUT4 transport vesicles. The function of SEC16A in GLUT4 trafficking is independent of its previously characterized activity in ER exit site formation and therefore independent of canonical COPII-coated vesicle function. However, our data support a role for SEC23A, but not the other COPII components SEC13, SEC23B, and SEC31, in the insulin stimulation of GLUT4 trafficking, suggesting that vesicles derived from subcomplexes of COPII coat proteins have a role in the specialized trafficking of GLUT4.

  5. Rab18 is required for viral assembly of hepatitis C virus through trafficking of the core protein to lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Dansako, Hiromichi; Hiramoto, Hiroki; Ikeda, Masanori; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2014-08-01

    During persistent infection of HCV, the HCV core protein (HCV-JFH-1 strain of genotype 2a) is recruited to lipid droplets (LDs) for viral assembly, but the mechanism of recruitment of the HCV core protein is uncertain. Here, we demonstrated that one of the Ras-related small GTPases, Rab18, was required for trafficking of the core protein around LDs. The knockdown of Rab18 reduced intracellular and extracellular viral infectivity, but not intracellular viral replication in HCV-JFH-1-infected RSc cells (an HuH-7-derived cell line). Exogenous expression of Rab18 increased extracellular viral infectivity almost two-fold. Furthermore, Rab18 was co-localized with the core protein in HCV-JFH-1-infected RSc cells, and the knockdown of Rab18 blocked recruitment of the HCV-JFH-1 core protein to LDs. These results suggest that Rab18 has an important role in viral assembly through the trafficking of the core protein to LDs.

  6. Rab5a is a common component of the apical and basolateral endocytic machinery in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, C; Wandinger-Ness, A; Lütcke, A; Chiariello, M; Bruni, C B; Zerial, M

    1994-01-01

    In nonpolarized cells, the small GTPase Rab5a is localized to the plasma membrane, clathrin-coated vesicles, and early endosomes. Rab5a is required for early endosome fusion in vitro and regulates transport between the plasma membrane and early endosomes, in vivo. In polarized epithelial cells endocytosis occurs from separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains. Internalized molecules are initially delivered to distinct apical or basolateral early endosomes. In vitro, apical early endosomes can readily fuse with one another but not with the basolateral endosomes and vice versa, thereby indicating that the apical and basolateral early endocytic pathways are controlled by distinct machineries. Here, we have investigated the localization and function of Rab5a in polarized epithelial cells. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy on mouse kidney sections revealed association of the protein with the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains and underlying structures. In polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney I cells, endogenous and overexpressed Rab5a have the same distribution. Moreover, overexpression of the protein causes a 2-fold increase in fluid-phase uptake from both domains of the cell, thus showing that Rab5a functions in apical and basolateral endocytosis. Our data indicate that the apical and basolateral endocytic machineries of epithelial cells share common regulatory components and that Rab5a per se is not sufficient to target endocytic vesicles to apical or basolateral early endosomes. Images PMID:8197185

  7. Lysosome biogenesis requires Rab9 function and receptor recycling from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes bind to mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) in the TGN, and are carried to prelysosomes, where they are released. MPRs then return to the TGN for another round of transport. Rab9 is a ras-like GTPase which facilitates MPR recycling to the TGN in vitro. We show here that a dominant negative form of rab9, rab9 S21N, strongly inhibited MPR recycling in living cells. The block was specific in that the rates of biosynthetic protein transport, fluid phase endocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis were unchanged. Expression of rab9 S21N was accompanied by a decrease in the efficiency of lysosomal enzyme sorting. Cells compensated for the presence of the mutant protein by inducing the synthesis of both soluble and membrane- associated lysosomal enzymes, and by internalizing lysosomal enzymes that were secreted by default. These data show that MPRs are limiting in the secretory pathway of cells expressing rab9 S21N and document the importance of MPR recycling and the rab9 GTPase for efficient lysosomal enzyme delivery. PMID:7909812

  8. EHBP1L1 coordinates Rab8 and Bin1 to regulate apical-directed transport in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Atsuhiro; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Togawa, Hiroko; Kunii, Masataka; Iwano, Tomohiko; Izumi, Ayaka; Noguchi, Yuria; Watanabe, Ayako; Goto, Ayako; Sato, Toshiro; Harada, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    The highly conserved Rab guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab8 plays a role in exocytosis toward the polarized plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. In murine Rab8-deficient small intestine cells, apical proteins are missorted into lysosomes. In this study, we identified a novel Rab8-interacting protein complex containing an EH domain-binding protein 1-like 1 (EHBP1L1), Bin1/amphiphysin II, and dynamin. Biochemical analyses showed that EHBP1L1 directly bound to GTP-loaded Rab8 and Bin1. The spatial dependency of these complexes at the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) was demonstrated through overexpression and knockdown experiments. EHBP1L1- or Bin1-depleted or dynamin-inhibited small intestine organoids significantly accumulated apical membrane proteins but not basolateral membrane proteins in lysosomes. Furthermore, in EHBP1L1-deficient mice, small intestine cells displayed truncated and sparse microvilli, suggesting that EHBP1L1 maintains the apical plasma membrane by regulating apical transport. In summary, our data demonstrate that EHBP1L1 links Rab8 and the Bin1-dynamin complex, which generates membrane curvature and excises the vesicle at the ERC for apical transport.

  9. EHBP1L1 coordinates Rab8 and Bin1 to regulate apical-directed transport in polarized epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakajo, Atsuhiro; Togawa, Hiroko; Kunii, Masataka; Iwano, Tomohiko; Izumi, Ayaka; Noguchi, Yuria; Watanabe, Ayako; Goto, Ayako; Sato, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved Rab guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab8 plays a role in exocytosis toward the polarized plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. In murine Rab8-deficient small intestine cells, apical proteins are missorted into lysosomes. In this study, we identified a novel Rab8-interacting protein complex containing an EH domain–binding protein 1–like 1 (EHBP1L1), Bin1/amphiphysin II, and dynamin. Biochemical analyses showed that EHBP1L1 directly bound to GTP-loaded Rab8 and Bin1. The spatial dependency of these complexes at the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) was demonstrated through overexpression and knockdown experiments. EHBP1L1- or Bin1-depleted or dynamin-inhibited small intestine organoids significantly accumulated apical membrane proteins but not basolateral membrane proteins in lysosomes. Furthermore, in EHBP1L1-deficient mice, small intestine cells displayed truncated and sparse microvilli, suggesting that EHBP1L1 maintains the apical plasma membrane by regulating apical transport. In summary, our data demonstrate that EHBP1L1 links Rab8 and the Bin1–dynamin complex, which generates membrane curvature and excises the vesicle at the ERC for apical transport. PMID:26833786

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    repayment of our debts and to help us with credits... [Comment] Again with the outstretched hand? [V. Postolnyy] ...because their official seals are... welding equipment, is of branch impor- tance. This is the branch order, and it is financed by the branch. All-purpose construction equipment is the...costly than the flux we were using. In this case, the indicators of the welding process—speed and productivity—were practically unchanged. And, what is

  11. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  12. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  13. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  14. Student Affairs and Services Stream: College Quarterly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddel, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "College Quarterly" recently introduced a stream for academic and scholar-practitioner dialogue concerning student affairs and services. To contribute to the growth and enhancement of the field, scholars and scholar-practitioners are invited to contribute original pieces that advance scholarship and/or practice around facilitating…

  15. The Digital Age of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.; Junco, Reynol

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the student affairs profession in the digital age. The authors explore new challenges educators and professionals face as new areas are added and expanded, how social networks and digital technology tools continue to evolve, and what skills are needed to engage with students in person and online.

  16. Toward the Professionalization of Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, D. Stanley; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The field of student affairs is an emerging profession with its own distinct theory base and preparation criteria. Professional organizations need to collaborate on research and actions concerning professional issues. A workable code of ethics and a professional attitude by practitioners will insure progress toward professionalization. (RC)

  17. Becoming a Reflective Student Affairs Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with 12 student affairs administrators revealed that respondents were applied theorists and reflective practitioners; action phase of reflective process was integral to decision making; respondents believed their thinking patterns remained constant throughout life; formal education played minimal role in helping administrators become…

  18. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  19. Office of Indian Affairs 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    This report outlines the activities of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) for 1984 in accordance with its directive to investigate, study, consider and act upon the entire subject of Indian conditions and relations within the State of New Mexico, including but not restricted to, problems of health, economy, education, legislation, and…

  20. Education for America's Role in World Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, John, Ed.; Ryerson, Andre, Ed.

    This collection of essays by leading policy analysts and educators investigate the often contradictory claims of global, peace, multicultural and citizenship education and examines what U.S. students should know about world affairs in the post-cold war era. The essays suggest methods of change based on a strong academic core of history,…

  1. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  2. The Role of Congress in Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, William J.

    An examiniation of past and recent federal legislation affecting American Indians reveals the important role of Congress in developing policy for Indian affairs. The role of Congress inititally seemed directed toward providing a legal means of taking Indian land and other resources for the benefit of non-Indians. Subsequent policy has varied…

  3. The New Media in Public Affairs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eugene I.

    This paper on innovations in public affairs education begins by enumerating some of the newer available means of communication--slow-scan television, computers, tape recordings, games and models, telephone instruction, multiple channel FM radio, libraries of tapes and slides--and discusses proposals to interconnect educational television…

  4. Office of Indian Affairs 1985 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    The major goals of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) in 1985 were to enhance Indian education concerns, aid tribes in economic development, and effectuate a smooth working relationship between state, local, and tribal governments in the spirit of and through the use of the Joint Powers Act. Advancement is reflected in all these areas.…

  5. TQM: Finding a Place in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tyrone A.

    1996-01-01

    Critically examines Total Quality Management (TQM). Analyzes the concepts and practices of TQM and its failure to live up to expectations in higher education. Emphasizes the problems inherent with TQM initiatives in an educational environment and outlines ways that student affairs officials can proactively apply TQM to support universities'…

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    disease affecting our social organism. It was precisely authors writing on public affairs, scientists, journalists, teachers, and engineers who...tremor or jolt. Well-known scientists are working on the problem. Our generation has itself become the creator and chron - icler of the Davit

  7. Briefing Teams in World Affairs Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Joe P.

    1992-01-01

    In a college world affairs course, the teacher acted as foreign policy/national security advisor to the president and assigned students as staff members for different geographic regions. Students briefed him daily, first on current events, then on specific issues. Students enjoyed the challenging assignments, intensive questioning, and policy…

  8. Communication, Public Affairs Knowledge, and Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, K. E.; Rush, Ramona R.

    The impact of print and electronic media orientations upon the public affairs knowledge of older persons was investigated through interviews with 59 participants in a foster grandparents program, 68 participants in a retired senior volunteer program, and 23 members of a retired teachers association. Analysis of results indicated a clear pattern in…

  9. Student Employee Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athas, Christina; Oaks, D'Arcy John; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Employment within student affairs divisions offers environments in which students can apply the knowledge they have gained, as well as acquire new competencies, helping them to build solid foundations for their futures. Researchers used an online survey to assess the outcomes associated with part-time student employment within the student affairs…

  10. Public Affairs Manual. Revised 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This public affairs manual is designed for health, physical education, and recreation personnel. It begins with a position statement by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER). In section two, resources and procedures for crises action at the local and state level are discussed. Several organizational models…

  11. Bibliography of Serials on Caribbean Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Dennis; Milman, Claudio

    An alphabetical listing of serial titles that are relevant to Caribbean affairs and culture is provided. Annotations include the individual publication's scope of coverage as well as its frequency of appearance (monthly, quarterly, weekly, etc.) and postal address. The same type of information regarding newspapers published in the Caribbean area…

  12. A Rab32-dependent pathway contributes to Salmonella typhi host restriction.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Stefania; Galán, Jorge E

    2012-11-16

    Unlike other Salmonellae, the intracellular bacterial human pathogen Salmonella Typhi exhibits strict host specificity. The molecular bases for this restriction are unknown. Here we found that the expression of a single type III secretion system effector protein from broad-host Salmonella Typhimurium allowed Salmonella Typhi to survive and replicate within macrophages and tissues from mice, a nonpermissive host. This effector proteolytically targeted Rab32, which controls traffic to lysosome-related organelles in conjunction with components of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complexes (BLOCs). RNA interference-mediated depletion of Rab32 or of an essential component of a BLOC complex was sufficient to allow S. Typhi to survive within mouse macrophages. Furthermore, S. Typhi was able to survive in macrophages from mice defective in BLOC components.

