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Sample records for affairs farmer mac

  1. 77 FR 66375 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... not change this definition. D. Section 652.10--Investment Management Farmer Mac commented that several...: Subpart A--Investment Management Sec. 652.1 Purpose. 652.5 Definitions. 652.10 Investment management. 652...; Farmer Mac Investment Management AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  2. 78 FR 5320 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... strategies, and (iii) provide FCA with notification of Farmer Mac's proposed capital distributions before... cushion to absorb unexpected losses and improve an institution's long-term resilience. The recent global...\\ Bank for International Settlements, Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Basel III, A...

  3. 78 FR 26711 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... effective, it ``commenced an evaluation and rebalancing of its investment portfolio in the context of the...-program investment and liquidity requirements.\\1\\ The 60-day comment period ended on January 17, 2012. The...\\ On November 5, 2012, the FCA enacted final regulations governing investment management at Farmer...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission to finance agriculture. The total... internal controls are in place to prevent loss, in accordance with § 615.5133(e). Management must submit... securities. (2) Credit risk parameters including: (i) The quantities and types of Farmer Mac...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Market risk limits based on the effects that the Farmer Mac securities have on your capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed... fails a stress test, you must divest it as required by § 615.5143. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR...

  6. 75 FR 27951 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... AAA-rated versus AA-rated corporate debt securities. Conversely, is the coarseness of the current... difference in the discounts applied to AAA-rated versus AA-rated corporate debt securities. Would...

  7. 76 FR 35138 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Risk-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ..., commenters are encouraged to submit comments by e-mail or through the FCA's Web site. As facsimiles (fax) are... us an e-mail at reg-comm@fca.gov . FCA Web site: http://www.fca.gov . Select ``Public Commenters... on our Web site at http://www.fca.gov . Once you are in the Web site, select ``Public...

  8. 78 FR 65145 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... planning and stress testing. We view high quality capital as the primary resource that must be available to... model's design that constrain its robustness as the only approach to calculating risk- based capital.... More recent views of capital, including the Basel III framework for stock corporations, make much...

  9. 78 FR 65541 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...\\ We proposed new liquidity rules for FCS banks in 2011. See 76 FR 80817 (Dec. 27, 2011). We adopted the final liquidity rule for these banks earlier this year. See 78 FR 23438 (Apr. 18, 2013). \\11\\ See... management and liquidity at FCS banks and associations.\\16\\ According to the commenter, most of the...

  10. 78 FR 2879 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Federal Register during which either or both Houses of Congress are in session. DATES: Effective Date... 30 days from the date of publication in the Federal Register during which either or both Houses...

  11. 76 FR 71797 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... accordance with board-established risk tolerance and holds only high- quality, liquid investments in its..., quality, maximum remaining term and maximum amount of non-program investments \\1\\ that may be held by... policies to establish risk limits for credit risk. Policies would have to include credit quality...

  12. 77 FR 75362 - Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 615 Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations CFR...,'' and ``Farmer Mac'' shall be read for ``Farm Credit banks'' and ``Funding Corporation.'' These...

  13. Introduction to MAC CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald D.

    1987-01-01

    The author introduces the Military Airlift Command (MAC) and its mission. A brief history of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) as it relates to MAC is given. He also states why MAC is currently interested in CRM.

  14. Public Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    military assistance to civil authorities ( MACA ), including consequence management activities. The Armed Forces of the United States support the NSHS...mission and the close relationship between HD and homeland security, homeland defense missions may be conducted in a manner similar to MACA (i.e., with a...during a major event. 4. Public Affairs Operations Under the National Response Plan a. The NRP outlines the federal (including DOD MACA ) response to

  15. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme.

  16. MAC calorimeters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.

  17. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  18. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable premiums or discounts on these securities. (3) Liquidity risk tolerance and the liquidity... managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission to finance agriculture. The total...(f). (b) Board and management responsibilities. Your board of directors must adopt written...

  19. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  20. Results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.B.

    1983-05-01

    The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

  1. ASCB Minorities Affairs Committee Goals: "Strengthening the Chain of Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donella J.; Haynes, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    The Minorities Affairs Committee of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB-MAC) is an active standing committee of the Society with an aggressive agenda and a goal of inclusion. Its mission is fourfold: (1) To increase diversity among the ASCB members; (2) To bring issues related to minorities in science to the attention of ASCB members; (3)…

  2. Farmers Insures Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  3. China Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is China Report include Economic Affairs. It contains the issues with different topics on People’s Republic of China: Provincial Affairs, Economic Planning, Economic Management, Finance and Banking, Mineral Resources , Industry, Transportation.

