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Sample records for affairs clinical science

  1. How Do Science and Technology Affect International Affairs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Science and technology influence international affairs by many different mechanisms. Both create new issues, risks and uncertainties. Advances in science alert the international community to new issues and risks. New technological capabilities transform war, diplomacy, commerce, intelligence, and investment. This paper identifies six basic…

  2. On the Teaching of Science, Technology and International Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and critical importance of science and technology in international affairs, their role receives insufficient attention in traditional international relations curricula. There is little literature on how the relations between science, technology, economics, politics, law and culture should be taught in an international context.…

  3. AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

  4. Marine Science Affairs--Selecting Priority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering Development, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes accomplishments in 1969, describing Federal programs and policies, and new programs implemented to meet those policies. The report describes the priorities that have been selected in the Federal Marine Science program during 1969. The first chapter reviews the steps taken by the Federal Government during 1969 to advance and…

  5. On the Teaching of Science, Technology and International Affairs.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Despite the ubiquity and critical importance of science and technology in international affairs, their role receives insufficient attention in traditional international relations curricula. There is little literature on how the relations between science, technology, economics, politics, law and culture should be taught in an international context. Since it is impossible even for scientists to master all the branches of natural science and engineering that affect public policy, the learning goals of students whose primary training is in the social sciences should be to get some grounding in the natural sciences or engineering, to master basic policy skills, to understand the basic concepts that link science and technology to their broader context, and to gain a respect for the scientific and technological dimensions of the broader issues they are addressing. They also need to cultivate a fearless determination to master what they need to know in order to address policy issues, an open-minded but skeptical attitude towards the views of dueling experts, regardless of whether they agree with their politics, and (for American students) a world-view that goes beyond a strictly U.S. perspective on international events. The Georgetown University program in Science, Technology and International Affairs (STIA) is a unique, multi-disciplinary undergraduate liberal arts program that embodies this approach and could be an example that other institutions of higher learning might adapt to their own requirements.

  6. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The...

  7. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  8. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  9. 75 FR 79446 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  10. 76 FR 73781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  11. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  12. 77 FR 31072 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of...

  13. 76 FR 65781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  14. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to...

  15. 76 FR 19189 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and...

  16. 75 FR 28686 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Committee advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical...

  17. Special population considerations and regulatory affairs for clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Grimsrud, Kristin N.; Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Constance, Jonathan E.; Tak, Casey; Zuppa, Athena F.; Spigarelli, Michael G.; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.

    2015-01-01

    Special populations, including women (non-pregnant and pregnant), pediatrics, and the elderly, require additional consideration with regard to clinical research. There are very specific regulatory laws, which protect these special populations, that need to be understood and adhered to in order to perform clinical research. This review provides a broad overview of some of the physiological differences in special populations and discusses how these differences may affect study design and regulatory considerations. These various special populations, with respect to regulatory affairs, are clearly defined within the Code of Federal Regulations. The definition of “special population” exists to provide enhanced awareness of their vulnerabilities, thereby allowing the creation of regulatory guidance aimed to decrease injury or outright harm. Currently, progress is being made to be more inclusive of special populations in clinical trials. This reflects changing attitudes towards drug information, with it being more representative of those patients that will ultimately be prescribed or exposed to the therapy. However, all research undertaken in these populations should be performed in a manner that ensures all protections of each participant are upheld. PMID:26401094

  18. A national clinical quality program for Veterans Affairs catheterization laboratories (from the Veterans Affairs clinical assessment, reporting, and tracking program).

    PubMed

    Maddox, Thomas M; Plomondon, Mary E; Petrich, Megan; Tsai, Thomas T; Gethoffer, Hans; Noonan, Gregory; Gillespie, Brian; Box, Tamara; Fihn, Stephen D; Jesse, Robert L; Rumsfeld, John S

    2014-12-01

    A "learning health care system", as outlined in a recent Institute of Medicine report, harnesses real-time clinical data to continuously measure and improve clinical care. However, most current efforts to understand and improve the quality of care rely on retrospective chart abstractions complied long after the provision of clinical care. To align more closely with the goals of a learning health care system, we present the novel design and initial results of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking (CART) program-a national clinical quality program for VA cardiac catheterization laboratories that harnesses real-time clinical data to support clinical care and quality-monitoring efforts. Integrated within the VA electronic health record, the CART program uses a specialized software platform to collect real-time patient and procedural data for all VA patients undergoing coronary procedures in VA catheterization laboratories. The program began in 2005 and currently contains data on 434,967 catheterization laboratory procedures, including 272,097 coronary angiograms and 86,481 percutaneous coronary interventions, performed by 801 clinicians on 246,967 patients. We present the initial data from the CART program and describe 3 quality-monitoring programs that use its unique characteristics-procedural and complications feedback to individual labs, coronary device surveillance, and major adverse event peer review. The VA CART program is a novel approach to electronic health record design that supports clinical care, quality, and safety in VA catheterization laboratories. Its approach holds promise in achieving the goals of a learning health care system.

  19. Bureau of Indian Affairs Outstanding Programs in Math, Science and Technology, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. Office of Indian Education Programs.

    This booklet describes the goals and activities of 20 exemplary programs in mathematics, science and technology for students and teachers in schools operated or funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The programs are: "Computer Home Improvement Reading Program," Beclabito Day School (New Mexico); "Cherokee High School Science: Honoring…

  20. Science education as an exercise in foreign affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.

    1995-07-01

    In Kuhnian terms, science education has been a process of inducting students into the reigning paradigms of science. In 1985, Duschl noted that science education had not kept pace with developments in the history and philosophy of science. The claim of certainty for scientific knowledge which science educators grounded in positivist philosophy was rendered untenable years ago and it turns out that social and cultural factors surrounding discovery may be at least as important as the justification of knowledge. Capitalizing on these new developments, Duschl, Hamilton, and Grandy (1990) wrote a compelling argument for the need to have a joint research effort in science education involving the philosophy and history of science along with cognitive psychology. However, the issue of discovery compels the research community go one step further. If the science education community has been guilty of neglecting historical and philosophical issues in science, let it not now be guilty of ignoring sociological issues in science. A collaborative view ought also to include the sociological study of cultural milieu in which scientific ideas arise. In other words, an external sociological perspective on science. The logic of discovery from a sociological point of view implies that conceptual change can also be viewed from a sociological perspective.

  1. Better governance in academic health sciences centres: moving beyond the Olivieri/Apotex Affair in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Ferris, L E; Singer, P A; Naylor, C D

    2004-02-01

    The Toronto experience suggests that there may be several general lessons for academic health sciences complexes to learn from the Olivieri/Apotex affair (OAA) regarding the ethics, independence, and integrity of clinical research sponsored by for profit enterprises. From a local perspective, the OAA occurred when there already was a focus on the complex and changing relationships among the University of Toronto, its medical school, the fully affiliated teaching hospitals, and off campus faculty because of intertwined interests and responsibilities. The OAA became a catalyst that accelerated various systemic reforms, particularly concerning academic/industry relations. In this article, the evolving governance framework for the Toronto academic health sciences complex is reviewed and these policy and process reforms discussed. These reforms have created collaborative activity among research ethics boards and contract research offices of the partner institutions, and allowed the joint university/hospital ethics centre to play a role in governance and policy, while respecting the missions and mandates of the involved institutions. Although few of the policies are dramatically innovative, what is arguably novel is the elaboration of an overarching governance framework that aims to move ethics to a central focus in the academic complex. Time alone will tell how sustainable and effective these changes are. PMID:14872067

  2. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  3. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  4. 78 FR 41198 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  5. 78 FR 53015 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research...

  6. 78 FR 70102 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and...

  7. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to...

  8. 77 FR 72438 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  9. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  10. 76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following four panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one hour at...

  11. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  12. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following three panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  13. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one-half hour at...

  14. 75 FR 23847 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and ] Development Services Scientific Merit.... Clinical Research Program June 9, 2010 *VA Central Office. Oncology June 10-11, 2010....... L'Enfant...

  15. Constructing clinical science.

    PubMed

    Gaspare de Santo, Natale; Bisaccia, Carmela; Cirillo, Massimo; Salvatore de Santo, Luca; Richet, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Clinical practice became clinical science in the years 1720-1820. There were many reasons for this transformation. The discoveries by Santorio Santorio, William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Lorenzo Bellini, Thomas Sydenham, Giovanni Maria Lancisi, were perceived by students who asked for changes in the medical curriculum. In 1761 Morgagni centered the study of diseases on morbid anatomy, a way to control at autopsy the validity of diagnosis. J.P. Frank who worked on public health and John Locke who supported a method of scientific reasoning based on asking questions were also instrumental for changes. Hospitals, formerly hospices for the poor, became places for curing and healing. Military hospitals represented models to be followed. In Vienna Marie Therese inaugurated the Allegemein Krankenhaus in 1785. In revolutionary France Fourcroy with the law Frimaire An III, 1794 gave a new rationale. Medicine and surgery were unified in the curriculum. Basic sciences were introduced. Dissection became compulsory, practical teaching became the rule. But it was with John Hunter, Domenico Cotugno and P. Joseph Desault that the great advancement was achieved. They were anatomists and therefore they made the knowledge of human body the core of medical curriculum. However experimentation on animals, as well as practical bedside teaching at the hospital also became important. Through their work hospitals and universities were associated in a common goal.

  16. Post-Secondary Transfers. ACCC Submission to the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the recommendations made by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) to the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology based from its examination on the accessibility of post-secondary education in Canada. Aligned with the needs of employers, and operating on the leading edge of advanced…

  17. To name the Department of Veterans Affairs community-based outpatient clinic in Artesia, New Mexico, as the "Alejandro Renteria Ruiz Department of Veterans Affairs Clinic".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Teague, Harry [D-NM-2

    2009-12-14

    07/12/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Principles, organization, and operation of a DNA bank for clinical trials: a Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study.

    PubMed

    Lavori, Philip W; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Brophy, Mary; Buxbaum, Joel; Cockroft, Jennifer; Cox, David R; Fiore, Louis; Greely, Henry T; Greenberg, Harry; Holmes, Edward W; Nelson, Lorene M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2002-06-01

    The mapping and sequencing of the human genome promises rapid growth in understanding the genetically influenced mechanisms that underlie human disease. To realize this promise fully, it is necessary to relate genetic information to clinical phenotypes. Genetic tissue banking in clinical studies provides opportunities to analyze the genetic contribution to variation in response to treatments. The challenges to progress are likely to come from the complex organizational, social, political, and ethical issues that must be resolved in order to put clinical and DNA bank information together. Concerns about subjects' rights, informed consent, privacy, and ownership of genetic material require attention in the development of DNA banks. In this paper we describe one approach to the solution of these problems that was adopted by one clinical trials group, the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program.

  19. The future role of the health sciences library in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed Central

    Wiesenthal, D

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) conducted a survey to ascertain the perceptions of 322 library service chiefs and health care administrators within the VA health care system. Participants were asked to rate the desirability and probability of twenty-five predetermined statements and to identify the forces that would have an impact, either positive or negative, on whatever statements became reality. The response rate was 93%. Analysis of the data indicated that there was no significant difference between the library managers and health care administrators in their perceptions. Results indicate that both groups believe libraries serve an integral role in VA medical centers and that library services cannot be provided as successfully off site. The data also appear to reveal a clear consensus on the part of both groups for increased library involvement in educational activities and information delivery. PMID:8471999

  20. Colleges, Institutes and Communities: Partners in Rural Sustainability. ACCC Submission to the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the recommendations made by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) to the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology based from its examination on the accessibility of post-secondary education in Canada. Colleges are the advanced skills educators of choice. Aligned with the needs of…

  1. The concentration of hospital care for black veterans in Veterans Affairs hospitals: implications for clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish K; Stone, Roslyn; Lave, Judith; Chen, Huanyu; Klusaritz, Heather; Volpp, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Where minorities receive their care may contribute to disparities in care, yet, the racial concentration of care in the Veterans Health Administration is largely unknown. We sought to better understand which Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals treat Black veterans and whether location of care impacted disparities. We assessed differences in mortality rates between Black and White veterans across 150 VA hospitals for any of six conditions (acute myocardial infarction, hip fracture, stroke, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and pneumonia) between 1996 and 2002. Just 9 out of 150 VA hospitals (6% of all VA hospitals) cared for nearly 30% of Black veterans, and 42 hospitals (28% of all VA hospitals) cared for more than 75% of Black veterans. While our findings show that overall mortality rates were comparable between minority-serving and non-minority-serving hospitals for four conditions, mortality rates were higher in minority-serving hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and pneumonia. The ratio of mortality rates for Blacks compared with Whites was comparable across all VA hospitals. In contrast to the private sector, there is little variation in the degree of racial disparities in 30-day mortality across VA hospitals, although higher mortality among patients with AMI and pneumonia requires further investigation.

  2. The concentration of hospital care for black veterans in Veterans Affairs hospitals: implications for clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish K; Stone, Roslyn; Lave, Judith; Chen, Huanyu; Klusaritz, Heather; Volpp, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Where minorities receive their care may contribute to disparities in care, yet, the racial concentration of care in the Veterans Health Administration is largely unknown. We sought to better understand which Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals treat Black veterans and whether location of care impacted disparities. We assessed differences in mortality rates between Black and White veterans across 150 VA hospitals for any of six conditions (acute myocardial infarction, hip fracture, stroke, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and pneumonia) between 1996 and 2002. Just 9 out of 150 VA hospitals (6% of all VA hospitals) cared for nearly 30% of Black veterans, and 42 hospitals (28% of all VA hospitals) cared for more than 75% of Black veterans. While our findings show that overall mortality rates were comparable between minority-serving and non-minority-serving hospitals for four conditions, mortality rates were higher in minority-serving hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and pneumonia. The ratio of mortality rates for Blacks compared with Whites was comparable across all VA hospitals. In contrast to the private sector, there is little variation in the degree of racial disparities in 30-day mortality across VA hospitals, although higher mortality among patients with AMI and pneumonia requires further investigation. PMID:20946426

  3. Preparing clinical pharmacy scientists for careers in clinical/translational research: can we meet the challenge?: ACCP Research Affairs Committee Commentary.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert B; Ellingrod, Vicki; DiPiro, Joseph T; Bauman, Jerry L; Blouin, Robert A; Welage, Lynda S

    2013-12-01

    Developing clinical pharmacists' research skills and their ability to compete for extramural funding is an important component of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy's (ACCP) vision for pharmacists to play a prominent role in generating the new knowledge used to guide patient pharmacotherapy. Given the recent emphasis on clinical/translational research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the key role of drug therapy in the management of many diseases, there is an unprecedented opportunity for the profession to contribute to this enterprise. A crucial question facing the profession is whether we can generate enough appropriately trained scientists to take advantage of these opportunities to generate the new knowledge to advance drug therapy. Since the 2009 publication of the ACCP Research Affairs Committee editorial recommending the Ph.D. degree (as opposed to fellowship training) as the optimal method for preparing pharmacists as clinical/translational scientists, significant changes have occurred in the economic, professional, political, and research environments. As a result, the 2012 ACCP Research Affairs Committee was charged with reexamining the college's position on training clinical pharmacy scientists in the context of these substantial environmental changes. In this commentary, the potential impact of these changes on opportunities for pharmacists in clinical/translational research are discussed as are strategies for ACCP, colleges of pharmacy, and the profession to increase the number and impact of clinical pharmacy scientists. Failure of our profession to take advantage of these opportunities risks our ability to contribute substantively to the biomedical research enterprise and ultimately improve the pharmacotherapy of our patients.

  4. Science leadership for tomorrow: The role of schools of public affairs and universities in meeting needs of public science agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H.; Wilcox, R. F.; Marini, F.; Reeves, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Recommendations and requirements for the preparation of personnel with some scientific or technological background to enter fields of public policy and administration are reported. University efforts to provide science administration graduate programs are outlined and increased cooperation between government and university resources is outlined.

  5. Clinical Judgment in Science: Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westen, Drew; Weinberger, Joel

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents replies to comments published by M. S. Schulz and R. J. Waldinger, J. M. Wood and M. T. Nezworski, and H. N. Garb and W. M. Grove on the original article by D. Westen and J. Weinberger. Schulz and Waldinger (2005) make the important point that just as researchers can capitalize on the knowledge of experienced clinical observers…

  6. Chair Report for the Committee on Research and Graduate Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The report of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's Committee on Research and Graduate Affairs addresses: graduate program evaluation, women's status in the pharmaceutical sciences, graduate student membership in the association, research needs and funding, animal use in research, a national health policy project, and clinical faculty…

  7. First a hero of science and now a martyr to science: the James Watson Affair - political correctness crushes free scientific communication.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 James D. Watson, perhaps the most famous living scientist, was forced to retire from his position and retreat from public life in the face of international mass media condemnation following remarks concerning genetically-caused racial differences in intelligence. Watson was punished for stating forthright views on topics that elite opinion has determined should be discussed only with elaborate caution, frequent disclaimers, and solemn deference to the currently-prevailing pieties. James Watson has always struck many people as brash; however this blunt, truth-telling quality was intrinsic to his role in one of the greatest scientific discoveries. Much more importantly than 'good manners', Watson has consistently exemplified the cardinal scientific virtue: he speaks what he understands to be the truth without regard for the opinion of others. The most chilling aspect of the Watson Affair was the way in which so many influential members of the scientific research community joined the media condemnation directed against Watson. Perhaps the most egregious betrayal of science was an article by editorialists of the premier UK scientific journal Nature. Instead of defending the freedom of discourse in pursuit of scientific truth, Nature instead blamed Watson for being 'crass' and lacking 'sensitivity' in discussing human genetic differences. But if asked to choose between the 'sensitive' editors of Nature or the 'crass' genius of James D. Watson, all serious scientists must take the side of Watson. Because when a premier researcher such as Watson is hounded from office by a vicious, arbitrary and untruthful mob; all lesser scientists are made vulnerable to analogous treatment at the whim of the media. A zealous and coercive brand of 'political correctness' is now making the biological truth of human genetic differences intolerably difficult to discover and discuss in US and UK. This needs to change. My hope is that truth will prevail over political correctness and

  8. First a hero of science and now a martyr to science: the James Watson Affair - political correctness crushes free scientific communication.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 James D. Watson, perhaps the most famous living scientist, was forced to retire from his position and retreat from public life in the face of international mass media condemnation following remarks concerning genetically-caused racial differences in intelligence. Watson was punished for stating forthright views on topics that elite opinion has determined should be discussed only with elaborate caution, frequent disclaimers, and solemn deference to the currently-prevailing pieties. James Watson has always struck many people as brash; however this blunt, truth-telling quality was intrinsic to his role in one of the greatest scientific discoveries. Much more importantly than 'good manners', Watson has consistently exemplified the cardinal scientific virtue: he speaks what he understands to be the truth without regard for the opinion of others. The most chilling aspect of the Watson Affair was the way in which so many influential members of the scientific research community joined the media condemnation directed against Watson. Perhaps the most egregious betrayal of science was an article by editorialists of the premier UK scientific journal Nature. Instead of defending the freedom of discourse in pursuit of scientific truth, Nature instead blamed Watson for being 'crass' and lacking 'sensitivity' in discussing human genetic differences. But if asked to choose between the 'sensitive' editors of Nature or the 'crass' genius of James D. Watson, all serious scientists must take the side of Watson. Because when a premier researcher such as Watson is hounded from office by a vicious, arbitrary and untruthful mob; all lesser scientists are made vulnerable to analogous treatment at the whim of the media. A zealous and coercive brand of 'political correctness' is now making the biological truth of human genetic differences intolerably difficult to discover and discuss in US and UK. This needs to change. My hope is that truth will prevail over political correctness and

  9. A bill to designate the community-based outpatient clinic of the Department of Veterans Affairs to be constructed at 3141 Centennial Boulevard, Colorado Springs, Colorado, as the "PFC Floyd K. Lindstrom Department of Veterans Affairs Clinic".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2013-10-29

    10/29/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3375, which became Public Law 113-215 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Public Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, C. P.

    In this book effects of technological developments on world conditions are discussed on the basis of the author's public statements made between 1959-70. A total of seven pieces is presented under the headings: The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, The Two Cultures: A Second Look, The Case of Leavis and the Serious Case, Science and…

  11. Assessing clinical competency in the health sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarella, Karen Joanne

    To test the success of integrated curricula in schools of health sciences, meaningful measurements of student performance are required to assess clinical competency. This research project analyzed a new performance assessment tool, the Integrated Standardized Patient Examination (ISPE), for assessing clinical competency: specifically, to assess Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students' clinical competence as the ability to integrate basic science knowledge with clinical communication skills. Thirty-four DPT students performed two ISPE cases, one of a patient who sustained a stroke and the other a patient with a herniated lumbar disc. Cases were portrayed by standardized patients (SPs) in a simulated clinical setting. Each case was scored by an expert evaluator in the exam room and then by one investigator and the students themselves via videotape. The SPs scored each student on an overall encounter rubric. Written feedback was obtained from all participants in the study. Acceptable reliability was demonstrated via inter-rater agreement as well as inter-rater correlations on items that used a dichotomous scale, whereas the items requiring the use of the 4-point rubric were somewhat less reliable. For the entire scale both cases had a significant correlation between the Expert-Investigator pair of raters, for the CVA case r = .547, p < .05 and for the HD case r = .700, p < .01. The SPs scored students higher than the other raters. Students' self-assessments were most closely aligned with the investigator. Effects were apparent due to case. Content validity was gathered in the process of developing cases and patient scenarios that were used in this study. Construct validity was obtained from the survey results analyzed from the experts and students. Future studies should examine the effect of rater training upon the reliability. Criterion or predictive validity could be further studied by comparing students' performances on the ISPE with other independent estimates

  12. Minority Affairs Department Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    The American Chemical Society (ACS), founded in 1876, is a not-for-profit organization that is recognized as a world leader in fostering scientific education and research and promoting public understanding of science. The ACS Committee on Minority Affairs has a mission to develop and implement programs to support minority involvement in the…

  13. Bioinformatic Primer for Clinical and Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Faustino, Randolph S.; Chiriac, Anca; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies has accelerated generation and expansion of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data. Acquisition of high-dimensional datasets requires archival systems that permit efficiency of storage and retrieval, and so, multiple electronic repositories have been initiated and maintained to meet this demand. Bioinformatic science has evolved, from these intricate bodies of dynamically updated information and the tools to manage them, as a necessity to harness and decipher the inherent complexity of high-volume data. Large datasets are associated with a variable degree of stochastic noise that contributes to the balance of an ordered, multistable state with the capacity to evolve in response to stimulus, thus exhibiting a hallmark feature of biological criticality. In this context, the network theory has become an invaluable tool to map relationships that integrate discrete elements that collectively direct global function within a particular –omic category, and indeed, the prioritized focus on the functional whole of the genomic, transcriptomic, or proteomic strata over single molecules is a primary tenet of systems biology analyses. This new biology perspective allows inspection and prediction of disease conditions, not limited to a monogenic challenge, but as a combination of individualized molecular permutations acting in concert to effect a phenotypic outcome. Bioinformatic integration of multidimensional data within and between biological layers thus harbors the potential to identify unique biological signatures, providing an enabling platform for advances in clinical and translational science. PMID:19690627

  14. Clinical research: assessing the future in a changing environment; summary report of conference sponsored by the American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, Washington, DC, March 1996.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M; Genel, M; Altman, R D; Williams, M A; Allen, J R

    1998-03-01

    Concerns about funding of clinical research underlie all other problems identified at the Council on Scientific Affairs conference. Future National Institutes of Health (NIH) budgets are likely to be constant at best, and the general public expects cost containment to be an ongoing goal; this is exacerbated by the impending Medicare Trust Fund crisis. Meanwhile, traditional financial support of clinical research in academic medical centers (AMCs) through cross-subsidization is imperiled by competitive pressures largely caused by managed care. Although managed care organizations (MCOs) are potentially rich sources of funding and other resources, and some not-for-profit companies are conducting some research, for-profit MCOs have not demonstrated an understanding of the importance of clinical research. Young physicians are being discouraged from careers as clinical researchers and established investigators are "dropping out" because of demands for clinical productivity and competition for research grants, loss of patients/research subjects to managed care, perceived lack of status and compensation, and overall uncertainty about continued financial support. Efforts to assist current and potential clinical investigators are discussed in this report. Loss of patients, denial of reimbursement, and competition with MCOs and contract research organizations (CROs) have placed AMCs under unprecedented pressure. However, research centers located in AMCs have allowed investigators to conduct clinical research by providing a "protected environment." Furthermore, many AMCs are determined to continue conducting clinical research and are addressing related problems. Although the NIH will continue to be a major source of funding for clinical research, partnerships between various private and public entities provide important opportunities to maximize the productivity of all individuals and institutions involved. Potential partnerships include MCOs, AMCs, CROs, pharmaceutical

  15. From access to success in science: An academic-student affairs intervention for undergraduate freshmen biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, Jacqueline Nouvelle

    The first year experience is known to present an array of challenges for traditional college students. In particular, freshmen who major in a STEM discipline have their own unique set of challenges when they transition from high school science and math to college science and math; especially chemistry. As a result, students may encounter negative experiences which lower academic and social confidence. This project was designed as a pilot study intervention for a small group of freshmen biology students who were considered academically at-risk due their math SAT scores. The study occurred during the fall semester involving an enhanced active learning component based on the Peer-led Team Learning (PLTL) general chemistry supplemental pedagogy model, and a biology-focused First Year Experience (FYE). PLTL workshops took place in freshmen residence halls, creating a live-n-learn community environment. Mid-term and final chemistry grades and final math grades were collected to measure academic progress. Self-reporting surveys and journals were used to encourage participants to reconstruct their experiences and perceptions of the study. Descriptive analysis was performed to measure statistical significance between midterm and final grade performance, and a general inductive qualitative method was used to determine academic and social confidence as well as experiences and perceptions of the project. Findings of this project revealed a statistically significant improvement between chemistry midterm and final grades of the sample participants. Although academic confidence did not increase, results reveal that social confidence progressed as the majority of students developed a value for studying in groups.

  16. Women in science in Ghana: The Ghana science clinics for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Anderson, Christina Oduma; Ababio, Baaba Andam; Asenso, Yaa Akomah; Nyarko, Savanna

    2015-12-01

    The Ghana Science Clinics for Girls, started in 1987, gave rise to a paradigm shift in the inclusion of girls in science education. One generation later, we review the impact. Our study indicates that progress has been made in the effort to mainstream women into science studies and careers, mainly as a result of the changes that took place through this intervention strategy. The retention rate for girls in science from primary to university has risen considerably and performance is higher.

  17. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  18. Designing Biomedical Informatics Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paz Lillo, Ariel Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) rests largely on information flowing smoothly at multiple levels, in multiple directions, across multiple locations. Biomedical Informatics (BI) is seen as a backbone that helps to manage information flows for the translation of knowledge generated and stored in silos of basic science into bedside…

  19. Virtue and truth in clinical science.

    PubMed

    Gillett, G

    1995-06-01

    Since the time of Hippocrates, medical science sought to develop a practice based on "knowledge rather than opinion". However, in the light of recent alternative approaches to healing and a philosophy of science that, through thinkers like Kuhn, Rorty, and Foucault, is critical of claims to objective truth, we must reappraise the way in which medical interventions can be based on proven pathophysiological knowledge rather than opinion. Developing insights in Foucault, Lacan, and Wittgenstein, this essay argues for a recovery of the Aristotelian idea of a techne, where there is a dynamic interplay between praxis and conceptualization. The result is a post-Kuhnian epistemology for medical science that recognizes the evaluative dimension of knowledge, but that also looks to a Platonic conception of the good as the ultimate constraint on human thought, thus avoiding the radically self-contained accounts of truth found in some post-modern thinkers.

  20. To designate the facility of the Department of Veterans Affairs located at 9800 West Commercial Boulevard in Sunrise, Florida, as the "William 'Bill' Kling VA Clinic".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Wasserman Schultz, Debbie [D-FL-20

    2012-09-19

    12/21/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. A virtual national laboratory for reengineering clinical translational science.

    PubMed

    Dilts, David M; Rosenblum, Daniel; Trochim, William M

    2012-01-25

    Clinical research is burdened by inefficiencies and complexities, with a poor record of trial completion, none of which is desirable. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium, including more than 60 clinical research institutions, supports a unified national effort to become, in effect, a virtual national laboratory designed to identify, implement, evaluate, and extend process improvements across all parts of clinical research, from conception to completion. If adequately supported by academic health centers, industry, and funding agencies, the Consortium could become a test bed for improvements that can dramatically reduce wasteful complexity, thus increasing the likelihood of clinical trial completion. PMID:22277966

  2. Integration of basic sciences and clinical sciences in oral radiology education for dental students.

    PubMed

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2013-06-01

    Educational research suggests that cognitive processing in diagnostic radiology requires a solid foundation in the basic sciences and knowledge of the radiological changes associated with disease. Although it is generally assumed that dental students must acquire both sets of knowledge, little is known about the most effective way to teach them. Currently, the basic and clinical sciences are taught separately. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of students when taught basic sciences segregated or integrated with clinical features. Predoctoral dental students (n=51) were taught four confusable intrabony abnormalities using basic science descriptions integrated with the radiographic features or taught segregated from the radiographic features. The students were tested with diagnostic images, and memory tests were performed immediately after learning and one week later. On immediate and delayed testing, participants in the integrated basic science group outperformed those from the segregated group. A main effect of learning condition was found to be significant (p<0.05). The results of this study support the critical role of integrating biomedical knowledge in diagnostic radiology and shows that teaching basic sciences integrated with clinical features produces higher diagnostic accuracy in novices than teaching basic sciences segregated from clinical features.

  3. Levosimendan: from basic science to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Parissis, John T; Rafouli-Stergiou, Pinelopi; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    Levosimendan is a new cardiac enhancer that exerts positive inotropic effects on the failing heart mediated by calcium sensitization of contractile proteins as well as peripheral vasodilatory effects mediated by opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth-muscle cells. Levosimendan is the most well-studied calcium sensitizer in the real clinical practice, producing greater hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement in patients with acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) than those with traditional inotropes. Immunomodulatory and anti-apoptotic properties of levosimendan may be an additional biologic mechanism that prevents further cytotoxic and hemodynamic consequences of abnormal immune and neurohormonal responses in AHFS. Recent mortality trials showed that levosimendan does not improve short- and long-term prognosis in AHFS in comparison to dobutamine or placebo. However, in patients with a previous history of CHF and on beta-blocker on admission, levosimendan seems to have a beneficial effect on short-term mortality. According to the recent guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology, levosimendan is indicated in patients with symptomatic low cardiac output HF secondary to cardiac systolic dysfunction without severe hypotension (Class IIa, Level of Evidence B).

  4. Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first edition of Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications was published in 1985 to "...offer a comprehensive review of general concepts of nutrition as they pertain to pediatrics as well as relevant information on the nutritional management of specific disease states." A ...

  5. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Sheakley, Maria L.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Leighton, Kim; Hall, Maureen; Callender, Diana; Pederson, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (nl=515) and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066). Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4) that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%). USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003). Discussion Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum. PMID:27060102

  6. Clinical Design Sciences: A View from Sister Design Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaritsky, Raul; Kelly, Anthony E.; Flowers, Woodie; Rogers, Everett; O'Neill, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the social sciences are clinical-like endeavors, and the way that "sister" fields discover and validate their results may inform research practice in education. Describes three fields of design that confront similar societal demands for improvement (engineering product design, research on the diffusion of innovations, and management…

  7. Health Sciences Librarians and Education: Clinical Librarianship, Consortia, Extraterrestial Telemedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Polly; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Three speeches presented by a panel of health science librarians discuss: (1) clinical medical librarianship, with a definition and descriptions of programs in several medical school libraries; (2) consortia, including a definition and reasons for their development; and (3) use of telecommunications for sharing medical information. (MBR)

  8. Q Sort and Student Affairs: A Viable Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woosley, Sherry A.; Hyman, Randy E.; Graunke, Steven S.

    2004-01-01

    Although Q methodology has been especially well used by researchers in a variety of social and behavioral sciences, student affairs researchers have not been inclined to deploy this methodology. This article examines Q methodology and uses a case study to explore the potential for student affairs assessment and research. Overall, the authors…

  9. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    PubMed

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century.