  13. RIM - binding proteins (RBPs) couple Rab3 - interacting molecules (RIMs) to voltage - gated Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Hibino, H.; Pironkova, R.; Onwumere, O.; Vologodskaia, M.; Hudspeth, A. J.; Lesage, F.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated channels initiates the exocytotic fusion of synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane. Here we show that RIM-binding proteins (RBPs), which associate with Ca2+ channels in hair cells, photoreceptors, and neurons, interact with α1D (L-type) and α1B (N-type) Ca2+-channel subunits. RBPs contain three Src homology 3 domains that bind to proline-rich motifs in α1 subunits and Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs). Overexpression in PC12 cells of fusion proteins that suppress the interactions of RBPs with RIMs and α1 augments the exocytosis triggered by depolarization. RBPs may regulate the strength of synaptic transmission by creating a functional link between the synaptic-vesicle tethering apparatus, which includes RIMs and Rab3, and the fusion machinery, which includes Ca2+ channels and the SNARE complex. PMID:11988172

  14. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Fermas, Soraya; Brewer, Philip B; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Dun, Elizabeth A; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Letisse, Fabien; Matusova, Radoslava; Danoun, Saida; Portais, Jean-Charles; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bécard, Guillaume; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine; Rochange, Soizic F

    2008-09-11

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 shoot branching mutants of pea are strigolactone deficient and that strigolactone application restores the wild-type branching phenotype to ccd8 mutants. Moreover, we show that other branching mutants previously characterized as lacking a response to the branching inhibition signal also lack strigolactone response, and are not deficient in strigolactones. These responses are conserved in Arabidopsis. In agreement with the expected properties of the hormonal signal, exogenous strigolactone can be transported in shoots and act at low concentrations. We suggest that endogenous strigolactones or related compounds inhibit shoot branching in plants. Furthermore, ccd8 mutants demonstrate the diverse effects of strigolactones in shoot branching, mycorrhizal symbiosis and parasitic weed interaction.

  15. 76 FR 2761 - Proposed Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause 852.... Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulation Clauses 852.237-7, Indemnification and Medical Liability Insurance. b. Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulation Clauses 852.237-71, Indemnification and Insurance....

  16. Rab27A mediated by NF-κB promotes the stemness of colon cancer cells via up-regulation of cytokine secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaozhao; Wang, Shan; Wang, Lifeng; Wei, Mengying; Lu, Wei; Du, Zhichao; Ye, Zichen; Yang, Guodong; Yuan, Fang; Ma, Yanxia; Lei, Xiaoying; Lu, Zifan

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidences have unveiled critical roles of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumorigenicity, but how interactions between CSC and tumor environments help maintain CSC initiation remains obscure. The small GTPases Rab27A regulates autocrine and paracrine cytokines by monitoring exocytosis of extracellular vesicles, and is reported to promote certain tumor progression. We observe that overexpression of Rab27A increased sphere formation efficiency (SFE) by increasing the proportion of CD44+ and PKH26high cells in HT29 cell lines, and accelerating the growth of colosphere with higher percentage of cells at S phase. Mechanism study revealed that the supernatant derived from HT29 sphere after Rab27A overexpression was able to expand sphere numbers with elevated secretion of VEGF and TGF-β. In tumor implanting nude mice model, tumor initiation rates and tumor sizes were enhanced by Rab27A with obvious angiogenesis. As a contrast, knocking down Rab27A impaired the above effects. More importantly, the correlation between higher p65 level and Rab27A in colon sphere was detected, p65 was sufficient to induce up-regulation of Rab27A and a functional NF-κB binding site in the Rab27A promoter was demonstrated. Altogether, our findings reveal a unique mechanism that tumor environment related NF-κB signaling promotes various colon cancer stem cells (cCSCs) properties via an amplified paracrine mechanism regulated by higher Rab27A level. PMID:27556511

  17. Cloning of a brain-type isoform of human Rab GDI and its expression in human neuroblastoma cell lines and tumor specimens.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, N; Goji, J; Nakamura, H; Orita, S; Takai, Y; Sano, K

    1995-11-15

    Rab proteins, a family of Ras-related small GTP-binding proteins, play a key role in regulating intracellular vesicle trafficking. Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI3) forms a soluble complex with Rab proteins and thereby prevents the exchange of GDP for GTP. Recently, two isoforms of Rab GDI cDNA were isolated from rats and mice. In this study, we have isolated a brain-type isoform of human Rab GDI cDNA and examined its expression in neuroblastoma. We tentatively designate it as human Rab GDI alpha (hu GDI alpha) and another human Rab GDI, as human Rab GDI beta (hu GDI beta). Hu GDI alpha cDNA encodes a protein of 447 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 50,200. Northern blot analysis revealed that hu GDI alpha gene is expressed abundantly in the brain but much less in other tissues, while hu GDI beta gene is ubiquitously expressed. All human neuroblastoma cell lines and tumor specimens examined express hu GDI alpha gene to various extents, while a human T cell leukemia cell line, MOLT3, does not. The levels of both hu GDI alpha and beta mRNA were constant in a human neuroblastoma cell line, NB1, during its neuronal differentiation, while Rab3A and neurofilament-L gene expression and the number of neurosecretory granules were elevated at this condition. These results suggest that hu GDI alpha gene expression is not related to the differentiation state of neuronal cells.

  18. A role of Rab29 in the integrity of the trans-Golgi network and retrograde trafficking of mannose-6-phosphate receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shicong; Ma, Zexu; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhen; Sun, Lixiang; Zhou, Yunhe; Lin, Xiaosi; Hong, Wanjin; Wang, Tuanlao

    2014-01-01

    Rab29 (also referred as Rab7L1) is a novel Rab protein, and is recently demonstrated to regulate phagocytosis and traffic from the Golgi to the lysosome. However, its roles in membrane trafficking have not been investigated extensively. Our results in this study revealed that Rab29 is associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and is essential for maintaining the integrity of the TGN, because inhibition of the activity of Rab29 or depletion of Rab29 resulted in fragmentation of the TGN marked by TGN46. Expression of the dominant negative form Rab29T21N or shRNA-Rab29 also altered the distribution of mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR), and interrupted the retrograde trafficking of M6PR through monitoring the endocytosis of CD8-tagged calcium dependent M6PR (cdM6PR) or calcium independent M6PR (ciM6PR), but without significant effects on the anterograde trafficking of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). Our results suggest that Rab29 is essential for the integrity of the TGN and participates in the retrograde trafficking of M6PRs.

  19. The small GTPase Rab8 interacts with VAMP-3 to regulate the delivery of recycling T-cell receptors to the immune synapse.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Galgano, Donatella; Cassioli, Chiara; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Pazour, Gregory J; Baldari, Cosima T

    2015-07-15

    IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, regulates immune synapse assembly in the non-ciliated T-cell by promoting T-cell receptor (TCR) recycling. Here, we have addressed the role of Rab8 (for which there are two isoforms Rab8a and Rab8b), a small GTPase implicated in ciliogenesis, in TCR traffic to the immune synapse. We show that Rab8, which colocalizes with IFT20 in Rab11(+) endosomes, is required for TCR recycling. Interestingly, as opposed to in IFT20-deficient T-cells, TCR(+) endosomes polarized normally beneath the immune synapse membrane in the presence of dominant-negative Rab8, but were unable to undergo the final docking or fusion step. This could be accounted for by the inability of the vesicular (v)-SNARE VAMP-3 to cluster at the immune synapse in the absence of functional Rab8, which is responsible for its recruitment. Of note, and similar to in T-cells, VAMP-3 interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of the protein smoothened. The results identify Rab8 as a new player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse and provide insight into the pathways co-opted by different cell types for immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis.

  20. The small GTPase Rab8 interacts with VAMP-3 to regulate the delivery of recycling T-cell receptors to the immune synapse

    PubMed Central

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Galgano, Donatella; Cassioli, Chiara; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Pazour, Gregory J.; Baldari, Cosima T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, regulates immune synapse assembly in the non-ciliated T-cell by promoting T-cell receptor (TCR) recycling. Here, we have addressed the role of Rab8 (for which there are two isoforms Rab8a and Rab8b), a small GTPase implicated in ciliogenesis, in TCR traffic to the immune synapse. We show that Rab8, which colocalizes with IFT20 in Rab11+ endosomes, is required for TCR recycling. Interestingly, as opposed to in IFT20-deficient T-cells, TCR+ endosomes polarized normally beneath the immune synapse membrane in the presence of dominant-negative Rab8, but were unable to undergo the final docking or fusion step. This could be accounted for by the inability of the vesicular (v)-SNARE VAMP-3 to cluster at the immune synapse in the absence of functional Rab8, which is responsible for its recruitment. Of note, and similar to in T-cells, VAMP-3 interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of the protein smoothened. The results identify Rab8 as a new player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse and provide insight into the pathways co-opted by different cell types for immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis. PMID:26034069

  1. Branching toughens fibrous networks.

    PubMed

    Koh, C T; Oyen, M L

    2012-08-01

    Fibrous collagenous networks are not only stiff but also tough, due to their complex microstructures. This stiff yet tough behavior is desirable for both medical and military applications but it is difficult to reproduce in engineering materials. While the nonlinear hyperelastic behavior of fibrous networks has been extensively studied, the understanding of toughness is still incomplete. Here, we identify a microstructure mimicking the branched bundles of a natural type I collagen network, in which partially cross-linked long fibers give rise to novel combinations of stiffness and toughness. Finite element analysis shows that the stiffness of fully cross-linked fibrous networks is amplified by increasing the fibril length and cross-link density. However, a trade-off of such stiff networks is reduced toughness. By having partially cross-linked networks with long fibrils, the networks have comparable stiffness and improved toughness as compared to the fully cross-linked networks. Further, the partially cross-linked networks avoid the formation of kinks, which cause fibril rupture during deformation. As a result, the branching allows the networks to have stiff yet tough behavior.

  2. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  4. Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentz, Audrey L.; And Others

    This book describes significant issues and trends in the evolution of student affairs and reviews current methods and models of practice. The chapters are: (1) "The Philosophical Heritage of Student Affairs," by Stan Carpenter, reviewing the relationship between educational philosophy and student services; (2) "A History of Student Affairs," by…

  5. The Invisible Leaders: Student Affairs Mid-Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert B., Ed.

    This monograph, intended for a broad range of student affairs practitioners, provides eight papers on mid-level managers in higher education student affairs whose needs have perhaps been subsumed within other aspects of career tenure or career specialty. The following papers are included: "Defining Student Affairs Mid-management" by Robert B.…

  6. Harnessing membrane trafficking to promote cancer spreading and invasion: The case of RAB2A.

    PubMed

    Kajiho, Hiroaki; Kajiho, Yuko; Scita, Giorgio

    2017-01-06

    How cancer disseminates and metastasizes remains an outstanding open question. Emerging evidence indicates that membrane trafficking is frequently harnessed by tumors of epithelial origin to acquire a mesenchymal program of invasiveness. However, the critical molecular hubs used by cancer cells this context have only began to be elucidated. Here, we discussed the results of a recent phenotypic screening that led to the identification of the small GTPase RAB2A, not previously involved in cancer dissemination, as pivotal for the acquisition of pericellular proteolysis, cell dissemination and distant metastatic spreading of human breast cancer. At the cellular levels, RAB2A controls both canonical polarized Golgi-to-Plasma membrane trafficking of the junctional protein E-cadherin, and post-endocytic trafficking of the membrane-bound metalloprotease, MT1-MMP. This finding reveals an unexpected plasticity in the control of diverse trafficking routes exerted by RAB2A through canonical (Golgi stacking) and non-canonical (late endosome recycling) functional interactions, contributing to break established membrane trafficking dogma on the rigorous molecular distinction between polarized Golgi and post endocytic routes. Finally, they suggest that epithelial cancers may specifically select for those molecules that enable them to control multiple trafficking routes, in turn essential for the regulation of activities necessary for acquisition of mesenchymal traits.