  4. Fiverr MacGyver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in

  5. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  6. Hybrid Warfare: A Military Revolution or Revolution in Military Affairs?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    4MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, eds., The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge... Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050.12 A case study helps compare the extrapolation of the analysis and synthesis of their writings on MR to...affairs as defined by Knox and Murray in their book The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050. 37 Professors Knox and Murray, provide a conceptual

  7. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  8. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  9. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Resource Utilization and Supply; Regional Development ; and Introduction of New Technology;

  10. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-22

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Planning and Plan Implementation; Investment, Prices, Budget and Finance; Resource Utilization and Supply; and Regional Development .

  11. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-16

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Investment, Prices, Budget and Finance; Resource Utilization and Supply and Regional Development .

  12. China Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is China Report include Economic Affairs. It contains the issues with different topics on People’s Republic of China: National Policy and Issues, Finance and Banking, Mineral Resources , Domestic Trade, Foreign Trade.

  13. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Imperialist Expansion (KNIZHNOYE OBOZRENIYE, No 37, 12 Sep 86) 2 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS Responses to PRAVDA Query on Direct Economic...Ties’ (Ya. Macheyevich, Yu. Shiryayev; PRAVDA, 13 Oct 86) 4 CEMA Economic Integration Defended Against Bourgeois Attacks (A. Nikolskiy...countries; they also reap a profit of 5 billion dollars. 13080/12859 CSO: 1807/039 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS RESPONSES TO PRAVDA QUERY ON

  14. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AFFAIRS CONTENTS SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS International Scientific Coordinating Conference in USSR (ZARYA VOSTOKA, 30 Oct 86) • ■ • • 1 ...Czechoslovak Meeting on S&T Cooperation With CEMA (EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 1 , Jan 87) 2 Non-Use of CEMA Economic Experience Queried (V. G...U.S. Export Control Laws Revised (Moscow in English to North America, 1 Mar 87) 64 Reagan’s 1984 Directive on Concentration Camps Noted (Vadim

  15. Public affairs plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  16. George MacDonald's Estimate of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2007-01-01

    The nineteenth-century fantasy writer George MacDonald believed that "it is better to be a child in a green field than a knight of many orders." In this paper, I shall explore the bearing of this high estimate of childhood on spiritual education. MacDonald explores the spirituality of the child in his essay "A Sketch of Individual Development" and…

  17. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically discusses MacIntyre's thesis that education is essentially a contested concept. In order to contextualise my discussion, I discuss both whether rival educational traditions of education found in MacIntyre's work--which I refer to as instrumental and non-instrumental justifications of education--can be rationally resolved…

  18. Managing Legal Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…

  19. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  20. Student Affairs Researcher: Information Broker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Thomas D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the skills and research tools necessary for the student affairs researcher to become an agent for organizational learning within the student affairs division and the institution. Draws upon Peter Senge's theory of "The Learning Organization" and discusses the resulting implications for student affairs researchers. (GCP)

  1. USSR Report Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the after- math of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and the mobilization of labor and technology in the clean-up effort will be published...in the series USSR REPORT: POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS under the subtitle AFTERMATH OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT. This is a...EDITORIALIZES CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT Kiev PRAVDA UKRAINY in Russian 14 May 86 p 1 TRANSPORT WORKERS» EFFORTS AT CHERNOBYL DETAILED Moscow SOTSIALISnCHESKAYA

  2. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-29

    math of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and the mobilization of labor and technology in the clean-up effort will be published in the series...USSR REPORT: POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS under the subtitle AFTERMATH OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT. This is a represen- tative... CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT Kiev PRAVDA UKRAINY in Russian 14 May 86 p 1 TRANSPORT WORKERS’ EFFORTS AT CHERNOBYL DETAILED Moscow SOTSIALISTiaESKAYA INDUSTRIYA

  3. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    4 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS CEMA Secretary Descibes Priorities, Tasks (V. V. Sychev; EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 48, Nov 86...7 Improvement in CEMA Trade Situation Noted by UN (Moscow Domestic Service, 1 Dec 86) 13 CEMA Science, Technology Goals Outlined (Vladimir...Pasko; Moscow Domestic Service, 17 Dec 86) ... 15 Role of Soviet Republics Under CEMA Division of Labor CN. Stepanova; KOMMUNIST MOLDAVII, No 9, Sep

  4. USSR Report. International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Opens Soviet Envoy Addresses Forum 2 EAST-WEST RELATIONS History, Prospects for EC- CEMA Cooperation (Vladimir G. Baranovskiy; OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI...No 6, 1986) 4 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS USSR Exports and Cooperation With CEMA Countries (B. A. Kheyfets; IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK...EAST-WEST RELATIONS HISTORY, PROSPECTS FOR EC- CEMA COOPERATION Moscow OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI in Russian No 6, 1986 pp 95-108 [Article by Vladimir

  5. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts...Pyongyang Domestic Service, 23 Dec 86) l Commentary on White Paper About Kumgangsan Dam (Cho Tu-ul; Pyongyang Domestic Service, 26 Dec 86) 3 Party...ruin. /8309 CSO: 4110/056 INTER-KOREAN AFFAIRS COMMENTARY ON WHITE PAPER ABOUT KUMGANGSAN DAM SK280105 Pyongyang Domestic Service in Korean 1150

  6. China Report, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    namely: No clear distinction was drawn between the functions of the government and those of the enterprises; barriers exist between different...enterprise functions in state-owned enterprises became more manifest, administrative control by state organs over economic affairs was strengthened...planned economy as incompatible with the commodity economy; seeing the functions of the socialist state in managing the economy as a monopoly in which

  7. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites.