  10. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    PubMed

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century. PMID:22383409

  11. On art and science: an epistemic framework for integrating social science and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Jason Adam

    2014-06-01

    Calls for incorporating social science into patient care typically have accounted for neither the logistic constraints of medical training nor the methodological fallacies of utilizing aggregate "social facts" in clinical practice. By elucidating the different epistemic approaches of artistic and scientific practices, this paper illustrates an integrative artistic pedagogy that allows clinical practitioners to generate social scientific insights from actual patient encounters. Although there is no shortage of calls to bring social science into medicine, the more fundamental processes of thinking by which art and science proceed have not been addressed to this end. As such, the art of medical practice is conceptualized as an innate gift, and thus little is done to cultivate it. Yet doing so is more important than ever because uncertainty in diagnosing and treating chronic illnesses, the most significant contemporary mortality risks, suggests a re-expanding role for clinical judgment.

  12. Integrating the teaching of basic sciences, clinical sciences, and biopsychosocial issues.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H

    1998-09-01

    In this chapter, the author describes integrating the teaching of the basic sciences, clinical sciences, and biopsychosocial issues in medical education as part of the curricular reform efforts initiated by schools that participated in The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's project "Preparing: Physicians for the Future: Program in Medical Education." The author focuses on the approaches the eight schools adopted, the challenges they encountered, and the lessons they learned in attempting to implement more integrated curricula. Integration was promoted both within and among various components of medical education. For example, in some cases discipline-based courses in the basic sciences were replaced with interdisciplinary courses. Further, efforts were made both to bring clinical relevance to the basic sciences and to strengthen basic science in the clinical years. All the schools also promoted the study of the humanities and biopsychosocial sciences throughout the curriculum. The author describes problems encountered in these endeavors, resources needed to support interdisciplinary courses, the benefits of integration, and common lessons learned by the eight schools. PMID:9759115

  13. What's hot, what's new at WTC--clinical science.

    PubMed

    Mueller, T F; Oberkofler, C E; Clavien, P-A

    2015-02-01

    More than 3000 abstracts of innovative and exciting findings, covering the whole field of organ transplantation, were presented at the World Transplant Congress 2014. Key areas of presentations across all organs and tissues included HLA antibodies, antibody-mediated rejection, living donation, immunosuppression, organ perfusion and surgical procedures. In addition, cutting edge science and future perspectives were presented in state-of-the-art lectures. This review will present highlights of this meeting and demonstrate strength and success of clinical sciences in transplantation. PMID:25612489

  14. The Promise of Neurotechnology in Clinical Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    White, Susan W.; Richey, John A.; Gracanin, Denis; Bell, Martha Ann; LaConte, Stephen; Coffman, Marika; Trubanova, Andrea; Kim, Inyoung

    2014-01-01

    Neurotechnology is broadly defined as a set of devices used to understand neural processes and applications that can potentially facilitate the brain’s ability to repair itself. In the past decade, an increasingly explicit understanding of basic biological mechanisms of brain-related illnesses has produced applications that allow a direct yet noninvasive method to index and manipulate the functioning of the human nervous system. Clinical scientists are poised to apply this technology to assess, treat, and better understand complex socioemotional processes that underlie many forms of psychopathology. In this review, we describe the potential benefits and hurdles, both technical and methodological, of neurotechnology in the context of clinical dysfunction. We also offer a framework for developing and evaluating neurotechnologies that is intended to expedite progress at the nexus of clinical science and neural interface designs by providing a comprehensive vocabulary to describe the necessary features of neurotechnology in the clinic. PMID:26504676

  15. Managing Legal Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…

  16. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... April 13, 2010, Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology...

  17. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... operations and activities. Read More Vets-Affairs-2.jpg Trials in Transparency Trials in Transparency is designed ... of Veterans Affairs officials. Read More VACities_Wide.jpg VA Accountability Watch Is VA Holding Its Executives ...

  18. The Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe): An Informatics Foundation for the Science of Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Ida; Tu, Samson W.; Carini, Simona; Lehmann, Harold P.; Pollock, Brad H.; Peleg, Mor; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2013-01-01

    To date, the scientific process for generating, interpreting, and applying knowledge has received less informatics attention than operational processes for conducting clinical studies. The activities of these scientific processes — the science of clinical research — are centered on the study protocol, which is the abstract representation of the scientific design of a clinical study. The Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe) is an OWL 2 model of the entities and relationships of study design protocols for the purpose of computationally supporting the design and analysis of human studies. OCRe’s modeling is independent of any specific study design or clinical domain. It includes a study design typology and a specialized module called ERGO Annotation for capturing the meaning of eligibility criteria. In this paper, we describe the key informatics use cases of each phase of a study’s scientific lifecycle, present OCRe and the principles behind its modeling, and describe applications of OCRe and associated technologies to a range of clinical research use cases. OCRe captures the central semantics that underlies the scientific processes of clinical research and can serve as an informatics foundation for supporting the entire range of knowledge activities that constitute the science of clinical research. PMID:24239612

  19. 77 FR 61767 - The Science of Small Clinical Trials; Notice of Course

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Science of Small Clinical Trials; Notice of Course... Advancing Translational Sciences, is announcing a course entitled ``The Science of Small Clinical Trials... of designing and analyzing clinical trials based on small study populations. The course will...

  20. Autonomy and Privacy in Clinical Laboratory Science Policy and Practice.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advancements in diagnostic technologies coupled with growth in testing options and choices mandate the development of evidence-based testing algorithms linked to the care paths of the major chronic diseases and health challenges encountered most frequently. As care paths are evaluated, patient/consumers become partners in healthcare delivery. Clinical laboratory scientists find themselves firmly embedded in both quality improvement and clinical research with an urgent need to translate clinical laboratory information into knowledge required by practitioners and patient/consumers alike. To implement this patient-centered care approach in clinical laboratory science, practitioners must understand their roles in (1) protecting patient/consumer autonomy in the healthcare informed consent process and (2) assuring patient/consumer privacy and confidentiality while blending quality improvement study findings with protected health information. A literature review, describing the current ethical environment, supports a consultative role for clinical laboratory scientists in the clinical decision-making process and suggests guidance for policy and practice regarding the principle of autonomy and its associated operational characteristics: informed consent and privacy.

  1. Evaluation Guidelines for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs)

    PubMed Central

    Trochim, William M.; Rubio, Doris M.; Thomas, Veronica G.

    2014-01-01

    The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, currently funds the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs), a national consortium of 61 medical research institutions in 30 states and the District of Columbia. The program seeks to transform the way biomedical research is conducted, speed the translation of laboratory discoveries into treatments for patients, engage communities in clinical research efforts, and train a new generation of clinical and translational researchers.. An endeavor as ambitious and complex as the CTSA program requires high-quality evaluations in order to show that the program is well implemented, efficiently managed, and demonstrably effective. In this article, the Evaluation Key Function Committee of the CTSA Consortium presents an overall framework for evaluating the CTSA program and offers policies to guide the evaluation work. The guidelines set forth are designed to serve as a tool for education within the CTSA community by illuminating key issues and practices that should be considered during evaluation planning, implementation, and utilization. Additionally, these guidelines can provide a basis for ongoing discussions about how the principles articulated in this article can most effectively be translated into operational reality. PMID:23919366

  2. Nuclear Proliferation Factbook. Prepared for the Subcommittees on Arms Control, International Security and Science and on International Economic Policy and Trade of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives and the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Processes of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 99th Congress, 1st session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    To provide a handy reference for those concerned with ways to avoid the further spread, or proliferation, of nuclear weapons, the House Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs have since 1977 sponsored periodic publication of the Nuclear Proliferation Factbook. This fourth edition of the factbook includes a…

  3. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  4. Public affairs committee actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  5. US Department of Veterans Affairs disability policies for posttraumatic stress disorder: administrative trends and implications for treatment, rehabilitation, and research.

    PubMed

    Frueh, B Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Elhai, Jon D; Buckley, Todd C

    2007-12-01

    An accumulating body of empirical data suggests that current Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) psychiatric disability and rehabilitation policies for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are problematic. In combination, recent administrative trends and data from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest theses policies are countertherapeutic and hinder research efforts to advance our knowledge regarding PTSD. Current VA disability policies require fundamental reform to bring them into line with modern science and medicine, including current empirically supported concepts of resilience and psychiatric rehabilitation.

  6. Crisis in Science and Math Education. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

    This document contains the transcript of a senate hearing on the crisis in science and math education. The document includes the opening statements of Senators Glenn, Kohl, Bingaman, Lieberman, Heinz, and Sasser, and the testimony of seven witnesses including: Honorable Mark O. Hatfield, Senator from the State of Oregon; Carl Sagan, Ph.D. Cornell…

  7. Public affairs events at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-02-01

    AGU's Public Affairs team presented two workshop luncheons and hosted 17 oral and poster sessions at the 2011 Fall Meeting. Topics ranged from defining the importance of the geosciences, to climate change science for communities and institutions. The workshop luncheon "How to Be a Congressional Science Fellow or Mass Media Fellow" was a well-attended event with more than 115 participants. The luncheon provided the opportunity for audience members to ask fellow scientists about their experiences working either in Congress or as a reporter for a news organization. For scientists looking to expand their expertise outside the academic environment, these AGU fellowships are fantastic opportunities.

  8. Student Affairs Capitalism and Early-Career Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Helm, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study explores student affairs capitalism as the alteration of professional practice towards the financial interests of institutions. Student affairs capitalism has the potential to create dynamics in which the interests of students become secondary to the institution's economic needs. This study examined this phenomenon from the…

  9. 78 FR 58314 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  10. 75 FR 10488 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  11. 77 FR 42746 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  12. 78 FR 58315 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  13. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  14. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  15. 76 FR 3912 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... how to optimally utilize mechanistic biomarkers and apply clinical pharmacology tools, such...

  16. The Galileo Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Presented is background material on Galileo and his views on astronomy, religion, and Copernicus. The history of theory development related to the science of astronomy and a review of Galileo's writings are included. (KR)

  17. 76 FR 43712 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Affairs, Washington, DC and Oregon Museum of Science and Industry, Portland, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Oregon Museum of Science... the human remains may contact the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry. Repatriation of the...

  18. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  19. A Computational Study of Commonsense Science: An Exploration in the Automated Analysis of Clinical Interview Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research in the learning sciences has focused on students' commonsense science knowledge--the everyday knowledge of the natural world that is gained outside of formal instruction. Although researchers studying commonsense science have employed a variety of methods, 1-on-1 clinical interviews have played a unique role. The data…

  20. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  1. Can the Faculty Development Door Swing Both Ways? Science and Clinical Teaching in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lisa A.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between clinical teaching and research in the basic sciences is discussed. The same energy expended to enhance clinical research will also efficiently build new curricula; ease the strains associated with assigning a priority to teaching or research; and serve to further science, teaching, and technology transfer. (MLW)

  2. Interpretation of biomonitoring data in clinical medicine and the exposure sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bryan L. Barr, Dana B.; Wright, J. Michael; Buckley, Brian; Magsumbol, Melina S.

    2008-11-15

    Biomonitoring has become a fundamental tool in both exposure science and clinical medicine. Despite significant analytical advances, the clinical use of environmental biomarkers remains in its infancy. Clinical use of environmental biomarkers poses some complex scientific and ethical challenges. The purpose of this paper is compare how the clinical and exposure sciences differ with respect to their interpretation and use of biological data. Additionally, the clinical use of environmental biomonitoring data is discussed. A case study is used to illustrate the complexities of conducting biomonitoring research on highly vulnerable populations in a clinical setting.

  3. Technology and Student Affairs: Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneta, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The author addresses two critical questions related to technology: How has students' use of technology influenced student affairs work? How do we best align our business practices with advances in information technology?

  4. Caring letters for suicide prevention: implementation of a multi-site randomized clinical trial in the U.S. military and Veteran Affairs healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; Thomas, Elissa K; Chipps, Joan; Relova, Rona M; Brown, Daphne; McLay, Robert; Lee, Tina T; Nakama, Helenna; Smolenski, Derek J

    2014-03-01

    Caring letters is a suicide prevention intervention that entails the sending of brief messages that espouse caring concern to patients following discharge from treatment. First tested more than four decades ago, this intervention is one of the only interventions shown in a randomized controlled trial to reduce suicide mortality rates. Due to elevated suicide risk among patients following psychiatric hospitalization and the steady increase in suicide rates among the U.S. military personnel, it is imperative to test interventions that may help prevent suicide among high-risk military personnel and veterans. This paper describes the design, methods, study protocol, and regulatory implementation processes for a multi-site randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a caring emails intervention for suicide prevention in the military and VA healthcare systems. The primary outcome is suicide mortality rates to be determined 24 months post-discharge from index hospital stay. Healthcare re-utilization rates will also be evaluated and comprehensive data will be collected regarding suicide risk factors. Recommendations for navigating the military and VA research regulatory processes and implementing a multi-site clinical trial at military and VA hospitals are discussed.

  5. A Master of Science Degree in (Clinical) Pharmacology at the University of the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirachi, Donald Y.; Jones, Judith K.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype program leading to a clinically-oriented Master of Science degree in pharmacology is described. It differs from a clinical residency program, does not give a wide clinical medicine exposure, and is heavily oriented towards pharmacology and research, thereby developing students with scientific perspectives who can work as consultants.…

  6. Ray: Shaping Science Affairs at State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerkel, Fred H.

    1975-01-01

    Particular concern at the slow pace with which the United States is making use of domestic energy technology, specifically nuclear power, is discussed with specific emphasis on a liquid metal fast breeder demonstration plant under consideration. (EB)

  7. IQ and Science: The Mysterious Burt Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    The author recounts his experiences investigating alleged fraud by Cyril Burt (1976) in his work on the genetic foundations of human intelligence. The evidence fails to prove Burt guilty, and his assertions about the genetic factors of individual differences in intelligence are finding corroboration in contemporary psychology. (SLD)

  8. Clopidogrel: A multifaceted affair.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Tugores, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Clopidogrel has been the therapy of choice, combined with aspirin, against platelet aggregation in patients at risk of suffering a vascular thrombotic event. Not all patients respond equally to clopidogrel, an observation that has led to searching for a test that, in the clinical setting, could predict patients' "resistance" to therapy. The evidence reveals a complex pharmacokinetic profile for clopidogrel, with multiple players involved, including cytochromes, characteristics of the target tissue, and accompanying clinical conditions. Despite FDA black box warnings recommending CYP2C19 genotyping before clopidogrel use, no robust evidence indicates that CYP2C19 function determines clinical response to the drug, either based on the presence of loss of function alleles or drug interactions with CYP2C19 inhibitors, like omeprazole. A tailored anti-aggregation treatment based on ex vivo platelet reactivity also seems unlikely due to the lack of robustness of most assays. The identification of clinical conditions that are at higher risk of new cardiovascular events, such as diabetes, obesity, coronary artery disease, or specific stenting procedures, seems to be a prudent approach to tailor anti-platelet therapy with more powerful drugs, accompanied by careful counseling to promote patient compliance. PMID:25328019

  9. Science, technology, and innovation: nursing responsibilities in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Grady, Christine; Edgerly, Maureen

    2009-12-01

    Clinical research is a systematic investigation of human biology, health, or illness involving human beings. It builds on laboratory and animal studies and often involves clinical trials, which are specifically designed to test the safety and efficacy of interventions in humans. Nurses are critical to the conduct of ethical clinical research and face clinical, ethical, and regulatory challenges in research in many diverse roles. Understanding and addressing the ethical challenges that complicate clinical research is integral to upholding the moral commitment that nurses make to patients, including protecting their rights and ensuring their safety as patients and as research participants. PMID:19850183

  10. The Decline of Clinical Laboratory Science Programs in Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Janet Brown

    2000-01-01

    Enrollment in clinical laboratory science has declined over 50% since 1980. Reasons include lagging salaries, limited advancement opportunities, lack of doctoral-level faculty, and the expense of operating programs. Strategic organizational changes are needed to revive the field. (SK)

  11. A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

    2009-01-01

    The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

  12. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  13. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  14. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  15. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  16. Employment Practices in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, David A.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1981-01-01

    Investigated job search and hiring practices in student affairs work. Questionnaires sent to member institutions of the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators indicated the extensive use of newspapers to advertise positions. Institutions placed a high level of importance on effective resumes and reference letters. (RC)

  17. Sustainability, Student Affairs, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kathleen G.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are developing both the next generation of leaders as well as state-of-the-art technology that allow climate reduction aspirations and triple bottom-line outcomes to become realities. Divisions of student affairs play a crucial role in the sustainability movement in colleges and universities. The technology-savvy,…

  18. Employee Development in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan Holtzer

    A survey was undertaken of staff in Student Affairs of the University of California at Davis in December 1979. Data gathered in that survey and relating to professional development activities of the staff are presented. The objective is to provide information on development opportunities for those employees, staff participation in them, and need…

  19. Online Education in Public Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Martha H.; Hammond, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study provides an overview of the current landscape of online education in the fields of Master of Public Administration and Master of Public Policy (MPA/MPP) utilizing a dataset compiled from content analysis of MPA/MPP programs' websites and survey of 96 National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration…

  20. Curriculum Considerations for Correlating Basic and Clinical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Richard S.

    1980-01-01

    Six ways a dentist can profit from the basic sciences are: (1) increased sensitivity to the environment, (2) improved judgment, (3) better explanations to patients, (4) enhanced ability to learn, (5) improved communication with health professionals, and (6) greater role diversity. Literature is reviewed related to mental processes. (Author/MLW)

  1. Practising Active Science with Child Refugees: A Clinical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrier, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, pilot sessions in Rwanda and Nepal are analysed to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of active science for traumatised child refugees. The nature of the activities, choice of tools, organisation of the sessions, group size, and the role of the educators are investigated. Despite the lack of quantitative assessment, practical…

  2. Evaluating various areas of process improvement in an effort to improve clinical research: discussions from the 2012 Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Clinical Research Management workshop.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Jane E; Cola, Philip A; Rosenblum, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Emphasis has been placed on assessing the efficiency of clinical and translational research as part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) goal to "improve human health." Improvements identified and implemented by individual organizations cannot address the research infrastructure needs of all clinical and translational research conducted. NIH's National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) has brought together 61 Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) sites creating a virtual national laboratory that reflects the diversity and breadth of academic medical centers to collectively improve clinical and translational science. The annual Clinical Research Management workshop is organized by the CTSA consortium with participation from CTSA awardees, NIH, and others with an interest in clinical research management. The primary objective of the workshop is to disseminate information that improves clinical research management although the specific objectives of each workshop evolve within the consortium. The fifth annual workshop entitled "Learning by doing; applying evidence-based tools to re-engineer clinical research management" took place in June 2012. The primary objective of the 2012 workshop was to utilize data to evaluate, modify, and improve clinical research management. This report provides a brief summary of the workshop proceedings and the major themes discussed among the participants. PMID:23919369

  3. Evaluating various areas of process improvement in an effort to improve clinical research: Discussions from the 2012 Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Clinical Research Management Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Emphasis has been placed on assessing the efficiency of clinical and translational research as part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) goal to “improve human health”. Improvements identified and implemented by individual organizations cannot address the research infrastructure needs of all clinical and translational research conducted. NIH’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) has brought together 61 Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) sites creating a virtual national laboratory that reflects the diversity and breadth of academic medical centers to collectively improve clinical and translational science. The annual Clinical Research Management workshop is organized by the CTSA consortium with participation from CTSA awardees, NIH, and others with an interest in clinical research management. The primary objective of the workshop is to disseminate information that improves clinical research management although the specific objectives of each workshop evolve within the consortium. The fifth annual workshop entitled “Learning by doing; applying evidence-based tools to re-engineer clinical research management” took place in June 2012. The primary objective of the 2012 workshop was to utilize data to evaluate, modify, and improve clinical research management. This report provides a brief summary of the workshop proceedings and the major themes discussed among the participants. PMID:23919369

  4. The science and economics of improving clinical communication.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, William T; Weavind, Liza; Selby, John

    2008-12-01

    This article presents a complex clinical scenario based on actual communication breakdowns that led to a sentinel event. Basic communication theory that underlies clinical interactions and the tenets of health care economic evaluation are reviewed. The process of the handoff as it relates to clinical interactions is discussed and the weaknesses in communication arising from handoff failures in the operative and critical care environments are examined. The discussion follows by looking at the influences of current medical culture, emerging technology, and changing care environments and their impact on communication behaviors and resultant effect on patient outcomes. A detailed cost analysis of the charges incurred for both standard and escalated care required for the case is followed by a discussion of the economic basis for improving clinical communication and patient safety using the SBAR tool.

  5. 77 FR 1696 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... pharmacology aspects of pediatric clinical trial design and dosing to optimize pediatric drug development....

  6. 75 FR 8368 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... certain drugs; (2) a new patient-centric clinical pharmacology approach to drug safety; (3) the design...

  7. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  8. It's time to Rework the Blueprints: Building a Science for Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millon, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    The aims in this article are to connect the conceptual structure of clinical psychological science to what the author believes to be the omnipresent principles of evolution, use the evolutionary model to create a deductively derived clinical theory and taxonomy, link the theory and taxonomy to comprehensive and integrated approaches to assessment,…

  9. A First-Year, Student-Managed Course to Correlate Basic Sciences with Clinical Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Murray; Yeasting, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    A course, designed to illustrate the correlation of the biochemistry and physiology content of the curriculum with clinical applications, is described. The entire presentation, from introduction and interview of the patient to the correlation of the clinical application with the basic sciences, was managed by the students. (Author/MLW)

  10. The quantitative evaluation of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Lei; Diao, Tianxi

    2013-12-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program is one of the most important initiatives in translational medical funding. The quantitative evaluation of the efficiency and performance of the CTSA program has a significant referential meaning for the decision making of global translational medical funding. Using science mapping and scientometric analytic tools, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles funded by the CTSA program. The results of the study showed that the quantitative productivities of the CTSA program had a stable increase since 2008. In addition, the emerging trends of the research funded by the CTSA program covered clinical and basic medical research fields. The academic benefits from the CTSA program were assisting its members to build a robust academic home for the Clinical and Translational Science and to attract other financial support. This study provided a quantitative evaluation of the CTSA program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis. Further research is required to compare and optimize other quantitative methods and to integrate various research results.

  11. Systemic Hydration: Relating Science to Clinical Practice in Vocal Health

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Naomi A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Study Design Literature Review Methods Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology and biomechanics. Results The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest amongst multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production, however the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and in some cases offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. Conclusions A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function, however greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. PMID:24880674

  12. Demineralized Bone and BMPs: Basic Science and Clinical Utility.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Julie

    2015-12-01

    The clinical demand for bone void fillers led to the development of off-the-shelf banked bone and synthetic and biologic substitute materials to be used either alone or as bone graft volume extenders. Demineralized bone (DB) has a remarkable capacity to induce new bone formation even when implanted subcutaneously in experimental animals, a phenomenon termed "osteoinduction." DB products are now widely available through tissue bank procurement of bone from rigorously screened donors. When properly processed, DB products are useful in craniomaxillofacial, oral, hand, and orthopedic applications. The isolation of proteins believed to be responsible for the osteoinductive activity of DB, termed bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), led to the cloning of a family of genes and synthesis of recombinant human BMPs (rhBMPs). They have been approved for distribution and use in specific maxillofacial and orthopedic applications. Clinical trials and studies of orthopedic and craniofacial applications have indicated that supraphysiologic doses of a single recombinant protein are needed to promote bone repair. Information about the biology, chemistry, and actions of rhBMPs and DB has called into question whether a single recombinant BMP would result in clinically useful bone induction and morphogenesis. Compelling preclinical and specific clinical evidence has indicated the efficacy of DB and for rhBMPs either combined with autograft or compared with an autograft alone. In light of questions about potency and safety, however, additional high-level evidence is needed for specific clinical indications and appropriate patient populations that would benefit from their use. PMID:26608140

  13. Integrating research into clinical internship training bridging the science/practice gap in pediatric psychology.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.

  14. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  15. Developing a competency-based educational structure within clinical and translational science.

    PubMed

    Dilmore, Terri Collin; Moore, Debra W; Bjork, Zuleikha

    2013-04-01

    In the emerging field of clinical and translational science (CTS), where researchers use both basic and clinical science research methodologies to move discoveries to clinical practice, establishing standards of competence is essential for preparing physician-scientists for the profession and for defining the field. The diversity of skills needed to execute quality research within the field of CTS has heightened the importance of an educational process that requires learners to demonstrate competence. Particularly within the more applied clinical science disciplines where there is a multi- or interdisciplinary approach to conducting research, defining and articulating the unique role and associated competencies of a physician-scientist is necessary. This paper describes a systematic process for developing a competency-based educational framework within a CTS graduate program at one institution.

  16. Information Communication Technology (ICT) Shaping Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Elizabeth

    This paper opens with the following questions: "How prepared are you as a student affairs professional for information communication technology (ICT)? Do you understand such concepts as portals, e-business, Napster, computer use policies, and wireless communication? Will student affairs be shaped by ICT or will student affairs help shape ICT on…

  17. A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING WORLD AFFAIRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROGERS, WILLIAM C.

    WRITTEN IN EVERYDAY ENGLISH, THIS READING BOOK PRESENTS MANY FACTS AND IDEAS ABOUT WORLD AFFAIRS. CHAPTERS COVER INTERNATIONAL LIFE, POWER IN WORLD AFFAIRS, WAR AS INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT, THE MEANS AND VARIETIES OF ARMED CONFLICT, INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT SHORT OF WAR, THE ACCOMMODATION OF CONFLICT IN WORLD AFFAIRS, AND PEACE--WHAT IT IS AND HOW TO…

  18. The Digital Identity of Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlquist, Josie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter highlights opportunities in the digital space for student affairs professionals. A blended approach, grounded in the new technology competency recently added in the ACPA and NASPA student affairs professional competencies, is proposed for student affairs professionals' digital identity development. It includes the awareness of one's…

  19. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  20. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Clinical Laboratory Science/Biotechnology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for clinical laboratory occupations programs. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process used to develop the…

  1. The effect of alternative clinical teaching experience on preservice science teachers' self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klett, Mitchell Dean

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods of alternative clinical experience; family science nights and Saturday science (authentic teaching) against micro-teaching (peer teaching) in terms of self-efficacy in science teaching and teaching self-efficacy. The independent variable, or cause, is teaching experiences (clinical vs. peer teaching); the dependent variable, or effect, is two levels of self-efficacy. This study was conducted at the University of Idaho's main campus in Moscow and extension campus in Coeur d'Alene. Four sections of science methods were exposed to the same science methods curriculum and will have opportunities to teach. However, each of the four sections were exposed to different levels or types of clinical experience. One section of preservice teachers worked with students in a Saturday science program. Another section worked with students during family science nights. The third worked with children at both the Saturday science program and family science nights. The last section did not have a clinical experience with children, instead they taught in their peer groups and acted as a control group. A pre-test was given at the beginning of the semester to measure their content knowledge, teaching self-efficacy and self-efficacy in science teaching. A post-test was given at the end of the semester to see if there was any change in self-efficacy or science teaching self-efficacy. Throughout the semester participants kept journals about their experiences and were interviewed after their alternative clinical teaching experiences. These responses were categorized into three groups; gains in efficacy, no change in efficacy, and drop in efficacy. There was a rise in teaching efficacy for all groups. The mean scores for personal teaching efficacy dropped for the Monday-Wednesday and Tuesday-Thursday group while the both Coeur D'Alene groups remained nearly unchanged. There was no significant change in the overall means for science

  2. [Compatibility of science and clinical aspects. Between realism and utopia].

    PubMed

    Stange, R; Perl, M; Münzberg, M; Histing, T

    2013-01-01

    The working environment for young residents in orthopedic surgery has changed tremendously over the past 10 years. Due to cumulative clinical requirements and increasing demands on work-life balance research activity has become less attractive. Successful incorporation of research into the career of residents is a challenging project for the future. The young forum of the German Association for Orthopedics and Traumatology (DGOU) provides different approaches to enhance the quality of research and to help young orthopedists and trauma surgeons. PMID:23325157

  3. [Compatibility of science and clinical aspects. Between realism and utopia].

    PubMed

    Stange, R; Perl, M; Münzberg, M; Histing, T

    2013-01-01

    The working environment for young residents in orthopedic surgery has changed tremendously over the past 10 years. Due to cumulative clinical requirements and increasing demands on work-life balance research activity has become less attractive. Successful incorporation of research into the career of residents is a challenging project for the future. The young forum of the German Association for Orthopedics and Traumatology (DGOU) provides different approaches to enhance the quality of research and to help young orthopedists and trauma surgeons.

  4. Risk, diagnostic error, and the clinical science of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Andrew; Cruse, Damian; Naci, Lorina; Weijer, Charles; Owen, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of new neuroimaging techniques have detected covert awareness in some patients previously thought to be in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. This raises worries for patients, families, and physicians, as it indicates that the existing diagnostic error rate in this patient group is higher than assumed. Recent research on a subset of these techniques, called active paradigms, suggests that false positive and false negative findings may result from applying different statistical methods to patient data. Due to the nature of this research, these errors may be unavoidable, and may draw into question the use of active paradigms in the clinical setting. We argue that false positive and false negative findings carry particular moral risks, which may bear on investigators' decisions to use certain methods when independent means for estimating their clinical utility are absent. We review and critically analyze this methodological problem as it relates to both fMRI and EEG active paradigms. We conclude by drawing attention to three common clinical scenarios where the risk of diagnostic error may be most pronounced in this patient group. PMID:25844313

  5. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I; Stansbury, James P

    2011-10-13

    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance.

  6. ‘Indirect’ challenges from science to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sandra D.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect challenges act to provoke bronchoconstriction by causing the release of endogenous mediators and are used to identify airway hyper-responsiveness. This paper reviews the historical development of challenges, with exercise, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) of dry air, wet hypertonic saline, and with dry powder mannitol, that preceded their use in clinical practice. The first challenge developed for clinical use was exercise. Physicians were keen for a standardized test to identify exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and to assess the effect of drugs such as disodium cromoglycate. EVH with dry air became a surrogate for exercise to increase ventilation to very high levels. A simple test was developed with EVH and used to identify EIA in defence force recruits and later in elite athletes. The research findings with different conditions of inspired air led to the conclusion that loss of water by evaporation from the airway surface was the stimulus to EIA. The proposal that water loss caused a transient increase in osmolarity led to the development of the hypertonic saline challenge. The wet aerosol challenge with 4.5% saline, provided a known osmotic stimulus, to which most asthmatics were sensitive. To simplify the osmotic challenge, a dry powder of mannitol was specially prepared and encapsulated. The test pack with different doses and an inhaler provided a common operating procedure that could be used at the point of care. All these challenge tests have a high specificity to identify currently active asthma. All have been used to assess the benefit of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Over the 50 years, the methods for testing became safer, less complex, and less expensive and all used forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to measure the response. Thus, they became practical to use routinely and were recommended in guidelines for use in clinical practice. PMID:26908255

  7. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Pai, Akshatha K; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J; West, Andrew C; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J; Winslow, Raimond L; Stephens, David S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 's ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients. PMID:27570667

  8. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Pai, Akshatha K; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J; West, Andrew C; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J; Winslow, Raimond L; Stephens, David S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 's ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients.

  9. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Pai, Akshatha K.; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J.; West, Andrew C.; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J.; Winslow, Raimond L.; Stephens, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 ‘s ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients. PMID:27570667

  10. PCA3: from basic molecular science to the clinical lab.

    PubMed

    Day, John R; Jost, Matthias; Reynolds, Mark A; Groskopf, Jack; Rittenhouse, Harry

    2011-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. Use of the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) test to screen men for prostate cancer since the late 1980s has improved the early detection of prostate cancer, however low specificity of the test translates to numerous false positive results and many unnecessary biopsies. New biomarkers to aid in prostate cancer diagnosis are emerging and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) is one such marker. PCA3 is a noncoding RNA that is highly over-expressed in prostate cancer tissue compared to benign tissue. A non-invasive test for PCA3 was developed using whole urine collected after a digital rectal exam (DRE). Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated the utility of PCA3 for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and some studies suggest that PCA3 may also have prognostic value. The use of PCA3 in combination with serum PSA and other clinical information enhances the diagnostic accuracy of prostate cancer detection and will enable physicians to make more informed decisions with patients at risk for prostate cancer.