  7. MUC1 intra-cellular trafficking is clathrin, dynamin, and rab5 dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaolong; Yuan Zhenglong; Chung, Maureen

    2008-11-28

    MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is abnormally over-expressed in most human adenocarcinomas. MUC1 association with cytoplasmic cell signal regulators and nuclear accumulation are important for its tumor related activities. Little is known about how MUC1 translocates from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm. In this study, live cell imaging was used to study MUC1 intracellular trafficking. The interaction between EGFR and MUC1 was mapped by FRET analysis and EGF stimulated MUC1 endocytosis was observed directly through live cell imaging. MUC1-CT endocytosis was clathrin and dynamin dependent. Rab5 over-expression resulted in decreased cell membrane localization of MUC1, with accumulation of MUC1 endocytic vesicles in the peri-nuclear region. Conversely, over-expression of a Rab5 dominant negative mutant (S34N) resulted in redistribution of MUC1 from the peri-nuclear region to the cytoplasm. Collectively, these results indicated that MUC1 intra-cellular trafficking occurs through a regulated process that was stimulated by direct EGFR and MUC1 interaction, mediated by clathrin coated pits that were dynamin dependent and regulated by Rab5.

  8. The Rab7 effector PLEKHM1 binds Arl8b to promote cargo traffic to lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Marwaha, Rituraj; Arya, Subhash B.; Jagga, Divya; Kaur, Harmeet

    2017-01-01

    Endocytic, autophagic, and phagocytic vesicles move on microtubule tracks to fuse with lysosomes. Small GTPases, such as Rab7 and Arl8b, recruit their downstream effectors to mediate this transport and fusion. However, the potential cross talk between these two GTPases is unclear. Here, we show that the Rab7 effector PLEKHM1 simultaneously binds Rab7 and Arl8b, bringing about clustering and fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes. We show that the N-terminal RUN domain of PLEKHM1 is necessary and sufficient for interaction with Arl8b and its subsequent localization to lysosomes. Notably, we also demonstrate that Arl8b mediates recruitment of HOPS complex to PLEKHM1-positive vesicle contact sites. Consequently, Arl8b binding to PLEKHM1 is required for its function in delivery and, therefore, degradation of endocytic and autophagic cargo in lysosomes. Finally, we also show that PLEKHM1 competes with SKIP for Arl8b binding, which dictates lysosome positioning. These findings suggest that Arl8b, along with its effectors, orchestrates lysosomal transport and fusion. PMID:28325809

  9. MicroRNA-101 inhibits rat cardiac hypertrophy by targeting Rab1a.

    PubMed

    Wei, Longxiao; Yuan, Menghui; Zhou, Runsuo; Bai, Qianrong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Huang, Yong; Shi, Le

    2015-04-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a primary pathological change associated with cardiovascular diseases. Dysregulated microRNAs are frequent in cardiovascular diseases and contribute to cardiac hypertrophy by regulating a series of targeted genes. In this study, a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy was created by transverse abdominal aortic constriction, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was induced using angiotensin II (AngII) to investigate the role of miR-101 in myocardial hypertrophy. We demonstrated that miR-101 was downregulated in both the transverse abdominal aortic constriction rat model and hypertrophic cardiac myocytes. The overexpression of miR-101 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, which was accompanied by a reduced Rab1a level, inhibits 3 cardinal features of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy: fetal gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell enlargement. Conversely, the downregulation of miR-101 reverses these effects. Furthermore, the luciferase reporter system demonstrated that Rab1a is a target gene of miR-101, and the ectopic expression of Rab1a can reverse the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy inhibitory activity of miR-101. Taken together, our findings identify miR-101 as an important regulator in cardiac hypertrophy and implicate the potential application of miR-101 in the therapy of cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. PLEKHM1/DEF8/RAB7 complex regulates lysosome positioning and bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toshifumi; Ye, Shiqiao; Winchell, Caylin G.; Andrews, Norma W.; Voth, Daniel E.; Varughese, Kottayil I.; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Feng, Yunfeng; Nakamura, Takashi; Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Plekhm1 gene in humans and rats cause osteopetrosis, an inherited bone disease characterized by diminished bone resorption by osteoclasts. PLEKHM1 binds to RAB7 and is critical for lysosome trafficking. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PLEKHM1 regulates lysosomal pathways remain unknown. Here, we generated germline and conditional Plekhm1-deficient mice. These mice displayed no overt abnormalities in major organs, except for an increase in trabecular bone mass. Furthermore, loss of PLEKHM1 abrogated the peripheral distribution of lysosomes and bone resorption in osteoclasts. Mechanistically, we indicated that DEF8 interacts with PLEKHM1 and promotes its binding to RAB7, whereas the binding of FAM98A and NDEL1 with PLEKHM1 connects lysosomes to microtubules. Importantly, suppression of these proteins results in lysosome positioning and bone resorption defects similar to those of Plekhm1-null osteoclasts. Thus, PLHKEM1, DEF8, FAM98A, and NDEL1 constitute a molecular complex that regulates lysosome positioning and secretion through RAB7. PMID:27777970

  11. Commissureless regulation of axon outgrowth across the midline is independent of Rab function.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Daan M; Banerji, Oishik; Tear, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Nervous system function requires that neurons within neural circuits are connected together precisely. These connections form during the process of axon guidance whereby each neuron extends an axon that migrates, often large distances, through a complex environment to reach its synaptic target. This task can be simplified by utilising intermediate targets to divide the route into smaller sections. This requires that axons adapt their behaviour as they migrate towards and away from intermediate targets. In the central nervous system the midline acts as an intermediate target for commissural axons. In Drosophila commissural axons switch from attraction towards to extension away from the midline by regulating the levels of the Roundabout receptor on their cell surface. This is achieved by Commissureless which directs Roundabout to an intracellular compartment in the soma prior to reaching the midline. Once across the midline Roundabout is allowed to reach the surface and acts as a receptor for the repellent ligand Slit that is secreted by cells at the midline. Here we investigated candidate intracellular mechanisms that may facilitate the intracellular targeting of Commissureless and Roundabout within the soma of commissural neurons. Using modified forms of Commissureless or Rabs we show that neither ubiquitination nor Rab activity are necessary for the intracellular targeting of Commissureless. In addition we reveal that axon outgrowth of many populations of neurons within the Drosophila central nervous system is also independent of Rab activity.

  12. Increased neuronal Rab5 immunoreactive endosomes do not colocalize with TDP-43 in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Matej, Radoslav; Botond, Gergö; László, Lajos; Kopitar-Jerala, Natasa; Rusina, Robert; Budka, Herbert; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2010-09-01

    Sporadic motor neuron disease (MND) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons and intraneuronal cytoplasmic translocation and deposition of the nuclear protein TDP-43. There is a paucity of data on the subcellular mechanisms of the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of TDP-43, particularly about the precise role of the endosomal-lysosomal system (ELS). In the present study, using a neuron-specific morphometric approach, we examined the expression of the early endosomal marker Rab5 and lysosomal cathepsins B, D, F, and L as well as PAS-stained structures in the anterior horn cells in 11 individuals affected by sporadic MND and 5 age-matched controls. This was compared with the expression of ubiquitin, p62 and TDP-43 and its phosphorylated form. The principal finding was the increased expression of the endosomal marker Rab5 and lysosomal cathepsin D, and of PAS-positive structures in motor neurons of MND cases. Furthermore, the area-portion of Rab5 immunoreactivity correlated well with the intracellular accumulation of ubiquitin, p62 and (phosphorylated) TDP-43. However, double immunolabelling and immunogold electron microscopy excluded colocalization of phosphorylated TDP-43 with the ELS. These data contrast with observations on neuronal cytopathology in Alzheimer's or prion diseases where the disease-specific proteins are processed within endosomes, and suggest a distinct role of the ELS in MND.

  13. A subset of RAB proteins modulates PP2A phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Francesca; Mattioni, Anna; Boldt, Karsten; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Castagnoli, Luisa; Ueffing, Marius; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-09-09

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most abundant serine-threonine phosphatases in mammalian cells. PP2A is a hetero-trimeric holoenzyme participating in a variety of physiological processes whose deregulation is often associated to cancer. The specificity and activity of this phosphatase is tightly modulated by a family of regulatory B subunits that dock the catalytic subunit to the substrates. Here we characterize a novel and unconventional molecular mechanism controlling the activity of the tumor suppressor PP2A. By applying a mass spectrometry-based interactomics approach, we identified novel PP2A interacting proteins. Unexpectedly we found that a significant number of RAB proteins associate with the PP2A scaffold subunit (PPP2R1A), but not with the catalytic subunit (PPP2CA). Such interactions occur in vitro and in vivo in specific subcellular compartments. Notably we demonstrated that one of these RAB proteins, RAB9, competes with the catalytic subunit PPP2CA in binding to PPP2R1A. This competitive association has an important role in controlling the PP2A catalytic activity, which is compromised in several solid tumors and leukemias.

  14. Prenatal findings in carpenter syndrome and a novel mutation in RAB23.

    PubMed

    Haye, Damien; Collet, Corinne; Sembely-Taveau, Catherine; Haddad, Georges; Denis, Christelle; Soulé, Nathalie; Suc, Annie-Laure; Listrat, Antoine; Toutain, Annick

    2014-11-01

    Carpenter syndrome is caused by mutations of the RAB23 gene. To date, 12 distinct mutations have been identified among 34 patients from 26 unrelated families. We report on the prenatal findings in a fetus with Carpenter syndrome with a novel RAB23 mutation. Cystic hygroma, bowed femora, abnormal skull shape and a complex heart defect were seen on ultrasound scan, and Carpenter syndrome was diagnosed at birth. Craniosynostosis and preaxial hexadactyly of the feet were retrospectively detectable on the fetal CT scan. Sequencing of RAB23 identified a homozygous mutation leading to skipping of exon 6 and premature termination codon (c.481G>C; p.Val161Leufs*16). This observation illustrates the difficulty of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome. To our knowledge, this diagnosis was suggested on ultrasound scan in only one prior patient, although in five other patients abnormal skull shape and variable findings, mainly limb anomalies including bowed femora in one case, were described during the pregnancy. Heart defect and bowed femora are rare postnatal findings. The diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome should therefore be considered on prenatal imaging in cases of bowed femora and/or cardiac defect associated with abnormal skull shape.

  15. AtGDI2, a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Yoshizumi, T; Anai, T; Matsui, M; Uchimiya, H; Nakano, A

    1998-01-05

    The GTPase cycle of Rab/Ypt proteins is strictly controlled by several classes of regulators to ensure their proper roles in membrane traffic. GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) is known to play essential roles in regulating nucleotide states and subcellular localizations of Rab/Ypt proteins. To obtain further knowledge on this regulator molecule in plants, we isolated and characterized two genes of Arabidopsis thaliana that encode different GDIs. AtGDI1 has been identified by a novel functional cloning in yeast [Ueda et al. (1996) Plant Cell, 8, 2079-2091] and AtGDI2 was isolated by cross-hybridization in this study. AtGDI2, as well as AtGDI1, complements the yeast sec19/gdi1 mutant, indicating that they can replace the function of yeast GDI. Evidence is shown that both AtGDI1 and AtGDI2 can interact with Ara4, an Arabidopsis Rab protein, in the yeast ypt1 mutant cells. AtGDI2 is ubiquitously expressed in Arabidopsis tissues with some difference from AtGDI1 in expression level. Genomic DNA hybridization using specific probes reveals the presence of one more GDI gene in Arabidopsis. This may imply differentiated roles of GDI in higher plants.

  16. Insight into the molecular switch mechanism of human Rab5a from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing-Fang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2009-12-18

    Rab5a is currently a most interesting target because it is responsible for regulating the early endosome fusion in endocytosis and possibly the budding process. We utilized longtime-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the internal motion of the wild-type Rab5a and its A30P mutant. It was observed that, after binding with GTP, the global flexibility of the two proteins is increasing, while the local flexibility in their sensitive sites (P-loop, switch I and II regions) is decreasing. Also, the mutation of Ala30 to Pro30 can cause notable flexibility variations in the sensitive sites. However, this kind of variations is dramatically reduced after binding with GTP. Such a remarkable feature is mainly caused by the water network rearrangements in the sensitive sites. These findings might be of use for revealing the profound mechanism of the displacements of Rab5a switch regions, as well as the mechanism of the GDP dissociation and GTP association.