  8. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  9. User's manual for MacPASCO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, S. H.; Davis, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for MacPASCO, which is an interactive, graphic, preprocessor for panel design. MacPASCO creates input for PASCO, an existing computer code for structural analysis and sizing of longitudinally stiffened composite panels. MacPASCO provides a graphical user interface which simplifies the specification of panel geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry on the computer screen, then uses a combination of graphic and text inputs to: refine the structural geometry; specify information required for analysis such as panel load and boundary conditions; and define design variables and constraints for minimum mass optimization. Only the use of MacPASCO is described, since the use of PASCO has been documented elsewhere.

  10. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  11. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  12. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  13. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and 24 brigades were destroyed and taken prisoner. The Wehrmacht lost 1,600,000 soldiers and officers. According to German data , irreplaceable...health, taking psychological data into acount, and their physical and general-education preparation. In so doing, how sincere the youth are in...Hospital for Political Affairs Lt-Col Aleksey Tel’nov bade them farewell heartily. The soldiers answered: "Thanks for the help and the care. Thanks, dear military doctors!..." 11409 CSO: 1801/207 END 58

  14. Public affairs committee actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  15. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  16. Supra-Earth affairs.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mazlan

    2011-02-13

    The United Nations briefly considered the issue of extra-terrestrial intelligence at the 32nd session of the General Assembly in 1977. As a result, the Office of Outer Space Affairs was tasked to prepare a document on issues related to 'messages to extra-terrestrial civilizations', but this area has not been followed through in more recent times. This discussion paper describes the United Nations' activities in the field of near-Earth objects in some detail, and suggests that this might be used as a model of how Member States could proceed with dealing with this issue in case the existence of extra-terrestrial life/intelligence is established.

  17. Student Affairs Capitalism and Early-Career Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Helm, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study explores student affairs capitalism as the alteration of professional practice towards the financial interests of institutions. Student affairs capitalism has the potential to create dynamics in which the interests of students become secondary to the institution's economic needs. This study examined this phenomenon from the perspectives…

  18. HFGMC Enhancement of MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2006-01-01

    Additional information about a mathematical model denoted the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) and implementation of the HFGMC within version 4.0 of the MAC/GMC software has become available. MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells) was a topic of several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, version 4.0 having been described in "Comprehensive Micromechanics-Analysis Code - Version 4.0" (LEW-17495-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 9 (September 2005), page 54. MAC/GMC predicts elastic and inelastic thermomechanical responses of composite materials. MAC/GMC utilizes the generalized method of cells (GMC) - a model of micromechanics that predicts macroscopic responses of a composite material as functions of the properties, sizes, shapes, and responses of its constituents (e.g., matrix and fibers). The accuracy of the GMC is limited by neglect of coupling between normal and shear stresses. The HFGMC was developed by combining elements of the GMC and a related model, denoted the higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), that can account for this coupling. Hence, the HFGMC enables simulation of stress and strain with greater accuracy. Some alterations of the MAC/GMC data structure were necessitated by the greater computational complexity of the HFGMC.

  19. Gender Diversity within the Student Affairs Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Marylu K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated issue of representation of women and men in student affairs profession. Preparation program data, professional association data, and perceptions of student affairs professionals demonstrated a clear shift toward greater proportions of women in student affairs. (Author/NB)

  20. Attitudes of Farmers Toward Government, Education, and Village Life in the Northern Beqa'a of Lebanon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoub, Salah M.; Wassink, M. Graeff

    In April of 1967, some 166 Lebanese farmers (88 sunflower planters and 78 non-planters) were interviewed to determine attitudes toward governmental involvement in the sunflower project and government affairs in general, and toward education, farming, and village life. A tabulation of the results showed, among other things, that about one-third of…

  1. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  2. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology.