  11. Epididymitis: revelations at the convergence of clinical and basic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Vera; Pilatz, Adrian; Hedger, Mark P; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Acute epididymitis represents a common medical condition in the urological outpatient clinic. Mostly, epididymitis is caused by bacterial ascent through the urogenital tract, with pathogens originating either from sexually transmitted diseases or urinary tract infections. Although conservative antimicrobial therapy is possible in the majority of patients and is usually sufficient to eradicate the pathogen, studies have shown persistent oligozoospermia and azoospermia in up to 40% of these patients. Animal models of epididymitis are created to delineate the underlying reasons for this observation and the additional impairment of sperm function that is often associated with the disease. Accumulated data provide evidence of a differential expression of immune cells, immunoregulatory genes and pathogen-sensing molecules along the length of the epididymal duct. The evidence suggests that a tolerogenic environment exists in the caput epididymidis, but that inflammatory responses are most intense toward the cauda epididymidis. This is consistent with the need to provide protection for the neo-antigens of spermatozoa emerging from the testis, without compromising the ability to respond to ascending infections. However, severe inflammatory responses, particularly in the cauda, may lead to collateral damage to the structure and function of the epididymis. Convergence of the clinical observations with appropriate animal studies should lead to better understanding of the immunological environment throughout the epididymis, the parameters underlying susceptibility to epididymitis, and to therapeutic approaches that can mitigate epididymal damage and subsequent fertility problems. PMID:26112484

  12. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Disease: Clinical Evidence and Basic Science

    PubMed Central

    Petrof, Elaine O.

    2010-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota serve many roles vital to the normal daily function of the human gastrointestinal tract. Many probiotics are derived from our intestinal bacteria, and have been shown to provide clinical benefit in a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. Current evidence indicates that probiotic effects are strain-specific, they do not act through the same mechanisms, and nor are all probiotics indicated for the same health conditions. However, they do share several common features in that they exert anti-inflammatory effects, they employ different strategies to antagonize competing microorganisms, and they induce cytoprotective changes in the host either through enhancement of barrier function, or through the upregulation of cytoprotective host proteins. In this review we focus on a few selected probiotics – a bacterial mixture (VSL#3), a Gram-negative probiotic (E. coli Nissle 1917), two Gram-positive probiotic bacteria (LGG, L. reuteri), and a yeast probiotic (S. boulardii) – for which sound clinical and mechanistic data is available. Safety of probiotic formulations is also discussed. PMID:20890386

  13. Reengineering the national clinical and translational research enterprise: the strategic plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium.

    PubMed

    Reis, Steven E; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R; Califf, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Johnson, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process, in turn, depends on observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation's academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding.To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006 the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program's overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation's academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  14. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  15. Toward a science of tumor forecasting for clinical oncology.

    PubMed

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J; Rericha, Erin C

    2015-03-15

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community makes a concerted effort to apply lessons from weather forecasting to develop an analogous methodology for predicting and evaluating tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of tumor response is not predicted; instead, response is only assessed post hoc by physical examination or imaging methods. This fundamental practice within clinical oncology limits optimization of a treatment regimen for an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoply of molecularly targeted therapies is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. With a successful methodology toward tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor-specific datasets of varied types and effectively defeat one cancer patient at a time.

  16. Towards a Science of Tumor Forecasting for Clinical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J.; Rericha, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community make a concerted effort to apply lessons from weather forecasting to develop an analogous methodology for predicting and evaluating tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of tumor response is not predicted; instead, response is- only assessed post hoc by physical exam or imaging methods. This fundamental practice within clinical oncology limits optimization of atreatment regimen for an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoply of molecularly targeted therapies is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. With a successful methodology towards tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor specific datasets of varied types, and effectively defeat cancer one patient at a time. PMID:25592148

  17. Discoveries in Down syndrome: moving basic science to clinical care.

    PubMed

    Kleschevnikov, A M; Belichenko, P V; Salehi, A; Wu, C

    2012-01-01

    This review describes recent discoveries in neurobiology of Down syndrome (DS) achieved with use of mouse genetic models and provides an overview of experimental approaches aimed at development of pharmacological restoration of cognitive function in people with this developmental disorder. Changes in structure and function of synaptic connections within the hippocampal formation of DS model mice, as well as alterations in innervations of the hippocampus by noradrenergic and cholinergic neuromodulatory systems, provided important clues for potential pharmacological treatments of cognitive disabilities in DS. Possible molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this genetic disorder have been addressed. We discuss novel mechanisms engaging misprocessing of amyloid precursor protein (App) and other proteins, through their affect on axonal transport and endosomal dysfunction, to "Alzheimer-type" neurodegenerative processes that affect cognition later in life. In conclusion, a number of therapeutic strategies have been defined that may restore cognitive function in mouse models of DS. In the juvenile and young animals, these strategists focus on restoration of synaptic plasticity, rate of adult neurogenesis, and functions of the neuromodulatory subcortical systems. Later in life, the major focus is on recuperation of misprocessed App and related proteins. It is hoped that the identification of an increasing number of potential targets for pharmacotherapy of cognitive deficits in DS will add to the momentum for creating and completing clinical trials. PMID:22541294

  18. Toward a science of tumor forecasting for clinical oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J.; Rericha, Erin C.

    2015-03-15

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community makes a concerted effort to apply lessons from weather forecasting to develop an analogous methodology for predicting and evaluating tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of tumor response is not predicted; instead, response is only assessed post hoc by physical examination or imaging methods. This fundamental practice within clinical oncology limits optimization of a treatment regimen for an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoply of molecularly targeted therapies is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. Furthermore, with a successful methodology toward tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor-specific datasets of varied types and effectively defeat one cancer patient at a time.

  19. Toward a science of tumor forecasting for clinical oncology

    DOE PAGES

    Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Quaranta, Vito; Evans, Katherine J.; Rericha, Erin C.

    2015-03-15

    We propose that the quantitative cancer biology community makes a concerted effort to apply lessons from weather forecasting to develop an analogous methodology for predicting and evaluating tumor growth and treatment response. Currently, the time course of tumor response is not predicted; instead, response is only assessed post hoc by physical examination or imaging methods. This fundamental practice within clinical oncology limits optimization of a treatment regimen for an individual patient, as well as to determine in real time whether the choice was in fact appropriate. This is especially frustrating at a time when a panoply of molecularly targeted therapiesmore » is available, and precision genetic or proteomic analyses of tumors are an established reality. By learning from the methods of weather and climate modeling, we submit that the forecasting power of biophysical and biomathematical modeling can be harnessed to hasten the arrival of a field of predictive oncology. Furthermore, with a successful methodology toward tumor forecasting, it should be possible to integrate large tumor-specific datasets of varied types and effectively defeat one cancer patient at a time.« less

  20. Resident's morning report: an opportunity to reinforce principles of biomedical science in a clinical context.

    PubMed

    Brass, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a faculty member for discussion. This venue provides an opportunity to illustrate how basic biomedical principles facilitate an understanding of the clinical presentation, the relevant pathophysiology, and the rationale for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A discussion of biochemical principles can easily be incorporated into these case discussions, with the potential to reinforce these concepts and to illustrate their application to clinical decision making. This approach maintains the effort to teach basic biomedical sciences in the context of clinical application across the educational continuum.

  1. Information-seeking behavior of nursing students and clinical nurses: implications for health sciences librarians*

    PubMed Central

    Dee, Cheryl; Stanley, Ellen E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This research was conducted to provide new insights on clinical nurses' and nursing students' current use of health resources and libraries and deterrents to their retrieval of electronic clinical information, exploring implications from these findings for health sciences librarians. Methods: Questionnaires, interviews, and observations were used to collect data from twenty-five nursing students and twenty-five clinical nurses. Results: Nursing students and clinical nurses were most likely to rely on colleagues and books for medical information, while other resources they frequently cited included personal digital assistants, electronic journals and books, and drug representatives. Significantly more nursing students than clinical nurses used online databases, including CINAHL and PubMed, to locate health information, and nursing students were more likely than clinical nurses to report performing a database search at least one to five times a week. Conclusions and Recommendations: Nursing students made more use of all available resources and were better trained than clinical nurses, but both groups lacked database-searching skills. Participants were eager for more patient care information, more database training, and better computer skills; therefore, health sciences librarians have the opportunity to meet the nurses' information needs and improve nurses' clinical information-seeking behavior. PMID:15858624

  2. Impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    DEHGHANI, MOHAMMADREZA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; SOLTANi, BEHROUZ; AGHAKHANI, NADER; HAGHPANAH, SEZANEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obtaining clinical competency in clinical education is one of the problems in nursing and use of the new methods of clinical training is very important. Clinical supervision is one of the methods used as a mechanism to promote knowledge and skill for promoting professional performance in nursing students. This study is carried out to determine the impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Methods In the present experimental study, 32 nursing students were enrolled in the study based on census and randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control by block randomization. Clinical supervision was used in the experimental group and the control group received routine clinical trainings in the field. The students’ clinical skills were assessed using a researcher-made checklist, the validity of which was confirmed through content validity method by 13 faculty members and its reliability was approved by test-retest method on 20 nursing students in the form of a pilot study and through Cronbach’s alpha (87%). Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 14. Results ‍There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in clinical skills such as recognition and administration of medication, team participation,  patients and their relatives’ education, considering the safety,  infection prevention and  nursing process (p<0.005). Conclusion The study demonstrated that in clinical supervision process, students have a better communication and cooperation with their instructor and with each other and their confidence and understanding and the amount of learning in practical skills was enhanced more than routine clinical training. The implementation of this clinical training method for students of nursing and other fields of medical sciences is recommendable. PMID:27104203

  3. M. D. Faculty Salaries in Psychiatry and All Clinical Science Departments, 1980-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Dial, Thomas H.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors compare trends in the salaries of physician faculty in academic departments of psychiatry with those of physician faculty in all academic clinical science departments from 1980-2006. Methods: The authors compared trend lines for psychiatry and all faculty by academic rank, including those for department chairs, by graphing…

  4. The Impact of Federal Legislation on Education in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brenta G.

    Educational programs in the clinical laboratory sciences are responsible for producing professionals who can function in new environments. In addition, it is the responsibility of all individuals in the profession, regardless of professional role/function to assume the role of educator to prepare students in a way that is appropriate and useful to…

  5. Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lila G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

  6. Applying Problem-Solving Methods to a Clinical Lab Sciences Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Alease S.; Jochums, Brenda L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how problem solving was incorporated into a clinical science curriculum by using a team teaching approach. The review of the content domain, the examination of objectives and test items, and the steps in the team development are included. The steps in development of the program are considered. (KR)

  7. Framing in Cognitive Clinical Interviews about Intuitive Science Knowledge: Dynamic Student Understandings of the Discourse Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Lee, Victor R.; Sherin, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the science education community make extensive use of cognitive clinical interviews as windows into student knowledge and thinking. Despite our familiarity with the interviews, there has been very limited research addressing the ways that students understand these interactions. In this work, we examine students' behaviors and speech…

  8. 78 FR 42966 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration...

  9. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration...

  10. Clinical Laboratory Sciences Discipline Advisory Group Final Report. Kentucky Allied Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Education in the clinical laboratory sciences in Kentucky and articulation within the field are examined, based on the Kentucky Allied Health Project (KAHP), which designed an articulated statewide system to promote entry and exit of personnel at a variety of educational levels. The KAHP model promotes articulation in learning, planning, and…

  11. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  12. An innovative method to assess clinical reasoning skills: Clinical reasoning tests in the second national medical science Olympiad in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical reasoning plays a major role in the ability of doctors to make a diagnosis and reach treatment decisions. This paper describes the use of four clinical reasoning tests in the second National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran: key features (KF), script concordance (SCT), clinical reasoning problems (CRP) and comprehensive integrative puzzles (CIP). The purpose of the study was to design a multi instrument for multiple roles approach in clinical reasoning field based on the theoretical framework, KF was used to measure data gathering, CRP was used to measure hypothesis formation, SCT and CIP were used to measure hypothesis evaluation and investigating the combined use of these tests in the Olympiad. A bank of clinical reasoning test items was developed for emergency medicine by a scientific expert committee representing all the medical schools in the country. These items were pretested by a reference group and the results were analyzed to select items that could be omitted. Then 135 top-ranked medical students from 45 medical universities in Iran participated in the clinical domain of the Olympiad. The reliability of each test was calculated by Cronbach's alpha. Item difficulty and the correlation between each item and the total score were measured. The correlation between the students' final grade and each of the clinical reasoning tests was calculated, as was the correlation between final grades and another measure of knowledge, i.e., the students' grade point average. Results The combined reliability for all four clinical reasoning tests was 0.91. Of the four clinical reasoning tests we compared, reliability was highest for CIP (0.91). The reliability was 0.83 for KF, 0.78 for SCT and 0.71 for CRP. Most of the tests had an acceptable item difficulty level between 0.2 and 0.8. The correlation between the score for each item and the total test score for each of the four tests was positive. The correlations between scores for each test and total

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Lipogems, a Reverse Story: from Clinical Practice to Basic Science.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Carlo; Ricordi, Camillo; Caplan, Arnold I; Ventura, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The idea that basic science should be the starting point for modern clinical approaches has been consolidated over the years, and emerged as the cornerstone of Molecular Medicine. Nevertheless, there is increasing concern over the low efficiency and inherent costs related to the translation of achievements from the bench to the bedside. These burdens are also perceived with respect to the effectiveness of translating basic discoveries in stem cell biology to the newly developing field of advanced cell therapy or Regenerative Medicine. As an alternative paradigm, past and recent history in Medical Science provides remarkable reverse stories in which clinical observations at the patient's bedside have fed major advances in basic research which, in turn, led to consistent progression in clinical practice. Within this context, we discuss our recently developed method and device, which forms the core of a system (Lipogems) for processing of human adipose tissue solely with the aid of mild mechanical forces to yield a microfractured tissue product.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Lipogems, a Reverse Story: from Clinical Practice to Basic Science.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Carlo; Ricordi, Camillo; Caplan, Arnold I; Ventura, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The idea that basic science should be the starting point for modern clinical approaches has been consolidated over the years, and emerged as the cornerstone of Molecular Medicine. Nevertheless, there is increasing concern over the low efficiency and inherent costs related to the translation of achievements from the bench to the bedside. These burdens are also perceived with respect to the effectiveness of translating basic discoveries in stem cell biology to the newly developing field of advanced cell therapy or Regenerative Medicine. As an alternative paradigm, past and recent history in Medical Science provides remarkable reverse stories in which clinical observations at the patient's bedside have fed major advances in basic research which, in turn, led to consistent progression in clinical practice. Within this context, we discuss our recently developed method and device, which forms the core of a system (Lipogems) for processing of human adipose tissue solely with the aid of mild mechanical forces to yield a microfractured tissue product. PMID:27236668

  15. Vets and Videos: Student Learning from Context-Based Assessment in a Pre-Clinical Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    To increase the perceived relevance of pre-clinical science courses to undergraduates, a context-based assessment item was introduced to a genetics course that occurs early within a five-year veterinary science programme. The aim was to make a direct link between genetic concepts and the future clinical profession of the students. In the…

  16. Integration of basic biological sciences and clinical dentistry in the dental curriculum. A clinically orientated approach to teaching oral and dental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gotjamanos, T

    1990-06-01

    Although dental curricula have undergone significant revision during the past three decades, the problem of linking basic science with clinical dentistry often remains an unmet challenge in dental education. This paper describes the content and method of presentation of a course in oral and dental anatomy which aims to integrate closely basic biological science and clinical dental practice. The course holds considerable promise for overcoming one of the major deficiencies of the horizontally structured curriculum by presenting basic science information and detailing its clinical relevance simultaneously. The academic background, clinical experience, and educational philosophy of the course co-ordinator and assisting teaching staff are undoubtedly important factors in determining the extent to which integration between basic and clinical science can be achieved.

  17. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building upon the Formative Years.

    PubMed

    Manson, Spero M; Martinez, Dominic F; Buchwald, Dedra S; Rubio, Doris M; Moss, Marc

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges.

  18. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building upon the Formative Years.

    PubMed

    Manson, Spero M; Martinez, Dominic F; Buchwald, Dedra S; Rubio, Doris M; Moss, Marc

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges. PMID:26271774

  19. Mitochondrial Disease: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Translational Science, and Clinical Frontiers

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ben; Cohen, Bruce; Copeland, William; Maria, Bernard L.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial medicine provides a metabolic perspective on the pathology of conditions linked with inadequate oxidative phosphorylation. Dysfunction in the mitochondrial machinery can result in improper energy production, leading to cellular injury or even apoptosis. Clinical presentations are often subtle, so clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to make early diagnoses. Symptoms could include muscle weakness and pain, seizures, loss of motor control, decreased visual and auditory functions, metabolic acidosis, acute developmental regression, and immune system dysfunction. The 2013 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe accepted clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial disease produced from various mitochondrial mutations, (2) discuss contemporary understanding of molecular mechanisms that contribute to disease pathology, (3) highlight the systemic effects produced by dysfunction within the mitochondrial machinery, and (4) introduce current strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics. PMID:24916430

  20. Management and Analysis of Biological and Clinical Data: How Computer Science May Support Biomedical and Clinical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, Pierangelo

    The use of computer based solutions for data management in biology and clinical science has contributed to improve life-quality and also to gather research results in shorter time. Indeed, new algorithms and high performance computation have been using in proteomics and genomics studies for curing chronic diseases (e.g., drug designing) as well as supporting clinicians both in diagnosis (e.g., images-based diagnosis) and patient curing (e.g., computer based information analysis on information gathered from patient). In this paper we survey on examples of computer based techniques applied in both biology and clinical contexts. The reported applications are also results of experiences in real case applications at University Medical School of Catanzaro and also part of experiences of the National project Staywell SH 2.0 involving many research centers and companies aiming to study and improve citizen wellness.

  1. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts to gain…

  2. Challenges of Assessment in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how the climate of accountability in higher education is compelling student affairs organizations to develop comprehensive assessment programs, the challenges faced in creating those programs, and ways student affairs professionals can meet those challenges. For the purpose of this chapter, the author has defined assessment…

  3. A Legal Guide for Student Affairs Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplin, William A.; Lee, Barbara A.

    Today's college campuses offer student affairs divisions a multitude of challenges. Ways in which student affairs professionals can develop the capacities they need to successfully meet a myriad of legal concerns are covered in this text. The book is divided into 12 chapters and covers approximately 200 topics. It organizes and conceptualizes the…

  4. Rules of evidence for clinical trials: the science of finding the truth?

    PubMed

    Cutter, Gary; Aban, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research must address the vagaries of human variation in disease presentation, course, and response. The therapeutic relationship between the physician and patient, along with their role expectations and outcome expectations, also clouds the conduct and evaluation of clinical research. Today's milieu of hyper-vigilance in ethics has an impact on subject selection, subject continuance, and ultimately generalizability of results. With multiple stakeholders looking more and more to so-called evidence-based medicine, the quality of trials and their evaluations is growing in importance. This paper is organized along the lines of how we receive the news-a series of short sound bites on cautions important in clinical trials. Educated readers, consumers of trial information, and practitioners, as well as subjects participating in clinical trials, require thoughtful participation. This is often lacking in our sound-bite approach to science and results.

  5. Stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia: from basic science to clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Koji; Yamashita, Toru; Takizawa, Shunya; Kuroda, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Recent stem cell technology provides a strong therapeutic potential not only for acute ischemic stroke but also for chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with neuroregenerative neural cell replenishment and replacement. In addition to resident neural stem cell activation in the brain by neurotrophic factors, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can be mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for homing into the brain for both neurorepair and neuroregeneration in acute stroke and neurodegenerative diseases in both basic science and clinical settings. Exogenous stem cell transplantation is also emerging into a clinical scene from bench side experiments. Early clinical trials of intravenous transplantation of autologous BMSCs are showing safe and effective results in stroke patients. Further basic sciences of stem cell therapy on a neurovascular unit and neuroregeneration, and further clinical advancements on scaffold technology for supporting stem cells and stem cell tracking technology such as magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography or optical imaging with near-infrared could allow stem cell therapy to be applied in daily clinical applications in the near future. PMID:22252239

  6. Developing a theory of clinical instructor identity using the experiences of medical laboratory science practitioners.

    PubMed

    Miller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated medical laboratory science clinical instructors' beliefs about teaching and how they viewed themselves as teachers. The first phase of the study included an integrative literature review, which suggested that the development of teacher identity in school-based educators, and to a lesser extent higher education faculty, is dependent on four dimensions: personal factors, training factors, contextual factors, and reflective practice. The second phase of this study began qualitative inquiry into the ways that these participants described their teaching and professional identity. Interviews were conducted with medical laboratory science clinical instructors in order to gain an understanding of their perceptions of themselves as teachers. The data collected in this study indicate that this group of clinical instructors saw themselves as teachers who were responsible for providing students with technical skills needed to become competent practitioners and the theoretical foundation necessary to pass the national certification exam. The study participants also saw themselves as mentors who were responsible for passing along professional knowledge to the next generation of laboratory practitioners. During data analysis three themes emerged that represent aspects of teacher identity in clinical instructors: belief in one's teaching ability, desire to expand one's professional responsibilities, and reflection on one's teaching. The findings from this study may provide a foundation for future research designed to measure teacher identity in clinical instructors.

  7. The testing of Sanocrysin: science, profit, and innovation in clinical trial design, 1926-31.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    This article provides a detailed analysis of the origins and significance of the 1926 clinical trial of Sanocrysin, a gold compound thought at the time to be useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. This experiment is generally considered to be the first clinical trial in the United States that used a formal system of randomization to divide research subjects into treatment and nontreatment groups; it was probably also the first clinical trial in the United States to use placebo shams in a nontreatment control group to overcome the problem of what researchers at the time called "psychic influence." As such, it was an extremely important moment in the history of clinical trial design. Yet, as I argue, the Sanocrysin experiment also needs to be understood in terms of both the regulatory environment at the time and the commercial interests of Parke, Davis & Company, the pharmaceutical manufacturer that was intent on introducing the drug. Although some historians argue that therapeutic reformers in the twentieth century used experimental science to rein in the commercial forces of the market, this article suggests that, at least in this case, the promotion of rigorous clinical science and the pursuit of corporate profit were deeply intertwined.

  8. A model for educational enrichment and employment recruitment for clinical laboratory science students.

    PubMed

    Kasper, L M; Schultze, A E

    2006-01-01

    An educational partnership was initiated between a pharmaceutical company and a university-based clinical laboratory science program to achieve mutually beneficial objectives. This external enrichment site provides a unique educational experience for the students that cannot be duplicated any where else in the community. The framework for the educational experience was established with a full day's schedule of visits and presentations guided by a list of twenty learning objectives. Clinical laboratory science students interact with laboratory professionals who are employed by the pharmaceutical company and assigned to a variety of traditional and non-traditional roles. During the visit, pharmaceutical company employees observe student interactions in small group settings and assess the learners' interest in the work environment and specimen testing process. Employee feedback may be applied to future employment decision making. This article describes how employer outreach goals and initiatives and educational enrichment objectives can be met through cooperative team work.

  9. Leaving behind our preparadigmatic past: Professional psychology as a unified clinical science.

    PubMed

    Melchert, Timothy P

    2016-09-01

    The behavioral and neurosciences have made remarkable progress recently in advancing the scientific understanding of human psychology. Though research in many areas is still in its early stages, knowledge of many psychological processes is now firmly grounded in experimental tests of falsifiable theories and supports a unified, paradigmatic understanding of human psychology that is thoroughly consistent with the rest of the natural sciences. This new body of knowledge poses critical questions for professional psychology, which still often relies on the traditional theoretical orientations and other preparadigmatic practices for guiding important aspects of clinical education and practice. This article argues that professional psychology needs to systematically transition to theoretical frameworks and a curriculum that are based on an integrated scientific understanding of human psychology. Doing so would be of historic importance for the field and would result in major changes to professional psychology education and practice. It would also allow the field to emerge as a true clinical science. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. The Development of the Doctorate in Clinical Laboratory Science in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, a new post-baccalaureate degree has been introduced in the medical laboratory sciences profession whose hallmark is advanced clinical practice beyond that of the entry level generalist. After more than a decade of exploring the most appropriate level of education and training in laboratory medicine to meet the demands of a changing health care system, the first Doctorate of Clinical Laboratory Science (DCLS) program is now offered. This article discusses the collaborative effort among professional organizations and stakeholders to develop the framework for the DCLS degree. In addition, the roles, responsibilities and justification for need of the DCLS are presented along with accreditation standards for DCLS programs and future challenges for this new member of the health care delivery team.

  11. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  12. Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran University of Medical Sciences nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Pakpour, Vahid; Aalaa, Maryam; Shekarabi, Robabeh; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Haghani, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students' perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards. Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16. Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale. Conclusion: It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment. PMID:26034726

  13. Serratia marcescens in human affairs.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, L

    1978-11-01

    Serratia marcescens, a ubiquitous, essentially saprophytic bacterium with a predilection for starches, has played a significant role in human affairs. Its notoriety has been occasioned by a blood-red pigment liberated by the organism during its metabolic activities that has been mistaken for fresh blood. In early Greek and Roman history, such "bloody" episodes were viewed as manifestations of divine destiny; by the Middle Ages in Europe they coincided with the development of church doctrine regarding the holy sacraments and had a far more sinister effect. In numerous instances between 1300 and 1500 A.D. host wafers developed a "bloody" appearance and led to the mass slaughter of Jews, who were accused of destructive attempts against the Eucharist. In our time, Serratia marcescens has been shown to possess significant endotoxic activity and can no longer be regarded as a harmless nuisance. It has been implicated in a wide range of human infections, particularly hospital-associated infections, of varying degrees of severity and including fatal antibiotic-resistant septicemias.

  14. Polygraph. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    1986-09-01

    The American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Scientific Affairs has reviewed the data on the validity and accuracy of polygraphy testing as it is applied today. The use of the control question technique in criminal cases is time honored and has seen much scientific study. It is established that classification of guilty can be made with 75% to 97% accuracy, but the rate of false-positives is often sufficiently high to preclude use of this test as the sole arbiter of guilt or innocence. This does not preclude using the polygraph test in criminal investigations as evidence or as another source of information to guide the investigation with full appreciation of the limitations in its use. Application of the polygraph in personnel screening, although gaining in popularity, has not been adequately validated. The few limited studies that have been performed suggest no greater accuracy for the types of testing done for this purpose than for the control question polygraph testing used in criminal cases. The effect of polygraph testing to deter theft and fraud associated with employment has never been measured, nor has its impact on employee morale and productivity been determined. Much more serious research needs to be done before the polygraph should be generally accepted for this purpose.

  15. Characterizing Data Discovery and End-User Computing Needs in Clinical Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Chilana, Parmit K.; Fishman, Elishema; Geraghty, Estella M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wolf, Fredric M.; Anderson, Nick R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of a qualitative case-study seeking to characterize data discovery needs and barriers of principal investigators and research support staff in clinical translational science. Several implications for designing and implementing translational research systems have emerged through the authors’ analysis. The results also illustrate the benefits of forming early partnerships with scientists to better understand their workflow processes and end-user computing practices in accessing data for research. The authors use this user-centered, iterative development approach to guide the implementation and extension of i2b2, a system they have adapted to support cross-institutional aggregate anonymized clinical data querying. With ongoing evaluation, the goal is to maximize the utility and extension of this system and develop an interface that appropriately fits the swiftly evolving needs of clinical translational scientists. PMID:24729759

  16. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-09-20

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process.

  17. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process. PMID:27649796

  18. How do Medical Radiation Science educators keep up with the [clinical] Joneses?

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, Eileen

    2014-06-15

    Medical radiation science (MRS) disciplines include medical imaging, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. These allied health fields are technology driven and evolving rapidly with regard to imaging and treatment techniques within the clinical environment. This research aims to identify the activities academics are currently participating in to maintain clinical currency and offer strategies to support academics to connect with an ever-changing clinical environment. A cross-sectional designed survey was sampled across the nine Australian universities where MRS programmes are offered. The survey targeted academic teaching staff that were working in MRS programmes at the time of distribution (n ≈ 90). Enablers and barriers to maintaining clinical currency as well as support to participate in continuing professional development were rated by the respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and free-text comment responses were collated and themed. There were 38 responses to the survey (42%) and all three disciplines were represented. Responses highlighted activities valued by academics as contributing to their knowledge of current practice and as resources to inform their teaching. Positive elements included participating in clinical work and research, attending clinical sites and training days and attending scientific meetings. Common barriers identified by academics in this area were time constraints, workload allocation and employer/financial support. This research has identified that Australian MRS academics participate in a broad range of activities to inform their teaching and maintain knowledge of contemporary clinical practice. A connection with the clinical world is valued highly by academics, however, access and support to maintain that link is often a difficulty and as a result for MRS teaching staff keeping up with the clinical [MRS] Joneses is often a challenge.

  19. How do Medical Radiation Science educators keep up with the [clinical] Joneses?

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical radiation science (MRS) disciplines include medical imaging, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. These allied health fields are technology driven and evolving rapidly with regard to imaging and treatment techniques within the clinical environment. This research aims to identify the activities academics are currently participating in to maintain clinical currency and offer strategies to support academics to connect with an ever-changing clinical environment. Methods A cross-sectional designed survey was sampled across the nine Australian universities where MRS programmes are offered. The survey targeted academic teaching staff that were working in MRS programmes at the time of distribution (n ≈ 90). Enablers and barriers to maintaining clinical currency as well as support to participate in continuing professional development were rated by the respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and free-text comment responses were collated and themed. Results There were 38 responses to the survey (42%) and all three disciplines were represented. Responses highlighted activities valued by academics as contributing to their knowledge of current practice and as resources to inform their teaching. Positive elements included participating in clinical work and research, attending clinical sites and training days and attending scientific meetings. Common barriers identified by academics in this area were time constraints, workload allocation and employer/financial support. Conclusion This research has identified that Australian MRS academics participate in a broad range of activities to inform their teaching and maintain knowledge of contemporary clinical practice. A connection with the clinical world is valued highly by academics, however, access and support to maintain that link is often a difficulty and as a result for MRS teaching staff keeping up with the clinical [MRS] Joneses is often a challenge. PMID:26229644

  20. [Collaborative study on regulatory science for facilitating clinical development of gene therapy products for genetic diseases].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Eriko; Igarashi, Yuka; Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy products are expected as innovative medicinal products for intractable diseases such as life-threatening genetic diseases and cancer. Recently, clinical developments by pharmaceutical companies are accelerated in Europe and the United States, and the first gene therapy product in advanced countries was approved for marketing authorization by the European Commission in 2012. On the other hand, more than 40 clinical studies for gene therapy have been completed or ongoing in Japan, most of them are conducted as clinical researches by academic institutes, and few clinical trials have been conducted for approval of gene therapy products. In order to promote the development of gene therapy products, revision of the current guideline and/or preparation of concept paper to address the evaluation of the quality and safety of gene therapy products are necessary and desired to clearly show what data should be submitted before First-in-Human clinical trials of novel gene therapy products. We started collaborative study with academia and regulatory agency to promote regulatory science toward clinical development of gene therapy products for genetic diseases based on lentivirus and adeno-associated virus vectors; National Center for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), Nippon Medical School and PMDA have been joined in the task force. At first, we are preparing pre-draft of the revision of the current gene therapy guidelines in this project.

  1. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building Upon the Formative Years

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Spero M.; Martinez, Dominic F.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Rubio, Doris M.; Moss, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that CTSA programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges. PMID:26271774

  2. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes: from basic science to clinical therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    New appreciation of the adaptive capabilities of the nervous system, recent recognition that most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, and progress in enabling regeneration are generating growing interest in novel rehabilitation therapies. Here we review the 35-year evolution of one promising new approach, operant conditioning of spinal reflexes. This work began in the late 1970's as basic science; its purpose was to develop and exploit a uniquely accessible model for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple behavior in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The model was developed first in monkeys and then in rats, mice, and humans. Studies with it showed that the ostensibly simple behavior (i.e., a larger or smaller reflex) rests on a complex hierarchy of brain and spinal cord plasticity; and current investigations are delineating this plasticity and its interactions with the plasticity that supports other behaviors. In the last decade, the possible therapeutic uses of reflex conditioning have come under study, first in rats and then in humans. The initial results are very exciting, and they are spurring further studies. At the same time, the original basic science purpose and the new clinical purpose are enabling and illuminating each other in unexpected ways. The long course and current state of this work illustrate the practical importance of basic research and the valuable synergy that can develop between basic science questions and clinical needs. PMID:24672441

  3. Space Station Live: Space Station Science

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Assistant ISS Program Scientist Kirt Costello about the various science experiments and research currently being conducted aboard the International ...

  4. Integrating economic evaluation methods into clinical and translational science award consortium comparative effectiveness educational goals.