  17. Mechanism of platelet dense granule biogenesis: study of cargo transport and function of Rab32 and Rab38 in a model system.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Andrea L; Boyle, Judith A; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2012-11-08

    Dense granules are important in platelet aggregation to form a hemostatic plug as evidenced by the increased bleeding time in mice and humans with dense granule deficiency. Dense granules also are targeted by antiplatelet agents because of their role in thrombus formation. Therefore, the molecular understanding of the dense granule and its biogenesis is of vital importance. In this work, we establish a human megakaryocytic cell line (MEG-01) as a model system for the study of dense granule biogenesis using a variety of cell biology and biochemical approaches. Using this model system, we determine the late endocytic origin of these organelles by colocalization of the internalized fluid phase marker dextran with both mepacrine and transmembrane dense granule proteins. By mistargeting of mutant dense granule proteins, we demonstrate that sorting signals recognized by adaptor protein-3 are necessary for normal transport to dense granules. Furthermore, we show that tissue-specific Rab32 and Rab38 are crucial for the fusion of vesicles containing dense granule cargo with the maturing organelle. This work sheds light on the biogenesis of dense granules at the molecular level and opens the possibility of using this powerful model system for the investigation of new components of the biogenesis machinery.

  18. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching.

    PubMed

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-03-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% ÷ 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtained by varying the reaction conditions such as pH value, the choice of reducing agent and its concentration and reaction time. Linear amylose is formed by the phosphorylase-catalyzed propagation of glucose-1-phosphate while Dg GBE introduces branching points on the α-(1→6) position by relocating short oligosaccharide chains. Our results show that the best way to obtain different degrees of branching with this set of enzymes is by regulation of the reaction time.

  19. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of Review for Submission 2011-01 AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  20. Actin cytoskeleton-dependent Rab GTPase-regulated angiotensin type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Sun, Yuansheng; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic regulation of the cellular trafficking of human angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the cellular trafficking of AT1R-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (AT1R-EGFP) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells by determining the change in donor lifetime (AT1R-EGFP) in the presence or absence of acceptor(s) using fluorescence lifetime imaging-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. The average lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in our donor-alone samples was ~2.33 ns. The basal state lifetime was shortened slightly in the presence of Rab5 (2.01+/-0.10 ns) or Rab7 (2.11+/-0.11 ns) labeled with Alexa 555, as the acceptor fluorophore. A 5-min Ang II treatment markedly shortened the lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in the presence of Rab5-Alexa 555 (1.78+/-0.31 ns) but was affected minimally in the presence of Rab7-Alexa 555 (2.09+/-0.37 ns). A 30-min Ang II treatment further decreased the AT1R-EGFP lifetime in the presence of both Rab5- and Rab7-Alexa 555. Latrunculin A but not nocodazole pretreatment blocked the ability of Ang II to shorten the AT1R-EGFP lifetime. The occurrence of FRET between AT1R-EGFP (donor) and LAMP1-Alexa 555 (acceptor) with Ang II stimulation was impaired by photobleaching the acceptor. These studies demonstrate that Ang II-induced AT1R lysosomal degradation through its association with LAMP1 is regulated by Rab5/7 via mechanisms that are dependent on intact actin cytoskeletons.

  1. RAB10 Interacts with the Male Germ Cell-Specific GTPase-Activating Protein during Mammalian Spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Hung; Ke, Chih-Chun; Wang, Ya-Yun; Chen, Mei-Feng; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Ku, Wei-Chi; Chiang, Han-Sun; Yeh, Chung-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    According to recent estimates, 2%–15% of couples are sterile, and approximately half of the infertility cases are attributed to male reproductive factors. However, the reasons remain undefined in approximately 25% of male infertility cases, and most infertility cases exhibit spermatogenic defects. Numerous genes involved in spermatogenesis still remain unknown. We previously identified Male Germ Cells Rab GTPase-Activating Proteins (MGCRABGAPs) through cDNA microarray analysis of human testicular tissues with spermatogenic defects. MGCRABGAP contains a conserved RABGAP catalytic domain, TBC (Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16). RABGAP family proteins regulate cellular function (e.g., cytoskeletal remodeling, vesicular trafficking, and cell migration) by inactivating RAB proteins. MGCRABGAP is a male germ cell-specific protein expressed in elongating and elongated spermatids during mammalian spermiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins that interact with MGCRABGAP during mammalian spermiogenesis using a proteomic approach. We found that MGCRABGAP exhibited GTPase-activating bioability, and several MGCRABGAP interactors, possible substrates (e.g., RAB10, RAB5C, and RAP1), were identified using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS). We confirmed the binding ability between RAB10 and MGCRABGAP via co-IP. Additionally, MGCRABGAP–RAB10 complexes were specifically colocalized in the manchette structure, a critical structure for the formation of spermatid heads, and were slightly expressed at the midpiece of mature spermatozoa. Based on these results, we propose that MGCRABGAP is involved in mammalian spermiogenesis by modulating RAB10. PMID:28067790

  2. RAB25 expression is epigenetically downregulated in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, M. J. A. M.; Melchers, L. J.; Mastik, M. F.; Slagter-Menkema, L.; Groen, H. J. M.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; van Criekinge, W.; de Meyer, T.; Denil, S.; van der Vegt, B.; Wisman, G. B. A.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Schuuring, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC) have a low survival rate, mainly due to metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. For optimal treatment of these metastases, a neck dissection is required; however, inaccurate detection methods results in under- and over-treatment. New DNA prognostic methylation biomarkers might improve lymph node metastases detection. To identify epigenetically regulated genes associated with lymph node metastases, genome-wide methylation analysis was performed on 6 OOSCC with (pN+) and 6 OOSCC without (pN0) lymph node metastases and combined with a gene expression signature predictive for pN+ status in OOSCC. Selected genes were validated using an independent OOSCC cohort by immunohistochemistry and pyrosequencing, and on data retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A two-step statistical selection of differentially methylated sequences revealed 14 genes with increased methylation status and mRNA downregulation in pN+ OOSCC. RAB25, a known tumor suppressor gene, was the highest-ranking gene in the discovery set. In the validation sets, both RAB25 mRNA (P = 0.015) and protein levels (P = 0.012) were lower in pN+ OOSCC. RAB25 mRNA levels were negatively correlated with RAB25 methylation levels (P < 0.001) but RAB25 protein expression was not. Our data revealed that promoter methylation is a mechanism resulting in downregulation of RAB25 expression in pN+ OOSCC and decreased expression is associated with lymph node metastasis. Detection of RAB25 methylation might contribute to lymph node metastasis diagnosis and serve as a potential new therapeutic target in OOSCC. PMID:27379752

  3. Cortactin promotes exosome secretion by controlling branched actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Seema; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hong, Nan Hyung; Seiki, Motoharu; Tyska, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that influence cellular behavior and enhance cancer aggressiveness by carrying bioactive molecules. The mechanisms that regulate exosome secretion are poorly understood. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulatory protein cortactin promotes exosome secretion. Knockdown or overexpression of cortactin in cancer cells leads to a respective decrease or increase in exosome secretion, without altering exosome cargo content. Live-cell imaging revealed that cortactin controls both trafficking and plasma membrane docking of multivesicular late endosomes (MVEs). Regulation of exosome secretion by cortactin requires binding to the branched actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex and to actin filaments. Furthermore, cortactin, Rab27a, and coronin 1b coordinately control stability of cortical actin MVE docking sites and exosome secretion. Functionally, the addition of purified exosomes to cortactin-knockdown cells rescued defects of those cells in serum-independent growth and invasion. These data suggest a model in which cortactin promotes exosome secretion by stabilizing cortical actin-rich MVE docking sites. PMID:27402952

  4. Rab3A is a new interacting partner of synaptotagmin I and may modulate synaptic membrane fusion through a competitive mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chunliang; Li, Jianglin; Guo, Tianyao; Yan, Yizhong; Tang, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Chen, Ping; Wang, Xianchun; Liang, Songping

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rab3A has been found to be a novel interacting protein of synaptotagmin I. • Rab3A binds to synaptotagmin I in a Ca{sup 2+}-independent manner. • KKKK motif in C2B domain of synaptotagmin I is a key site for Rab3A binding. • Rab3A competitively inhibits the binding of C2B in synaptotagmin I to syntaxin 1B. • Rab3A may regulate synaptic membrane fusion and exocytosis in a competitive manner. - Abstract: Rab3 and synaptotagmin have been reported to be the key proteins that have opposite actions but cooperatively play critical regulatory roles in selecting and limiting the number of vesicles released at central synapses. However, the exact mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, Rab3A and synaptotagmin I, the most abundant isoforms of Rab3 and synaptotagmin, respectively, in brain were for the first time demonstrated to directly interact with each other in a Ca{sup 2+}-independent manner, and the KKKK motif in the C2B domain of synaptotagmin I was a key site for the Rab3A binding, which was further confirmed by the competitive inhibition of inositol hexakisphosphate. Further studies demonstrated that Rab3A competitively affected the synaptotagmin I interaction with syntaxin 1B that was involved in membrane fusion during the synaptic vesicle exocytosis. These data indicate that Rab3A is a new synaptotagmin I interacting partner and may participate in the regulation of synaptic membrane fusion and thus the vesicle exocytosis by competitively modulating the interaction of synaptotagmin with syntaxin of the t-SNARE complex in presynaptic membranes.

  5. Rab1b overexpression modifies Golgi size and gene expression in HeLa cells and modulates the thyrotrophin response in thyroid cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Nahuel; Dumur, Catherine I.; Martinez, Hernán; García, Iris A.; Monetta, Pablo; Slavin, Ileana; Sampieri, Luciana; Koritschoner, Nicolas; Mironov, Alexander A.; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Alvarez, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Rab1b belongs to the Rab-GTPase family that regulates membrane trafficking and signal transduction systems able to control diverse cellular activities, including gene expression. Rab1b is essential for endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi transport. Although it is ubiquitously expressed, its mRNA levels vary among different tissues. This work aims to characterize the role of the high Rab1b levels detected in some secretory tissues. We report that, in HeLa cells, an increase in Rab1b levels induces changes in Golgi size and gene expression. Significantly, analyses applied to selected genes, KDELR3, GM130 (involved in membrane transport), and the proto-oncogene JUN, indicate that the Rab1b increase acts as a molecular switch to control the expression of these genes at the transcriptional level, resulting in changes at the protein level. These Rab1b-dependent changes require the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein consensus binding site in those target promoter regions. Moreover, our results reveal that, in a secretory thyroid cell line (FRTL5), Rab1b expression increases in response to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Additionally, changes in Rab1b expression in FRTL5 cells modify the specific TSH response. Our results show, for the first time, that changes in Rab1b levels modulate gene transcription and strongly suggest that a Rab1b increase is required to elicit a secretory response. PMID:23325787

  6. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  7. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  8. Rab14 Suppression Mediated by MiR-320a Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Juan; Wang, Lei; Yang, Haiping; Ding, Di; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jigang; Chen, Qi; Zou, Qiang; Jin, Yiting; Liu, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    We found that microRNA-320a (miR-320a) was an attractive prognostic biomarker in breast cancer (BC) previously, whereas its regulatory mechanism in BC was not well understood. Our aim was to identify miR-320a target gene, examine the clinical relationship between miR-320a and its target, and further explore the functions of its target in BC. In this study, miR-320a downstream target gene was determined in HEK-293T cells by dual luciferase reporter assay. Then western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to assess miR-320a target gene expression in fresh frozen (n=19, breast cancer and matched non-malignant adjacent tissue samples) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) (n=130, invasive BC tissues, the same panel detected for miR-320a expression previously) breast tissues, respectively. The results suggested that miR-320a could significantly suppressed Rab14 3'-untranslated region luciferase-reporter activity, and thus Rab14 was first identified as miR-320a target in BC. In 19 matched breast tissues, 12 (63%) breast cancer tissues showed high expression of Rab14 compared with the corresponding normal tissues. Rab14 immunoreactivity was mainly detected in the cytoplasm, 77/130 (59.2%) showed high expression. Furthermore, Rab14 expression was found to be inversely correlated with miR-320a expression in fresh-frozen breast tissues as well as in FFPE invasive breast cancer samples. In addition, Rab14 expression levels were positively related to tumor size (P = 0.034), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P = 0.001), histological grade (P = 0.035) and clinical tumor lymph-node metastasis stage (P = 0.001). Patients with higher Rab14 expression showed shorter overall survival time. Moreover, silencing of Rab14 could suppress proliferation, migration and invasion in breast cancer cell lines. Collectively, our results indicate that miR-320a could target Rab14 and that they could interact biologically in BC. PMID:27994670