  3. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  4. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  5. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  6. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  7. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions. (LEW)

  8. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  9. MacIntyre, Managerialism and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    MacIntyre's earlier work and concern with social science enquiry not only exposes its limits, but also provides an insight into how its knowledge claims have been put to ideological use. He maintains that the institutional embodiment of these ideological ideas is the bureaucratic manager who has had a negative role to play in social structures…

  10. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites - ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Ca-41, Cl-36, Al-26, and Be-10 in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105, and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Mn-53 in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by neutron activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/sq cm and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the moon to the earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  11. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    General acceptance of the challenge provision in the Chemical Weapons Convention has the potential for influence in other arms control areas. While most applications of the challenge inspection may be straightforward, there may be instances where access to the site by inspectors may be problematic. The MACS system described in this paper was developed to respond to these situations. Inspection and verification may be difficult when a host is unwilling,for valid reasons, to permit physical access to a site. We proposed a system of remote sensors which may be used to demonstrate compliance with Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections even ff the inspector is physically excluded from a sensitive site. The system is based upon alternative-means-of-access provisions of the CWC. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) funded design and construction of a system prototype, designated as MACS for Managed Access by Controlled Sensing. Features of the MACS design allow growth of the prototype into a versatile device for international monitoring of production facilities and other sites. MACS consists of instrumentation and communication equipment allowing site personnel to conduct a facility tour and perform acceptable measurements, while physically excluding the inspector from the facility. MACS consists of a base station used by the inspector, and a mobile unit used within the facility and manipulated by the facility staff. The base station and the mobile unit are @ed by a communication system, currently realized as a fiber optic cable. The mobile unit is equipped with television cameras and remote-reading distance-measuring equipment (DME) for use in verifying locations and dimensions. Global Positioning System receivers on the mobile unit provide both precise location and dead reckoning, suitable for tracking the mobile unit`s position while within a building when satellite signals are not available.

  12. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter.

    PubMed

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins.

  13. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  14. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  15. Farmer's lung disease in Somerset.

    PubMed Central

    Pether, J V; Greatorex, F B

    1976-01-01

    A survey of laboratory records was made to assess the value of the precipitin test and isolation methods in the diagnosis of farmer's lung disease and also to determine its prevalence in the farming population of Somerset. A link was established between the clinical diagnosis as written on the form that accompanied the specimen and the actual number of positive laboratory diagnoses made. Fifty (43%) of the clinically diagnosed patients were serologically positive for farmer's lung during a four-year period. If the clinically diagnosed but serologically negative cases of farmer's lung disease are added to this number, a prevalence of about 23 per 1000 of the farming population of Somerset is obtained. PMID:999800

  16. Linking birds, fields and farmers.

    PubMed

    Swagemakers, Paul; Wiskerke, Han; Van Der Ploeg, Jan Douwe

    2009-05-01

    The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation of effective adjustments in land-use and farming practices that could support the return of birds to farmland, i.e. the required fine-tuning of management practices. As a consequence, the existing agri-environmental schemes that offer financial compensation to farmers for implementing generally simple and rather crude measures to stimulate the presence of birds have been limited in their effectiveness and subject to much debate. The objective of this paper is to provide a sociological appraisal of farmers' experiences with meadow bird protection in a mainly dairy farming area in the Netherlands. The methodology combined visual map analysis, surveys, interviews with farmers and experts, and monitoring farmers' discussions. The results allowed an assessment of (i) farmers' views on historical changes in bird numbers in the area and the current distribution of bird nests, (ii) locally adjusted, fine-tuned management practices that were considered to be promising for protecting bird nests, (iii) the importance of farm management with 'an eye for birds', i.e. farmers and/or birdwatchers paying additional attention to the presence of nests and chicks before carrying out farming activities, and (iv) the views of key experts in the socio-institutional network in the case study area. The paper concludes that there are various promising options for fine-tuning farm management so it offers better bird protection, but it is expected that such measures will predominantly be adopted on less intensively managed farms.

  17. Millisecond timing on PCs and Macs.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, W J; Taylor, T L

    2001-05-01

    A real-time, object-oriented solution for displaying stimuli on Windows 95/98, MacOS and Linux platforms is presented. The program, written in C++, utilizes a special-purpose window class (GLWindow), OpenGL, and 32-bit graphics acceleration; it avoids display timing uncertainty by substituting the new window class for the default window code for each system. We report the outcome of tests for real-time capability across PC and Mac platforms running a variety of operating systems. The test program, which can be used as a shell for programming real-time experiments and testing specific processors, is available at http://www.cs.dal.ca/~macinnwj. We propose to provide researchers with a sense of the usefulness of our program, highlight the ability of many multitasking environments to achieve real time, as well as caution users about systems that may not achieve real time, even under optimal conditions.

  18. MAC, material accounting database user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-09-22

    The K Basins Material Accounting (MAC) database system user guide describes the user features and functions, and the document is structured like the database menus. This document presents the MAC database system user instructions which explain how to record the movements and configuration of canisters and materials within the K Basins on the computer, the mechanics of handling encapsulation tracking, and administrative functions associated with the system. This document includes the user instructions, which also serve as the software requirements specification for the system implemented on the microcomputer. This includes suggested user keystrokes, examples of screens displayed by the system, and reports generated by the system. It shows how the system is organized, via menus and screens. It does not explain system design nor provide programmer instructions.