    PubMed

    Iribarne, Alexander; Easterwood, Rachel; Russo, Mark J; Wang, Y Claire

    2011-06-01

    With the ongoing debate over health care reform in the United States, public health and policy makers have paid growing attention to the need for comparative effectiveness research (CER). Recent allocation of federal funds for CER represents a significant move toward increased evidence-based practice and better-informed allocation of constrained health care resources; however, there is also heated debate on how, or whether, CER may contribute to controlling national health care expenditures. Economic evaluation, in the form of cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis, is often an aspect of CER studies, yet there are no recommendations or guidelines for providing clinical investigators with the necessary skills to collect, analyze, and interpret economic data from clinical trials or observational studies. With an emphasis on multidisciplinary research, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium and institutional CTSA sites serve as an important resource for training researchers to engage in CER. In this article, the authors discuss the potential role of CTSA sites in integrating economic evaluation methods into their comparative effectiveness education goals, using the Columbia University Medical Center CTSA as an example. By allowing current and future generations of clinical investigators to become fully engaged not only in CER but also in the economic evaluations that result from such analyses, CTSA sites can help develop the necessary foundation for advancing research to guide clinical decision making and efficient use of limited resources.

  5. 38 CFR 1.514 - Disclosure to private physicians and hospitals other than Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or treatment as is requested, including the loan of original X-ray films, whether Department of Veterans Affairs clinical X-rays or service department entrance and separation X-rays, provided there...

  6. 38 CFR 1.514 - Disclosure to private physicians and hospitals other than Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or treatment as is requested, including the loan of original X-ray films, whether Department of Veterans Affairs clinical X-rays or service department entrance and separation X-rays, provided there...

  7. 38 CFR 1.514 - Disclosure to private physicians and hospitals other than Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or treatment as is requested, including the loan of original X-ray films, whether Department of Veterans Affairs clinical X-rays or service department entrance and separation X-rays, provided there...

  8. 38 CFR 1.514 - Disclosure to private physicians and hospitals other than Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or treatment as is requested, including the loan of original X-ray films, whether Department of Veterans Affairs clinical X-rays or service department entrance and separation X-rays, provided there...

  9. 38 CFR 1.514 - Disclosure to private physicians and hospitals other than Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or treatment as is requested, including the loan of original X-ray films, whether Department of Veterans Affairs clinical X-rays or service department entrance and separation X-rays, provided there...

  10. Student Affairs as Formal Educators: When Rhetoric Meets Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkus, Annie J.

    2013-01-01

    The Student Affairs literature contains numerous approaches and strategies for bridging the gap between Student and Academic Affairs on college campuses. The use of student affairs professionals as instructors of credit-bearing courses is one example of such collaborative efforts. The student affairs literature identifies student affairs…

  11. Enhancing Student Learning with Academic and Student Affairs Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Robert A.; Strom, Stephen L.; Downey, JoAnna; Schultz, Deanna D.; Holland, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    As the student affairs profession developed, expanded, and specialized over the last century, a disconnect occurred between student affairs professionals and academics. Despite that separation, the literature on student affairs in higher education supports the need for movement towards collaboration and integration of academic affairs and student…

  12. Student Affairs and Service Learning: Promoting Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Robert; Bowen, Glenn; Adams-Dunford, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Why should service learning be placed within student affairs? What special skills can student affairs professionals bring to service-learning program implementation? How can administrators use this program to promote strong student affairs-academic affairs collaboration? This article discusses a "best practices" model that is working well at a…

  13. 38 CFR 17.251 - The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Academic Affairs. 17.251 Section 17.251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.251 The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs. There is... Subcommittee on Academic Affairs, and the Subcommittee shall advise the Secretary, through the Under...

  14. 38 CFR 17.251 - The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Academic Affairs. 17.251 Section 17.251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.251 The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs. There is... Subcommittee on Academic Affairs, and the Subcommittee shall advise the Secretary, through the Under...

  15. The ethics of translating high-throughput science into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar N

    2014-09-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly data intensive and computational, and "big data science" is migrating into the clinical arena. Unfortunately, ethicists, regulators, and policy-makers have barely begun to explore the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the variety of analytical and computational approaches in use and under development in biology and medicine. Most scholarship concerning big data bioscience has focused on privacy, a vitally important consideration but not the only one. Among the issues raised by new computational technologies are questions about safety and safety assessment, justice, and how to obtain proper informed consent. These technologies also raise a myriad of regulatory issues that could influence the probability of translating new assays or computational tools to the clinical or public health spheres. PMID:25231655

  16. The ethics of translating high-throughput science into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar N

    2014-09-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly data intensive and computational, and "big data science" is migrating into the clinical arena. Unfortunately, ethicists, regulators, and policy-makers have barely begun to explore the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the variety of analytical and computational approaches in use and under development in biology and medicine. Most scholarship concerning big data bioscience has focused on privacy, a vitally important consideration but not the only one. Among the issues raised by new computational technologies are questions about safety and safety assessment, justice, and how to obtain proper informed consent. These technologies also raise a myriad of regulatory issues that could influence the probability of translating new assays or computational tools to the clinical or public health spheres.

  17. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  18. Developing a Multidisciplinary Model of Comparative Effectiveness Research Within a Clinical and Translational Science Award

    PubMed Central

    Marantz, Paul R.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Currie, Brian; Bhalla, Rohit; Blank, Arthur E.; Meissner, Paul; Selwyn, Peter A.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Hsu, Daphne T.; Shamoon, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) were initiated to improve the conduct and impact of NIH's research portfolio, transforming training programs and research infrastructure at academic institutions and creating a nationwide consortium. They provide a model for translating research across disciplines and offer an efficient and powerful platform for comparative effectiveness research (CER), an effort that has long struggled but enjoys renewed hope under health care reform. CTSAs include study design and methods expertise, informatics, and regulatory support; programs in education, training, and career development in domains central to CER; and robust programs in community engagement, both of the general public and of clinical practice communities. Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center have entered a formal partnership that places their CTSA at a critical intersection for clinical and translational research. Their CTSA leaders were asked to develop a strategy for enhancing CER activities, and in 2010 they developed a model that encompasses four broadly defined “compartments” of research strength that must be coordinated for this enterprise to succeed: evaluation and health services research, biobehavioral research and prevention, efficacy studies and clinical trials, and social science and implementation research. This article provides historical context for CER, elucidates Einstein-Montefiore’s CER model and strategic planning efforts, and illustrates how a CTSA can provide a vision, leadership, coordination, and services to support an academic health center’s collaborative efforts to develop a robust CER portfolio and thus contribute to the national effort to improve health and health care. PMID:21512360

  19. Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Justin G; Grande, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients' social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course.

  20. A Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Abstract Statistics to Public Affairs Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ali Osman

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate the applicability of a computer-assisted instruction supported with simulated data in teaching abstract statistical concepts to political science and public affairs students in an introductory research methods course. The software is called the Elaboration Model Computer Exercise (EMCE) in that it takes a great…

  1. Evaluation and the NIH clinical and translational science awards: a "top ten" list.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Abedin, Zainab; Blank, Arthur E; Mazmanian, Paul E

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, a total of 61 Clinical and Translational Science Institutes (CTSAs) have been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with the aim of reducing translation time from a bench discovery to when it impacts patients. This special issue of Evaluation & the Health Professions focuses on evaluation within and across the large, complex system of the CTSA Program of NIH. Through insights gained by reading the articles in this special edition and the experience of the authors, a "top ten" list of lessons learned and insights gained is presented. The list outlines issues that face those who evaluate the influence of the CTSA Program, as they work to anticipate what will be needed for continuing success. Themes include (1) considering the needs of stakeholders, (2) the perspective of the evaluators, (3) the importance of service improvement, (4) the importance of teams and people, (5) costs and return on investments, (6) methodology considerations to evaluate the CTSA enterprise, (7) innovation in evaluation, (8) defining the transformation of research, (9) evaluating the long-term impact of the CTSAs on public health, and (10) contributing to science policy formulation and implementation. The establishment of the CTSA Program, with its mandated evaluation component, has not only influenced the infrastructure and nature of translational research but will continue to impact policy and management in science. PMID:24214661

  2. How Can Psychological Science Inform Research About Genetic Counseling for Clinical Genomic Sequencing?

    PubMed Central

    Rini, Christine; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Christensen, Kurt D.; Evans, James P.; Brothers, Kyle B.; Roche, Myra I.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Henderson, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation genomic sequencing technologies (including whole genome or whole exome sequencing) are being increasingly applied to clinical care. Yet, the breadth and complexity of sequencing information raise questions about how best to communicate and return sequencing information to patients and families in ways that facilitate comprehension and optimal health decisions. Obtaining answers to such questions will require multidisciplinary research. In this paper, we focus on how psychological science research can address questions related to clinical genomic sequencing by explaining emotional, cognitive, and behavioral processes in response to different types of genomic sequencing information (e.g., diagnostic results and incidental findings). We highlight examples of psychological science that can be applied to genetic counseling research to inform the following questions: (1) What factors influence patients' and providers' informational needs for developing an accurate understanding of what genomic sequencing results do and do not mean?; (2) How and by whom should genomic sequencing results be communicated to patients and their family members?; and (3) How do patients and their families respond to uncertainties related to genomic information? PMID:25488723

  3. Sacred conceptions: clinical theodicies, uncertain science, and technologies of procreation in India.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Aditya

    2006-12-01

    This article argues that the rapid transfer of assisted conception technologies, such as in vitro fertilization, to India is not restricted merely to the modalities of offering potential biomedical resolution of infertility but includes, more crucially, how clinicians and infertile consumers assimilate the "Western technoscience" of conception. The article draws on a larger multisite ethnographic study of infertility and assisted conception in India's five major cities and is principally based on narratives of clinicians and infertile couples and on clinic-based ethnographic observations. In this article I contend that the success or failure of assisted conception, when situated in the universe of Hindu faith, becomes a powerful critique of the "incompleteness" of the "Western" science of conception. Situating this contention in the broader context of a clinician's faith, I assert that assisted conception--by conjoining seemingly disparate domains of the traditional and the modern, the sacred and the profane, the human and the superhuman, science and religion--produces clinical theodicies that help explain and contain the tentativeness permeating the conception technologies. The article concludes by arguing that this enchanted version of a thoroughly disenchanted worldview of biomedicine is part of a larger cultural process of indigenization of biomedicine in India.

  4. An elective course on the basic and clinical sciences aspects of vitamins and minerals.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students' knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products.

  5. Student Affairs and Academic Affairs Collaborations in the Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Needham Yancey; Mullendore, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between academic affairs and student affairs units in higher education settings has traditionally and historically been troubled by the divergent understandings of each other's institutional role and the systematic division of labor between the two. However, for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is a desire to…

  6. Preparing for Fiscal Leadership in Student Affairs: The Senior Student Affairs Officer Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Stephanie C.; Williams, Terry E.

    2010-01-01

    Success within today's challenging economic environment mandates that senior student affairs officers in higher education possess a sophisticated financial and budgetary skill set. Limited research addresses avenues through which professionals might best acquire the financial acumen needed. To address this gap, 19 senior student affairs officers…

  7. Stable extramarital affairs are breaking the heart.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A D; Bandini, E; Corona, G; Monami, M; Cameron Smith, M; Melani, C; Balzi, D; Forti, G; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between extramarital affairs and cardiovascular risk is still not completely clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether extramarital affairs have a protective effect on cardiovascular risk or, conversely, a deleterious one. Among patients studied, 91.8% of the whole sample reported no or occasional extramarital affairs, while 8.2% declared a stable secondary relationship. During a median follow-up of 4 [0-8] years, 95 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), eight of which were fatal, were observed. Cox analysis, after adjustment for confounding factors, showed that presence of stable extramarital affair was associated with a higher incidence of MACE (HR = 2.13 [1.12; 4.07], p = 0.023). The introduction in the Cox model of patient perceived partner's hypoactive sexual desire (PPPHSD) attenuates the association (HR 1.86 [0.93; 3.70], p = 0.078). The sample was therefore divided according to PPPHSD. We observed that unadjusted incidence of MACE was significantly associated with presence of extramarital affairs only in men reporting a primal partner without PPPHSD. This association was also confirmed in a Cox regression model, after adjusting for confounders (HR = 2.87 [1.81; 6.98], p = 0.020). We can conclude that to be unfaithful represents an independent risk factor for MACE. Therefore, infidelity induces not only heart trouble in the betrayed partners, but seems to be also able to increase the betrayer's heart-related events.

  8. The rise of clinical nutrition science in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Effective clinical nutrition practice depends on a sound knowledge of biomedical, societal and environmental science and the skills to diagnose, prevent and manage the health problems related to food patterns, energy equilibrium (mostly to do with physical activity) and nutrient metabolism. Its delivery needs to be accessible, equitable, affordable and sustainable. Ordinarily, this will require both local and widely distributed health services. In North-East (NE) Asia, these requisites are being met to an ever increasing extent. The roots of this progress are steeped in cultures which acknowledge the food-health connections and support education which pays regard to these connections. As elsewhere, however, the food and health systems, their safety and security are threatened by exploitative operatives. In China, a concerted effort was made in the mid-1980s to foster clinical nutrition in major hospitals throughout the country by programs directed at medical graduates, nursing and kitchen staff; dietetics has appeared much more recently. By contrast, Japan has had an extensive and well-trained dietetic workforce for much longer, alongside a vibrant basic nutrition science constituency in its universities and foodnutraceutical industry. South Korea and Taiwan have traversed a similar course to that in Japan. Now, all of these NE Asian economies have gathered rapid momentum in the publication of innovative approaches to public health and clinical nutrition which have the prospect of not only improving health outcomes, but also reducing the societal and financial burden of health care. This is particularly important in rapidly ageing societies, which they are. It is also a growing challenge where climate change threatens to engulf the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of Asians on account of natural disasters, water and food insecurity. PMID:27440675

  9. The rise of clinical nutrition science in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Effective clinical nutrition practice depends on a sound knowledge of biomedical, societal and environmental science and the skills to diagnose, prevent and manage the health problems related to food patterns, energy equilibrium (mostly to do with physical activity) and nutrient metabolism. Its delivery needs to be accessible, equitable, affordable and sustainable. Ordinarily, this will require both local and widely distributed health services. In North-East (NE) Asia, these requisites are being met to an ever increasing extent. The roots of this progress are steeped in cultures which acknowledge the food-health connections and support education which pays regard to these connections. As elsewhere, however, the food and health systems, their safety and security are threatened by exploitative operatives. In China, a concerted effort was made in the mid-1980s to foster clinical nutrition in major hospitals throughout the country by programs directed at medical graduates, nursing and kitchen staff; dietetics has appeared much more recently. By contrast, Japan has had an extensive and well-trained dietetic workforce for much longer, alongside a vibrant basic nutrition science constituency in its universities and foodnutraceutical industry. South Korea and Taiwan have traversed a similar course to that in Japan. Now, all of these NE Asian economies have gathered rapid momentum in the publication of innovative approaches to public health and clinical nutrition which have the prospect of not only improving health outcomes, but also reducing the societal and financial burden of health care. This is particularly important in rapidly ageing societies, which they are. It is also a growing challenge where climate change threatens to engulf the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of Asians on account of natural disasters, water and food insecurity.

  10. Assessing Competencies in a Master of Science in Clinical Research Program: The Comprehensive Competency Review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Moore, Charity G; McTigue, Kathleen M; Rubio, Doris M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2015-12-01

    Competencies in Master of Science Clinical Research programs are becoming increasingly common. However, students and programs can only benefit fully from competency-based education if students' competence is formally assessed. Prior to a summative assessment, students must have at least one formative, formal assessment to be sure they are developing competence appropriate for their stage of training. This paper describes the comprehensive competency review (CCR), a milestone for MS students in Clinical Research at the University of Pittsburgh's Institute for Clinical Research Education. The CCR involves metacognitive reflection of the student's learning as a whole, written evidence of each competency, a narrative explaining the choice of evidence for demonstrating competencies, and a meeting in which two faculty members review the evidence and solicit further oral evidence of competence. CCRs allow for individualized feedback at the midpoint in degree programs, providing students with confidence that they will have the means and strategies to develop competence in all areas by the summative assessment of competence at their thesis defense. CCRs have also provided programmatic insight on the need for curricular revisions and additions. These benefits outweigh the time cost on the part of students and faculty in the CCR process.

  11. Developing Common Metrics for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs): Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris M; Blank, Arthur E; Dozier, Ann; Hites, Lisle; Gilliam, Victoria A; Hunt, Joe; Rainwater, Julie; Trochim, William M

    2015-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research initiative, funded by the NIH Common Fund and offered through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, developed more than 60 unique models for achieving the NIH goal of accelerating discoveries toward better public health. The variety of these models enabled participating academic centers to experiment with different approaches to fit their research environment. A central challenge related to the diversity of approaches is the ability to determine the success and contribution of each model. This paper describes the effort by the Evaluation Key Function Committee to develop and test a methodology for identifying a set of common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research processes and for pilot testing these processes for collecting and analyzing metrics. The project involved more than one-fourth of all CTSAs and resulted in useful information regarding the challenges in developing common metrics, the complexity and costs of acquiring data for the metrics, and limitations on the utility of the metrics in assessing clinical research performance. The results of this process led to the identification of lessons learned and recommendations for development and use of common metrics to evaluate the CTSA effort. PMID:26073891

  12. A historical, clinical, and ethical overview of the emerging science of facial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    In the past 5 years, a total of 16 facial transplantation surgeries have been performed in France, China, Spain, and the United States. Facial transplantation has become a surgical option in clinical situations in which soft tissue and bone loss is accompanied by severe cosmetic, sensory, and functional deficiencies due to disease, trauma, or congenital malformations. With the introduction of facial tissue transplantation surgery came complex clinical, technological, and ethical patient care issues. These complex issues included determining patient selection criteria, refining donor tissue procurement techniques, predicting expected functional outcomes, appreciating the limitations of obtaining a fully informed consent for an innovative procedure, and deliberating the immunological response and postoperative immunosuppressant requirements of the recipient. In addition, psychological implications for the patient, societal consequences, and ethical concerns have been discussed. The short-term results have been positive. Results to date indicate that the clinical, technical, and immunological patient care issues in this emerging science appear to mirror those of other reconstructive and organ transplantation procedures. The long-term physical, emotional, and psychological effects on the recipient patient, as well as long-term consequences to the donor's family, are yet to be validated. PMID:22157604

  13. Developing Common Metrics for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs): Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris M; Blank, Arthur E; Dozier, Ann; Hites, Lisle; Gilliam, Victoria A; Hunt, Joe; Rainwater, Julie; Trochim, William M

    2015-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research initiative, funded by the NIH Common Fund and offered through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, developed more than 60 unique models for achieving the NIH goal of accelerating discoveries toward better public health. The variety of these models enabled participating academic centers to experiment with different approaches to fit their research environment. A central challenge related to the diversity of approaches is the ability to determine the success and contribution of each model. This paper describes the effort by the Evaluation Key Function Committee to develop and test a methodology for identifying a set of common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research processes and for pilot testing these processes for collecting and analyzing metrics. The project involved more than one-fourth of all CTSAs and resulted in useful information regarding the challenges in developing common metrics, the complexity and costs of acquiring data for the metrics, and limitations on the utility of the metrics in assessing clinical research performance. The results of this process led to the identification of lessons learned and recommendations for development and use of common metrics to evaluate the CTSA effort.

  14. Assessing Competencies in a Master of Science in Clinical Research Program: The Comprehensive Competency Review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Moore, Charity G; McTigue, Kathleen M; Rubio, Doris M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2015-12-01

    Competencies in Master of Science Clinical Research programs are becoming increasingly common. However, students and programs can only benefit fully from competency-based education if students' competence is formally assessed. Prior to a summative assessment, students must have at least one formative, formal assessment to be sure they are developing competence appropriate for their stage of training. This paper describes the comprehensive competency review (CCR), a milestone for MS students in Clinical Research at the University of Pittsburgh's Institute for Clinical Research Education. The CCR involves metacognitive reflection of the student's learning as a whole, written evidence of each competency, a narrative explaining the choice of evidence for demonstrating competencies, and a meeting in which two faculty members review the evidence and solicit further oral evidence of competence. CCRs allow for individualized feedback at the midpoint in degree programs, providing students with confidence that they will have the means and strategies to develop competence in all areas by the summative assessment of competence at their thesis defense. CCRs have also provided programmatic insight on the need for curricular revisions and additions. These benefits outweigh the time cost on the part of students and faculty in the CCR process. PMID:26332763

  15. Brief of the Canadian Society for Clinical Investigation to the science and technology review.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    In the context of new realities, perceptions, and concerns, it is fitting that the government has undertaken this Science and Technology Review, questioning not only how much to spend but also the justification and the best ways to carry out federally-funded research. We share the government's concern about the lack of economic competitiveness of our industries and agree that government-sponsored research should make a bigger contribution to the nation's global economic position. The CSCI, which represents the clinical investigators/scientists in this country, is grateful for having been given the opportunity to make this "tour d'horizon" of Canadian clinical research. In this brief, we have attempted to articulate the needs for, and the benefits of, basic biomedical research because it is the only type of research which will provide us with final answers. However, it should be more closely articulated with applied research, as well as with epidemiological, evaluative, and operational approaches which have been neglected. This brief has emphasized that CSCI is committed to PUTTING MORE SCIENCE INTO MEDICINE by encouraging a greater flow of discoveries from the laboratory research bench to the bedside and the community. We made the point that there is a crisis in patient-oriented research and a decrease of young physicians opting for research careers. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the MRC are responsive to this situation, which may compromise our capacity to discharge our broader mission. The MRC has given itself valid instruments to foster the creation of wealth through special programs such as the NCE, the University/Industry program, and the MRC-PMAC partnership. Some refining is in order, and close scrutiny of outcome is essential. Both the academic community and industry have their share of responsibility for the less-than-optimal transfer of knowledge to the market place. Lack of venture capital is also a serious issue. A unified

  16. Brief of the Canadian Society for Clinical Investigation to the science and technology review.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    In the context of new realities, perceptions, and concerns, it is fitting that the government has undertaken this Science and Technology Review, questioning not only how much to spend but also the justification and the best ways to carry out federally-funded research. We share the government's concern about the lack of economic competitiveness of our industries and agree that government-sponsored research should make a bigger contribution to the nation's global economic position. The CSCI, which represents the clinical investigators/scientists in this country, is grateful for having been given the opportunity to make this "tour d'horizon" of Canadian clinical research. In this brief, we have attempted to articulate the needs for, and the benefits of, basic biomedical research because it is the only type of research which will provide us with final answers. However, it should be more closely articulated with applied research, as well as with epidemiological, evaluative, and operational approaches which have been neglected. This brief has emphasized that CSCI is committed to PUTTING MORE SCIENCE INTO MEDICINE by encouraging a greater flow of discoveries from the laboratory research bench to the bedside and the community. We made the point that there is a crisis in patient-oriented research and a decrease of young physicians opting for research careers. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the MRC are responsive to this situation, which may compromise our capacity to discharge our broader mission. The MRC has given itself valid instruments to foster the creation of wealth through special programs such as the NCE, the University/Industry program, and the MRC-PMAC partnership. Some refining is in order, and close scrutiny of outcome is essential. Both the academic community and industry have their share of responsibility for the less-than-optimal transfer of knowledge to the market place. Lack of venture capital is also a serious issue. A unified

  17. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Affairs Council of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Public Session Meeting AGENCY.... ADDRESSES: The LAC will meet at the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR......

  18. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice, Executive Summary and Final Report, October 1, 1978 - March 15, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…

  19. [Evolution of the number of authors in clinical and basic science journals in the Spanish language].

    PubMed

    Soteras, F; Blanco, J R; García Pineda, A F; Rupérez, H; Córdova, A; Escanero, J F

    1990-01-01

    The number of signing authors in Revista Clínica Española. Revista Española de Fisiología and Revista Española de Oncología have been analyzed from their first to the last received issue. The results obtained show an increasing number of authors in all journals specially during the 70s. The results also point out a relative decrease in the number of authors in basic sciences in relation to clinical publications. The increase in the number of authors in The Revista Española de Oncología has started somewhat later than the others. The environmental and professional stress as well as the interrelations between different hospital members have been suggested, amongst others, as the possible cause of these events. PMID:2320767

  20. The role of human agents in facilitating clinical and translational science.

    PubMed

    David Johnson, J

    2012-08-01

    The fundamental problem confronting policymakers who desire to facilitate the development of clinical and translational science (CTS) comes in bringing people with disparate interests, vocabularies, cultures, goals, and so forth together for a common purpose. A variety of roles have been suggested for individuals who may play key parts in this overall process: opinion leaders, change agents, boundary spanners, structural hole brokers, and, finally, collaborative knowledge brokers. This essay will systematically review these key roles; focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of each to illustrate their part in approaches to solving this problem. The implications of this perspective will be discussed in terms of the role that human agents can play in facilitating CTS. PMID:22883615

  1. [Evolution of the number of authors in clinical and basic science journals in the Spanish language].

    PubMed

    Soteras, F; Blanco, J R; García Pineda, A F; Rupérez, H; Córdova, A; Escanero, J F

    1990-01-01

    The number of signing authors in Revista Clínica Española. Revista Española de Fisiología and Revista Española de Oncología have been analyzed from their first to the last received issue. The results obtained show an increasing number of authors in all journals specially during the 70s. The results also point out a relative decrease in the number of authors in basic sciences in relation to clinical publications. The increase in the number of authors in The Revista Española de Oncología has started somewhat later than the others. The environmental and professional stress as well as the interrelations between different hospital members have been suggested, amongst others, as the possible cause of these events.

  2. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p<0.002, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.22–2.27), controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking and age. Conclusions The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

  3. Heterogeneity at Work: Implications of the 2012 Clinical Translational Science Award Evaluators Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Cathleen; Alexander, Angela; Hogle, Janice A.; Parsons, Helen M.; Phelps, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program is an ambitious multibillion dollar initiative sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized around the mission of facilitating the improved quality, efficiency, and effectiveness of translational health sciences research across the country. Although the NIH explicitly requires internal evaluation, funded CTSA institutions are given wide latitude to choose the structure and methods for evaluating their local CTSA program. The National Evaluators Survey was developed by a peer-led group of local CTSA evaluators as a voluntary effort to understand emerging differences and commonalities in evaluation teams and techniques across the 61 CTSA institutions funded nationwide. This article presents the results of the 2012 National Evaluators Survey, finding significant heterogeneity in evaluation staffing, organization, and methods across the 58 CTSAs institutions responding. The variety reflected in these findings represents both a liability and strength. A lack of standardization may impair the ability to make use of common metrics, but variation is also a successful evolutionary response to complexity. Additionally, the peer-led approach and simple design demonstrated by the questionnaire itself has value as an example of an evaluation technique with potential for replication in other areas across the CTSA institutions or any large-scale investment where multiple related teams across a wide geographic area are given the latitude to develop specialized approaches to fulfilling a common mission. PMID:24214662

  4. Clinical and ethical considerations of massively parallel sequencing in transplantation science.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Andreas

    2013-12-24

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS), alias next-generation sequencing, is making its way from research laboratories into applied sciences and clinics. MPS is a framework of experimental procedures which offer possibilities for genome research and genetics which could only be dreamed of until around 2005 when these technologies became available. Sequencing of a transcriptome, exome, even entire genomes is now possible within a time frame and precision that we could only hope for 10 years ago. Linking other experimental procedures with MPS enables researchers to study secondary DNA modifications across the entire genome, and protein binding sites, to name a few applications. How the advancements of sequencing technologies can contribute to transplantation science is subject of this discussion: immediate applications are in graft matching via human leukocyte antigen sequencing, as part of systems biology approaches which shed light on gene expression processes during immune response, as biomarkers of graft rejection, and to explore changes of microbiomes as a result of transplantation. Of considerable importance is the socio-ethical aspect of data ownership, privacy, informed consent, and result report to the study participant. While the technology is advancing rapidly, legislation is lagging behind due to the globalisation of data requisition, banking and sharing.

  5. Clinical and ethical considerations of massively parallel sequencing in transplantation science

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS), alias next-generation sequencing, is making its way from research laboratories into applied sciences and clinics. MPS is a framework of experimental procedures which offer possibilities for genome research and genetics which could only be dreamed of until around 2005 when these technologies became available. Sequencing of a transcriptome, exome, even entire genomes is now possible within a time frame and precision that we could only hope for 10 years ago. Linking other experimental procedures with MPS enables researchers to study secondary DNA modifications across the entire genome, and protein binding sites, to name a few applications. How the advancements of sequencing technologies can contribute to transplantation science is subject of this discussion: immediate applications are in graft matching via human leukocyte antigen sequencing, as part of systems biology approaches which shed light on gene expression processes during immune response, as biomarkers of graft rejection, and to explore changes of microbiomes as a result of transplantation. Of considerable importance is the socio-ethical aspect of data ownership, privacy, informed consent, and result report to the study participant. While the technology is advancing rapidly, legislation is lagging behind due to the globalisation of data requisition, banking and sharing. PMID:24392310

  6. Endoscopic Pancreas Fluid Collection: Methods and Relevance for Clinical Care and Translational Science.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil A; Topazian, Mark; Raimondo, Massimo; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Fisher, William E; Lesinski, Gregory B; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic secretions have an important role in the regulation of a normal nutritional state but can be altered owing to a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of exocrine pancreatic disease. The development of an endoscopic technique for collection of pancreatic fluid, termed endoscopic pancreatic function testing, has led to improved understanding of these alterations and is particularly helpful to characterize chronic pancreatitis. In addition, investigators have found endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid to be a valuable biofluid for the purposes of translational science. Techniques such as proteomic, cytokine, genetic mutation, DNA methylation, and microRNA analyses, among others, can be utilized to gain a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases. Endoscopic collection of pancreatic fluid is safe and relatively straightforward, permitting opportunities for longitudinal analysis of these translational markers throughout the course of disease. This manuscript summarizes our current knowledge of pancreatic fluid, with an emphasis on proper techniques for sample collection and handling, its clinical utility, and preliminary observations in translational science. PMID:27481304

  7. Orienting Mid-Level Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.; Bryan, Stephen P.; Faulkner, William O.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-level managers comprise a large proportion of student affairs organizations. They are often the most overlooked when it comes to professional orientation and institutional introduction when entering new positions. Accordingly, information is presented from the professional literature that speaks to the characteristics and unique needs of this…

  8. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  9. Education for America's Role in World Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, John, Ed.; Ryerson, Andre, Ed.

    This collection of essays by leading policy analysts and educators investigate the often contradictory claims of global, peace, multicultural and citizenship education and examines what U.S. students should know about world affairs in the post-cold war era. The essays suggest methods of change based on a strong academic core of history,…

  10. Student Employee Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athas, Christina; Oaks, D'Arcy John; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Employment within student affairs divisions offers environments in which students can apply the knowledge they have gained, as well as acquire new competencies, helping them to build solid foundations for their futures. Researchers used an online survey to assess the outcomes associated with part-time student employment within the student affairs…

  11. The Digital Age of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.; Junco, Reynol

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the student affairs profession in the digital age. The authors explore new challenges educators and professionals face as new areas are added and expanded, how social networks and digital technology tools continue to evolve, and what skills are needed to engage with students in person and online.

  12. Student Affairs and Services Stream: College Quarterly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddel, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "College Quarterly" recently introduced a stream for academic and scholar-practitioner dialogue concerning student affairs and services. To contribute to the growth and enhancement of the field, scholars and scholar-practitioners are invited to contribute original pieces that advance scholarship and/or practice around facilitating…

  13. Office of Indian Affairs 1985 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    The major goals of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) in 1985 were to enhance Indian education concerns, aid tribes in economic development, and effectuate a smooth working relationship between state, local, and tribal governments in the spirit of and through the use of the Joint Powers Act. Advancement is reflected in all these areas.…

  14. Excellence in Community College Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Student success, accountability, and educational outcomes have been strongly emphasized in U.S. community colleges in recent years. For those individuals serving in community college student affairs, intentional commitment to standards and competencies in professional practice is essential in order to achieve institutional expectations and to meet…

  15. Foreign Affairs News and the Broadcast Journalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batscha, Robert M.

    Discussion of the role of the broadcast journalist in foreign affairs news is divided into four parts in this volume: (1) "The Correspondent" deals with the group characteristics of foreign correspondents and their role conceptions, (2) "Gathering the News" examines the correspondent;s view of the mechanical constraints and structural…

  16. Office of Indian Affairs 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    This report outlines the activities of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) for 1984 in accordance with its directive to investigate, study, consider and act upon the entire subject of Indian conditions and relations within the State of New Mexico, including but not restricted to, problems of health, economy, education, legislation, and…

  17. TQM: Finding a Place in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tyrone A.

    1996-01-01

    Critically examines Total Quality Management (TQM). Analyzes the concepts and practices of TQM and its failure to live up to expectations in higher education. Emphasizes the problems inherent with TQM initiatives in an educational environment and outlines ways that student affairs officials can proactively apply TQM to support universities'…

  18. Talking Science: Language and Learning in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2005-01-01

    This book is about the fundamental nature of talk in school science. Language as a formal system provides resources for conducting everyday affairs, including the doing of science. While writing science is one aspect, talking science may in fact constitute a much more important means by which people navigate and know the world--the very medium…

  19. Arthroscopic contact Nd:YAG laser meniscectomy: basic science, surgical technique, and clinical follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Stephen J.; Fealy, Stephen V.; Gibney, Mary A.; Miller, Drew V.; Kelly, Anne M.