  9. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    0 "N 084170 JPRS-CPS-85-002 8 January 1985 China Report POLITICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND MILITARY AFFAIRS 19990505 133 PKOWALITY *H«*ttSD...8217Star War.s’ Program (Zhuang Qubing; GUOJI WENTI YANJIU, No 4 , 13 Oct 84) 1 United States, USSR Compete for Dominance in Middle East (Wan Guang...Service, 8 Dec 84) 26 EASTERN EUROPE Ceausescu Greets PRC President Li Xiannian (AGERPRES, 4 Oct 84) 27 -a - [III - CC - 80

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    30 SOCIAL ISSUES Failure of Cooperative Agreement Leads to Hunger Strike [ S . Stepanov; KAZAKHSTANSKA YA PRA VDA, 24 Jan 89...72 JPRS-UPA-89-025 27 APRIL 1989 2 Political Affairs UzSSR: Informal Groups Accused of Exploiting Nationality Issues [ S . Usmanov; PRA VDA...of construction are also linked with the current year less than half of that sum was allocated for shortage of hoisting and earth -digging machinery

  11. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Discussed (Qu Xingxuan; SHANXI RIBAO, 15 Jun 83) 77 HEBEI RIBAO Comments on Promotion of Technical Cadres (Song Yufeng; HEBEI...yesterday’s Foreign Affairs Commission meeting that France’s objective in Chad is to promote negotiations, and that the Chadian problem should be solved...taking firm hold on reorganization of all tasks to eliminate the chaos of the ’Great Cultural Revolution1 in order to promote stability and unity

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rights as the right to join and organize political parties, to take part in political life , and to administer state affairs are singled out...status of workers. Along with the right to labor, it affirms such pivotal rights as the right to equal wages for an equal quantity and quality of work...play an important role in the country’s political life . And what is no less important— the increased pressure on Duarte from the left and the right

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-15

    1920 PRAVDA and other newspapers carried an article by I. Stalin, RSFSR People’s Commissar for Nationality Affairs, " Long Live Soviet Armenia...are declared annulled. Nagornyy Karabakh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan are recognized as a part of the Armenian Socialist Republic. " Long live the...and all the benefits of the Soviet system will be extended to all Armenia’s citizens in equal measure. " Long live the brotherhood of the Soviet

  14. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE - SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 .. (7 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from...of the agreement and thinks that the United States and Israel "expect the two parties to depart from the line which is antagonistic to their Middle...Regional Foreign Affairs Office and the Regional Tourism Corporation; and responsible persons of departments concerned in the region attended the banquet

  15. USSR Report, Military Affairs, No. 1775.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    possessed such qualities as revolutionary scope and practi- cality, a deep and lucid intellect, a strong feeling of friendship and comradeship...heroism of mass and prosaic work." (Question] One can often hear: "The soldier who does not dream of being a general is a poor soldier." Here you...Konstantin Petrovich, attained the greatest heights in soldierly affairs and became a marshal of a combat arm. One can say, your dream has come

  16. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    313202 JPRS-EEI-84-106 2 0 September 1984 East Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS mfmSöTicm sfÄTHrär Approved for public mlexxm...were developed. The chemical industry has successfully collaborated with the USSR in the area of polymer additives. Development of CD Antioxidant...production, of course, we need at the same time to build the food processing industry , production of chemicals for pest and disease control, we have to

  17. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    something at which to look closely, besides porno - graphy. For example, to notice and report in good time that video takes root more rapidly far away from...analyzed the state of affairs. In letters and during meetings with the deputies, the voters expressed concern that the number of teen -agers, who do not...are left to their own resources. Difficult teen -agers are not very eagerly accepted into the various circles and sports sections. The lists of bad

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-08

    nations and nationali- tion that had risen to defend the gains of Great October. ties , and for the pooling of efforts to deal with the In subsequent...and ecological-and proposes a comprehensive their native land. We should continue to develop stronger set of measures for resolving them. ties with ...increased. The actions of the staff members of the internal -affairs organs are falling with In the fight against crime among youths we need to seek

  19. The localization of the Golgin GCC185 is independent of Rab6A/A' and Arl1.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Fiona J; Chew, Pau Ling; Lodeho, Sylvain; Goud, Bruno; Gleeson, Paul A

    2009-08-21

    Mammalian golgins of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) are small G protein effectors that are required for membrane transport and contain a Golgi targeting C-terminal GRIP domain. The localization of two TGN golgins, p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97, is mediated by the small GTPase Arl1, whereas recruitment of the TGN golgin GCC185 is controversial. Recently, GCC185 was proposed to localize to the Golgi by the co-operation of two small GTPases, Rab6A/A' and Arl1 (Burguete et al., 2008), a model based predominantly on in vitro interactions. Here we demonstrate that Golgi recruitment of endogenous GCC185 does not involve Rab6A/A' and Arl1. We find minimal colocalization between Rab6A/A' and endogenous GCC185 on Golgi membranes and failed to detect an interaction between Rab6A/A' and C-terminal domains of GCC185 by yeast two-hybrid analyses. Moreover, depletion of both Rab6A/A' and Arl1 also had no effect on the localization of endogenous GCC185 or the isolated GRIP domain of GCC185.

  20. Slp2-a controls renal epithelial cell size through regulation of Rap-ezrin signaling independently of Rab27.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Takao; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2014-02-01

    Synaptotagmin-like protein 2 (Slp2-a/Sytl2) is a Rab27 effector protein that regulates transport of Rab27-bearing vesicles and organelles through its N-terminal Rab27-binding domain and a phospholipid-binding C2A domain. Here we demonstrate a Rab27-independent function of Slp2-a in the control of renal cell size through a previously uncharacterized C2B domain. We found that by recruiting Rap1 GAPs to the plasma membrane of MDCK II cells through the C2B domain, Slp2-a inactivates Rap signaling and modulates the size of the cells. Functional ablation of Slp2-a resulted in an increase in the size of MDCK II cells. Drosophila Slp Bitesize was found to compensate for the function of Slp2-a in MDCK II cells, thereby indicating that the mechanism of the cell size control by Slp proteins has been evolutionarily conserved. Interestingly, blockade of the activity of ezrin, a downstream target of Rap, with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor, miglustat, effectively inhibited cell spreading of Slp2-a-knockdown cells. We also discovered aberrant expression of Slp2-a and increased activity of ezrin in pcy (Nphp3(pcy)) mice, a model of polycystic kidney disease that is characterized by renal cell spreading. Our findings indicate that Slp2-a controls renal cell size through regulation of Rap-ezrin signaling independently of Rab27.

  1. The role and regulation of Rab40b–Tks5 complex during invadopodia formation and cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Abitha; Linklater, Erik; Bayless, Brian A.; Lyons, Traci

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invadopodia formation and extracellular matrix degradation are key events during cancer cell invasion, yet little is known about mechanisms mediating these processes. Here, we report that Rab40b plays a key role in mediating invadopodia function during breast cancer cell invasion. We also identify Tks5 (also known as SH3PXD2A), a known Src kinase substrate, as a new Rab40b effector protein and show that Tks5 functions as a tether that mediates Rab40b-dependent targeting of transport vesicles containing MMP2 and MMP9 to the extending invadopodia. Importantly, we also demonstrate that Rab40b and Tks5 levels are regulated by known tumor suppressor microRNA miR-204. This is the first study that identifies a new Rab40b–Tks5- and miR-204-dependent invadopodia transport pathway that regulates MMP2 and MMP9 secretion, and extracellular matrix remodeling during cancer progression. PMID:27789576

  2. Rab27A Regulates Transport of Cell Surface Receptors Modulating Multinucleation and Lysosome-Related Organelles in Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Shimada-Sugawara, Megumi; Sakai, Eiko; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Izumi, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Noriaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Rab27A regulates transport of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) and release of secretory granules in various types of cells. Here, we identified up-regulation of Rab27A during differentiation of osteoclasts (OCLs) from bone-marrow macrophages (BMMs), by DNA microarray analysis. Rab27A deficiency in OCLs, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown in RAW-D cell line or BMMs derived from ashen mice, which display genetic defects in Rab27A expression, induced multinucleated and giant cells. Upon stimulation with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), essential cytokines for OCL differentiation, phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (Src), and p-38 were slightly enhanced in ashen BMMs than in wild-type BMMs. The cell surface level of c-fms, an M-CSF receptor, was slightly higher in ashen BMMs than in wild-type BMMs, and down-regulation of RANK, a RANKL receptor, was delayed. In addition to receptors, OCLs derived from ashen mice exhibited aberrant actin ring formation, abnormal subcellular localization of lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP2) and cathepsin K (CTSK), and marked reduction in resorbing activity. Thus, these findings suggest that Rab27A regulates normal transport of cell surface receptors modulating multinucleation and LROs in OCLs. PMID:25882854

  3. Sorting of Clathrin-Independent Cargo Proteins Depends on Rab35 Delivered by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Dipannita; Donaldson, Julie G

    2015-09-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) co-exist in most cells but little is known about their communication and coordination. Here we show that when CME was inhibited, endocytosis by CIE continued but endosomal trafficking of CIE cargo proteins was altered. CIE cargo proteins that normally traffic directly into Arf6-associated tubules after internalization and avoid degradation (CD44, CD98 and CD147) now trafficked to lysosomes and were degraded. The endosomal tubules were also absent and Arf6-GTP levels were elevated. The altered trafficking, loss of the tubular endosomal network and elevated Arf6-GTP levels caused by inhibition of CME were rescued by expression of Rab35, a Rab associated with clathrin-coated vesicles, or its effector ACAPs, Arf6 GTPase activating proteins (GAP) that inactivate Arf6. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of Rab35 recreated the phenotype of CME ablation on CIE cargo trafficking without altering endocytosis of transferrin. These observations suggest that Rab35 serves as a CME detector and that loss of CME, or Rab35 input, leads to elevated Arf6-GTP and shifts the sorting of CIE cargo proteins to lysosomes and degradation.

  4. Over-expression of a Rab family GTPase from phreatophyte Prosopis juliflora confers tolerance to salt stress on transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    George, Suja; Parida, Ajay

    2011-03-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, an abiotic stress tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a Rab family GTPase from P. juliflora (Pj Rab7) and the ability of this gene to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Northern analysis for Pj Rab7 in P. juliflora leaf tissue revealed up-regulation of this gene under salt stress under the concentrations and time points analyzed. Pj Rab7 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 150 mM NaCl stress compared to control un-transformed plants. Pj Rab7 transgenic plants were found to accumulate more sodium than control plants during salt stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for generation of crop plants tolerant to abiotic stress.

  5. Medicago N2-fixing symbiosomes acquire the endocytic identity marker Rab7 but delay the acquisition of vacuolar identity.

    PubMed

    Limpens, Erik; Ivanov, Sergey; van Esse, Wilma; Voets, Guido; Fedorova, Elena; Bisseling, Ton

    2009-09-01

    Rhizobium bacteria form N(2)-fixing organelles, called symbiosomes, inside the cells of legume root nodules. The bacteria are generally thought to enter the cells via an endocytosis-like process. To examine this, we studied the identity of symbiosomes in relation to the endocytic pathway. We show that in Medicago truncatula, the small GTPases Rab5 and Rab7 are endosomal membrane identity markers, marking different (partly overlapping) endosome populations. Although symbiosome formation is considered to be an endocytosis-like process, symbiosomes do not acquire Rab5 at any stage during their development, nor do they accept the trans-Golgi network identity marker SYP4, presumed to mark early endosomes in plants. By contrast, the endosomal marker Rab7 does occur on symbiosomes from an early stage of development when they have stopped dividing up to the senescence stage. However, the symbiosomes do not acquire vacuolar SNAREs (SYP22 and VTI11) until the onset of their senescence. By contrast, symbiosomes acquire the plasma membrane SNARE SYP132 from the start of symbiosome formation throughout their development. Therefore, symbiosomes appear to be locked in a unique SYP132- and Rab7-positive endosome stage and the delay in acquiring (lytic) vacuolar identity (e.g., vacuolar SNAREs) most likely ensures their survival and maintenance as individual units.

  6. RAB23 Mutations in Carpenter Syndrome Imply an Unexpected Role for Hedgehog Signaling in Cranial-Suture Development and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Dagan ; Seelow, Dominik ; Jehee, Fernanda S. ; Perlyn, Chad A. ; Alonso, Luís G. ; Bueno, Daniela F. ; Donnai, Dian ; Josifiova, Dragana ; Mathijssen, Irene M. J. ; Morton, Jenny E. V. ; Ørstavik, Karen Helene ; Sweeney, Elizabeth ; Wall, Steven A. ; Marsh, Jeffrey L. ; Nürnberg, Peter ; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita ; Wilkie, Andrew O. M. 