  19. Visualization of integrin Mac-1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kihong; Hyun, Young-Min; Lambert-Emo, Kris; Topham, David J; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    β2 integrins play critical roles in migration of immune cells and in the interaction with other cells, pathogens, and the extracellular matrix. Among the β2 integrins, Mac-1 (Macrophage antigen-1), composed of CD11b and CD18, is mainly expressed in innate immune cells and plays a major role in cell migration and trafficking. In order to image Mac-1-expressing cells both in live cells and mouse, we generated a knock-in (KI) mouse strain expressing CD11b conjugated with monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (mYFP). Expression of CD11b-mYFP protein was confirmed by Western blot and silver staining of CD11b-immunoprecipitates and total cell lysates from the mouse splenocytes. Mac-1-mediated functions of the KI neutrophils were comparable with those in WT cells. The fluorescence intensity of CD11b-mYFP was sufficient to image CD11b expressing cells in live mice using intravital two-photon microscopy. In vitro, dynamic changes in the intracellular localization of CD11b molecules could be measured by epifluorescent microscopy. Finally, CD11b-expressing immune cells from tissue were easily detected by flow cytometry without anti-CD11b antibody staining. PMID:26342259

  20. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105: A new FAN of lunar petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, C.R. Univ. of Notre Dame, IN ); Taylor, L.A. ); Lui, Yungang; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1991-11-01

    New lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 represents an exciting new opportunity to study a potentially unsampled region of the Moon. The authors have analyzed six thin sections by electron microprobe and three bulk samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INA) in order to determine the chemical characteristics of this new lunar sample. Lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts which appear to be of basaltic origin. One of these basaltic clasts (clast E in MAC88105,84) is probably mesostasis material, whereas the second larger clast (clast G) may be similar to the Very Low-Ti (VLT) or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105,69 and ,72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite. There is little evidence of any LKFM (Low-K Fra Mauro or low-K KREEP) contribution to this meteorite, as MAC88104/5 and other brecciated lunar meteorites are Fe-rich and poor in the incompatible elements relative to Apollo 16 regolith and feldspathic breccias. While the exact site of origin for the lunar meteorites cannot be pinpointed, it is evident that they were divided from a relatively KREEP-free ferroan anorthosite terrain.

  1. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

  2. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

  3. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, M; Dahl, R; Jensen, E J; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity. PMID:2799744

  4. Extension's Role with Farmers' Markets: Working with Farmers, Consumers, and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Jennifer; Thomson, Joan; Maretzki, Audrey

    1999-01-01

    Extension education can help farmers and consumers enjoy benefits of farmers' markets by helping farmers learn about marketing, assisting communities with site selection, encouraging use of Women Infants Children Farmers' Market Nutrition Program coupons, and teaching consumers about food use and preservation. (SK)

  5. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  6. Communicating with "Neglected" Farmers on Regulatory Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Workshop recommendations resulting from an Animal and Plant Health Service (APHS) Seminar on ways of reaching "neglected" farmers and enlisting their support for the APHS regulatory programs are provided. The "neglected" farmer is identified as those low-income/minority group marginal farmers who cannot be reached by ordinary means, e.g., poor…

  7. ANNUAL ESTIMATED REPLACEMENT FARMER OPPORTUNITIES IN NEBRASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GENEREUX, DOUGLAS G.

    AN ESTIMATE OF ANNUAL FARMER REPLACEMENT NEEDS IN THE 93 COUNTIES OF NEBRASKA WAS COMPUTED BY A FORMULA DEVELOPED BY CLARENCE BUNDY AT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY AND APPLIED TO CENSUS DATA. THE FORMULA WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF FARMER RETIREMENTS, OR FARMERS LEAVING FARMING, AND FARM CONSOLIDATION RATES. ACCORDING TO THE ESTIMATES, 951…

  8. Introduction to MacDraft. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traxler, Gene

    This training module on MacDraft is part of a computer drafting skills unit on communications technology for grades 9-12. The objective is for each student to complete a drawing on the MacIntosh computer using the MacDraft software program. This drawing is to be dimensioned with a dual system and is to include a border and title block. This module…

  9. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  10. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  11. Office Automation in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon L.; Hamrick, Florence A.