    1990-06-01

    Recent basic science studies (5) have provided a scientific foundation for the use of the Contact Nd:YAG Laser as an arthroscopic tool for xneniscal resection and acroxnioplasty of the shoulder in a saline medium. This study prospectively evaluates the results of a three stage laboratory investigation as well as the clinical results of arthroscopic xneniscal resection. Fifteen patients with meniscal tears underwent subtotal meniscectomies utilizing a Contact Nd:YAG Laser (Surgical Laser Technologies; Malvern, Pennsylvania) . This was done in a saline medium with an average laser wattage of 25 W, (range 20 W to 30 W). Patients were evaluated postoperatively with reference to subjective and objective parameters at one week and four weeks postoperatively. Patients were evaluated with regard to wound healing, intraarticular swelling and pain. Assessment of technical parameters such as ease of resection, time of resection and instrument access were compared to conventional instruments. All fifteen patients were rated as having clinically excellent results based on pain relief, wound healing and swelling. In addition, although there was increased time with setting up the laser and calibrating it, there was not an increase in time for meniscal resection. Little, or no, secondary "trimmuning" was necessary with the laser. Increased accessibility was noted due to the small size of the laser. Arthroscopic Contact Nd:YAG Laser surgery is a safe and effective tool for menisca]. resection and coagulation in arthroscopic acromioplasties. It provides significant advantages over conventional cutting instruments with regard to accessibility and reduced need for secondary instruments.

  20. Multiplex assays for biomarker research and clinical application: translational science coming of age.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qin; Schoenhoff, Florian S; Savage, William J; Zhang, Pingbo; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2010-03-01

    Over the last decade, translational science has come into the focus of academic medicine, and significant intellectual and financial efforts have been made to initiate a multitude of bench-to-bedside projects. The quest for suitable biomarkers that will significantly change clinical practice has become one of the biggest challenges in translational medicine. Quantitative measurement of proteins is a critical step in biomarker discovery. Assessing a large number of potential protein biomarkers in a statistically significant number of samples and controls still constitutes a major technical hurdle. Multiplexed analysis offers significant advantages regarding time, reagent cost, sample requirements and the amount of data that can be generated. The two contemporary approaches in multiplexed and quantitative biomarker validation, antibody-based immunoassays and MS-based multiple (or selected) reaction monitoring, are based on different assay principles and instrument requirements. Both approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages and therefore have complementary roles in the multi-staged biomarker verification and validation process. In this review, we discuss quantitative immunoassay and multiple reaction monitoring/selected reaction monitoring assay principles and development. We also discuss choosing an appropriate platform, judging the performance of assays, obtaining reliable, quantitative results for translational research and clinical applications in the biomarker field. PMID:21137048

  1. How smart do biomaterials need to be? A translational science and clinical point of view.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Reichert, Johannes Christian; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Gbureck, Uwe; Rackwitz, Lars; Nöth, Ulrich; Jakob, Franz; Rudert, Maximilian; Groll, Jürgen; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2013-04-01

    biomaterials lists a large number of excellent review articles which core is to present and discuss the basic sciences on the topic of smart biomaterials. On the other hand, the purpose of our review is to assess state of the art and future perspectives of the so called "smart biomaterials" from a translational science and specifically clinical point of view. Our aim is to filter out and discuss which biomedical advances and innovations help us to achieve the objective to translate smart biomaterials from bench to bedside. The authors predict that analyzing the field of smart biomaterials from a clinical point of view, looking back 50 years from now, it will show that this is our heritage in the 21st century.

  2. How smart do biomaterials need to be? A translational science and clinical point of view.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Reichert, Johannes Christian; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Gbureck, Uwe; Rackwitz, Lars; Nöth, Ulrich; Jakob, Franz; Rudert, Maximilian; Groll, Jürgen; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2013-04-01

    biomaterials lists a large number of excellent review articles which core is to present and discuss the basic sciences on the topic of smart biomaterials. On the other hand, the purpose of our review is to assess state of the art and future perspectives of the so called "smart biomaterials" from a translational science and specifically clinical point of view. Our aim is to filter out and discuss which biomedical advances and innovations help us to achieve the objective to translate smart biomaterials from bench to bedside. The authors predict that analyzing the field of smart biomaterials from a clinical point of view, looking back 50 years from now, it will show that this is our heritage in the 21st century. PMID:22820527

  3. Formally acknowledging donor-cadaver-patients in the basic and clinical science research arena.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion

    2013-10-01

    Historically, in the healthcare profession, cadaveric tissue has been predominantly used for teaching the architecture of the human body. It is respectful practice in scientific writing to acknowledge colleagues who have helped to collect/analyze data and prepare manuscripts; however, it appears that we have omitted to thank those that have donated themselves for any of these projects to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the formal acknowledgment thanking those who have given the amazing gift of themselves to science. A literature search was conducted on printed and electronic anatomical and clinical journals. Anatomical and clinical conferences were attended between 2008 and 2012; posters utilizing cadaveric tissue were examined for acknowledgment. University/private institutions were contacted to ascertain if memorial services were held. Literature revealed only one journal that required acknowledgment when donor-cadaver's (DC's) were used. Poster examination revealed very few acknowledgments of DC tissue at clinical conferences. While all university programs (n = 20) held memorial services, only 6 of 20 private procurement organizations had any such event. Our surgical anatomist forefathers faced awkward conditions because cadaveric tissue was not readily available. Contemporarily, anatomists and researchers have ready access to DC's. Socially, these donations are recognized as unparalleled educational tools and gifts, yet often they are not given the appropriate recognition and are overlooked in the publishing and scientific research arena. This research suggests editors, researchers, IRB committees, nonprofit body willed programs, and for-profit procurement organizations formally recognize and/or require recognition of those who donate their bodies for research.

  4. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  5. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  6. Strengthening the career development of clinical translational scientist trainees: a consensus statement of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Education and Career Development Committees.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Frederick J; Begg, Melissa D; Fleming, Michael; Merchant, Carol

    2012-04-01

    The challenges for scholars committed to successful careers in clinical and translational science are increasingly well recognized. The Education and Career Development (EdCD) of the national Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium gathered thought leaders to propose sustainable solutions and an agenda for future studies that would strengthen the infrastructure across the spectrum of pre- and postdoctoral, MD and PhD, scholars. Six consensus statements were prepared that include: (1) the requirement for career development of a qualitatively different investigator; (2) the implications of interdisciplinary science for career advancement including institutional promotion and tenure actions that were developed for discipline-specific accomplishments; (3) the need for long-term commitment of institutions to scholars; (4) discipline-specific curricula are still required but curricula designed to promote team work and interdisciplinary training will promote innovation; (5) PhD trainees have many pathways to career satisfaction and success; and (6) a centralized infrastructure to enhance and reward mentoring is required. Several themes cut across all of the recommendations including team science, innovation, and sustained institutional commitment. Implied themes include an effective and diverse job force and the requirement for a well-crafted public policy that supports continued investments in science education.

  7. Science Anxiety and Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffrey V.; Greenburg, Sharon L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses origins and nature of science anxiety and describes the Science Anxiety Clinic, outlining techniques used at the clinic. Techniques include science skills training and psychological interventions. Comments on the connection between science anxiety and cognitive processes in science learning. (Author/JN)

  8. Educational affairs plan: A five-year strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A five-year plan is presented to guide the use of NASA resources in administering a focused and consistent set of aeronautics and space science education programs. Major initiatives outlined in this plan fall into two categories: programmatic priorities and institutional priorities. Programmatic priorities for this plan include elementary education, teacher education, underrepresented minority participation, educational technology and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP). Institutional priorities highlighted in this plan include university programs, educational publications and their distribution, educational partnerships with public and private organizations, educational research and evaluation, and activities of the educational affairs administration. The plan's aim is to directly and indirectly help to ensure an adequate pool of talented scientists, engineers and technical personnel to keep NASA at the forefront of advancements for the 21st century.

  9. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

    2009-03-01

    In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy. PMID:19653516

  10. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  11. Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentz, Audrey L.; And Others

    This book describes significant issues and trends in the evolution of student affairs and reviews current methods and models of practice. The chapters are: (1) "The Philosophical Heritage of Student Affairs," by Stan Carpenter, reviewing the relationship between educational philosophy and student services; (2) "A History of Student Affairs," by…

  12. 16 CFR 0.20 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of International Affairs. 0.20... ORGANIZATION § 0.20 Office of International Affairs. The Office of International Affairs (OIA) comprises international antitrust, international consumer protection, and international technical assistance. OIA...

  13. 16 CFR 0.20 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of International Affairs. 0.20... ORGANIZATION § 0.20 Office of International Affairs. The Office of International Affairs (OIA) comprises international antitrust, international consumer protection, and international technical assistance. OIA...

  14. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  15. Crossing Over: The Lived Experiences of Clinical Laboratory Science Education Teachers as They Transition from Traditional to Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Ruth B.

    2013-01-01

    A phenomenological study was undertaken to understand and describe the nature and meaning of the live experiences of faculty transition from traditional to teaching online clinical laboratory science courses. In order to gain insight into the lived experiences of faculty, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 faculty members. The task of the…

  16. New strategies in assessing, treating, and relapse prevention of extramarital affairs.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Barry; Wald, Lana M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding, assessing, treating, and preventing relapse of extra-marital affairs has involved significant changes in the past 10 years. This conceptual/clinical article expands on the groundbreaking work of Snyder, Gordon, and Baucom (2007), and has a special focus placed on the process of sexual recovery from an extra-marital affair. Secondly, this article focuses on the importance of creating a relapse prevention agreement. Both traditional and non-traditional agreements with regard to monogamy are described. Recognizing individual, couple, cultural, and value differences in norms and expectations exhibits a particular challenge in the study and treatment of extra-marital affairs. The clinician honors these complexities and differences by designing a treatment program that meets the needs of each couple.

  17. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  18. The Use of Clinical Interviews to Develop Inservice Secondary Science Teachers' Nature of Science Knowledge and Assessment of Student Nature of Science Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters-Burton, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    To fully incorporate nature of science knowledge into classrooms, teachers must be both proficient in their own nature of science knowledge, but also skillful in translating their knowledge into a learning environment which assesses student knowledge. Twenty-eight inservice teachers enrolled in a graduate course which in part required a clinical…

  19. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious diseases (ID) fields. Design The survey consisted of 61 questions divided into five areas (sociodemographic, professional census and environment, leadership and generic) and ran anonymously for nearly 3 months on the ESCMID website. Subjects European specialists in CM/ID. Results Overall, we included 1274 professionals. The majority of respondents (68%) stated that discrimination is present in medical science. A quarter of them reported personal experience with discrimination, mainly associated with gender and geographic region. Specialists from South-Western Europe experienced events at a much higher rate (37%) than other European regions. The proportion of women among full professor was on average 46% in CM and 26% in ID. Participation in high-level decision-making committees was significantly (>10 percentage points) different by gender and geographic origin. Yearly gross salary among CM/ID professionals was significantly different among European countries and by gender, within the same country. More than one-third of respondents (38%) stated that international societies in CM/ID have an imbalance as for committee member distribution and speakers at international conferences. Conclusions A quarter of CM/ID specialists experienced career and research discrimination in European hospitals and universities, mainly related to gender and geographic origin. Implementing proactive policies to tackle discrimination and improve representativeness and balance in career among CM

  20. Bridging the Gap Between Science and Clinical Efficacy: Physiology, Imaging, and Modeling of Aerosols in the Lung.

    PubMed

    Darquenne, Chantal; Fleming, John S; Katz, Ira; Martin, Andrew R; Schroeter, Jeffry; Usmani, Omar S; Venegas, Jose; Schmid, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Development of a new drug for the treatment of lung disease is a complex and time consuming process involving numerous disciplines of basic and applied sciences. During the 2015 Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine, a group of experts including aerosol scientists, physiologists, modelers, imagers, and clinicians participated in a workshop aiming at bridging the gap between basic research and clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. This publication summarizes the current consensus on the topic. It begins with a short description of basic concepts of aerosol transport and a discussion on targeting strategies of inhaled aerosols to the lungs. It is followed by a description of both computational and biological lung models, and the use of imaging techniques to determine aerosol deposition distribution (ADD) in the lung. Finally, the importance of ADD to clinical efficacy is discussed. Several gaps were identified between basic science and clinical efficacy. One gap between scientific research aimed at predicting, controlling, and measuring ADD and the clinical use of inhaled aerosols is the considerable challenge of obtaining, in a single study, accurate information describing the optimal lung regions to be targeted, the effectiveness of targeting determined from ADD, and some measure of the drug's effectiveness. Other identified gaps were the language and methodology barriers that exist among disciplines, along with the significant regulatory hurdles that need to be overcome for novel drugs and/or therapies to reach the marketplace and benefit the patient. Despite these gaps, much progress has been made in recent years to improve clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. Also, the recent efforts by many funding agencies and industry to support multidisciplinary networks including basic science researchers, R&D scientists, and clinicians will go a long way to further reduce the gap between science and clinical efficacy. PMID:26829187

  1. Assessing statistical competencies in clinical and translational science education: one size does not fit all

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Robert A.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Welty, Leah J.; Mazumdar, Madhu; Thurston, Sally W.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Carter, Rickey E.; Pollock, Bradley H.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Jovanovic, Borko D.; Enders, Felicity T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Statistics is an essential training component for a career in clinical and translational science (CTS). Given the increasing complexity of statistics, learners may have difficulty selecting appropriate courses. Our question was: what depth of statistical knowledge do different CTS learners require? Methods For three types of CTS learners (principal investigator, co-investigator, informed reader of the literature), each with different backgrounds in research (no previous research experience, reader of the research literature, previous research experience), 18 experts in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design proposed levels for 21 statistical competencies. Results Statistical competencies were categorized as fundamental, intermediate, or specialized. CTS learners who intend to become independent principal investigators require more specialized training, while those intending to become informed consumers of the medical literature require more fundamental education. For most competencies, less training was proposed for those with more research background. Discussion When selecting statistical coursework, the learner’s research background and career goal should guide the decision. Some statistical competencies are considered to be more important than others. Baseline knowledge assessments may help learners identify appropriate coursework. Conclusion Rather than one size fits all, tailoring education to baseline knowledge, learner background and future goals increases learning potential while minimizing classroom time. PMID:25212569

  2. Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

    2012-10-01

    Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education.

  3. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  4. Mentor training within academic health centers with Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Zainab; Rebello, Tahilia J; Richards, Boyd F; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-10-01

    Multiple studies highlight the benefits of effective mentoring in academic medicine. Thus, we sought to quantify and characterize the mentoring practices at academic health centers (AHCs) with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). Here we report findings pertaining specifically to mentor training at the level of the KL2 mentored award program, and at the broader institutional level. We found only four AHCs did not provide any form of training. One-time orientation was most prevalent at the KL2 level, whereas formal face-to-face training was most prevalent at the institutional level. Despite differences in format usage, there was general consensus at both the KL2 and institutional level about the topics of focus of face-to-face training sessions. Lower-resource training formats utilized at the KL2 level may reveal a preference for preselection of qualified mentors, while institutional selection of resource-heavy formats may be an attempt to raise the mentoring qualifications of the academic community as a whole. The present work fits into the expanding landscape of academic mentoring literature and sets the framework for future longitudinal, outcome studies focused on identifying the most efficient strategies to develop effective mentors.

  5. A Pilot Common Reading Experience to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Policastri, Anne; Garces, Helen; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Romanelli, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To use a common reading experience that engages students in academic discourse both before and during a PharmD degree program and introduces students to basic science and ethical foundations in health care. Design. First-year (P1) pharmacy students were assigned a nonfiction text to read during the summer prior to admission to be followed by facilitated discussions. Activities using the text were integrated into the first-year curriculum. Pre-experience and post-experience student and faculty survey instruments were administered. Assessment. Students and faculty members reported that 3 first-year courses used the text. Students noted that the text's historical perspective enhanced their understanding of both healthcare delivery and clinical research. Most students (78%) recommended continuation of the common reading experience activity. Conclusion. Students and participating faculty members found the common reading experience, which provided a hub for discussion around issues such as health literacy and ethical treatment of patients, to be a positive addition to the curriculum. Future intentions for this project include expansion across all healthcare colleges at the university. PMID:22438597

  6. A two-decades-long study of scholarship by clinical laboratory science faculty.

    PubMed

    Karni, Karen R; Waller, Kathy V

    2011-01-01

    To compete successfully in academia, clinical laboratory science (CLS) faculty members must actively engage in research and scholarly activities. Without research, some CLS educators may experience difficulty in the promotion and tenure process or even find their educational programs threatened with closure. Thus began a national study, spanning the years 1985, 1996, and 2008: to compare CLS faculty demographics, their scholarship, and their perceptions of the research environment. Since 1985, faculty members with doctorates have increased from 26% to 52% and senior faculty at the rank of associate and full professors have improved from 38% to 54%. Over time, the data show CLS faculty are providing more refereed publications (in the 2008 study, 19% had 11 or more publications) and more presentations (in the 2008 study, 34% had 11 or more presentations). Grant monies garnered included $62 million in the latest study. On the other hand, there are more faculty in non-tenured track positions. In addition, in both the 1996 and 2008 studies, the average number of faculty per program remained the same (4), as did hours spent each week in teaching (22). For all three studies, faculty perceived the top two research environment characteristics the same: i.e., 1) research is important for promotion and tenure and 2) computer accessibility is present. The lowest ranked characteristic of the research environment for all these studies-time available for research.

  7. Communicating science: Reflections of an AGU public affairs intern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Tyler

    2012-10-01

    This past summer, I read a biography of the geologist and anthropologist John Wesley Powell. Among his many important accomplishments, Powell was a legendary explorer of the then largely unknown American West, a leader in the founding of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its second director, and the founder of the Cosmos Club in Washington, D. C. He was a student of the Earth from an early age, fought and lost an arm for the Union during the Civil War, advanced to the rank of major, led the first successful expedition down the entirety of the Grand Canyon, and then spent the rest of his life coupling scientific knowledge with public policy.

  8. Basic science and clinical application of stem cells in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ribitsch, I; Burk, J; Delling, U; Geißler, C; Gittel, C; Jülke, H; Brehm, W

    2010-01-01

    :329-336, 2008). It is believed that these stem cells serve as cell source to maintain tissue and organ mass during normal cell turnover in adult individuals. Therefore, the focus of attention in veterinary science is currently drawn to adult stem cells and their potential in regenerative medicine. Also experience gained from the treatment of animal patients provides valuable information for human medicine and serves as precursor to future stem cell use in human medicine.Compared to human medicine, haematopoietic stem cells only play a minor role in veterinary medicine because medical conditions requiring myeloablative chemotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem cell induced recovery of the immune system are relatively rare and usually not being treated for monetary as well as animal welfare reasons.In contrast, regenerative medicine utilising MSCs for the treatment of acute injuries as well as chronic disorders is gradually turning into clinical routine. Therefore, MSCs from either extra embryonic or adult tissues are in the focus of attention in veterinary medicine and research. Hence the purpose of this chapter is to offer an overview on basic science and clinical application of MSCs in veterinary medicine. PMID:20309674

  9. Science in diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-04-16

    Throughout human history, science and technology have been the backbone of innovations that have driven economic development. Yet, rather oddly, they have not been seriously invoked in the pursuit of diplomacy. This Commentary examines the important role of science in diplomacy and its soft-power in world affairs and peace.

  10. Science, humanism, judgement, ethics: person-centered medicine as an emergent model of modern clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Medical University of Plovdiv (MUP) has as its motto 'Committed to humanity". But what does humanity in modern medicine mean? Is it possible to practise a form of medicine that is without humanity? In the current article, it is argued that modern medicine is increasingly being practised in a de-personalised fashion, where the patient is understood not as a unique human individual, a person, but rather as a subject or an object and more in the manner of a complex biological machine. Medicine has, it is contended, become distracted from its duty to care, comfort and console as well as to ameliorate, attenuate and cure and that the rapid development of medicine's scientific knowledge is, paradoxically, principally causative. Signal occurrences in the 'patient as a person' movement are reviewed, together with the emergence of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) and patient-centered care (PCC) movements. The characteristics of a model of medicine evolving in response to medicine's current deficiencies--person-centered healthcare (PCH)--are noted and described. In seeking to apply science with humanism, via clinical judgement, within an ethical framework, it is contended that PCH will prove to be far more responsive to the needs of the individual patient and his/her personal circumstances than current models of practice, so that neither a reductive anatomico-pathological, disease-centric model of illness (EBM), nor an aggressive patient-directed, consumerist form of care (PCC) is allowed continued dominance within modern healthcare systems. In conclusion, it is argued that PCH will enable affordable advances in biomedicine and technology to be delivered to patients within a humanistic framework of clinical practice that recognises the patient as a person and which takes full account of his/her stories, values, preferences, goals, aspirations, fears, worries, hopes, cultural context and which responds to his/her psychological, emotional, spiritual and social necessities

  11. Measuring revolutionary biomedical science 1992-2006 using Nobel prizes, Lasker (clinical medicine) awards and Gairdner awards (NLG metric).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Nobel prize for medicine or physiology, the Lasker award for clinical medicine, and the Gairdner international award are given to individuals for their role in developing theories, technologies and discoveries which have changed the direction of biomedical science. These distinctions have been used to develop an NLG metric to measure research performance and trends in 'revolutionary' biomedical science with the aim of identifying the premier revolutionary science research institutions and nations from 1992-2006. I have previously argued that the number of Nobel laureates in the biomedical field should be expanded to about nine per year and the NLG metric attempts to predict the possible results of such an expansion. One hundred and nineteen NLG prizes and awards were made during the past fifteen years (about eight per year) when overlapping awards had been removed. Eighty-five were won by the USA, revealing a massive domination in revolutionary biomedical science by this nation; the UK was second with sixteen awards; Canada had five, Australia four and Germany three. The USA had twelve elite centres of revolutionary biomedical science, with University of Washington at Seattle and MIT in first position with six awards and prizes each; Rockefeller University and Caltech were jointly second placed with five. Surprisingly, Harvard University--which many people rank as the premier world research centre--failed to reach the threshold of three prizes and awards, and was not included in the elite list. The University of Oxford, UK, was the only institution outside of the USA which featured as a significant centre of revolutionary biomedical science. Long-term success at the highest level of revolutionary biomedical science (and probably other sciences) probably requires a sufficiently large number of individually-successful large institutions in open competition with one another--as in the USA. If this model cannot be replicated within smaller nations, then it implies

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Conceptual Knowledge Engineering on the Design and Usability of a Clinical and Translational Science Collaboration Portal

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Borlawsky, Tara B.; Rice, Robert; Embi, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    With the growing prevalence of large-scale, team science endeavors in the biomedical and life science domains, the impetus to implement platforms capable of supporting asynchronous interaction among multidisciplinary groups of collaborators has increased commensurately. However, there is a paucity of literature describing systematic approaches to identifying the information needs of targeted end-users for such platforms, and the translation of such requirements into practicable software component design criteria. In previous studies, we have reported upon the efficacy of employing conceptual knowledge engineering (CKE) techniques to systematically address both of the preceding challenges in the context of complex biomedical applications. In this manuscript we evaluate the impact of CKE approaches relative to the design of a clinical and translational science collaboration portal, and report upon the preliminary qualitative users satisfaction as reported for the resulting system. PMID:21347146

  13. Student Affairs Case Management: Merging Social Work Theory with Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sharrika D.; Hazelwood, Sherry; Hayden, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Case management is a functional area in higher education and student affairs that emerged after the mass shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007. Although new to higher education, case management emerged from established social work practice. This article compares social work theory and case management standards with a new case management model for…

  14. Designing Student Affairs Organizational Structures: Perceptions of Senior Student Affairs Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; Banning, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Student affairs organizations have become complex entities and serve as a critical link to student success and the quality of the overall educational experience in collegiate institutions. Over time, new programs and services have been added to the array of existing programs and services with little attention focused on how these organizations…

  15. Excellence within Student Affairs: Understanding the Practice of Integrating Academic and Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozaki, C. Casey; Hornak, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    In this final chapter, the authors synthesize and draw from chapters across this volume to provide concluding remarks and recommendations. The authors suggest that core to the discussion of excellence of student affairs in community colleges are the concepts of integration and collaboration. As professionals tasked with supporting the student…

  16. The Master of Science in clinical epidemiology degree program of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania: a model for clinical research training.

    PubMed

    Strom, Brian L; Kelly, Thomas O; Norman, Sandra A; Farrar, John T; Kimmel, Stephen E; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Feldman, Harold I

    2012-01-01

    An innovative training program to provide clinical research training for clinicians was created in 1979 at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, now the Perelman School of Medicine. The program's principal and continuing aim is to provide trainees mentored experiences and the training needed to become skilled independent investigators able to conduct clinical research and develop academic careers as independent clinical investigators.The authors identify the vision that led to the creation of the master of science in clinical epidemiology (MSCE) degree program and describe today's training program, including administration, oversight, participating faculty, and trainees. They also describe the program's core curriculum, elective options, seminars on ongoing research, training in the responsible conduct of research, professional development activities, and the development and completion of a closely mentored clinical research project.Approximately 35 new trainees enter the two- to three-year program annually. Funding is provided primarily by National Institutes of Health-funded training programs and supplemented by private industry, private foundations, and employee-based benefits. More than 500 individuals have received or are currently receiving training through the MSCE program. A large percentage of former trainees maintain full-time positions in academic medicine today.The authors identify some challenges that have been met and insights regarding funding, faculty, trainees, and curriculum. Ongoing challenges include recruiting trainees from some selected highly paid, procedure-oriented specialties, maintaining sufficient mentors for the continually increasing numbers of trainees, and distinguishing applicants who truly desire a primary research career from others.

  17. Attitudes of Radiologic Science Students, Technologists, and Clinical Instructors Regarding Their Experiential Learning and Career Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Radiologic science is an essential part of the healthcare continuum and preparing radiologic science students with experiential learning is essential. It is from this experience working with the patient that students begin to prepare for entry-level practice. The purpose of the study was to examine the attitudes of current radiologic science…

  18. Maintaining a Love Affair with Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob

    1977-01-01

    The separatist philosophy of science and nature and the holistic philosophy of humans and science in nature are described. A new view which combines a humanistic and scientific view is presented. It is suggested that science teachers communicate their love for nature as well as their need for orderly thought. (AJ)

  19. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine.

  20. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine. PMID:23886389

  1. Magnetic resonance microscopy of prostate tissue: How basic science can inform clinical imaging development

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, Roger

    2013-03-15

    This commentary outlines how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy studies of prostate tissue samples and whole organs have shed light on a number of clinical imaging mysteries and may enable more effective development of new clinical imaging methods.

  2. 77 FR 66848 - Minimum Clinically Important Difference: An Outcome Metric in Orthopaedic Device Science and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... scientific rationales for regulatory guidance of clinical trials and device study design. Date and Time: The... rationales for regulatory guidance of clinical trials and device study design. Approximately 45 days...

  3. 7 CFR 371.10 - Legislative and Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... assisting the Administrator and other officials on matters relating to agency legislative and media affairs...) Drafting and administering policy guidelines on press contacts, photography, audiovisual...

  4. 7 CFR 371.10 - Legislative and Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... assisting the Administrator and other officials on matters relating to agency legislative and media affairs...) Drafting and administering policy guidelines on press contacts, photography, audiovisual...

  5. 7 CFR 371.10 - Legislative and Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... assisting the Administrator and other officials on matters relating to agency legislative and media affairs...) Drafting and administering policy guidelines on press contacts, photography, audiovisual...

  6. 7 CFR 371.10 - Legislative and Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... assisting the Administrator and other officials on matters relating to agency legislative and media affairs...) Drafting and administering policy guidelines on press contacts, photography, audiovisual...

  7. 7 CFR 371.10 - Legislative and Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... assisting the Administrator and other officials on matters relating to agency legislative and media affairs...) Drafting and administering policy guidelines on press contacts, photography, audiovisual...

  8. Synergies and distinctions between computational disciplines in biomedical research: perspective from the Clinical andTranslational Science Award programs.

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Hersh, William R; Johnson, Stephen B; Chute, Christopher G; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark G; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D; Scheuermann, Richard H; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin; Harris, Paul A; Smith, Jack W; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Krusch, David A; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists, and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays, and suboptimal results. Although written from the perspective of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, this article addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science, and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information, and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  9. Synergies and distinctions between computational disciplines in biomedical research: perspective from the Clinical andTranslational Science Award programs.

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Hersh, William R; Johnson, Stephen B; Chute, Christopher G; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark G; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D; Scheuermann, Richard H; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin; Harris, Paul A; Smith, Jack W; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Krusch, David A; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists, and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays, and suboptimal results. Although written from the perspective of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, this article addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science, and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information, and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers.

  10. The rolling evolution of biomedical science as an essential tool in modern clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Blann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The British Journal of Biomedical Science is committed to publishing high-quality original research that represents a clear advance in the practice of biomedical science, and reviews that summarise recent advances in the field of biomedical science. The overall aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for the dissemination of new and innovative information on the diagnosis and management of disease that is valuable to the practicing laboratory scientist. The Editorial that follows describes the Journal and provides a perspective of its aims and objectives.

  11. The rolling evolution of biomedical science as an essential tool in modern clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Blann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The British Journal of Biomedical Science is committed to publishing high-quality original research that represents a clear advance in the practice of biomedical science, and reviews that summarise recent advances in the field of biomedical science. The overall aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for the dissemination of new and innovative information on the diagnosis and management of disease that is valuable to the practicing laboratory scientist. The Editorial that follows describes the Journal and provides a perspective of its aims and objectives. PMID:27182669

  12. Reflections on Don Juan and on the utility of the unhappy love affair.

    PubMed

    Bergel, Ernest

    2011-12-01

    Based on an unusual clinical experience of a teenage boy in child psychotherapy, two conclusions are proposed: (1) that the extremely unhappy, early love affairs that occur in most men's lives serve a valuable function in helping them separate from their mothers sufficiently to be able to realistically relate to appropriate marriage partners, and (2) that some Don Juans start new relationships in order to break them off, rather than the reverse.

  13. Autophagy: an affair of the heart.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Roberta A; Mentzer, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Whether an element of routine housekeeping or in the setting of imminent disaster, it is a good idea to get one's affairs in order. Autophagy, the process of recycling organelles and protein aggregates, is a basal homeostatic process and an evolutionarily conserved response to starvation and other forms of metabolic stress. Our understanding of the role of autophagy in the heart is changing rapidly as new information becomes available. This review examines the role of autophagy in the heart in the setting of cardioprotection, hypertrophy, and heart failure. Contradictory findings are reconciled in light of recent developments. The preponderance of evidence favors a beneficial role for autophagy in the heart under most conditions. PMID:23188163

  14. A logic model for community engagement within the Clinical and Translational Science Awards consortium: can we measure what we model?

    PubMed

    Eder, Milton Mickey; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hurd, Thelma C; Rumala, Bernice B; Wallerstein, Nina

    2013-10-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) initiative calls on academic health centers to engage communities around a clinical research relationship measured ultimately in terms of public health. Among a few initiatives involving university accountability for advancing public interests, a small CTSA workgroup devised a community engagement (CE) logic model that organizes common activities within a university-community infrastructure to facilitate CE in research. Whereas the model focuses on the range of institutional CE inputs, it purposefully does not include an approach for assessing how CE influences research implementation and outcomes. Rather, with communities and individuals beginning to transition into new research roles, this article emphasizes studying CE through specific relationship types and assessing how expanded research teams contribute to the full spectrum of translational science.The authors propose a typology consisting of three relationship types-engagement, collaboration, and shared leadership-to provide a foundation for investigating community-academic contributions to the new CTSA research paradigm. The typology shifts attention from specific community-academic activities and, instead, encourages analyses focused on measuring the strength of relationships through variables like synergy and trust. The collaborative study of CE relationships will inform an understanding of CTSA infrastructure development in support of translational research and its goal, which is expressed in the logic model: better science, better answers, better population health.