    2007-01-01

    Carpenter syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, the cardinal features of which include craniosynostosis, polysyndactyly, obesity, and cardiac defects. Using homozygosity mapping, we found linkage to chromosome 6p12.1-q12 and, in 15 independent families, identified five different mutations (four truncating and one missense) in RAB23, which encodes a member of the RAB guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) family of vesicle transport proteins and acts as a negative regulator of hedgehog (HH) signaling. In 10 patients, the disease was caused by homozygosity for the same nonsense mutation, L145X, that resides on a common haplotype, indicative of a founder effect in patients of northern European descent. Surprisingly, nonsense mutations of Rab23 in open brain mice cause recessive embryonic lethality with neural-tube defects, suggesting a species difference in the requirement for RAB23 during early development. The discovery of RAB23 mutations in patients with Carpenter syndrome implicates HH signaling in cranial-suture biogenesis—an unexpected finding, given that craniosynostosis is not usually associated with mutations of other HH-pathway components—and provides a new molecular target for studies of obesity. PMID:17503333

  7. Carpenter Syndrome: Extended RAB23 Mutation Spectrum and Analysis of Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Dagan; Baynam, Gareth; De Catte, Luc; Elcioglu, Nursel; Gabbett, Michael T; Hudgins, Louanne; Hurst, Jane A; Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Oley, Christine; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2011-01-01

    Carpenter syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a combination of craniosynostosis, polysyndactyly, obesity, and other congenital malformations, is caused by mutations in RAB23, encoding a member of the Rab-family of small GTPases. In 15 out of 16 families previously reported, the disease was caused by homozygosity for truncating mutations, and currently only a single missense mutation has been identified in a compound heterozygote. Here, we describe a further 8 independent families comprising 10 affected individuals with Carpenter syndrome, who were positive for mutations in RAB23. We report the first homozygous missense mutation and in-frame deletion, highlighting key residues for RAB23 function, as well as the first splice-site mutation. Multi-suture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly have been present in all patients described to date, and abnormal external genitalia have been universal in boys. High birth weight was not evident in the current group of patients, but further evidence for laterality defects is reported. No genotype-phenotype correlations are apparent. We provide experimental evidence that transcripts encoding truncating mutations are subject to nonsense-mediated decay, and that this plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many RAB23 mutations. These observations refine the phenotypic spectrum of Carpenter syndrome and offer new insights into molecular pathogenesis. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21412941

  8. Rab22a controls MHC-I intracellular trafficking and antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Cebrian, Ignacio; Croce, Cristina; Guerrero, Néstor A; Blanchard, Nicolas; Mayorga, Luis S

    2016-12-01

    Cross-presentation by MHC class I molecules allows the detection of exogenous antigens by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. This process is crucial to initiate cytotoxic immune responses against many pathogens (i.e., Toxoplasma gondii) and tumors. To achieve efficient cross-presentation, dendritic cells (DCs) have specialized endocytic pathways; however, the molecular effectors involved are poorly understood. In this work, we identify the small GTPase Rab22a as a key regulator of MHC-I trafficking and antigen cross-presentation by DCs. Our results demonstrate that Rab22a is recruited to DC endosomes and phagosomes, as well as to the vacuole containing T. gondii parasites. The silencing of Rab22a expression did not affect the uptake of exogenous antigens or parasite invasion, but it drastically reduced the intracellular pool and the recycling of MHC-I molecules. The knockdown of Rab22a also hampered the cross-presentation of soluble, particulate and T. gondii-associated antigens, but not the endogenous MHC-I antigen presentation through the classical secretory pathway. Our findings provide compelling evidence that Rab22a plays a central role in the MHC-I endocytic trafficking, which is crucial for efficient cross-presentation by DCs.

  9. Rab35 GTPase couples cell division with initiation of epithelial apico-basal polarity and lumen opening

    PubMed Central

    Klinkert, Kerstin; Rocancourt, Murielle; Houdusse, Anne; Echard, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity in epithelial organs must be tightly coupled with cell division, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using 3D cultures of renal MDCK cells (cysts), we found that the Rab35 GTPase plays a crucial role in polarity initiation and apical lumen positioning during the first cell division of cyst development. At the molecular level, Rab35 physically couples cytokinesis with the initiation of apico-basal polarity by tethering intracellular vesicles containing key apical determinants at the cleavage site. These vesicles transport aPKC, Cdc42, Crumbs3 and the lumen-promoting factor Podocalyxin, and are tethered through a direct interaction between Rab35 and the cytoplasmic tail of Podocalyxin. Consequently, Rab35 inactivation leads to complete inversion of apico-basal polarity in 3D cysts. This novel and unconventional mode of Rab-dependent vesicle targeting provides a simple mechanism for triggering both initiation of apico-basal polarity and lumen opening at the centre of cysts. PMID:27040773

  10. MiR-373 targeting of the Rab22a oncogene suppresses tumor invasion and metastasis in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Lan; Wang, Luo-Qiao; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Wu, Ying-Li; Zhang, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is major cause of mortality in patients with ovarian cancer. MiR-373 has been shown to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis; however, a role for miR-373 in ovarian cancer has not been investigated. In this study, we show that the miR-373 expression is down-regulated in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and inversely correlated with clinical stage and histological grade. Ectopic overexpression of miR-373 in human EOC cells suppressed cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition process. Silencing the expression of miR-373 resulted in an increased migration and invasion of EOC cells. Using integrated bioinformatics analysis, gene expression arrays, and luciferase assay, we identified Rab22a as a direct and functional target of miR-373 in EOC cells. Expression levels of miR-373 were inversely correlated with Rab22a protein levels in human EOC tissues. Rab22a knockdown inhibited invasion and migration of EOC cells, increased E-cadherin expression, and suppressed the expression of N-cadherin. Moreover, overexpression of Rab22a abrogated miR-373-induced invasion and migration of EOC cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-373 suppresses EOC invasion and metastasis by directly targeting Rab22a gene, a new potential therapeutic target in EOC. PMID:25460499

  11. Coordinated regulation of AP2 uncoating from clathrin-coated vesicles by rab5 and hRME-6

    PubMed Central

    Semerdjieva, Sophia; Shortt, Barry; Maxwell, Emma; Singh, Sukhdeep; Fonarev, Paul; Hansen, Jonathan; Schiavo, Giampietro; Grant, Barth D.; Smythe, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Here we investigate the role of rab5 and its cognate exchange factors rabex-5 and hRME-6 in the regulation of AP2 uncoating from endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). In vitro, we show that the rate of AP2 uncoating from CCVs is dependent on the level of functional rab5. In vivo, overexpression of dominant-negative rab5S34N, or small interfering RNA (siRNA)–mediated depletion of hRME-6, but not rabex-5, resulted in increased steady-state levels of AP2 associated with endocytic vesicles, which is consistent with reduced uncoating efficiency. hRME-6 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity requires hRME-6 binding to α-adaptin ear, which displaces the ear-associated μ2 kinase AAK1. siRNA-mediated depletion of hRME-6 increases phospho-μ2 levels, and expression of a phosphomimetic μ2 mutant increases levels of endocytic vesicle-associated AP2. Depletion of hRME-6 or rab5S35N expression also increases the levels of phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) associated with endocytic vesicles. These data are consistent with a model in which hRME-6 and rab5 regulate AP2 uncoating in vivo by coordinately regulating μ2 dephosphorylation and PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels in CCVs. PMID:18981233

  12. Arabidopsis-derived shrimp viral-binding protein, PmRab7 can protect white spot syndrome virus infection in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Thagun, Chonprakun; Srisala, Jiraporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Sojikul, Punchapat

    2012-09-15

    White spot syndrome virus is currently the leading cause of production losses in the shrimp industry. Penaeus monodon Rab7 protein has been recognized as a viral-binding protein with an efficient protective effect against white spot syndrome infection. Plant-derived recombinant PmRab7 might serve as an alternative source for in-feed vaccination, considering the remarkable abilities of plant expression systems. PmRab7 was introduced into the Arabidopsis thaliana T87 genome. Arabidopsis-derived recombinant PmRab7 showed high binding activity against white spot syndrome virus and a viral envelope, VP28. The growth profile of Arabidopsis suspension culture expressing PmRab7 (ECR21# 35) resembled that of its counterpart. PmRab7 expression in ECR21# 35 reached its maximum level at 5 mg g(-1) dry weight in 12 days, which was higher than those previously reported in Escherichia coli and in Pichia. Co-injection of white spot syndrome virus and Arabidopsis crude extract containing PmRab7 in Litopenaeus vannamei showed an 87% increase in shrimp survival rate at 5 day after injection. In this study, we propose an alternative PmRab7 source with higher production yield, and cheaper culture media costs, that might serve the industry's need for an in-feed supplement against white spot syndrome infection.

  13. Modeling branching in cereals.

    PubMed

    Evers, Jochem B; Vos, Jan

    2013-10-10

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional-structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose-response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance.

  14. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  15. A positive approach to branching.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Bart J; Drummond, Revel S M; Ledger, Susan E; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2010-04-01

    Plants regulate the development of branches in response to environmental and developmental signals in order to maximize reproductive success. A number of hormone signals are involved in the regulation of branching and both their production and transmission affect axillary meristem outgrowth. With the identification of strigolactones as root-derived branch inhibitors it seems likely that a biochemical pathway starting from a carotenoid and resulting in production of a strigolactone hormone is present in most plants. Our observation that loss of CCD7 or CCD8 also results in production of a promoter of branching from roots shows the branching pathway has multiple levels of control which allows a high degree of sensitivity to subtle differences in environmental and developmental signals.

  16. Rab11 regulates trafficking of trans-sialidase to the plasma membrane through the contractile vacuole complex of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Sayantanee; Mucci, Juan; Campetella, Oscar; Docampo, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Although this is not a free-living organism it has conserved a contractile vacuole complex (CVC) to regulate its osmolarity. This obligate intracellular pathogen is, in addition, dependent on surface proteins to invade its hosts. Here we used a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches to delineate the contribution of the CVC to the traffic of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins to the plasma membrane of the parasite and promote host invasion. While T. cruzi Rab11 (GFP-TcRab11) localized to the CVC, a dominant negative (DN) mutant tagged with GFP (GFP-TcRab11DN) localized to the cytosol, and epimastigotes expressing this mutant were less responsive to hyposmotic and hyperosmotic stress. Mutant parasites were still able to differentiate into metacyclic forms and infect host cells. GPI-anchored trans-sialidase (TcTS), mucins of the 60-200 KDa family, and trypomastigote small surface antigen (TcTSSA II) co-localized with GFP-TcRab11 to the CVC during transformation of intracellular amastigotes into trypomastigotes. Mucins of the gp35/50 family also co-localized with the CVC during metacyclogenesis. Parasites expressing GFP-TcRab11DN prevented TcTS, but not other membrane proteins, from reaching the plasma membrane, and were less infective as compared to wild type cells. Incubation of these mutants in the presence of exogenous recombinant active, but not inactive, TcTS, and a sialic acid donor, before infecting host cells, partially rescued infectivity of trypomastigotes. Taking together these results reveal roles of TcRab11 in osmoregulation and trafficking of trans-sialidase to the plasma membrane, the role of trans-sialidase in promoting infection, and a novel unconventional mechanism of GPI-anchored protein secretion.