    1987-01-01

    Offers recommendations to assist in introducing or expanding computer assistance in student affairs. Describes need for automation and considers areas of choosing hardware and software, funding and competitive bidding, installation and training, and system management. Cites greater efficiency in handling tasks and data and increased levels of…

  12. Joint Doctrine for Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Authorities ( MACA ), DODD 5525.5, DOD Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Officials, and JP 3-07.7, Joint Doctrine for Civil Support. II-15 Civil Affairs...Joint Operation Planning and Execution System JP joint publication JTF joint task force LOAC law of armed conflict MACA military assistance to civil

  13. Recent Developments in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The rapid development and application to universities and colleges of the constitutional principles of the First Amendment are analyzed with special reference to Healy v. James and its present and possible future ramifications in the area of student affairs including use of university facilities, student conduct, and organizational activities. (JT)

  14. Sustainability, Student Affairs, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kathleen G.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are developing both the next generation of leaders as well as state-of-the-art technology that allow climate reduction aspirations and triple bottom-line outcomes to become realities. Divisions of student affairs play a crucial role in the sustainability movement in colleges and universities. The technology-savvy,…

  15. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  16. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  17. APC-MAC/TA: Adaptive Power Controlled MAC Protocol with Traffic Awareness for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seok; Kim, Kiseon

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive power controlled MAC protocol with a traffic-aware scheme specifically designed to reduce both energy and latency in wireless sensor networks. Typically, existing MAC protocols for sensor networks sacrifice latency performance for node energy efficiency. However, some sensor applications for emergencies require rather fast transmissions of sensed data, where we need to consider both energy and latency together. The proposed MAC protocol includes two novel ideas: one is a transmission power control scheme for improving latency in high traffic loads, and the other is a traffic-aware scheme to save more energy in low traffic loads. The transmission power control scheme increases channel utilization by mitigating interference between nodes, and the traffic-aware scheme allows nodes to sleep to reduce idle energy consumption when there are no traffic loads in a network. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the latency as well as the energy consumption compared to the S-MAC protocol specifically for a large transmission power of nodes and low network traffic.

  18. The Digital Identity of Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlquist, Josie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter highlights opportunities in the digital space for student affairs professionals. A blended approach, grounded in the new technology competency recently added in the ACPA and NASPA student affairs professional competencies, is proposed for student affairs professionals' digital identity development. It includes the awareness of one's…

  19. MacCready awarded Outstanding Student Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker MacCready was selected by the Ocean Sciences Section to receive their Outstanding Student Paper Award from the 1989 Fall Meeting in San Francisco for his paper entitled “Stratified Spin-up Over a Slope.” Following receipt of his Bachelor's degree in architecture from Yale in 1982, MacCready went to China for 5 months to study the language. On his return to Pasadena he worked for 3 years for Aerovironment, Inc., concentrating on building and flying a human-powered aircraft and a giant wing-flapping replica of a pterosaur. Having become interested in the aerodynamics of flappingwing propulsion, he continued his studies at Caltech, where he received his Master's degree in 1986. His informal thesis project was a human-powered hydrofoil boat with flapping-wing propulsion. He is currently working on his doctorate in physical oceanography at the University of Washington, where he is studying the dynamics of stratified, rotating boundary layers over topography. His switch to oceanography was motivated by his feeling that environmental fluid mechanics would become an increasingly relevant subject in light of increasing world pollution. In the future he hopes to go into environmental politics, perhaps in a scientific advisory role.

  20. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and each frame into slots. A parent node determines the children's frame assignment based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. First, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (including itself). Second, the packet scheduling with TreeMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Third, the data throughput to the gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24-node testbed show that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput, fairness, and energy efficiency compared to TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC. Partial results of this paper were published in Song, Huang, Shirazi and Lahusen [W.-Z. Song, R. Huang, B. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for high-throughput and fairness in sensor networks, in: The 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom, March 2009]. Our new contributions include analyses of the performance of TreeMAC from various aspects. We also present more implementation detail and evaluate TreeMAC from other aspects. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    PubMed

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  2. SuperMacLang: Development of an Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith; Foelsche, Otmar K. E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of "SuperMacLang, the 1990s version of the MacLang authoring system. An analysis of various features of the program explains the ways in which certain aspects of collaboration and funding affected developer and programming decisions. (Author/VWL)

  3. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  4. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  5. Korean Affairs Report No. 308.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-14

    Dropouts Can Enter Underenrolled Departments Editorial on Education System Change. FOREIGN RELATIONS Daily Editorial on President Chon’s ’Vision...than 521,000 million won from "old politicians," "minister and vice-ministers of the government," "high-ranking officials" and big entrepreneurs to...revision of the controversial college gradua- tion system, while the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committees are for the recent defection of a Chinese

  6. MacBurn's cylinder test problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, Aleksei I.

    2016-02-29

    This note describes test problem for MacBurn which illustrates its performance. The source is centered inside a cylinder with axial-extent-to-radius ratio s.t. each end receives 1/4 of the thermal energy. The source (fireball) is modeled as either a point or as disk of finite radius, as described by Marrs et al. For the latter, the disk is divided into 13 equal area segments, each approximated as a point source and models a partially occluded fireball. If the source is modeled as a single point, one obtains very nearly the expected deposition, e.g., 1/4 of the flux on each end and energy is conserved. If the source is modeled as a disk, both conservation and energy fraction degrade. However, errors decrease if the source radius to domain size ratio decreases. Modeling the source as a disk increases run-times.