  15. National Science Foundation Annual Report 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This document provides highlights of research efforts supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the areas of mathematics, physical sciences, and engineering; astronomical, atmospheric, earth, and ocean sciences; science education; research applied to national needs; and scientific, technological, and international affairs for fiscal…

  16. Modeling an integrative physical examination program for the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Scott G

    2006-10-01

    Current policies governing the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs physical examination programs are out of step with current evidence-based medical practice. Replacing periodic and other routine physical examination types with annual preventive health assessments would afford our service members additional health benefit at reduced cost. Additionally, the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs repeat the physical examination process at separation and have been unable to reconcile their respective disability evaluation systems to reduce duplication and waste. A clear, coherent, and coordinated strategy to improve the relevance and utility of our physical examination programs is long overdue. This article discusses existing physical examination programs and proposes a model for a new integrative physical examination program based on need, science, and common sense.

  17. How accurately does the VIVO Harvester reflect actual Clinical and Translational Sciences Award–affiliated faculty member publications?*

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.; Kroth, Philip J.; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Hantak, Chad M.; Weagel, Edward F.; Hannigan, Gale G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The research tested the accuracy of the VIVO Harvester software in identifying publications authored by faculty members affiliated with a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Sciences Award (CTSA) site. Methods: Health sciences librarians created “gold standard” lists of references for the years 2001 to 2011 from PubMed for twenty-five randomly selected investigators from one CTSA site. These gold standard lists were compared to the same twenty-five investigators' reference lists produced by VIVO Harvester. The authors subjected the discrepancies between the lists to sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results: The VIVO Harvester correctly identified only about 65% of the total eligible PubMed references for the years 2001–2011 for the CTSA-affiliated investigators. The identified references produced by VIVO Harvester were precise yet incomplete. The sensitivity rate was 0.65, and the specificity rate was 1.00. Conclusion: While the references produced by VIVO Harvester could be confirmed in PubMed, the VIVO Harvester retrieved only two-thirds of the required references from PubMed. National Institutes of Health CTSA sites will need to supplement VIVO Harvester–produced references with the expert searching skills of health sciences librarians. Implications: Health sciences librarians with searching skills need to alert their CTSA sites about these deficiencies and offer their skills to advance their sites' missions. PMID:25552940

  18. Establishing a new clinical informationist role in an academic health sciences center.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Alison M; Schulte, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    The concept of clinical informationists is not new, but has recently been gaining more widespread acceptance across the United States. This article describes the lessons and challenges learned from starting a new clinical informationist service targeted to internal medicine residents in a large academic medical center. Lessons included the need for becoming immersed in evidence-based practice fundamentals; becoming comfortable with the pace, realities, and topics encountered during clinical rounds; and needing organizational commitment to both the evidence-based practice paradigm and clinical informationist role. Challenges included adapting to organizational culture, resident burnout, and perceptions of information overload.

  19. Factors That Influence Attrition of New Professionals in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Jenine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to identify factors that contribute to the attrition of new professionals in the field of student affairs. Student affairs professionals report low levels of commitment to the field and depart from the field at rates ranging from 32% to 61% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chrisholm, 1983; Rosen et al., 1980; Rosser…

  20. A Case Study of Student Affairs in Professional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overly, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of conducting this study is to explore how student affairs professionals in professional schools acquire the knowledge and skill set to be effective in such positions. The need for such research arose after a review of the literature revealed inattention to the practice of student affairs in professional schools. Qualitative…

  1. Appreciative Inquiry and Student Affairs: A Positive Approach to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehner, Rachelle; Hight, Donna L.

    2006-01-01

    Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is an organization development (OD) philosophy that utilizes and builds on past successes, using these as positive momentum for future change. AI provides student affairs with an alternative and generative approach to improving their organizations' processes and culture. As student affairs professionals look to the future…

  2. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to international securities markets. OIA facilitates the development of and, where appropriate... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”)...

  3. Political Correctness: Background, Perspective, and Implications for Student Affairs Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Deanna S.

    1996-01-01

    Provides background information about the Political Correctness debate, encourages student affairs administrators to reflect on their own perceptions and actions, offers ideas and suggestions about the debate, and explores the debate's implications for student affairs staff. Is intended to promote both individual reflection and group discussions…

  4. The Organizational Realities of Student Affairs: A Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Jeremiah B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the organizational functions of student-affairs at Indiana University and to understand the nature of the conflict between student-affairs and the larger organization. This study utilized the case-study research design. Much of the data collected and analyzed during this case study were of a historical…

  5. Why Do They Leave? Departure from the Student Affairs Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Tara E.

    2013-01-01

    Departure among student affairs administrators in higher education has been an issue for decades (Evans, 1988; Lorden, 1998; Tull, 2006). Rates of departure from student affairs within the first five years of experience are estimated at 50% to 60% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chisholm, 1983; Lorden, 1998; Tull, 2006). However, there is very little…

  6. Improving Leadership in Student Affairs Administration: A Case Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    The case approach to improving leadership in student affairs is offered as a key component of the process of learning how to become an effective leader. The 18 cases on diverse issues offered in this book are intended to provide learning opportunities for those who aspire to become student affairs leaders. The book contains an introduction about…

  7. Preserving the History of a Student Affairs Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    The following is a brief overview regarding: the history and development of Student Affairs as it pertains to (a) preserving the history of a professional association, (b) value and benefits of a professional Student Affairs association, (c) establishing and assessing goals and (d) organizational development/change within a professional…

  8. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Fiona J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Students in the field, as well as experienced practitioners and administrators, will herein find an up-to-date and in-depth study of the major student affairs functions of a comprehensive campus program. Within its covers, the graduate student will find chapters describing everything the person new to student affairs needs to know about the major…

  9. Academic Affairs Committee. AGB Standing Committee Series [No. 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chait, Richard P.; Taylor, Barbara E.

    1983-01-01

    The responsibilities and functioning of an academic affairs committee of a college governing board are described. It is noted that the responsibilities of the academic affairs committee involve monitoring the relationship between mission and strategy in the academic realm. The following responsibilities of the committee are discussed: the…

  10. Underlying Paradigms in Student Affairs Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guido, Florence M.; Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2010-01-01

    Student affairs professionals benefit from understanding paradigms, worldviews, and ways of being among diverse faculty, staff, and students. It is challenging to understand core differences of paradigms, design student affairs practice and research in congruence with or across specific philosophies, and work effectively with individuals operating…

  11. Decision to Enter the Profession of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Deborah J.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider factors that graduate students in master's degree programs in student affairs identify as influential to their decisions to enter the student affairs profession. A total of 300 master's students from 24 randomly selected graduate programs participated in the study. Relatively few differences were found…

  12. 78 FR 51266 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice Closed Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to... meeting will be closed to the public as the Board will be reviewing and discussing matters...

  13. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice Closed Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to... meeting will be closed to the public as the Board will be reviewing and discussing matters...

  14. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  15. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  16. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  17. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  18. Good Practice in Student Affairs: Principles To Foster Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    This book, based on the conclusions of a study of practices in college student affairs, presents nine papers which identify the best practices in student affairs, review research used to define the best practices, and give examples of how to use these practices in the field. The book is based on a 1996 meeting of an interdisciplinary study group…

  19. Dollars for Dreams: Student Affairs Staff as Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Sophie W.; Rose, Barbara B.

    This publication provides an educational tool for student affairs professionals involved in fundraising. It is designed to be easily accessible and understood by those with little experience with fundraising, and it will also serve as a useful resource for student affairs professionals who have partnered with fundraisers to, or who themselves…

  20. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  1. Leadership Development in Student Affairs Graduate Preparatory Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Kelly Anne

    2010-01-01

    As colleges and universities increase in complexity, so do the leadership demands of student affairs professionals. Today, entry-level professionals are expected to be competent leaders. As a result, student affairs graduate preparatory programs (SAGPPs) have an obligation to foster the leadership development of their enrolled students. This…

  2. An Assessment Model as Best Practice in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutt, Michael D.; Garrett, J. Matthew; Lynch, John W.; Dean, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    The phrase "best practice" is used often in student affairs, but the term lacks a common and accepted definition. This results in the implementation of programs and services that are neither grounded nor assessed. A model is proposed here that suggests a best practice process that integrates foundational student affairs documents and applies the…

  3. 10 CFR 1.28 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Public Affairs. 1.28 Section 1.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.28 Office of Public Affairs. The Office of Public Affairs— (a) Develops policies, programs, and...

  4. 10 CFR 1.28 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Public Affairs. 1.28 Section 1.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.28 Office of Public Affairs. The Office of Public Affairs— (a) Develops policies, programs, and...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 45 - State Directors of Veterans Affairs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... House Annex, room 11, Columbus, OH 43215. Oklahoma Director, Department of Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box... Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box 1509, Montgomery, AL 36192-3701. Alaska Director, Division of Veterans Affairs... Veterans Affairs Officer, Office of Veterans Affairs, American Samoa Government, P.O. Box 2586, Pago...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 45 - State Directors of Veterans Affairs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... House Annex, room 11, Columbus, OH 43215. Oklahoma Director, Department of Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box... Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box 1509, Montgomery, AL 36192-3701. Alaska Director, Division of Veterans Affairs... Veterans Affairs Officer, Office of Veterans Affairs, American Samoa Government, P.O. Box 2586, Pago...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 45 - State Directors of Veterans Affairs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... House Annex, room 11, Columbus, OH 43215. Oklahoma Director, Department of Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box... Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box 1509, Montgomery, AL 36192-3701. Alaska Director, Division of Veterans Affairs... Veterans Affairs Officer, Office of Veterans Affairs, American Samoa Government, P.O. Box 2586, Pago...

  8. Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal – Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field Science Research: 2016 Update

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Summary The proper design and implementation of a study as well as a balanced and well-supported evaluation and interpretation of its main findings are of crucial importance when reporting and disseminating research. Also accountability, funding acknowledgement and adequately declaring any conflict of interest play a major role in science. Since the Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (MLTJ) is committed to the highest scientific and ethical standards, we encourage all Authors to take into account and to comply, as much as possible, to the contents and issues discussed in this official editorial. This could be useful for improving the quality of the manuscripts, as well as to stimulate interest and debate and to promote constructive change, reflecting upon uses and misuses within our disciplines belonging to the field of “Clinical and Sport - Science Research”. PMID:27331026

  9. Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

  10. Clinical Application Projects (CAPs) for Health Science Students in Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halyard, Rebecca A.

    Clinical Application Projects (CAPs) have been developed that allow dental hygiene and nursing students to apply introductory microbiology principles and skills learned in lecture and laboratory to a problem in an appropriate clinical situation. CAPs therefore substitute for the traditional study of "unknowns". Principles and processes emphasized…

  11. Augmentation of Clinical Services in Rural Areas by Health Sciences Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Wiese, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Over a five-year period 230 senior-level University of New Mexico students in medicine, nursing, and pharmacy served in clinics in rural communities as part of Project Porvenir. Students, supervised by community-based preceptors, participated in the development of clinics and in the organization of services that otherwise were unavailable.…

  12. Secondary Use of Clinical Data to Enable Data-Driven Translational Science with Trustworthy Access Management.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi; Apathy, Nate C; Ko, Kelly J; Parker, Jerry C

    2015-01-01

    University of Missouri (MU) Health Care produces a large amount of digitized clinical data that can be used in clinical and translational research for cohort identification, retrospective data analysis, feasibility study, and hypothesis generation. In this article, the implementation of an integrated clinical research data repository is discussed. We developed trustworthy access-management protocol for providing access to both clinically relevant data and protected health information. As of September 2014, the database contains approximately 400,000 patients and 82 million observations; and is growing daily. The system will facilitate the secondary use of electronic health record (EHR) data at MU to promote data-driven clinical and translational research, in turn enabling better healthcare through research.

  13. Secondary Use of Clinical Data to Enable Data-Driven Translational Science with Trustworthy Access Management.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi; Apathy, Nate C; Ko, Kelly J; Parker, Jerry C

    2015-01-01

    University of Missouri (MU) Health Care produces a large amount of digitized clinical data that can be used in clinical and translational research for cohort identification, retrospective data analysis, feasibility study, and hypothesis generation. In this article, the implementation of an integrated clinical research data repository is discussed. We developed trustworthy access-management protocol for providing access to both clinically relevant data and protected health information. As of September 2014, the database contains approximately 400,000 patients and 82 million observations; and is growing daily. The system will facilitate the secondary use of electronic health record (EHR) data at MU to promote data-driven clinical and translational research, in turn enabling better healthcare through research. PMID:26821445

  14. 75 FR 77679 - Partially Closed Meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... tentatively scheduled to hear presentations on agriculture research and development, the National Science Foundation, synthetic biology, national security, and international affairs. PCAST members will also...

  15. ISS Update: Science Aboard the Station – 10.26.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer talks with Tara Ruttley, Associate Program Scientist for International Space Station, about some of the science experiments performed by the Expedition 33...

  16. Redefining Student Affairs through Digital Technology: A Ten-Year Historiography of Digital Technology Use by Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    The student affairs profession is at a crossroads (Torres & Walbert, 2010) given digital technology's growth and the academy's administrative expansion (Bowen, 2013). Student affairs administrators must simultaneously respond to digital technology's implications in students' lives (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) and to new state and federal…

  17. The Role of Classroom Artifacts in the Clinical Supervision of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    Classroom artifacts, physical objects produced by teachers or students for specific instructional purposes, have a special importance in science instruction. Article uses three examples of supervisory styles (directive, collaborative, and nondirective) to illustrate how a supervisor might approach the use of artifacts while assisting a science…

  18. Universal Design for Learning and Its Application to Clinical Placements in Health Science Courses (Practice Brief)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heelan, Ann; Halligan, Phil; Quirke, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Ireland's Association for Higher Education, Access and Disability (AHEAD), in partnership with the School of Nursing University College Dublin (UCD), hosted a summer school for professionals working in the Health Sciences sector who have responsibility for including students with disabilities in the health professions, including clinical…

  19. A Role for Clinical Case Simulations in Basic Medical Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchaer, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations can help students apply basic science knowledge (which they are acquiring concurrently) to the identification and management of the physiological, metabolic, and/or anatomic problem(s) underlying the signs and the symptoms of a specific "simulated patient." The design, development, and production of these simulations are described. (JN)

  20. The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

  1. ISS Update: Science and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Dr. Tara Ruttley, ISS Associate Program Scientist, about the science payload carried in the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, the impact of commer...

  2. Detangling complex relationships in forensic data: principles and use of causal networks and their application to clinical forensic science.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Lepresle, Aude; Chariot, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The search for complex, nonlinear relationships and causality in data is hindered by the availability of techniques in many domains, including forensic science. Linear multivariable techniques are useful but present some shortcomings. In the past decade, Bayesian approaches have been introduced in forensic science. To date, authors have mainly focused on providing an alternative to classical techniques for quantifying effects and dealing with uncertainty. Causal networks, including Bayesian networks, can help detangle complex relationships in data. A Bayesian network estimates the joint probability distribution of data and graphically displays dependencies between variables and the circulation of information between these variables. In this study, we illustrate the interest in utilizing Bayesian networks for dealing with complex data through an application in clinical forensic science. Evaluating the functional impairment of assault survivors is a complex task for which few determinants are known. As routinely estimated in France, the duration of this impairment can be quantified by days of 'Total Incapacity to Work' ('Incapacité totale de travail,' ITT). In this study, we used a Bayesian network approach to identify the injury type, victim category and time to evaluation as the main determinants of the 'Total Incapacity to Work' (TIW). We computed the conditional probabilities associated with the TIW node and its parents. We compared this approach with a multivariable analysis, and the results of both techniques were converging. Thus, Bayesian networks should be considered a reliable means to detangle complex relationships in data.

  3. Annual report of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    The annual report for the activities of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan in the fiscal year 1990 is presented. The activities are divided into research, technical aids, training, medical services, management affairs at the Nakaminato Laboratory Branch Office, library or editing, international cooperation, and general affairs. Research activities are described under the following sections: (1) special researches covering biological risk evaluation in public exposure and exposure assessment in the environment and the public involved in food chain, medical use of accelerated heavy ions, and survey for the demonstration of dose-response relationships in low dose irradiation; (2) five assigned researches; (3) ordinary researches concerning physics, pharmacochemistry, biology, genetics, pathology and physiology, cell biology, internal exposure, environmental science, clinical research, clinical research for radiation injuries, medical use of heavy particles, environmental radiation ecology, and aquatic radiation ecology; (4) risk estimation of radiation; (5) survey for radiation response phenomena in fish and in immunity associated with low dose irradiation; (6) actual surveys for Bikini victims, population doses of medical and occupational exposure, and thorotrast exposure; (7) project research; (8) integrated atomic energy-based technological research; (9) radioactivity survey; (10) research supported by Science and Technology Agency aids; (11) International research cooperation; and (12) government-private joint cooperative study. Appendices include the personnel list and the bibliography of articles reported by the staff.

  4. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with Reintegration Problems: Differences by Veterans Affairs Healthcare User Status.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Orazem, Robert J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Gravely, Amy; Frazier, Patricia; Carlson, Kathleen F; Schnurr, Paula P; Oleson, Heather

    2015-07-01

    We studied 1,292 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who participated in a clinical trial of expressive writing to estimate the prevalence of perceived reintegration difficulty and compare Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare users to nonusers in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. About half of participants perceived reintegration difficulty. VA users and nonusers differed in age and military background. Levels of mental and physical problems were higher in VA users. In multivariate analysis, military service variables and probable traumatic brain injury independently predicted VA use. Findings demonstrate the importance of research comparing VA users to nonusers to understand veteran healthcare needs.

  5. Should MD-PhD Programs Encourage Graduate Training in Disciplines Beyond Conventional Biomedical or Clinical Sciences?

    PubMed Central

    O'Mara, Ryan J.; Hsu, Stephen I.; Wilson, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of MD–PhD training programs is to produce physician–scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician–scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD–PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant since the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician–scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD–PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, non-traditional MD–PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce. PMID:25354071

  6. Should MD-PhD programs encourage graduate training in disciplines beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences?

    PubMed

    O'Mara, Ryan J; Hsu, Stephen I; Wilson, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    The goal of MD-PhD training programs is to produce physician-scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician-scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD-PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant because the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician-scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD-PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, nontraditional MD-PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce.

  7. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to

  8. Seton Hall university doctor of science degree program: clinical doctorate in audiology.

    PubMed

    Koehnke, Janet; Besing, Joan; Shea-Miller, Kelly; Martin, Brett

    2004-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical doctoral program in audiology at Seton Hall University. It is a full-time, 4-year program that includes academic course work, clinical practica, and research experience. In concert with the university mission, the program is designed to enable students to develop the skills they need to be leaders in the field of audiology, providing assessment and intervention to individuals with hearing problems and enhancing the knowledge base of the profession. As part of the School of Graduate Medical Education, students in the program have access to a wealth of resources in related health professions. The close proximity to New York City provides many opportunities for outstanding clinical education with a diverse population.

  9. Recommendations for clinical laboratory science reports regarding properties, units, and symbols: the NPU format.

    PubMed

    Férard, Georges; Dybkaer, René

    2013-05-01

    The document describes the Nomenclature for Properties and Units (NPU) format developed by the joint committee on Nomenclature for Properties and Units of the IFCC and IUPAC. Basic concepts, in particular system, component, kind-of-property, and unit are defined. Generalities concerning quantities and units, and terminological rules are recalled. A constant format is structured for reporting clinical laboratory information. It is adapted for examinations, including measurements, performed in the clinical laboratories. The NPU format follows international recommendations. Using this format, more than 16,000 properties examined in the clinical laboratories have been described. A regularly updated version of the descriptions is available from the IFCC. Examples from different disciplines are given to promote the dissemination of the format. The object of the NPU format is the transfer of examination data without loss of accuracy between the laboratory personnel and the clinicians. The format is well-adapted for comparative and epidemiological studies.

  10. Batten Disease: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Translational Science, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Dolisca, Sarah-Bianca; Mehta, Mitali; Pearce, David A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively the most common neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, are primarily caused by an autosomal recessive genetic mutation leading to a lysosomal storage disease. Clinically these diseases manifest at varying ages of onset, and associated symptoms include cognitive decline, movement disorders, seizures, and retinopathy. The underlying cell biology and biochemistry that cause the clinical phenotypes of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are still being elaborated. The 2012 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 41st Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) provide a survey of the currently accepted forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and their associated genetic mutations and clinical phenotypes; (2) highlight the specific pathology of Batten disease; (3) discuss the contemporary understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to pathology; and (4) introduce strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics. PMID:23838031

  11. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial.

  12. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

  13. Conception of Learning and Clinical Skill Acquisition in Undergraduate Exercise Science Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nathan; Chuter, Vivienne; Rooney, Kieron

    2013-01-01

    Learning clinical skills presents a novel experience for undergraduate students, particularly when it comes to preparing for skill assessment. Compared with the thousands of hours of practice believed to be necessary for the development of motor skill expertise (1), these students have significantly limited exposure time. Furthermore, effective…

  14. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  15. Correlative Medicine--Bridging the Gap between Basic Science and Clinical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Edward B.; Smart, Marian

    1980-01-01

    Greater flexibility in clinical instruction in the veterinary field through the introduction of a course in Correlative Medicine at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine is described. The changes in the course over the past 10 years are described and the course's original objectives are assessed. (Author/MLW)

  16. What Do People Believe About Memory? Implications for the Science and Pseudoscience of Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Evans, James; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-12-01

    We examine the evidence concerning what people believe about memory. We focus on beliefs regarding the permanence of memory and whether memory can be repressed and accurately recovered. We consider beliefs about memory among the undergraduate and general population, mental health professionals, judges, jurors, and law enforcement officers to provide a broad canvass that extends to the forensic arena, as well as to psychiatry, psychology, and allied disciplines. We discuss the implications of these beliefs for the education of the general public and mental health professionals regarding the science and pseudoscience of memory and the use of suggestive procedures in psychotherapy.

  17. What Do People Believe About Memory? Implications for the Science and Pseudoscience of Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Evans, James; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-01-01

    We examine the evidence concerning what people believe about memory. We focus on beliefs regarding the permanence of memory and whether memory can be repressed and accurately recovered. We consider beliefs about memory among the undergraduate and general population, mental health professionals, judges, jurors, and law enforcement officers to provide a broad canvass that extends to the forensic arena, as well as to psychiatry, psychology, and allied disciplines. We discuss the implications of these beliefs for the education of the general public and mental health professionals regarding the science and pseudoscience of memory and the use of suggestive procedures in psychotherapy. PMID:26720822

  18. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation. PMID:21032892

  19. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. PMID:26541886

  20. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age.

  1. Migrant clinics and hookworm science: peripheral origins of International Health, 1840-1920.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a global history of hookworm disease based on the main scientific publications on hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and archival sources from the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board. The location of hookworm research is explained by the presence of large concentrations of migrant laborers who suffered from serious hookworm disease in frontier regions during the second industrial revolution. This hookworm disease pandemic was not the result of a linear spread of infection. The extraordinary labor conditions in these regions created ideal ecologies for the reproduction of the parasite, leading to levels of infection that produced ankylostomiasis. The major findings in hookworm science came from research-oriented physicians building new institutions of medical science in peripheral nation-states. In a number of Latin American states their work led to treatment programs conceived in national terms that preceded the interest of Rockefeller philanthropy in the disease. The Rockefeller Foundation incorporated these programs in order to launch its International Health hookworm eradication program in 1914.

  2. E-Portfolios: A Collaboration between Student Affairs and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Glenn; Rayman, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes how a commitment to instructional design principles has prompted the evolution of collaborative interaction between student affairs professionals and academic faculty. Central to this collaboration are the opportunities that e-portfolios have made available.

  3. An integrative intervention for promoting recovery from extramarital affairs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kristina Coop; Baucom, Donald H; Snyder, Douglas K

    2004-04-01

    The discovery or disclosure of an extramarital affair can have a devastating impact on partners, both individually and on the relationships. Research suggests that affairs occur relatively frequently in relationships and are a common presenting problem in couple therapy. However, despite their prevalence, there is little empirical treatment research in this area, and most therapists describe this problem as one of the more difficult to treat. In this study, we used a replicated case-study design to explore the efficacy of an integrative treatment designed to help couples recover from an affair. Six couples entered and completed treatment. The majority of these couples were less emotionally or maritally distressed at the end of treatment, and the injured partners reported greater forgiveness regarding the affair. Details of the intervention, suggested adaptations of the treatment, and areas for future research are discussed.

  4. A Love Affair with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Losick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    My career in science was launched when I was an undergraduate at Princeton University and reinforced by graduate training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, it was only after I moved to Harvard University as a junior fellow that my affections were captured by a seemingly mundane soil bacterium. What Bacillus subtilis offered was endless fascinating biological problems (alternative sigma factors, sporulation, swarming, biofilm formation, stochastic cell fate switching) embedded in a uniquely powerful genetic system. Along the way, my career in science became inseparably interwoven with teaching and mentoring, which proved to be as rewarding as the thrill of discovery. PMID:25533458

  5. Early clinical development of anti-tuberculosis drugs: science, statistics and sterilizing activity.

    PubMed

    Davies, Geraint R

    2010-05-01

    Controversy continues over how best to capture "sterilizing activity" of anti-tuberculosis regimens in early clinical development. Selecting surrogate endpoints capable of providing proof-of-concept, finding the optimal dose and identifying the best combination of companion drugs for new agents currently depends on an empirical balance of favourable biological, logistical and statistical properties. While more flexible rate-based measures of treatment response are better suited to these tasks, their interpretation depends critically on understanding the laboratory techniques on which they are based. In order to reduce the costly uncertainties of Phase II and III development, more extensive evaluation of such surrogate endpoints will be required in broader-based collaborative studies which make better use of our emerging scientific knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of sterilization in a clinical context.

  6. Multimedia clinical examination: the time honoured art and science mirrored digitally.

    PubMed

    Loke, E

    1995-10-01

    In the recent years, multimedia has exhibited a tremendous presence in the personal computer market and it has exerted an influence in our homes and teaching institutions as well. To define it very simply, a multimedia PC is a personal computer capable of producing images and sound of reasonable quality by means of software toggles. This paper presents an Asymetrix Multimedia Toolbook application entitled Multimedia Clinical Examination (MCE) which harnesses the ability of affordable computers to create and display a variety of audiovisual media to supplement 'bed-side teaching' of elementary clinical methods which includes history taking and physical examination. MCE comprises a history taking module which helps in keeping track of the possible differential diagnoses and a physical examination module which shows digital videos of appropriate examination steps. The application runs on the Microsoft Windows platform.

  7. Ethics of Clinical Science in a Public Health Emergency: Drug Discovery at the Bedside

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research under the usual regulatory constraints may be difficult or even impossible in a public health emergency. Regulators must seek to strike a good balance in granting as wide therapeutic access to new drugs as possible at the same time as gathering sound evidence of safety and effectiveness. To inform current policy, I reexamine the philosophical rationale for restricting new medicines to clinical trials, at any stage and for any population of patients (which resides in the precautionary principle), to show that its objective to protect public health, now or in the future, could soon be defeated in a pandemic. Providing wider therapeutic access and coordinating observations and natural experiments, including service delivery by cluster (wedged cluster trials), may provide such a balance. However, there are important questions of fairness to resolve before any such research can proceed. PMID:23952822

  8. Meiotic recombination and male infertility: from basic science to clinical reality?

    PubMed

    Hann, Michael C; Lau, Patricio E; Tempest, Helen G

    2011-03-01

    Infertility is a common problem that affects approximately 15% of the population. Although many advances have been made in the treatment of infertility, the molecular and genetic causes of male infertility remain largely elusive. This review will present a summary of our current knowledge on the genetic origin of male infertility and the key events of male meiosis. It focuses on chromosome synapsis and meiotic recombination and the problems that arise when errors in these processes occur, specifically meiotic arrest and chromosome aneuploidy, the leading cause of pregnancy loss in humans. In addition, meiosis-specific candidate genes will be discussed, including a discussion on why we have been largely unsuccessful at identifying disease-causing mutations in infertile men. Finally clinical applications of sperm aneuploidy screening will be touched upon along with future prospective clinical tests to better characterize male infertility in a move towards personalized medicine. PMID:21297654

  9. Clinical holistic medicine: tools for a medical science based on consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2004-05-26

    Biomedicine focuses on the biochemistry of the body, while consciousness-based medicine--holistic medicine--focuses on the individual"s experiences and conscious whole (Greek: holos, whole). Biomedicine perceives diseases as mechanical errors at the micro level, while consciousness-based medicine perceives diseases as disturbances in attitudes, perceptions, and experiences at the macro level--in the organism as a whole. Thus, consciousness-based medicine is based on the whole individual, while biomedicine is based on its smallest parts, the molecules. These two completely different points of departure make the two forms of medicine very different; they represent two different mind sets and two different frames of reference or medical paradigms. This paper explains the basic tools of clinical holistic medicine based on the life mission theory and holistic process theory, with examples of holistic healing from the holistic medical clinic.

  10. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Malykh, Andrei G; Sadaie, M Reza

    2010-02-12

    There is an increasing interest in nootropic drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. Since the last meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of piracetam, more information has accumulated. The primary objective of this systematic survey is to evaluate the clinical outcomes as well as the scientific literature relating to the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, dosing, toxicology and adverse effects of marketed and investigational drugs. The major focus of the literature search was on articles demonstrating evidence-based clinical investigations during the past 10 years for the following therapeutic categories of CNS disorders: (i) cognition/memory; (ii) epilepsy and seizure; (iii) neurodegenerative diseases; (iv) stroke/ischaemia; and (v) stress and anxiety. In this article, piracetam-like compounds are divided into three subgroups based on their chemical structures, known efficacy and intended clinical uses. Subgroup 1 drugs include piracetam, oxiracetam, aniracetam, pramiracetam and phenylpiracetam, which have been used in humans and some of which are available as dietary supplements. Of these, oxiracetam and aniracetam are no longer in clinical use. Pramiracetam reportedly improved cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injuries. Although piracetam exhibited no long-term benefits for the treatment of mild cognitive impairments, recent studies demonstrated its neuroprotective effect when used during coronary bypass surgery. It was also effective in the treatment of cognitive disorders of cerebrovascular and traumatic origins; however, its overall effect on lowering depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. As add-on therapy, it appears to benefit individuals with myoclonus epilepsy and tardive dyskinesia. Phenylpiracetam is more potent than piracetam and is used for a wider range of indications. In combination with a vasodilator drug, piracetam appeared to have an additive beneficial effect on various

  11. Ethics of clinical science in a public health emergency: drug discovery at the bedside.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah J L

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research under the usual regulatory constraints may be difficult or even impossible in a public health emergency. Regulators must seek to strike a good balance in granting as wide therapeutic access to new drugs as possible at the same time as gathering sound evidence of safety and effectiveness. To inform current policy, I reexamine the philosophical rationale for restricting new medicines to clinical trials, at any stage and for any population of patients (which resides in the precautionary principle), to show that its objective to protect public health, now or in the future, could soon be defeated in a pandemic. Providing wider therapeutic access and coordinating observations and natural experiments, including service delivery by cluster (wedged cluster trials), may provide such a balance. However, there are important questions of fairness to resolve before any such research can proceed.

  12. The self-regulating brain and neurofeedback: Experimental science and clinical promise.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Robert T; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback, one of the primary examples of self-regulation, designates a collection of techniques that train the brain and help to improve its function. Since coming on the scene in the 1960s, electroencephalography-neurofeedback has become a treatment vehicle for a host of mental disorders; however, its clinical effectiveness remains controversial. Modern imaging technologies of the living human brain (e.g., real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging) and increasingly rigorous research protocols that utilize such methodologies begin to shed light on the underlying mechanisms that may facilitate more effective clinical applications. In this paper we focus on recent technological advances in the field of human brain imaging and discuss how these modern methods may influence the field of neurofeedback. Toward this end, we outline the state of the evidence and sketch out future directions to further explore the potential merits of this contentious therapeutic prospect.

  13. [Psychiatry as a clinical science. From Emil Kraepelin to neo-Kraepelinism].

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of Kraepelin's theory have been revisited by researchers known as "neokraepelians", from the stand point of the neurobiology. In the case of the revision of Kraepelin, as it happens with other authors, there are some acritical reductionisms. This article tries to make a contribution to the understanding of Kraepelin's thought as well as the historical context of his work, starting with a revision of the clinical and practical position in the present psychiatry.

  14. [Clinical and preventive intervention in eating behaviour: a dialogue between psychology and nutritional sciences].

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Rui; Paiva, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    The eating habits modification is a clinical challenge, both on therapeutic and preventive levels, which requires tools from various areas of health, such as psychology and nutrition. In the structured work in these areas, that includes the referral to specialist consultants, there is a need of a first intervention in Primary Health Care, in clinical and community levels. In this paper, we attempt to systematize useful information for intervention. We will start by reviewing some important interviewing skills, some models of motivational interviewing, and we will make a brief reflection about the client. Then we will analyse an individual case structured in two complementary levels of interpretation: a closer look in general factors and another that reflect the antecedents, consequences and the description of the behaviour problem. We will also tackle issues related to the context in which the individual moves. We will analyse some group intervention programs within a clinical and preventive perspectives. Finally, we will discuss some concepts related to therapeutic adherence.