  17. High RAB25 expression is associated with good clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Téllez-Gabriel, Marta; Arroyo-Solera, Irene; León, Xavier; Gallardo, Alberto; López, Montserrat; Céspedes, Maria V; Casanova, Isolda; López-Pousa, Antonio; Quer, Miquel; Mangues, Maria A; Barnadas, Agustí; Mangues, Ramón; Pavón, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are no molecular markers able to predict clinical outcome in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In a previous microarray study, RAB25 was identified as a potential prognostic marker. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between RAB25 expression and clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced HNSCC treated with standard therapy. In a retrospective immunohistochemical study (n = 97), we observed that RAB25-negative tumors had lower survival (log-rank, P = 0.01) than patients bearing positive tumors. In an independent prospective mRNA study (n = 117), low RAB25 mRNA expression was associated with poor prognosis. Using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) we established two groups of patients according to their RAB25 mRNA level and their risk of death. Low mRNA level was associated with poor local recurrence-free (log-rank, P = 0.005), progression-free (log-rank, P = 0.002) and cancer-specific (log-rank, P < 0.001) survival. Multivariate Cox model analysis showed that low expression of RAB25 was an independent poor prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio: 3.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.93–7.62, P < 0.001). Patients whose tumors showed high RAB25 expression had a low probability of death after treatment. We also found lower RAB25 expression in tumors than in normal tissue (Mann–Whitney U, P < 0.001). Moreover, overexpression of RAB25 in the UM-SCC-74B HNSCC cell line increased cisplatin sensitivity, and reduced cell migration and invasion. Our findings support a tumor suppressor role for RAB25 in HNSCC and its potential use to identify locally advanced patients with a high probability of survival after genotoxic treatment. PMID:24403269

  18. RabGDIα is a negative regulator of interferon-γ–inducible GTPase-dependent cell-autonomous immunity to Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Jun; Sasai, Miwa; Liu, Jianfa; Yamashita, Kazuo; Ma, Ji Su; Lee, Youngae; Bando, Hironori; Howard, Jonathan C.; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Standley, Daron M.; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    IFN-γ orchestrates cell-autonomous host defense against various intracellular vacuolar pathogens. IFN-γ–inducible GTPases, such as p47 immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), are recruited to pathogen-containing vacuoles, which is important for disruption of the vacuoles, culminating in the cell-autonomous clearance. Although the positive regulation for the proper recruitment of IRGs and GBPs to the vacuoles has been elucidated, the suppressive mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor α (RabGDIα), originally identified as a Rab small GTPase inhibitor, is a negative regulator of IFN-γ–inducible GTPases in cell-autonomous immunity to the intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. Overexpression of RabGDIα, but not of RabGDIβ, impaired IFN-γ–dependent reduction of T. gondii numbers. Conversely, RabGDIα deletion in macrophages and fibroblasts enhanced the IFN-γ–induced clearance of T. gondii. Furthermore, upon a high dose of infection by T. gondii, RabGDIα-deficient mice exhibited a decreased parasite burden in the brain and increased resistance in the chronic phase than did control mice. Among members of IRGs and GBPs important for the parasite clearance, Irga6 and Gbp2 alone were more frequently recruited to T. gondii-forming parasitophorous vacuoles in RabGDIα-deficient cells. Notably, Gbp2 positively controlled Irga6 recruitment that was inhibited by direct and specific interactions of RabGDIα with Gbp2 through the lipid-binding pocket. Taken together, our results suggest that RabGDIα inhibits host defense against T. gondii by negatively regulating the Gbp2–Irga6 axis of IFN-γ–dependent cell-autonomous immunity. PMID:26240314

  19. Glucose transporter 3 is a rab11-dependent trafficking cargo and its transport to the cell surface is reduced in neurons of CAG140 Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    McClory, Hollis; Williams, Dana; Sapp, Ellen; Gatune, Leah W; Wang, Ping; DiFiglia, Marian; Li, Xueyi

    2014-12-20

    Huntington's disease (HD) disturbs glucose metabolism in the brain by poorly understood mechanisms. HD neurons have defective glucose uptake, which is attenuated upon enhancing rab11 activity. Rab11 regulates numerous receptors and transporters trafficking onto cell surfaces; its diminished activity in HD cells affects the recycling of transferrin receptor and neuronal glutamate/cysteine transporter EAAC1. Glucose transporter 3 (Glut3) handles most glucose uptake in neurons. Here we investigated rab11 involvement in Glut3 trafficking. Glut3 was localized to rab11 positive puncta in primary neurons and immortalized striatal cells by immunofluorescence labeling and detected in rab11-enriched endosomes immuno-isolated from mouse brain by Western blot. Expression of dominant active and negative rab11 mutants in clonal striatal cells altered the levels of cell surface Glut3 suggesting a regulation by rab11. About 4% of total Glut3 occurred at the cell surface of primary WT neurons. HD(140Q/140Q) neurons had significantly less cell surface Glut3 than did WT neurons. Western blot analysis revealed comparable levels of Glut3 in the striatum and cortex of WT and HD(140Q/140Q) mice. However, brain slices immunolabeled with an antibody recognizing an extracellular epitope to Glut3 showed reduced surface expression of Glut3 in the striatum and cortex of HD(140Q/140Q) mice compared to that of WT mice. Surface labeling of GABAα1 receptor, which is not dependent on rab11, was not different between WT and HD(140Q/140Q) mouse brain slices. These data define Glut3 to be a rab11-dependent trafficking cargo and suggest that impaired Glut3 trafficking arising from rab11 dysfunction underlies the glucose hypometabolism observed in HD.

  20. RabGDIα is a negative regulator of interferon-γ-inducible GTPase-dependent cell-autonomous immunity to Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Jun; Sasai, Miwa; Liu, Jianfa; Yamashita, Kazuo; Ma, Ji Su; Lee, Youngae; Bando, Hironori; Howard, Jonathan C; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Standley, Daron M; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-08-18

    IFN-γ orchestrates cell-autonomous host defense against various intracellular vacuolar pathogens. IFN-γ-inducible GTPases, such as p47 immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), are recruited to pathogen-containing vacuoles, which is important for disruption of the vacuoles, culminating in the cell-autonomous clearance. Although the positive regulation for the proper recruitment of IRGs and GBPs to the vacuoles has been elucidated, the suppressive mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor α (RabGDIα), originally identified as a Rab small GTPase inhibitor, is a negative regulator of IFN-γ-inducible GTPases in cell-autonomous immunity to the intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. Overexpression of RabGDIα, but not of RabGDIβ, impaired IFN-γ-dependent reduction of T. gondii numbers. Conversely, RabGDIα deletion in macrophages and fibroblasts enhanced the IFN-γ-induced clearance of T. gondii. Furthermore, upon a high dose of infection by T. gondii, RabGDIα-deficient mice exhibited a decreased parasite burden in the brain and increased resistance in the chronic phase than did control mice. Among members of IRGs and GBPs important for the parasite clearance, Irga6 and Gbp2 alone were more frequently recruited to T. gondii-forming parasitophorous vacuoles in RabGDIα-deficient cells. Notably, Gbp2 positively controlled Irga6 recruitment that was inhibited by direct and specific interactions of RabGDIα with Gbp2 through the lipid-binding pocket. Taken together, our results suggest that RabGDIα inhibits host defense against T. gondii by negatively regulating the Gbp2-Irga6 axis of IFN-γ-dependent cell-autonomous immunity.

  1. Selective visualization of GLUT4 storage vesicles and associated Rab proteins using IRAP-pHluorin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy and fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged GLUT4 molecule have been great tools to characterize GLUT4 localization and dynamics inside the cell. However, it was difficult to distinguish GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) from other intracellular compartments containing GLUT4 in live cells. Here, we describe the use of IRAP-pHluorin and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to selectively visualize GSVs and Rab proteins that associate with GSVs. This assay is also valuable to further defining GSV identity by unraveling other GSV-associated proteins.

  2. New Mutations in the RAB28 Gene in 2 Spanish Families With Cone-Rod Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Riveiro-Álvarez, Rosa; Xie, Yajing (Angela); López-Martínez, Miguel-Ángel; Gambin, Tomasz; Pérez-Carro, Raquel; Ávila-Fernández, Almudena; López-Molina, María-Isabel; Zernant, Jana; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna; Yuan, Bo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard; Lupski, James R.; Ayuso, Carmen; Allikmets, Rando

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The families evaluated in this study represent the second report of cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) cases caused by mutations in RAB28, a recently discovered gene associated with CRD. OBJECTIVE To determine the disease-causing gene in 2 families of Spanish descent presenting with CRD who do not have ABCA4 mutations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Molecular genetics and observational case studies of 2 families, each with 1 affected proband with CRD and 3 or 5 unaffected family members. The affected individual from each family received a complete ophthalmic examination including assessment of refractive errors and best-corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopy, color fundus photography, electroretinography analysis, and visual-evoked potential analysis. After complete sequencing of the ABCA4 gene with negative results, the screening for disease-causing mutations was performed by whole-exome sequencing. Possible disease-associated variants were determined by filtering based on minor allele frequency, predicted pathogenicity, and segregation analysis in all family members. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The appearance of the macula was evaluated by clinical examination, fundus photography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual function was assessed by electroretinography. Disease-causing mutations were assessed by sequence analyses. RESULTS Ophthalmologic findings included markedly reduced visual acuity, bull’s eye maculopathy, foveal hyperpigmentation, peripapillary atrophy, dyschromatopsia, extinguished photopic responses, and reduced scotopic responses observed on electroretinography consistent with the CRD phenotype often associated with ABCA4 mutations. Although no ABCA4 mutations were detected in either patient, whole-exome sequencing analysis identified 2 new homozygous mutations in the recently described RAB28 gene, the c.172 + 1G>C splice site variant in IVS2 and the missense c.T651G:p.C217W substitution. Both variants were determined as

  3. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    61 RENMIN RIBAO Roundup of Symposium on Dr Sun Yat-sen (Jiang Shaozhen; RENMIN RIBAO, 1 Feb 85) 62 Symposium on Confucius’ Educational...and the masses was zeroed in on implementing the party’s policies. When something cropped up, people used to ask: Is this in conformity with the...and patients. CSO: 4000/108 61 JPRS-CPS-85-019 1 March 1985 NATIONAL AFFAIRS RENMIN RIBAO ROUNDUP OF SYMPOSIUM ON DR SUN YAT-SEN HK070427

  4. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    creating a new capital with a population of 100,000. Covering the entire JPRS-UPA-89-041 27 June 1989 26 PARTY, STATE AFFAIRS Ararat Valley with asphalt ...wonder and veneration, the more and the longer I ponder them. These are the star- studded sky above my head and the moral imperative inside my soul...society to defend against them and to set up LTPs. Now patients have been allowed to get visits from relatives and to wear civilian clothes; they

  5. 76 FR 59741 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; National Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... statements in response to this notice to Paula Church Albertson, Office of Trade and Labor Affairs, ILAB, U.S...; fax (202) 693- 4784. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula Church Albertson, Designated Federal... be submitted to Paula Church Albertson at the address listed above. Submissions received by October...

  6. Student Affairs Case Management: Merging Social Work Theory with Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sharrika D.; Hazelwood, Sherry; Hayden, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Case management is a functional area in higher education and student affairs that emerged after the mass shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007. Although new to higher education, case management emerged from established social work practice. This article compares social work theory and case management standards with a new case management model for…

  7. Insulin triggers surface-directed trafficking of sequestered GLUT4 storage vesicles marked by Rab10.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) redistributes to the plasma membrane during insulin stimulation is a major goal of glucose transporter research. GLUT4 molecules normally reside in numerous intracellular compartments, including specialized storage vesicles and early/recycling endosomes. It is unclear how these diverse compartments respond to insulin stimulation to deliver GLUT4 molecules to the plasma membrane. For example, do they fuse with each other first or remain as separate compartments with different trafficking characteristics? Our recent live cell imaging studies are helping to clarify these issues. Using Rab proteins as specific markers to distinguish between storage vesicles and endosomes containing GLUT4, we demonstrate that it is primarily internal GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) marked by Rab10 that approach and fuse at the plasma membrane and GSVs don't interact with endosomes on their way to the plasma membrane. These new findings add strong support to the model that GSV release from intracellular retention plays a major role in supplying GLUT4 molecules onto the PM under insulin stimulation.

  8. Small GTPase Rab21 mediates fibronectin induced actin reorganization in Entamoeba histolytica: implications in pathogen invasion.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Merlyn; Nakano, Yumiko Saito; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Datta, Sunando

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes a wide spectrum of intestinal infections. In severe cases, the trophozoites can breach the mucosal barrier, invade the intestinal epithelium and travel via the portal circulation to the liver, where they cause hepatic abscesses, which can prove fatal if left untreated. The host Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in amoebic invasion by triggering an array of cellular responses in the parasite, including induction of actin rich adhesion structures. Similar actin rich protrusive structures, known as 'invadosomes', promote chemotactic migration of the metastatic cancer cells and non-transformed cells by remodeling the ECM. Recent studies showed a central role for Rab GTPases, the master regulators of vesicular trafficking, in biogenesis of invadosomes. Here, we showed that fibronectin, a major host ECM component induced actin remodeling in the parasite in a Rab21 dependent manner. The focalized actin structures formed were reminiscent of the mammalian invadosomes. By using various approaches, such as immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, along with in vitro invasion assay and matrix degradation assay, we show that the fibronectin induced formation of amoebic actin dots depend on the nucleotide status of the GTPase. The ECM components, fibronectin and collagen type I, displayed differential control over the formation of actin dots, with fibronectin positively and collagen type I negatively modulating it. The cell surface adhesion molecule Gal/GalNAc complex was also found to impose additional regulation on this process, which might have implication in collagen type I mediated suppression of actin dots.