  7. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  8. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  9. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 - A new 'FAN' of lunar petrology. [ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lui, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the chemical characteristics of the MAC88104/5 meteorite six thin sections and three bulk samples were analyzed by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation. It is concluded that this meteorite is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts of basaltic origin. It is suggested that one of these basaltic clasts, clast E, is mesostasis material, and clast G is similar to the very low-Ti or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105, 69, and 72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite.

  10. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  11. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  12. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  13. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  14. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  15. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with…

  16. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  17. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  18. Cooperative Energy Harvesting-Adaptive MAC Protocol for WBANs

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard. PMID:26029950

  19. Cooperative energy harvesting-adaptive MAC protocol for WBANs.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-05-28

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

  20. Handling Deafness Problem of Scheduled Multi-Channel Polling MACs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fulong; Liu, Hao; Shi, Longxing

    Combining scheduled channel polling with channel diversity is a promising way for a MAC protocol to achieve high energy efficiency and performance under both light and heavy traffic conditions. However, the deafness problem may cancel out the benefit of channel diversity. In this paper, we first investigate the deafness problem of scheduled multi-channel polling MACs with experiments. Then we propose and evaluate two schemes to handle the deafness problem. Our experiment shows that deafness is a significant reason for performance degradation in scheduled multi-channel polling MACs. A proper scheme should be chosen depending on the traffic pattern and the design objective.

  1. Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

    This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

  2. Human prehistory: Hunting for the earliest farmers.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2009-11-03

    The degree to which the spread of farming into Europe was accompanied by demographic shifts is subject to intense debate. Genetic evidence from Europe's first farmers and their hunter-gatherer counterparts now suggests an important role for the immigration of farmers.

  3. Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

  4. Successful Black Farmers: Factors in Their Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Minnie M.; Larson, Olaf F.

    This paper identifies individual and institutional factors which have facilitated or inhibited the achievement of successful black farmers. The information derived from the case studies is used to develop a model which can be used in working effectively with black farmers. The thirteen case studies discussed focus on the following: (1) reasons for…

  5. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  6. Farmer's Use of the Soil Test Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, K. E.; Blackburn, D. J.

    A study of Haldimand County (Ontario, Canada) farmers' use and understanding of soil test reports and the relationship of these variables with certain personal and social characteristics of the respondents are summarized. The objectives of the study were to indicate the extent to which farmers use the soil test report, the quality of fertilizer…

  7. Reconstitution of the Escherichia coli macrolide transporter: the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MacA stimulates the ATPase activity of MacB.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Elena B; Devroy, Vishakha K; Lau, Sze Yi; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2007-02-01

    Periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) are essential components of the type I protein secretion systems and drug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies suggested that MFPs connect the inner and outer membrane components of the transport systems and by this means co-ordinate the transfer of substrates across the two membranes. In this study, we purified and reconstituted the macrolide transporter MacAB from Escherichia coli. Here, MacA is a periplasmic MFP and MacB is an ABC-type transporter. Similar to other MFP-dependent transporters from E. coli, the in vivo function of MacAB requires the outer membrane channel TolC. The purified MacB displayed a basal ATPase activity in detergent micelles. This activity conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but was unresponsive to substrates or accessory proteins. Upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, the ATPase activity of MacB was strictly dependent on MacA. The catalytic efficiency of MacAB ATPase was more than 45-fold higher than the activity of MacB alone. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of MacA were essential for this activity. MacA stimulated MacB ATPase only in phospholipid bilayers and did not need the presence of macrolides. Our results suggest that MacA is a functional subunit of the MacB transporter.

  8. PAD-MAC: Primary User Activity-Aware Distributed MAC for Multi-Channel Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Piran, Md. Jalil; Kim, Hansoo; Yun, Jihyeok; Suh, Doug Young

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to solve problems related to spectrum scarcity and provides a ubiquitous wireless access environment. CR-enabled secondary users (SUs) exploit spectrum white spaces opportunistically and immediately vacate the acquired licensed channels as primary users (PUs) arrive. Accessing the licensed channels without the prior knowledge of PU traffic patterns causes severe throughput degradation due to excessive channel switching and PU-to-SU collisions. Therefore, it is significantly important to design a PU activity-aware medium access control (MAC) protocol for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we first propose a licensed channel usage pattern identification scheme, based on a two-state Markov model, and then estimate the future idle slots using previous observations of the channels. Furthermore, based on these past observations, we compute the rank of each available licensed channel that gives SU transmission success assessment during the estimated idle slot. Secondly, we propose a PU activity-aware distributed MAC (PAD-MAC) protocol for heterogeneous multi-channel CRNs that selects the best channel for each SU to enhance its throughput. PAD-MAC controls SU activities by allowing them to exploit the licensed channels only for the duration of estimated idle slots and enables predictive and fast channel switching. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PAD-MAC, we compare it with the distributed QoS-aware MAC (QC-MAC) and listen-before-talk MAC schemes. Extensive numerical results show the significant improvements of the PAD-MAC in terms of the SU throughput, SU channel switching rate and PU-to-SU collision rate. PMID:25831084

  9. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  10. MAC mini acceptance test procedure, software Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some major improvements made to it to organize the main-tables by Location, Canister, and Material. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  11. MacSPOC: Orbital trajectory calculations on a laptop computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamo, Dan

    1991-01-01

    Orbital trajectory calculations on a laptop computer are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: laptop computing in the Space Shuttle program; current laptop prototyping with MacSPOC; future laptop applications; and summary.