  15. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery & development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. The conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. The importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. The most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. The factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery & development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials. PMID:26779369

  16. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in autoimmune diseases: From basic science to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, P J; Oliveira, M-C; Badoglio, M; Sharrack, B; Farge, D; Snowden, J A

    2016-01-01

    Based on animal studies and serendipitous clinical cases, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used since 1995 as a specific treatment for patients with severe treatment-resistant autoimmune disease (ADs). Despite other clinical developments for autoimmune diseases, including biological therapies, there has been an ongoing requirement for HSCT in some diseases and several thousand procedures have been registered in databases for a wide variety of diseases, predominantly for treatment with autologous HSCT. Currently, the main indications are multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis and Crohn's disease, which are supported by large series and randomised controlled trials (RCTs), whereas retrospective registry analyses support benefit in a range of rarer indications. Research into mechanisms of action has provided insight into how tolerance may be achieved with an intensive one-off treatment. In addition to the profound anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects provided by the cytotoxic regimen, long-term responses in some diseases may be explained by 'resetting' the immune system through thymic reprocessing and generation of increased T-regulatory cell activity. This review aims to summarise the gradual evolution of HSCT in severe autoimmune diseases over the last 20 years, focussing on the recent publication of clinical and scientific studies, as well as evidence-based guidelines and recommendations. PMID:27316390

  17. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Medić, Branislava; Rovčanin, Branislav; Basta Jovanović, Gordana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still stays the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI). Early detection of patients with impaired renal function with cardiovascular risk may help ensure more aggressive treatment and improve clinical outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a new, promising marker of kidney damage which is currently the focus of countless studies worldwide. Some recent animal and human studies established KIM-1 as an important marker of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictor of development and prognosis of AKI. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA acclaimed KIM-1 as an AKI biomarker for preclinical drug development. Recent data suggest the importance of monitoring of KIM-1 for early diagnosis and clinical course not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracic surgical interventions in the pediatric emergency setting, and so forth. The aim of this review article is to summarize the literature data concerning KIM-1 as a potential novel marker in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26697493

  18. Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential.

    PubMed

    Immordino, Maria Laura; Dosio, Franco; Cattel, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Among several promising new drug-delivery systems, liposomes represent an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles ("first-generation liposomes") to "second-generation liposomes", in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend blood-circulation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (stealth liposomes). This technology has resulted in a large number of liposome formulations encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further, by synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule, stealth liposomes can be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands. This review focuses on stealth technology and summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations; it also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology.

  19. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Matter, Alex

    2015-12-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery & development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. The conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. The importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. The most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. The factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery & development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials. PMID:26779369

  20. Avolition, Negative Symptoms, and a Clinical Science Journey and Transition to the Future.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, William T; Frost, Katherine H; Whearty, Kayla M; Strauss, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    The concepts and investigations reviewed above suggest the following * Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome that can be deconstructed into meaningful domains of psychopathology. * Individual patients vary substantially on which domains are present as well as severity. * Negative symptoms are common in persons with schizophrenia, but only primary negative symptoms are a manifestation of schizophrenia psychopathology in the "weakening of the wellsprings of volition" sense that Kraepelin described. * The failure to distinguish primary from secondary negative symptoms has profound consequences as viewed in the vast majority of clinical trials that report negative symptom efficacy without regard for causation and without controlling for pseudospecificity. * Schizophrenia is now broadly defined with positive psychotic symptoms, and a subgroup with primary negative symptoms is a candidate disease entity. * Evidence of negative symptoms as a taxon supports the separate classification of persons with primary negative symptoms. * Negative symptoms are an unmet therapeutic need. * Two factors best define the negative symptom construct and these may have different pathophysiological and treatment implications. * The avolitional component may not be based on a diminished capacity to experience pleasure, but difficulty using mental representations of affective value to guide decision-making and goal-directed behavior. Part II in this volume by Strauss et al. will address the range of laboratory-based investigations of negative symptoms, clarify current hypotheses and theories concerning negative symptom pathology, and address future directions for negative symptom research and clinical care. PMID:27627826

  1. Social theory and current affairs: a framework for intellectual engagement.

    PubMed

    Stones, Rob

    2014-06-01

    The paper aims to facilitate more adequate critical engagement with current affairs events by journalists, and with current affairs texts by audiences. It draws on social theory to provide the intellectual resources to enable this. The academic ambition is for the framework to be adopted and developed by social thinkers in producing exemplary critical readings of news and current affairs texts. To this end it is offered as a research paradigm. The paper situates its argument in relation to the wider literature in media and cultural studies, acknowledging the subtle skills required to appreciate the relative autonomy of texts. However, it draws attention to the lack of an adequate perspective with which to assess the frames, representations, and judgments within news and current affairs texts. To address this lacuna it proposes the conception of a social-theoretical frame, based on a number of meta-theoretical approaches, designed to provide audiences with a systematic means of addressing the status and adequacy of individual texts. Social theoretical frames can reveal the shortcomings of media framing of the contextual fields within which news and current affairs events take place. Two illustrative case studies are used to indicate the value and potential of the approach: the analysis of a short newspaper report of the return of protesters to Cairo's Tahrir Square in 2011, and a critique of four current affairs reports from various genres on the political turmoil in Thailand leading up to the clashes of May 2010.

  2. Understanding immunology: fun at an intersection of the physical, life, and clinical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how the immune system works is a grand challenge in science with myriad direct implications for improving human health. The immune system protects us from infectious pathogens and cancer, and maintains a harmonious steady state with essential microbiota in our gut. Vaccination, the medical procedure that has saved more lives than any other, involves manipulating the immune system. Unfortunately, the immune system can also go awry to cause autoimmune diseases. Immune responses are the product of stochastic collective dynamic processes involving many interacting components. These processes span multiple scales of length and time. Thus, statistical mechanics has much to contribute to immunology, and the oeuvre of biological physics will be further enriched if the number of physical scientists interested in immunology continues to increase. I describe how I got interested in immunology and provide a glimpse of my experiences working on immunology using approaches from statistical mechanics and collaborating closely with immunologists.

  3. Psychotherapy is an ethical endeavor: Balancing science and humanism in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jon G

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes that psychotherapy is best grounded in scienceinformed humanism and, more specifically, that psychotherapists at least implicitly promote ethical, moral--and indeed, virtuous--behavior. In doing so, therapists are challenged continually to engage in making evaluative moral judgments without being judgmental. He contends that psychotherapists, and psychologists especially, are overly reliant on science and might benefit from being more explicit in their ethical endeavors by being better informed about the illuminating philosophical literature on ethics. He highlights the concept of mentalizing, that is, attentiveness to mental states in self and others, such as needs, feelings, and thoughts. He proposes that mentalizing in the context of attachment relationships is common to all psychotherapies, and that this common process is best understood conjointly from the perspectives of developmental psychology and ethics. The author defends the thesis that employing psychotherapy to promote ethical, moral, and virtuous functioning can be justified on scientific grounds insofar as this functioning is conducive to health.

  4. Clinical Staffing Recruitment and Retention Program. Parts I and II. Hearing on S. 1475 To Establish an Effective Clinical Staffing Recruitment and Retention Program, and for Other Purposes, before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Washington, DC, August 6, 1987; Billings, MT, August 25, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    Hearings on Senate Bill 1475 (S.1475) to establish an effective clinical staffing recruitment and retention program are presented. The bill, introduced by Senator John Melcher (Montana) seeks to counteract the effect of the impending decline of physicians and the termination of the National Health Service Corps Scholarship Program on the Indian…

  5. A distributed model: redefining a robust research subject advocacy program at the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sabune J; Cagliero, Enrico; Witte, Elizabeth; Bierer, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center ("Harvard Catalyst") Research Subject Advocacy (RSA) Program has reengineered subject advocacy, distributing the delivery of advocacy functions through a multi-institutional, central platform rather than vesting these roles and responsibilities in a single individual functioning as a subject advocate. The program is process-oriented and output-driven, drawing on the strengths of participating institutions to engage local stakeholders both in the protection of research subjects and in advocacy for subjects' rights. The program engages stakeholder communities in the collaborative development and distributed delivery of accessible and applicable educational programming and resources. The Harvard Catalyst RSA Program identifies, develops, and supports the sharing and distribution of expertise, education, and resources for the benefit of all institutions, with a particular focus on the frontline: research subjects, researchers, research coordinators, and research nurses.

  6. Crossing over: The lived experiences of clinical laboratory science education teachers as they transition from traditional to online instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ruth B.

    A phenomenological study was undertaken to understand and describe the nature and meaning of the live experiences of faculty transition from traditional to teaching online clinical laboratory science courses. In order to gain insight into the lived experiences of faculty, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 faculty members. The task of the researcher was to allow the participants to speak for themselves, and reveal the meaning of the experiences, rather than to discover causal connections or patterns of correlation. The key criterion in choosing purposeful sampling procedure was to obtain the deepest understanding possible of the lived experiences of faculty transitioning to online teaching, which were likely to be a rich source of the data of interest. Analyses of the interview text were based on three essential considerations. The three essential considerations were (a) the traditional role of the faculty, (b) factors affecting the changing role of the faculty, and (c) the effects of web-based technology on teaching role.

  7. "Hello, hello--it's English I speak!": a qualitative exploration of patients' understanding of the science of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stead, M; Eadie, D; Gordon, D; Angus, K

    2005-11-01

    Informed consent may be seriously compromised if patients fail to understand the experimental nature of the trial in which they are participating. Using focus groups, the authors explored how prospective trial participants interpret and understand the science of clinical trials by using patient information sheets relative to their medical condition. An opportunity was provided to hear in the patients' own words how they interpret the information and why there is variable understanding. Respondents struggled to comprehend the meaning and purpose of concepts such as randomisation and double blinding, and found them threatening to their ideas of medical care. Suggestions are made about how to improve the national guidelines on written information for trial participants and pretesting of the information sheets is advocated.

  8. Bridging the gap between basic and clinical sciences: A description of a radiological anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Torres, Anna; Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz J; Lisiecka, Justyna; Pietrzyk, Łukasz; Czekajlo, Michael; Arancibia, Carlos U; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Torres, Kamil

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of medical imaging techniques pervade modern medicine, and the changing portability and performance of tools like ultrasound imaging have brought these medical imaging techniques into the everyday practice of many specialties outside of radiology. However, proper interpretation of ultrasonographic and computed tomographic images requires the practitioner to not only hone certain technical skills, but to command an excellent knowledge of sectional anatomy and an understanding of the pathophysiology of the examined areas as well. Yet throughout many medical curricula there is often a large gap between traditional anatomy coursework and clinical training in imaging techniques. The authors present a radiological anatomy course developed to teach sectional anatomy with particular emphasis on ultrasonography and computed tomography, while incorporating elements of medical simulation. To assess students' overall opinions about the course and to examine its impact on their self-perceived improvement in their knowledge of radiological anatomy, anonymous evaluation questionnaires were provided to the students. The questionnaires were prepared using standard survey methods. A five-point Likert scale was applied to evaluate agreement with statements regarding the learning experience. The majority of students considered the course very useful and beneficial in terms of improving three-dimensional and cross-sectional knowledge of anatomy, as well as for developing practical skills in ultrasonography and computed tomography. The authors found that a small-group, hands-on teaching model in radiological anatomy was perceived as useful both by the students and the clinical teachers involved in their clinical education. In addition, the model was introduced using relatively few resources and only two faculty members. Anat Sci Educ 9: 295-303. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Bridging the gap between basic and clinical sciences: A description of a radiological anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Torres, Anna; Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz J; Lisiecka, Justyna; Pietrzyk, Łukasz; Czekajlo, Michael; Arancibia, Carlos U; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Torres, Kamil

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of medical imaging techniques pervade modern medicine, and the changing portability and performance of tools like ultrasound imaging have brought these medical imaging techniques into the everyday practice of many specialties outside of radiology. However, proper interpretation of ultrasonographic and computed tomographic images requires the practitioner to not only hone certain technical skills, but to command an excellent knowledge of sectional anatomy and an understanding of the pathophysiology of the examined areas as well. Yet throughout many medical curricula there is often a large gap between traditional anatomy coursework and clinical training in imaging techniques. The authors present a radiological anatomy course developed to teach sectional anatomy with particular emphasis on ultrasonography and computed tomography, while incorporating elements of medical simulation. To assess students' overall opinions about the course and to examine its impact on their self-perceived improvement in their knowledge of radiological anatomy, anonymous evaluation questionnaires were provided to the students. The questionnaires were prepared using standard survey methods. A five-point Likert scale was applied to evaluate agreement with statements regarding the learning experience. The majority of students considered the course very useful and beneficial in terms of improving three-dimensional and cross-sectional knowledge of anatomy, as well as for developing practical skills in ultrasonography and computed tomography. The authors found that a small-group, hands-on teaching model in radiological anatomy was perceived as useful both by the students and the clinical teachers involved in their clinical education. In addition, the model was introduced using relatively few resources and only two faculty members. Anat Sci Educ 9: 295-303. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26599321

  10. Medical Marijuana and Chronic Pain: a Review of Basic Science and Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjorn; Chen, Jeffrey; Furnish, Tim; Wallace, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Cannabinoid compounds include phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and synthetics. The two primary phytocannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with CB1 receptors in the brain and peripheral tissue and CB2 receptors in the immune and hematopoietic systems. The route of delivery of cannabis is important as the bioavailability and metabolism are very different for smoking versus oral/sublingual routes. Gold standard clinical trials are limited; however, some studies have thus far shown evidence to support the use of cannabinoids for some cancer, neuropathic, spasticity, acute pain, and chronic pain conditions. PMID:26325482

  11. Cancer stem cells in basic science and in translational oncology: can we translate into clinical application?

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, Axel; Blatt, Katharina; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Sadovnik, Irina; Herrmann, Harald; Marian, Brigitte; Grunt, Thomas W; Zielinski, Christoph C; Valent, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Since their description and identification in leukemias and solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSC) have been the subject of intensive research in translational oncology. Indeed, recent advances have led to the identification of CSC markers, CSC targets, and the preclinical and clinical evaluation of the CSC-eradicating (curative) potential of various drugs. However, although diverse CSC markers and targets have been identified, several questions remain, such as the origin and evolution of CSC, mechanisms underlying resistance of CSC against various targeted drugs, and the biochemical basis and function of stroma cell-CSC interactions in the so-called 'stem cell niche.' Additional aspects that have to be taken into account when considering CSC elimination as primary treatment-goal are the genomic plasticity and extensive subclone formation of CSC. Notably, various cell fractions with different combinations of molecular aberrations and varying proliferative potential may display CSC function in a given neoplasm, and the related molecular complexity of the genome in CSC subsets is considered to contribute essentially to disease evolution and acquired drug resistance. In the current article, we discuss new developments in the field of CSC research and whether these new concepts can be exploited in clinical practice in the future.

  12. Cognitive Factors and Residual Speech Errors: Basic Science, Translational Research, and Some Clinical Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Catherine Torrington

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the theoretical and empirical relationships between cognitive factors and residual speech errors (RSEs). Definitions of relevant cognitive domains are provided, as well as examples of formal and informal tasks that may be appropriate in assessment. Although studies to date have been limited in number and scope, basic research suggests that cognitive flexibility, short- and long-term memory, and self-monitoring may be areas of weakness in this population. Preliminary evidence has not supported a relationship between inhibitory control, attention, and RSEs; however, further studies that control variables such as language ability and temperament are warranted. Previous translational research has examined the effects of self-monitoring training on residual speech errors. Although results have been mixed, some findings suggest that children with RSEs may benefit from the inclusion of this training. The article closes with a discussion of clinical frameworks that target cognitive skills, including self-monitoring and attention, as a means of facilitating speech sound change.

  13. Data Science Solution to Event Prediction in Outsourced Clinical Trial Models.

    PubMed

    Dalevi, Daniel; Lovick, Susan; Mann, Helen; Metcalfe, Paul D; Spencer, Stuart; Hollis, Sally; Ruau, David

    2015-01-01

    Late phase clinical trials are regularly outsourced to a Contract Research Organisation (CRO) while the risk and accountability remain within the sponsor company. Many statistical tasks are delivered by the CRO and later revalidated by the sponsor. Here, we report a technological approach to standardised event prediction. We have built a dynamic web application around an R-package with the aim of delivering reliable event predictions, simplifying communication and increasing trust between the CRO and the in-house statisticians via transparency. Short learning curve, interactivity, reproducibility and data diagnostics are key here. The current implementation is motivated by time-to-event prediction in oncology. We demonstrate a clear benefit of standardisation for both parties. The tool can be used for exploration, communication, sensitivity analysis and generating standard reports. At this point we wish to present this tool and share some of the insights we have gained during the development. PMID:26262364

  14. Data Science Solution to Event Prediction in Outsourced Clinical Trial Models.

    PubMed

    Dalevi, Daniel; Lovick, Susan; Mann, Helen; Metcalfe, Paul D; Spencer, Stuart; Hollis, Sally; Ruau, David

    2015-01-01

    Late phase clinical trials are regularly outsourced to a Contract Research Organisation (CRO) while the risk and accountability remain within the sponsor company. Many statistical tasks are delivered by the CRO and later revalidated by the sponsor. Here, we report a technological approach to standardised event prediction. We have built a dynamic web application around an R-package with the aim of delivering reliable event predictions, simplifying communication and increasing trust between the CRO and the in-house statisticians via transparency. Short learning curve, interactivity, reproducibility and data diagnostics are key here. The current implementation is motivated by time-to-event prediction in oncology. We demonstrate a clear benefit of standardisation for both parties. The tool can be used for exploration, communication, sensitivity analysis and generating standard reports. At this point we wish to present this tool and share some of the insights we have gained during the development.

  15. Are Clinical Trials With Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells too Far Ahead of the Science? Lessons From Experimental Hematology

    PubMed Central

    Prockop, Darwin J; Prockop, Susan E; Bertoncello, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The cells referred to as mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are currently being used to treat thousands of patients with diseases of essentially all the organs and tissues of the body. Strikingly positive results have been reported in some patients, but there have been few prospective controlled studies. Also, the reasons for the beneficial effects are frequently unclear. As a result there has been a heated debate as to whether the clinical trials with these new cell therapies are too far ahead of the science. The debate is not easily resolved, but important insights are provided by the 60-year history that was required to develop the first successful stem cell therapy, the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. The history indicates that development of a dramatically new therapy usually requires patience and a constant dialogue between basic scientists and physicians carrying out carefully designed clinical trials. It also suggests that the field can be moved forward by establishing better records of how MSCs are prepared, by establishing a large supply of reference MSCs that can be used to validate assays and compare MSCs prepared in different laboratories, and by continuing efforts to establish in vivo assays for the efficacy of MSCs. Stem Cells 2014;32:3055–3061 PMID:25100155

  16. Are clinical trials with mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells too far ahead of the science? Lessons from experimental hematology.

    PubMed

    Prockop, Darwin J; Prockop, Susan E; Bertoncello, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The cells referred to as mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are currently being used to treat thousands of patients with diseases of essentially all the organs and tissues of the body. Strikingly positive results have been reported in some patients, but there have been few prospective controlled studies. Also, the reasons for the beneficial effects are frequently unclear. As a result there has been a heated debate as to whether the clinical trials with these new cell therapies are too far ahead of the science. The debate is not easily resolved, but important insights are provided by the 60-year history that was required to develop the first successful stem cell therapy, the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. The history indicates that development of a dramatically new therapy usually requires patience and a constant dialogue between basic scientists and physicians carrying out carefully designed clinical trials. It also suggests that the field can be moved forward by establishing better records of how MSCs are prepared, by establishing a large supply of reference MSCs that can be used to validate assays and compare MSCs prepared in different laboratories, and by continuing efforts to establish in vivo assays for the efficacy of MSCs.

  17. Globalisation as we enter the 21st century: reflections and directions for nursing education, science, research and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; Meleis, Afaf; Daly, John; Douglas, Marilyn Marty

    2003-10-01

    The events of September 11th, 2001 in the United States and the Bali bombings of October 2002 are chastening examples of the entangled web of the religious, political, health, cultural and economic forces we experience living in a global community. To view these forces as independent, singular, linearly deterministic entities of globalisation is irrational and illogical. Understanding the concept of globalisation has significant implications not only for world health and international politics, but also the health of individuals. Depending on an individual's political stance and world-view, globalisation may be perceived as an emancipatory force, having the potential to bridge the chasm between rich and poor or, in stark contrast, the very essence of the divide. It is important that nurses appreciate that globalisation does not pertain solely to the realms of economic theory and world politics, but also that it impacts on our daily nursing practice and the welfare of our patients. Globalisation and the closer interactions of human activity that result, have implications for international governance, policy and theory development as well as nursing education, research and clinical practice. Nurses, individually and collectively, have the political power and social consciousness to influence the forces of globalisation to improve health for all. This paper defines and discusses globalisation in today's world and its implications for contemporary nursing education, science, research and clinical practice.

  18. Television and World Affairs Teaching in Schools; Report of the Atlantic Study Conference on Education (9th, Bordeaux, Sept. 3-9, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppstein, John, Ed.

    The principal papers read at the ninth conference in a series of Biennial Atlantic Study Conferences on Education, which was organized at the University of Bordeaux at Talence to benefit those concerned with the teaching of world affairs and social science in the secondary schools of the Western world, are included in this report. Titles of papers…

  19. Professional competencies in health sciences education: from multiple intelligences to the clinic floor.

    PubMed

    Lane, India F

    2010-03-01

    Nontechnical competencies identified as essential to the health professional's success include ethical behavior, interpersonal, self-management, leadership, business, and thinking competencies. The literature regarding such diverse topics, and the literature regarding "professional success" is extensive and wide-ranging, crossing educational, psychological, business, medical and vocational fields of study. This review is designed to introduce ways of viewing nontechnical competence from the psychology of human capacity to current perspectives, initiatives and needs in practice. After an introduction to the tensions inherent in educating individuals for both biomedical competency and "bedside" or "cageside" manner, the paper presents a brief overview of the major lines of inquiry into intelligence theory and how theories of multiple intelligences can build a foundation for conceptualizing professional and life skills. The discussion then moves from broad concepts of intelligence to more specific workplace skill sets, with an emphasis on professional medical education. This section introduces the research on noncognitive variables in various disciplines, the growing emphasis on competency based education, and the SKA movement in veterinary education. The next section presents the evidence that nontechnical, noncognitive or humanistic skills influence achievement in academic settings, medical education and clinical performance, as well as the challenges faced when educational priorities must be made. PMID:19585247

  20. Professional competencies in health sciences education: from multiple intelligences to the clinic floor.

    PubMed

    Lane, India F

    2010-03-01

    Nontechnical competencies identified as essential to the health professional's success include ethical behavior, interpersonal, self-management, leadership, business, and thinking competencies. The literature regarding such diverse topics, and the literature regarding "professional success" is extensive and wide-ranging, crossing educational, psychological, business, medical and vocational fields of study. This review is designed to introduce ways of viewing nontechnical competence from the psychology of human capacity to current perspectives, initiatives and needs in practice. After an introduction to the tensions inherent in educating individuals for both biomedical competency and "bedside" or "cageside" manner, the paper presents a brief overview of the major lines of inquiry into intelligence theory and how theories of multiple intelligences can build a foundation for conceptualizing professional and life skills. The discussion then moves from broad concepts of intelligence to more specific workplace skill sets, with an emphasis on professional medical education. This section introduces the research on noncognitive variables in various disciplines, the growing emphasis on competency based education, and the SKA movement in veterinary education. The next section presents the evidence that nontechnical, noncognitive or humanistic skills influence achievement in academic settings, medical education and clinical performance, as well as the challenges faced when educational priorities must be made.

  1. Advanced Online Survival Analysis Tool for Predictive Modelling in Clinical Data Science.

    PubMed

    Montes-Torres, Julio; Subirats, José Luis; Ribelles, Nuria; Urda, Daniel; Franco, Leonardo; Alba, Emilio; Jerez, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    One of the prevailing applications of machine learning is the use of predictive modelling in clinical survival analysis. In this work, we present our view of the current situation of computer tools for survival analysis, stressing the need of transferring the latest results in the field of machine learning to biomedical researchers. We propose a web based software for survival analysis called OSA (Online Survival Analysis), which has been developed as an open access and user friendly option to obtain discrete time, predictive survival models at individual level using machine learning techniques, and to perform standard survival analysis. OSA employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based method to produce the predictive survival models. Additionally, the software can easily generate survival and hazard curves with multiple options to personalise the plots, obtain contingency tables from the uploaded data to perform different tests, and fit a Cox regression model from a number of predictor variables. In the Materials and Methods section, we depict the general architecture of the application and introduce the mathematical background of each of the implemented methods. The study concludes with examples of use showing the results obtained with public datasets. PMID:27532883

  2. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: Linking basic science to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jeanette Schultz; Harris, Alex K; Rychly, David J; Ergul, Adviye

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is growing evidence that excess generation of highly reactive free radicals, largely due to hyperglycemia, causes oxidative stress, which further exacerbates the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of these free radicals result in vascular dysfunction, damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. Despite overwhelming evidence on the damaging consequences of oxidative stress and its role in experimental diabetes, large scale clinical trials with classic antioxidants failed to demonstrate any benefit for diabetic patients. As our understanding of the mechanisms of free radical generation evolves, it is becoming clear that rather than merely scavenging reactive radicals, a more comprehensive approach aimed at preventing the generation of these reactive species as well as scavenging may prove more beneficial. Therefore, new strategies with classic as well as new antioxidants should be implemented in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:15862133

  3. Exosomes as Intercellular Signaling Organelles Involved in Health and Disease: Basic Science and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Chiara; Raimondo, Stefania; Chiesi, Antonio; Ciccia, Francesco; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Cell to cell communication is essential for the coordination and proper organization of different cell types in multicellular systems. Cells exchange information through a multitude of mechanisms such as secreted growth factors and chemokines, small molecules (peptides, ions, bioactive lipids and nucleotides), cell-cell contact and the secretion of extracellular matrix components. Over the last few years, however, a considerable amount of experimental evidence has demonstrated the occurrence of a sophisticated method of cell communication based on the release of specialized membranous nano-sized vesicles termed exosomes. Exosome biogenesis involves the endosomal compartment, the multivesicular bodies (MVB), which contain internal vesicles packed with an extraordinary set of molecules including enzymes, cytokines, nucleic acids and different bioactive compounds. In response to stimuli, MVB fuse with the plasma membrane and vesicles are released in the extracellular space where they can interact with neighboring cells and directly induce a signaling pathway or affect the cellular phenotype through the transfer of new receptors or even genetic material. This review will focus on exosomes as intercellular signaling organelles involved in a number of physiological as well as pathological processes and their potential use in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:23466882

  4. Medical informatics and clinical decision making: the science and the pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Shortliffe, E H

    1991-01-01

    There are important scientific and pragmatic synergies between the medical decision making field and the emerging discipline of medical informatics. In the 1970s, the field of medicine forced clinically oriented artificial intelligence (AI) researchers to develop ways to manage explicit statements of uncertainty in expert systems. Classic probability theory was considered and discussed, but it tended to be abandoned because of complexities that limited its use. In medical AI systems, uncertainty was handled by a variety of ad hoc models that simulated probabilistic considerations. To illustrate the scientific interactions between the fields, the author describes recent work in his laboratory that has attempted to show that formal normative models based on probability and decision theory can be practically melded with AI methods to deliver effective advisory tools. In addition, the practical needs of decision makers and health policy planners are increasingly necessitating collaborative efforts to develop a computing and communications infrastructure for the decision making and informatics communities. This point is illustrated with an example drawn from outcomes management research.

  5. Advanced Online Survival Analysis Tool for Predictive Modelling in Clinical Data Science

    PubMed Central

    Montes-Torres, Julio; Subirats, José Luis; Ribelles, Nuria; Urda, Daniel; Franco, Leonardo; Alba, Emilio; Jerez, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    One of the prevailing applications of machine learning is the use of predictive modelling in clinical survival analysis. In this work, we present our view of the current situation of computer tools for survival analysis, stressing the need of transferring the latest results in the field of machine learning to biomedical researchers. We propose a web based software for survival analysis called OSA (Online Survival Analysis), which has been developed as an open access and user friendly option to obtain discrete time, predictive survival models at individual level using machine learning techniques, and to perform standard survival analysis. OSA employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based method to produce the predictive survival models. Additionally, the software can easily generate survival and hazard curves with multiple options to personalise the plots, obtain contingency tables from the uploaded data to perform different tests, and fit a Cox regression model from a number of predictor variables. In the Materials and Methods section, we depict the general architecture of the application and introduce the mathematical background of each of the implemented methods. The study concludes with examples of use showing the results obtained with public datasets. PMID:27532883

  6. The Amateurs' Love Affair with Large Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Jacoby, S. H.; Henden, A.

    2006-12-01

    Amateur astronomers are professionals in other areas. They bring expertise from such varied and technical careers as computer science, mathematics, engineering, and marketing. These skills, coupled with an enthusiasm for astronomy, can be used to help manage the large data sets coming online in the next decade. We will show specific examples where teams of amateurs have been involved in mining large, online data sets and have authored and published their own papers in peer-reviewed astronomical journals. Using the proposed LSST database as an example, we will outline a framework for involving amateurs in data analysis and education with large astronomical surveys.

  7. Teacher Education for Teaching Science to American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Paul; Adkins, Carol R.

    1995-01-01

    The Science and Mathematics for Indian Learners and Educators (SMILE) Project at Northern Arizona University provided science inservice training to K-8 teachers from Bureau of Indian Affairs schools on the Navajo reservation. The training aimed to increase and improve science instruction for Indian children and to connect science education to…

  8. Clinical implementation of genetic testing in medicine: a US regulatory science perspective.

    PubMed

    Lesko, Lawrence J; Schmidt, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Heterogeneity of treatment effects in unselected patient populations has stimulated various strategic approaches to reduce variability and uncertainty and improve individualization of drug selection and dosing. The rapid growth of DNA sequencing and related technologies has ramped up progress in interpreting germline and somatic mutations and has begun to reshape medicine, especially in oncology. Over the past decade, regulatory agencies realized that they needed to be proactive and not reactive if personalized medicine was to become a reality. The US Food and Drug Administration, in particular, took steps to nurture the field through peer-reviewed publications, co-sponsoring public workshops and issuing guidance for industry. The following two major approaches to personalized medicine were taken: (i) encouragement of de novo co-development of drug-genetic test combinations by industry; and (ii) retrospective assessment of legacy genetic data for the purpose of updating drug labels. The former strategy has been more successful in getting new targeted therapies to the marketplace with successful adoption, while the latter, as evidenced by the low adoption rate of pharmacogenetic testing, has been less successful. This reflection piece makes clear that several important things need to happen to make personalized medicine diffuse in more geographical areas and among more therapeutic specialties. The debate over clinical utility of genetic tests needs to be resolved with consensus on evidentiary standards. Physicians, as gatekeepers of prescription medicines, need to increase their knowledge of genetics and the application of the information to patient care. An infrastructure needs to be developed to make access to genetic tests and decision-support tools available to primary practitioners and specialists outside major medical centres and metropolitan areas.

  9. Clinical implementation of genetic testing in medicine: a US regulatory science perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lesko, Lawrence J; Schmidt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity of treatment effects in unselected patient populations has stimulated various strategic approaches to reduce variability and uncertainty and improve individualization of drug selection and dosing. The rapid growth of DNA sequencing and related technologies has ramped up progress in interpreting germline and somatic mutations and has begun to reshape medicine, especially in oncology. Over the past decade, regulatory agencies realized that they needed to be proactive and not reactive if personalized medicine was to become a reality. The US Food and Drug Administration, in particular, took steps to nurture the field through peer-reviewed publications, co-sponsoring public workshops and issuing guidance for industry. The following two major approaches to personalized medicine were taken: (i) encouragement of de novo co-development of drug–genetic test combinations by industry; and (ii) retrospective assessment of legacy genetic data for the purpose of updating drug labels. The former strategy has been more successful in getting new targeted therapies to the marketplace with successful adoption, while the latter, as evidenced by the low adoption rate of pharmacogenetic testing, has been less successful. This reflection piece makes clear that several important things need to happen to make personalized medicine diffuse in more geographical areas and among more therapeutic specialties. The debate over clinical utility of genetic tests needs to be resolved with consensus on evidentiary standards. Physicians, as gatekeepers of prescription medicines, need to increase their knowledge of genetics and the application of the information to patient care. An infrastructure needs to be developed to make access to genetic tests and decision-support tools available to primary practitioners and specialists outside major medical centres and metropolitan areas. PMID:24286486

  10. Does learning in clinical context in anatomical sciences improve examination results, learning motivation, or learning orientation?