  9. RAB-5- and DYNAMIN-1-Mediated Endocytosis of EFF-1 Fusogen Controls Cell-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Smurova, Ksenia; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cell-cell fusion plays essential roles during fertilization and organogenesis. Previous studies in C. elegans led to the identification of the eukaryotic fusion protein (EFF-1 fusogen), which has structural homology to class II viral fusogens. Transcriptional repression of EFF-1 ensures correct fusion fates, and overexpression of EFF-1 results in embryonic lethality. EFF-1 must be expressed on the surface of both fusing cells; however, little is known regarding how cells regulate EFF-1 surface exposure. Here, we report that EFF-1 is actively removed from the plasma membrane of epidermal cells by dynamin- and RAB-5-dependent endocytosis and accumulates in early endosomes. EFF-1 was transiently localized to apical domains of fusion-competent cells. Effective cell-cell fusion occurred only between pairs of cell membranes in which EFF-1 localized. Downregulation of dynamin or RAB-5 caused EFF-1 mislocalization to all apical membrane domains and excessive fusion. Thus, internalization of EFF-1 is a safety mechanism preventing excessive cell fusion. PMID:26854231

  10. Rab coupling protein mediated endosomal recycling of N-cadherin influences cell motility.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Andrew J; McCaffrey, Mary W

    2016-07-09

    Rab coupling protein (RCP) is a Rab GTPase effector that functions in endosomal recycling. The RCP gene is frequently amplified in breast cancer, leading to increased cancer aggressiveness. Furthermore, RCP enhances the motility of ovarian cancer cells by coordinating the recycling of α5β1 integrin and EGF receptor to the leading edge of migrating cells. Here we report that RCP also influences the motility of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Knockdown of RCP inhibits the motility of A549 cells in 2D and 3D migration assays, while its overexpression enhances migration in these assays. Depletion of RCP leads to a reduction in N-cadherin protein levels, which could be restored with lysosomal inhibitors. Trafficking assays revealed that RCP knockdown inhibits the return of endocytosed N-cadherin to the cell surface. We propose that RCP regulates the endosomal recycling of N-cadherin, and in its absence N-cadherin is diverted to the degradative pathway. The increased aggressiveness of tumour cells that overexpress RCP may be due to biased recycling of N-cadherin in metastatic cancer cells.

  11. OATL1, a novel autophagosome-resident Rab33B-GAP, regulates autophagosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takashi; Kanno, Eiko; Uemura, Takefumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2011-03-07

    Macroautophagy is a bulk degradation system conserved in all eukaryotic cells. A ubiquitin-like protein, Atg8, and its homologues are essential for autophagosome formation and act as a landmark for selective autophagy of aggregated proteins and damaged organelles. In this study, we report evidence demonstrating that OATL1, a putative Rab guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP), is a novel binding partner of Atg8 homologues in mammalian cells. OATL1 is recruited to isolation membranes and autophagosomes through direct interaction with Atg8 homologues and is involved in the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes through its GAP activity. We further provide evidence that Rab33B, an Atg16L1-binding protein, is a target substrate of OATL1 and is involved in the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes, the same as OATL1. Because both its GAP activity and its Atg8 homologue-binding activity are required for OATL1 to function, we propose a model that OATL1 uses Atg8 homologues as a scaffold to exert its GAP activity and to regulate autophagosomal maturation.

  12. Oversight Hearing on the Montgomery GI Bill. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Training and Employment of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of congressional representatives, officers of the branches of the active and reserve armed services, and college veterans' affairs officials on changes that need to be made to veterans' benefits. The testimony was given at a July 1990 House of Representatives oversight hearing on the Montgomery…

  13. Fault branching and rupture directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliss, Sonia; Bhat, Harsha S.; Dmowska, Renata; Rice, James R.

    2005-06-01

    Could the directivity of a complex earthquake be inferred from the ruptured fault branches it created? Typically, branches develop in forward orientation, making acute angles relative to the propagation direction. Direct backward branching of the same style as the main rupture (e.g., both right lateral) is disallowed by the stress field at the rupture front. Here we propose another mechanism of backward branching. In that mechanism, rupture stops along one fault strand, radiates stress to a neighboring strand, nucleates there, and develops bilaterally, generating a backward branch. Such makes diagnosing directivity of a past earthquake difficult without detailed knowledge of the branching process. As a field example, in the Landers 1992 earthquake, rupture stopped at the northern end of the Kickapoo fault, jumped onto the Homestead Valley fault, and developed bilaterally there, NNW to continue the main rupture but also SSE for 4 km forming a backward branch. We develop theoretical principles underlying such rupture transitions, partly from elastostatic stress analysis, and then simulate the Landers example numerically using a two-dimensional elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation incorporating slip-weakening rupture. This reproduces the proposed backward branching mechanism based on realistic if simplified fault geometries, prestress orientation corresponding to the region, standard lab friction values for peak strength, and fracture energies characteristic of the Landers event. We also show that the seismic S ratio controls the jumpable distance and that curving of a fault toward its compressional side, like locally along the southeastern Homestead Valley fault, induces near-tip increase of compressive normal stress that slows rupture propagation.

  14. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  15. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  16. Entry of Classical Swine Fever Virus into PK-15 Cells via a pH-, Dynamin-, and Cholesterol-Dependent, Clathrin-Mediated Endocytic Pathway That Requires Rab5 and Rab7

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bao-Jun; Liu, Chun-Chun; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Shi-Qi; Gao, Zhi-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae, is a small, enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus. Due to its economic importance to the pig industry, the biology and pathogenesis of CSFV have been investigated extensively. However, the mechanisms of CSFV entry into cells are not well characterized. In this study, we used systematic approaches to dissect CSFV cell entry. We first observed that CSFV infection was inhibited by chloroquine and NH4Cl, suggesting that viral entry required a low-pH environment. By using the specific inhibitor dynasore, or by expressing the dominant negative (DN) K44A mutant, we verified that dynamin is required for CSFV entry. CSFV particles were observed to colocalize with clathrin at 5 min postinternalization, and CSFV infection was significantly reduced by chlorpromazine treatment, overexpression of a dominant negative form of the EPS15 protein, or knockdown of the clathrin heavy chain by RNA interference. These results suggested that CSFV entry depends on clathrin. Additionally, we found that endocytosis of CSFV was dependent on membrane cholesterol, while neither the overexpression of a dominant negative caveolin mutant nor the knockdown of caveolin had an effect. These results further suggested that CSFV entry required cholesterol and not caveolae. Importantly, the effect of DN mutants of three Rab proteins that regulate endosomal traffic on CSFV infection was examined. Expression of DN Rab5 and Rab7 mutants, but not the DN Rab11 mutant, significantly inhibited CSFV replication. These results were confirmed by silencing of Rab5 and Rab7. Confocal microscopy showed that virus particles colocalized with Rab5 or Rab7 during the early phase of infection within 45 min after virus entry. These results indicated that after internalization, CSFV moved to early and late endosomes before releasing its RNA. Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that CSFV enters

  17. Rab5 GTPase controls chromosome alignment through Lamin disassembly and relocation of the NuMA-like protein Mud to the poles during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Capalbo, Luisa; D'Avino, Pier Paolo; Archambault, Vincent; Glover, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 is a conserved regulator of membrane trafficking; it regulates the formation of early endosomes, their transport along microtubules, and the fusion to the target organelles. Although several members of the endocytic pathway were recently implicated in spindle organization, it is unclear whether Rab5 has any role during mitosis. Here, we describe that Rab5 is required for proper chromosome alignment during Drosophila mitoses. We also found that Rab5 associated in vivo with nuclear Lamin and mushroom body defect (Mud), the Drosophila counterpart of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA). Consistent with this finding, Rab5 was required for the disassembly of the nuclear envelope at mitotic entry and the accumulation of Mud at the spindle poles. Furthermore, Mud depletion caused chromosome misalignment defects that resembled the defects of Rab5 RNAi cells, and double-knockdown experiments indicated that the two proteins function in a linear pathway. Our results indicate a role for Rab5 in mitosis and reinforce the emerging view of the contributions made by cell membrane dynamics to spindle function. PMID:21987826

  18. Small GTPase Rab4b participates in the gene transcription of 20-hydroxyecdysone and insulin pathways to regulate glycogen level and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li; Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Song, Qian; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2012-11-01

    The insulin and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) pathways coordinately regulate insect growth and metamorphosis. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction of these two pathways in regulating insect development is not well understood. In the present study, we found that a small GTPase Rab4b from a lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera participates in gene transcription in the two pathways. The results show that RNA interference of Rab4b in larvae results in a decrease in glycogen levels, small pupae, abnormal metamorphic transition, or larval death. The molecular mechanisms are demonstrated that knockdown of Rab4b in the larvae suppresses the transcription of glycogen synthase (GS), as well as the metamorphic-initiating factor (Br) and hormone receptor 3 (HR3), but increases the transcription of Forkhead box class O (FOXO). Further studies in the cell line confirm that Rab4b is necessary for gene transcription in the insulin and 20E pathways. Rab4b locates in the cytoplasm and takes part in regulation on FOXO cytoplasmic location by insulin induction, but travels toward the cell membrane upon 20E induction without affecting the FOXO location. The transcription of Rab4b could be upregulated by insulin injection or glucose feeding to the larvae, but not by 20E or juvenile hormone analogy methoprene. Our data suggest that Rab4b takes part in metamorphosis by regulating gene transcription and glycogen level in the insulin and 20E pathways.

  19. miR-15b-5p induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, both in vitro and in vivo, by suppressing Rab1A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Hou, Ni; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Lumin; Chang, Su'e; He, Kang; Zhao, Zhenghao; Zhao, Xiaoge; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), aberrant expression of miRNAs correlates with tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration by targeting downstream proteins. miR-15b levels are reported increased in HCC tissues; however, they negatively correlate to HCC recurrence. Our aim was to understand the reason for this phenomenon. We used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to measure miR-15b-5p expression in both HCC tissues and HCC cell lines. Our results were consistent with the report. Using bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays, we identified Rab1A as a novel and direct target of miR-15b-5p. Inhibiting the function of Rab1A with shRab1A also inhibited the growth of HCC cells and induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis. Similarly, suppressing Rab1A by overexpression of miR-15b-5p also inhibited cell growth and induced ERS and apoptosis. Moreover, re-expression of Rab1A rescued the miR-15b-5p -induced ERS, apoptosis, and growth inhibition in HCC cells. In vivo assays were further performed to testify them. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-15b-5p induces ERS, apoptosis, and growth inhibition by targeting and suppressing Rab1A, acting as a tumor suppressor gene in HCC. This finding suggests a novel relation among Rabs, miRNAs, and apoptosis. PMID:26023735

  20. miR-634 exhibits anti-tumor activities toward hepatocellular carcinoma via Rab1A and DHX33.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Cao, Yun; Fu, Jia; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Mei-Fang

    2016-12-01

    Deregulation of microRNAs contributes to the aberrant growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we showed that miR-634 expression was frequently decreased in HCC. Low miR-634 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size, poorer tumor differentiation, advanced TNM stage, vascular invasion, absence of tumor capsule and unfavorable overall survival. Overexpression of miR-634 markedly attenuated cell viability, colony formation, tumor growth and metastasis, whereas miR-634 inhibition resulted in the opposite phenotypes. Furthermore, re-introduction of miR-634 induced cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-634 inhibited the expression of Rab1A and DHX33 via directly binding to the 3'-UTR of both genes. In clinical samples, the expression of Rab1A or DHX33 was reversely correlated with miR-634. Re-expression of Rab1A or DHX33 abrogated the miR-634-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. Collectively, our data suggest a tumor suppressor role of miR-634 in HCC. The newly identified miR-634/Rab1A or miR-634/DHX33 axis serves as a potential therapeutic target for the clinical management.