    PubMed

    Böckers, Anja; Mayer, Christian; Böckers, Tobias Maria

    2014-01-01

    The preclinical compulsory elective course "Ready for the Operating Room (OR)!?" [in German]: "Fit für den OP (FOP)"] was implemented for students in their second year, who were simultaneously enrolled in the gross anatomy course. The objective of the study was to determine whether the direct practical application of anatomical knowledge within the surgical context of the course led to any improvement in learning motivation, learning orientation, and ultimately examination results in the gross anatomy course, as compared with a control group. Within the scope of five teaching sessions, the students learned surgical hand disinfection, suturing techniques, and the identification of commonly used surgical instruments. In addition, the students attended five surgical demonstrations performed by surgical colleagues on cadavers. Successful learning of these basic skills was then assessed based on an Objectively Structured Practical Examination. Learning motivation and learning orientation in both subgroups was determined using the SELLMO-ST motivation test and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory test. While a significant increase in work avoidance was identified in the control group, this was not the case for FOP participants. Similarly, an increase in the "deep approach" to learning, as well as a decrease in the "surface approach," was able to be documented among the FOP participants following completion of the course. The results suggest that students enrolled in the gross anatomy course, who were simultaneously provided with the opportunity to learn in clinical context, were more likely to be successful at maintaining learning motivation and learning orientation required for the learning process, than students who attended the gross anatomy course alone.

  11. Recent developments for Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: clinical and basic science challenges.

    PubMed

    Proctor, R A

    2015-12-02

    Bacterial vaccines have made dramatic impacts upon morbidity and mortality caused by a number of common pathogens, but a vaccine to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infections has proven to be illusive. With successful bacterial vaccines, the organisms are all part of the transient flora, whereas, S. aureus is part of the normal human flora. This means that S. aureus has had a prolonged time to adapt to the host milieu and its defences. The failure of several staphylococcal antigens to protect humans from infection in vaccine clinical trials using active or passive immunisation has stimulated a re-examination of the fundamental assumptions about staphylococcal immunity in humans vs. animals, especially rodents. This has spurred an active debate about the appropriate models for vaccine development and an examination of our current understanding of the protective immunity in humans. A major factor in the development of previous bacterial vaccines was a biomarker that predicted human protection, e.g., antibodies to tetanus toxoid or to pneumococcal polysaccharide. While antibodies against a number of staphylococcal antigens have proven to be an excellent biomarker for protection in rodents, these have not been translated to human infections. Thus, while much work remains, there is a growing consensus that T-cell immunity plays an important role in protecting humans. Moreover, the presence of anti-staphylococcal toxin antibodies correlates with reduced disease severity in humans. The most important recent advances concerning potential biomarkers, and the role of pre-existing immune status of vaccines in vaccine-associated mortality are considered in this review.

  12. Clinical implementation of genetic testing in medicine: a US regulatory science perspective.

    PubMed

    Lesko, Lawrence J; Schmidt, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Heterogeneity of treatment effects in unselected patient populations has stimulated various strategic approaches to reduce variability and uncertainty and improve individualization of drug selection and dosing. The rapid growth of DNA sequencing and related technologies has ramped up progress in interpreting germline and somatic mutations and has begun to reshape medicine, especially in oncology. Over the past decade, regulatory agencies realized that they needed to be proactive and not reactive if personalized medicine was to become a reality. The US Food and Drug Administration, in particular, took steps to nurture the field through peer-reviewed publications, co-sponsoring public workshops and issuing guidance for industry. The following two major approaches to personalized medicine were taken: (i) encouragement of de novo co-development of drug-genetic test combinations by industry; and (ii) retrospective assessment of legacy genetic data for the purpose of updating drug labels. The former strategy has been more successful in getting new targeted therapies to the marketplace with successful adoption, while the latter, as evidenced by the low adoption rate of pharmacogenetic testing, has been less successful. This reflection piece makes clear that several important things need to happen to make personalized medicine diffuse in more geographical areas and among more therapeutic specialties. The debate over clinical utility of genetic tests needs to be resolved with consensus on evidentiary standards. Physicians, as gatekeepers of prescription medicines, need to increase their knowledge of genetics and the application of the information to patient care. An infrastructure needs to be developed to make access to genetic tests and decision-support tools available to primary practitioners and specialists outside major medical centres and metropolitan areas. PMID:24286486

  13. Snake venoms in science and clinical medicine. 2. Applied immunology in snake venom research.

    PubMed

    Theakston, R D

    1989-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a very important tool for studying both the epidemiology and clinical effects of snake bite in man. For epidemiology ELISA depends on the development and persistence of specific humoral venom antibody in previous snake bite victims. In the Nigerian savanna 63% of previous bite victims possessed specific venom antibodies against Echis carinatus venom; in Ecuador, where there is a 5% annual mortality due to snake bite in a population of Waorani Indians, venom antibodies against a wide range of different venoms were identified in previous bite victims using ELISA. In certain areas it is often not possible, using the symptoms of envenoming, to determine which species of snake has bitten the patient. Field studies using ELISA in Nigeria and Thailand have been successful in establishing the species responsible for envenoming. Current studies are in progress on the development of a rapid immunoassay which should be capable of detecting the biting species within 5-10 min of sampling from the admission patient. This will be useful for the clinician as it will enable the rapid detection of the species responsible for envenoming and, therefore, the use of the correct antivenom. Experimental work on the development of new methods of antivenom production includes immunization of experimental animals with venom/liposome preparations, the preparation of venom antigens using monoclonal antibodies on affinity columns, and recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology. Liposomal immunization requires only a single injection of venom to obtain a rapid, high level and protective immune response. Venom liposomes may also be given orally resulting in a serum immunoglobulin G immune response in experimental animals. Use of such a system may eventually result in immunization of man in areas of high snake bite incidence and mortality. PMID:2617643

  14. Five-grass pollen immunotherapy tablet: an update on the latest findings from clinical trials: an interview with Olivier de Beaumont.

    PubMed

    de Beaumont, Olivier; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Interview by Jonathan Wilkinson (Managing Commissioning Editor, Future Science Group). Olivier de Beaumont became Doctor of Medicine at the University of Paris Descartes in 1993. In the same year, he also took a Master of Health Economics degree at Paris Dauphine University. He is also a Master of Business Administration, ESCP Paris, 1999. At Stallergenes, he has been serving as Vice President/Head of Corporate Clinical Development since 2005, responsible for the clinical development plan, clinical operations, biometry and pharmacovigilance. In 2011, he took the responsibility of Senior Vice President Global Medical Affairs responsible for medical information and education, medical communication and nonregistration clinical studies. In 2014 he became Senior Vice President Global Scientific and Medical Affairs. From 2002 to 2005 he led the European business development of the world's leading clinical research organization Quintiles, developing Phase I-IV clinical trial programs for pharmaceutical companies. Previous roles included: Chief Scientific Officer and cofounder of Direct Medica (2000-2002), product champion and lifecycle management at Aventis (1998-2000), medical affairs manager in oncology and respiratory diseases at corporate Rhone-Poulenc Rorer (1993-1998).

  15. The Illinois Articulation Initiative Major Fields Panels' Recommendations for Business, Clinical Laboratory Science, Education--Early Childhood, Education--Elementary, Education--Secondary, Music, Nursing, Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Developed by the Illinois Articulation Initiative (IAI), this report provides recommendations for improving articulation through state high schools, community colleges, and institutions of higher education. The recommendations are presented by field of study for business, clinical laboratory science, early childhood education, elementary…

  16. Faculty Participation in and Needs around Community Engagement within a Large Multiinstitutional Clinical and Translational Science Awardee.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Norris, Keith; Mangione, Carol; Del Pino, Homero E; Jones, Loretta; Castro, Daniel; Wang, Christina; Bell, Douglas; Vangala, Sitaram; Kahn, Katherine; Brown, Arleen F

    2015-10-01

    Community engagement is recommended to ensure the public health impact of NIH-funded science. To understand the prevalence of community-engaged research and faculty interest in and needs around this, from 2012 to 2013, an online survey (n = 3,022) was sent to UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute faculty. Among respondents, 45% reported community-engaged project participation in the last year and 64% an interest in learning about community-engaged research. Over 50% indicated career development and pilot grants would increase participation in community-engaged research. A greater percentage of pretenure than tenured faculty (pretenure 54.9%, tenured 42.2%, p = 0008) noted faculty promotion criteria incentivizing community-engaged research would increase participation. In adjusted analyses, African American (OR 4.06, CI 1.68-9.82, p = 0.002) and Latino (OR 1.91, CI 1.10-3.33, p = 0.022) faculty had higher odds of prior participation in community-engaged projects than Whites. Female faculty had greater odds of interest (OR 1.40, CI 1.02-1.93, p = 0.038) in learning about community-engaged research than males. African American (OR 4.31, CI 1.42-13.08, p = 0.010) and Asian/Pacific Islander (OR 2.24, CI 1.52-3.28, p < 0.001) faculty had greater interest in learning about community-engaged research than Whites. To build community-engaged faculty research capacity, CTSAs' may need to focus resources on female and minority faculty development. PMID:26332679

  17. Museum security and the Thomas Crown Affair.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, I've daydreamed about stealing a Vermeer, a Picasso, or Rembrandt. It tickles me, as much as watching the reboot of The Thomas Crown Affair. Why is it, do you suppose, so much fun to think about stealing a world renowned piece off the wall of a major metropolitan museum? Is it the romantic thoughts of getting away with it, walking past infrared detectors, and pressure sensors ala Indiana Jones with the sack of sand to remove the idol without triggering the security system? Is it the idea of snatching items with such fantastic prices, where the romance of possessing an item of such value is less intoxicating than selling it to a private collector for it to never be seen again? I suspect others share my daydreams as they watch theater or hear of a brazen daylight heist at museums around the world, or from private collections. Though when reality sets in, the mind of the security professional kicks in. How could one do it, why would one do it, what should you do once it's done? The main issue a thief confronts when acquiring unique goods is how to process or fence them. They become very difficult to sell because they are one-of-a-kind, easy to identify, and could lead to the people involved with the theft. The whole issue of museum security takes up an ironic twist when one considers the secretive British street artist 'Banksy'. Banksy has made a name for himself by brazenly putting up interesting pieces of art in broad daylight (though many critics don't consider his work to be art) on building walls, rooftops, or even museums. I bring him up for a interesting take on what may become a trend in museum security. In March of 2005, Banksy snuck a piece of his called 'Vandalized Oil Painting' into the Brooklyn Museum's Great Historical Painting Wing, plus 3 other pieces into major museums in New York. Within several days, 2 paintings had been torn down, but 2 stayed up much longer. In his home country of the UK, a unauthorized piece he created and placed

  18. Dissemination and implementation of comparative effectiveness evidence: key informant interviews with Clinical and Translational Science Award institutions

    PubMed Central

    Morrato, Elaine H; Concannon, Thomas W; Meissner, Paul; Shah, Nilay D; Turner, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Aim To identify ongoing practices and opportunities for improving national comparative effectiveness research (CER) translation through dissemination and implementation (D&I) via NIH-funded Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions. Materials & methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 18 CTSA grantees sampled to represent a range of D&I efforts. Results & conclusions The institutional representatives endorsed fostering CER translation nationally via the CTSA Consortium. However, five themes emerged from the interviews as barriers to CER D&I: lack of institutional awareness, insufficient capacity, lack of established D&I methods, confusion among stakeholders about what CER actually is and limited funding opportunities. Interviewees offered two key recommendations to improve CER translation: development of a centralized clearing house to facilitate the diffusion of CER D&I resources and methods across CTSA institutions; and formalization of the national CTSA network to leverage existing community engagement relationships and resources for the purpose of adapting and disseminating robust CER evidence locally with providers, patients and healthcare systems. PMID:24236560

  19. Evaluation of Effective Factors on the Clinical Performance of General Surgeons in Tehran University of Medical Science, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Mohamadi, Efat; najafpour, Zhila; Yousefinezhadi, Taraneh; Forootan, Sara; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Existence of doctors with high performance is one of the necessary conditions to provide high quality services. There are different motivations, which could affect their performance. Recognizing Factors which effect the performance of doctors as an effective force in health care centers is necessary. The aim of this article was evaluate the effective factors which influence on clinical performance of general surgery of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Methods: This is a cross-sectional qualitative-quantitative study. This research conducted in 3 phases-phases I: (use of library studies and databases to collect data), phase II: localization of detected factors in first phase by using the Delphi technique and phase III: prioritizing the affecting factors on performance of doctors by using qualitative interviews. Results: 12 articles were analyzed from 300 abstracts during the evaluation process. The output of assessment identified 23 factors was sent to surgeons and their assistants for obtaining their opinions. Quantitative analysis of the findings showed that “work qualification” (86.1%) and “managers and supervisors style” (50%) have respectively the most and the least impact on the performance of doctors. Finally 18 effective factors were identified and prioritized in the performance of general surgeons. Conclusion: The results showed that motivation and performance is not a single operating parameter and it depends on several factors according to cultural background. Therefore it is necessary to design, implementation and monitoring based on key determinants of effective interventions due to cultural background. PMID:27157161

  20. The McBride Honors Program in Public Affairs for Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Miller, R. L.; Olds, B. M.; Sacks, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    The McBride Honors Program in Public Affairs at The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), instituted in 1978, is an award-winning exemplar in the liberal arts which provides a select number of CSM engineering students an opportunity to cross the boundaries of their technical expertise in engineering and applied science, and to gain the understanding and appreciation of the contexts in which engineering and applied science and all human systems reside, and specifically to explore and integrate the social, cultural, ethical and environmental implications of their future professional judgments and their roles as citizens in varied and complex settings. The 27 semester-hour program of seminars, courses, and off-campus activities features small seminars; a cross-disciplinary approach; and opportunities for one-on-one faculty tutorials, instruction and practice in oral and written communication, a Washington, D.C. public policy seminar, a practicum experience (internship or foreign study). Circumstances external to the McBride Program itself, which include the development and growth of the field of Public Affairs nationally and the persistence of legacy courses, have created the need to revitalize and refocus the historically cross-departmental Program. A recent curriculum reform effort has achieved a more thoroughly interdisciplinary learning experience to educate engineers and scientists who, as called for in the National Academy of Engineering's The Engineer of 2020 "will assume leadership positions from which they can serve as positive influences in the making of public policy and in the administration of government and industry". In this presentation we showcase best practices in curriculum reform, exemplified by a seminar in National policy analysis where students and faculty have recently investigated federal science funding decisions in support of natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildland fires, and pandemic disease.

  1. Levamisole-contaminated cocaine: a hairy affair.

    PubMed

    van der Veer, Tjeerd; Pennings, Ed; Tervaert, J W Cohen; Korswagen, Lindy-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Levamisole-contaminated cocaine can induce severe systemic vasculitis. The diagnosis can be challenging, especially when substance abuse is uncertain. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman suffering from vasculitis due to levamisole-contaminated cocaine, who persistently denied substance abuse. Symptoms included ulcerating skin lesions, arthralgia and myalgia, and the occurrence of an ileal intussusception. The definitive diagnosis was made using hair testing for toxins. She recovered through cocaine abstinence, but re-exposure resulted in a severe relapse with glomerulonephritis. Importantly, at time of the relapse, the patient became positive for both myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and proteinase 3-ANCA. Cocaine-levamisole-induced vasculitis poses a great clinical challenge. The proper diagnostic strategy and therapy is still controversial. We highlight our diagnostic and therapeutic considerations, including hair testing for definitive proof of exposure. PMID:26311010

  2. Student Affairs and Information Technology: Collaborating in the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatis, Peter Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Student affairs and information technology have opportunities to partner in order to increase student satisfaction and retention rates and to assist institutions to comply with federal educational regulations. This chapter contains four examples of emerging best practices and future initiatives including: (a) the admissions pipeline, (b)…

  3. Positive Psychology and Student Affairs Practice: A Framework of Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    With its focus on building human strengths, scholarship from the field of positive psychology can be an asset in actualizing student affairs' human development and learning goals. This article synthesizes findings from positive psychology, illustrating specific ways in which practitioners can benefit from this emerging area of scholarship. The…

  4. The Role of Student Affairs at Metropolitan Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Claims that student affairs personnel must be active in developing and providing student services that also help reinforce and support the learning community. Focuses on the delivery of necessary services, retention, campus life, technology, assessment and planning, financing, and the structure and organization of services. (RJM)

  5. Student Affairs Division's Integration of Student Learning Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    This quantitative study was based on the survey results of 216 chief student affairs officers' (CSAOs) at United States' colleges and universities whose enrollments were between 500 and 3,000 students. In the spring of 2001, 58% of the CSAOs returned the 42-item Survey of Student Learning Principles, based on the seven "Principles of Good Practice…

  6. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1972-73 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    The Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs (ACIA) 1972-73 Annual Report studies conditions among American Indians residing in Arizona. The commission also has the responsibility for improving communications, understanding, and working relationships between all concerned. Another goal is to promote understanding and fellowship in the areas of Indian…

  7. Burnout: Treatment and Prevention Strategies for College Student Affairs Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Presents possible prevention and treatment strategies for combating burnout among college student affairs professionals. Includes definition of burnout, review of symptoms of burnout, discussion of causes of burnout, and suggestions for treatment and prevention of burnout. Interventions discussed include personal counseling, using stress…

  8. Perspectives of Online Graduate Preparation Programs for Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Sara; Diepenbrock, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory research study utilized qualitative and quantitative research methods to determine how midlevel student affairs professionals perceive online education for preparation in the field. The participants noted that they do not perceive online education as equivalent to master's degree preparation programs for student affairs…

  9. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtless, Gary, Ed.; Pack, Janet Rothenberg, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, the "Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs" is an annual series that serves as a forum for cutting-edge, accessible research on urban policy. The editors seek to integrate broader research into the policy discussion by bringing urban studies scholars together with economists and…

  10. Psychometric Characteristics of the Modified World Affairs Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    1988-01-01

    Subjected Modified World Affairs Questionnaire (MWAQ) to comparable common factor analysis which identified five factors: civil defense, escalation, nuclear war outcome, probability/worry, and patriotic. Alpha coefficients and test-retest reliability were determined to be adequate for the first four subscales. Acceptable discriminant validity and…

  11. Emotional Processes Following Disclosure of an Extramarital Affair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Michael M.; Russell, Candyce S.; Higgins-Kessler, Mindi; Miller, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In-depth interviews with individuals who had experienced marital infidelity revealed a three-stage process following disclosure of an affair. The process starts with an "emotional roller coaster" and moves through a "moratorium" before efforts at trust building are recognized. Implications for the literature on forgiveness and the process of…

  12. Taking the Global Leap: Student Affairs Professionals and Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazon, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    Student affairs professionals can play a more prominent role in campus internationalization efforts. Unfortunately, they do not often view themselves as having the necessary knowledge, understanding, and tools to engage with international education matters, much less facilitate internationalization experiences on behalf of students. By rethinking…

  13. The Context for Development Work in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    In challenging economic times, student affairs administrators need to employ creative tactics seeking fiscal resources for their efforts to support student learning and student services. The cost of higher education has increased as government support wanes. Transferring the cost to students and their families is often unworkable and can put…

  14. Staff Reactions to Interim Leadership in a Student Affairs Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robin D.

    2011-01-01

    Interim leadership appointments in higher education are a common strategy used to fill leadership gaps in executive positions. Because student affairs executives are particularly vulnerable to high turnover rates, interim appointments are becoming more widespread. Even with the prevalence of this trend, little attention has been given to the…

  15. Addressing Perceived Skill Deficiencies in Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.; Eckerle, Kayle; Martin, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This article explores existing literature on perceived skill deficiencies among entry-level student affairs practitioners. Through a review of recent literature, seven perceived skill deficiencies were identified, including budgeting and financial management, strategic planning, research and assessment, legal knowledge and standards, supervision,…

  16. Developing and Using Dashboard Indicators in Student Affairs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Joshua J.; Ryder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Dashboard systems are increasingly popular as assessment and performance management tools in higher education. This chapter examines the use of dashboards in student affairs, including examples of key indicators and considerations for developing and implementing these tools. The chapter begins with an overview of the origins of dashboards, from…

  17. Self-Authorship in Student Affairs: A Developmental Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Rebecca; Chunoo, Vivechkanand S.; Cox, Bradley E.

    2016-01-01

    The emerging millennial generation of young professionals in student affairs, often accused of being shielded from many of life's developmentally stimulating challenges, may not be sufficiently self-authored to effectively facilitate epistemological, intrapersonal, and interpersonal development among their students. Contrary to expectations,…

  18. The Lived Transitions of Senior Student Affairs Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; King, Margaret; Forrest, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study of student affairs leaders who have left senior roles used an interpretive qualitative approach to explore these lived transitional experiences. The context of the departure, its immediate impact, the ensuing emotions, the change navigation process, and the envisioned future appear to shape the departing leaders' perceptions of the…

  19. An Assessment of the Intercultural Competence of Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin-Craft, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The educational benefits of a diverse student body are clear. However, in order to reap the benefits associated with a diverse student body, campus leaders must create a campus environment that is welcoming and affirming, and fosters cross-cultural interactions. Student affairs professionals are uniquely positioned within the university to be…

  20. Interrupting Privilege: White Student Affairs Educators as Racial Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Law, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ally development process and behaviors of ten white student affairs educators at four-year institutions in the Bay Area region of Northern California who were identified as racial justice allies by a colleague of color. The methods of this study included a survey to understand the context of multicultural competency in…

  1. Academic and Student Affairs Issues Post Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Camille; Dennis, Raymonda; Jackson, Marian; Kenney, Cynthia A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several issues in the academic and student affairs areas faced by students and faculty in the post-Katrina destruction environment. Cases are used to illustrate the issues, and a call is made for increased disaster readiness plans.

  2. Environmental Programs, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Dan; Forney, Jennifer

    1987-01-01

    Describes the environmental programs that evolved out of the school of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University. Discusses the organization of the school, the teaching approaches, research activities, the internship program, enrollment, and placement for students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. (TW)

  3. Faculty and Student Affairs Collaboration in the Corporate University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty, student affairs professionals, and most importantly, students, are paying the price as institutions of higher education increasingly operate in a top-down manner with an over-emphasis on the bottom line. The corporatization of higher education creates lopsided reward (and punishment) systems for faculty, unreasonably stressful…

  4. Mentor Relationships for Entry-Level Men in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Daniel W.; Taub, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the experiences of entry-level men in student affairs, with particular focus on the function of mentors and role models. Through semistructured interviews and a focus group, 22 participants shared their thoughts and experiences regarding mentorship. Results indicated mentorship to be instrumental in recruitment and…

  5. The Student Affairs Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    College and university boards are charged with governance responsibility to ensure that students receive a high-quality education from a well-managed institution that fulfills its mission and actively pursues its vision. The student affairs committee places current and future students squarely at the center of its work and must ensure that other…

  6. Developing Recognition Programs for Units within Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Cynthia M.

    2001-01-01

    According to many psychologists, the connections between motivation and rewards and recognition are crucial to employee satisfaction. A plan for developing a multi-layered recognition program within a division of student affairs is described. These recognitions programs are designed taking into account the differences in perceptions of awards by…

  7. Leadership Styles of Female Senior Student Affairs Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Orinthia T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-reported leadership styles of female Senior Student Affairs Officers at public and private 4-year institutions. This study sought to determine if (a) there is a dominant leadership frame usage among female SSAO's, (b) determine if leadership style varies significantly among females with less than 5…

  8. Policies and Procedures for Academic Affairs , California State College, Penn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Coll., PA.

    Policies and procedures for academic affairs are detailed in the 1974-1975 edition of the faculty handbook. Areas of concern are presented alphabetically and include: absences, academic classification, admissions requirements, advanced standing, appealing grades, curriculum changes, course or college withdrawal, fees, graduate courses and…

  9. Suggested Performance Competencies for Chief Student Affairs Officers in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    As an informational aid for Florida community college administrators, this manual outlines a set of performance competencies for chief student affairs officers (CSAO's). A professional mission statement for CSAO's is presented first, followed by a brief discussion of the use of the manual in writing job descriptions, selecting candidates for CSAO…

  10. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Designed to provide insight into the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs' proceedings, transactions, and findings, the 1984 annual report describes the year's efforts to improve communications, understanding, and working relationships between all concerned. After reviewing Commission meeting attendance and the attendance of related meetings, the…

  11. Strategic Leadership in Academic Affairs: Clarifying the Board's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    This book is designed to reduce the ambiguities that accompany a governing board's policy responsibilities for academic affairs. Boards have legitimate concerns about academic program quality and faculty work, and trustees expect to participate in the difficult decisions regarding these matters. Chapter 1, The Culture of Academic Decision Making,…

  12. Reduction of Racial Prejudice in Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi-Pearson, Catherine; Castillo, Linda; Maples, Mary Finn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gender, race, intergroup contact, and diversity training on racial prejudice of student affairs professionals. Diversity training and race of participants were statistically significant contributors to change in racial prejudice. Findings suggest that racial prejudice decreases as diversity training increases.…

  13. Staffing the Student Affairs Division: Theory, Practices, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, D. Stanley; Torres, Vasti; Winston, Roger B., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The staffing process in student affairs is one of the most important leadership and management functions that administrators are called upon to perform. How well the interrelated functions of recruitment, selection, orientation, supervision, performance appraisal, professional development, and departure by staff are handled determines the…

  14. Predictors of Professional Identity Development for Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Edward C.; Foubert, John D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether professional involvement, supervision style, and mentoring predicted the professional identity of graduate students and new professionals in student affairs. Results of the study show that all three independent variables predicted the professional identity development of graduate students. Supervision style of a…

  15. Understanding Anticipatory Socialization for New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Kara M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipatory socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals. The focus was to gain a deeper understanding of how new professionals experience their anticipatory socialization, specifically the job search and pre-entry communication with their new organizations. The theory that emerged…

  16. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    This annual report describes the goals and activities of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs for fiscal year 1990-91. The commission is made up of seven tribal representatives, two non-Indians, and six ex-officio members from state government. In October 1990, the commission held a 2-day Indian Town Hall in Phoenix (Arizona) on the future of…

  17. Directory of Urban Affairs Information and Research Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Eric V. A., Comp.

    This directory of urban affairs information and research centers seeks to bring to the attention of urban researchers those organizations, agencies, and institutions which are actively involved in the eradication of current urban ills. Although most of the urban interest groups listed are research oriented, a great many are directly involved in…

  18. Development of the Student Affairs Officers Work Environment Perception Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure Student Affairs Officers' (SAO) perceptions of the work environment. A review of the literature identified five major categories and 25 elements having an impact on SAOs' perceptions of the work environment. The test instrument (questionnaire) was developed…

  19. Decisions of Student Affairs Administrators: Ethical or Legal Basis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Margery A.

    In higher education, trends in student affairs administration have gone from an "obedience" stage through a "due process" stage and back to a contractual "law and order" stage. Today, being an agent of the institution means paying attention to legal implications because of the threat of lawsuits. The Ethics section from a Council for Advancement…

  20. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs. As... cooperate with the Department in releasing unclassified information to the public and news media regarding DOE policies, programs, and activities relating to its effort under the contract. The...

  1. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs. As... cooperate with the Department in releasing unclassified information to the public and news media regarding DOE policies, programs, and activities relating to its effort under the contract. The...

  2. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs. As... cooperate with the Department in releasing unclassified information to the public and news media regarding DOE policies, programs, and activities relating to its effort under the contract. The...

  3. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs. As... cooperate with the Department in releasing unclassified information to the public and news media regarding DOE policies, programs, and activities relating to its effort under the contract. The...

  4. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The Office administers the filing and information system for all Federal Environmental Impact... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials... use in Headquarters and at the Regions, Labs and Field Offices. It maintains clearance systems...

  5. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The Office administers the filing and information system for all Federal Environmental Impact... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials... use in Headquarters and at the Regions, Labs and Field Offices. It maintains clearance systems...

  6. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The Office administers the filing and information system for all Federal Environmental Impact... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials... use in Headquarters and at the Regions, Labs and Field Offices. It maintains clearance systems...

  7. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1975-76 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    The Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs' annual report is issued to inform the Governor, State Legislature, and tribal governments of the proceedings, transactions, findings, and recommendations made by the Commission, and this 1975-76 report presents the following: (1) Commission membership; (2) a map of the American Indian reservation areas in…

  8. Women in Student Affairs: Past, Present, and Future Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Delores E.; Miguel, Krystal; Sobers-Young, Shauna T.; Bechtel, Molly; Jacobson, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, three women from the University of the Pacific came together for a panel presentation at the annual National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) conference to discuss their diverse experiences in student affairs. All recognized leaders in NASPA, these women reflected the rich history and promising future of student…

  9. Cultural Affairs: A Vital Phase of Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Leroy Howard

    This paper looks at community services in the junior college, particularly cultural affairs. The nature of the community must be defined before an effective program can be organized. The college can then determine the area of services to be offered. Cultural programs are considered to be those offering lectures, films, exhibits, theater, and so…

  10. The Orientation and Development of the Public Affair Management Specialty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chenghui; Fu, Yongxian; Chen, Rongxiang; Hu, Xueqi

    2010-01-01

    Though the specialty of the public affair management has been developed for ten years, but it is still facing the actuality that the orientation and development are difficult. Only by confirming the cultivation target and the development orientation, the development of the specialty could find the development approach and method. According to the…

  11. 32 CFR 724.211 - Regularity of government affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regularity of government affairs. 724.211 Section 724.211 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.211 Regularity of...

  12. Career Perspectives in Student Affairs. Monograph Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Alan F., Ed.; Woodard, Dudley, Ed.

    A discussion among student personnel administrators of how they had come to careers in student affairs, of the complexities of making choices for personal and professional development, and of advice they wished they had received from, or would like to give to, others in the field led to the development of this monograph. Articles include: (1)…

  13. Special Education Programs & Services. [Bureau of Indian Affairs Guidelines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Albuquerque, NM.

    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Guidelines for Special Education is a publication for use by educational personnel involved in special education. Emphasis is placed on the importance of preparing the exceptional child for the most useful future possible. Special education is seen as affording the exceptional child the opportunity to develop…

  14. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1981 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Designed to provide insight into the proceedings, transactions, and findings of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, this 1980-81 annual report reflects the commission's efforts to act in a liaison capacity between tribes and state government to provide tribes with technical assistance. The report describes 18 projects completed during the…

  15. Political Corruption and the Media: The Tangentopoli Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglioli, Pier Paolo

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of the media in the social construction of the Tangentopoli affair. Originally perceived as a minor scandal involving kickbacks on a cleaning contract, Tangentopoli became a rallying cry for reform, and seriously affected the 1994 Italian elections. Includes graphical analysis of media coverage. (MJP)

  16. "Teaching while Black": Narratives of African American Student Affairs Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.; Catching, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    African American faculty have historically been underrepresented within predominantly white institutions (PWIs) and deal with academic isolation, marginalization of their scholarship, and racial hostility. Little is known about the experiences of African American faculty who teach in student affairs graduate programs. The purpose of this study was…

  17. Crossing Urban Boundaries: The Mission of Urban Affairs Quarterly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Albert

    1985-01-01

    Presents brief overview of the development of urban studies, from its origins in the "urban crisis" of the 1960's to the present trend toward study of the terrapolis, the world system of interdependent metropolitan areas. Focuses on the role of "Urban Affairs Quarterly," changing definitions of the "city," and the contributions of urban studies to…

  18. Who Knows? Selected Information Resources on International Social Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feulner, John A., Comp.

    These two annotated listings cite organizations, groups, and programs that provide information on international social affairs. The entries were selected from the data base of the National Referral Center of the Library of Congress. Listings are organized under the following headings: volunteer agencies; food; law; health; population; rural…

  19. How Student Affairs Professionals Learn to Advocate: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined how student affairs professionals learn advocacy skills and what they learn in their education on this topic. Findings based on 22 interviews show participants felt underprepared by their graduate programs for the myriad challenges involved with advocating for students. Findings indicate participants found…

  20. Leadership Competency Preferences of Student Affairs Administrators: Does Generation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katherine, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the leadership competencies and characteristics that are "preferred" by student affairs administrators, and to compare these preferences across generations to determine if there were any differences. The term "preferred" was used to indicate that the study asked respondents to assign a value or a level of…