  12. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  13. MAC layer security issues in wireless mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Ganesh; Thilagam, P. Santhi

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing capability, in addition to their low cost and easy maintenance. Securing WMNs is more challenging and complex issue due to their inherent characteristics such as shared wireless medium, multi-hop and inter-network communication, highly dynamic network topology and decentralized architecture. These vulnerable features expose the WMNs to several types of attacks in MAC layer. The existing MAC layer standards and implementations are inadequate to secure these features and fail to provide comprehensive security solutions to protect both backbone and client mesh. Hence, there is a need for developing efficient, scalable and integrated security solutions for WMNs. In this paper, we classify the MAC layer attacks and analyze the existing countermeasures. Based on attacks classification and countermeasures analysis, we derive the research directions to enhance the MAC layer security for WMNs.

  14. 5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster building from John L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy Ginn & Co., New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Roaster Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  15. Operational effectiveness of a Multiple Aquila Control System (MACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Flynn, J. D.; Frey, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The operational effectiveness of a multiple aquila control system (MACS) was examined under a variety of remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) mission configurations. The set of assumptions and inputs used to form the rules under which a computerized simulation of MACS was run is given. The characteristics that are to govern MACS operations include: the battlefield environment that generates the requests for RPV missions, operating time-lines of the RPV-peculiar equipment, maintenance requirements, and vulnerability to enemy fire. The number of RPV missions and the number of operation days are discussed. Command, control, and communication data rates are estimated by determining how many messages are passed and what information is necessary in them to support ground coordination between MACS sections.

  16. Conformal holonomy in MacDowell-Mansouri gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, James A.; Wang, Charles H.-T.

    2014-03-15

    The MacDowell-Mansouri formulation of general relativity is based on a gauge theory whose gauge algebra depends on the sign of the cosmological constant. In this article, we show that the gauge algebra is uniquely determined by the conformal structure of spacetime itself. Specifically, we show that in vacuum: the spacetime conformal holonomy algebra coincides with the MacDowell-Mansouri gauge algebra for both signs of the cosmological constant, in both Lorentzian and Euclidean metric signatures.

  17. A tribute to Lloyd D. MacLean

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Roger G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dr. Lloyd D. MacLean, long-time co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Surgery passed away earlier this year at the age of 90. In order to appreciate the contributions of Dr. MacLean to the journal, this commentary recognizes him as a humble surgeon–scientist who was one of — if not the — most outstanding Canadian ambassadors to academic surgery in North America. PMID:26204372

  18. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    22201. JPRS-EEI-84-095 20 August 19 84 EAST EUROPE REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS INTERNATIONAL AFPAIRS CEMA Conference Expresses...Soviet Idea of Integration (V. Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 16 Jul 84) 1 CEMA Cooperation in Machine Construction Reviewed (AUSSENWIRTSCHAFT...Viktor Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 17 Jul 84) 69 - b - INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CEMA CONFERENCE EXPRESSES SOVIET IDEA OF INTEGRATION

  19. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS .one QOALST T^CTED a FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE REPRODUCED BY NATIONAL...REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS BULGARIA Foreign Trade Development in First Quarter of 1984 1 Minister Examines New Economic...Effect on Air Pollution 52 Electronic Industry Results Reviewed ’HOSPODARSKE NOVINY . 1 Tun 84) 5 8 Challenges of Environmental Protection

  20. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts…

  1. Does Student Affairs Have an Enduring Mission?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Student affairs is a relatively new profession and has changed in significant ways in response to new developments in higher education, innovations in practice, new conceptual paradigms, and changing economic and political conditions. As a result there is much debate about the core mission and purpose of student affairs and whether it is possible…

  2. Putting the Focus on Current Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Argues for increased attention to current events in social studies instruction. Suggests using mass media sources to supplement contemporary affairs teaching. Recommends that teachers create learning centers and display areas; encourage students to maintain current affairs folders, scrapbooks, journals, and learning logs; give current affairs…

  3. Challenges of Assessment in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how the climate of accountability in higher education is compelling student affairs organizations to develop comprehensive assessment programs, the challenges faced in creating those programs, and ways student affairs professionals can meet those challenges. For the purpose of this chapter, the author has defined assessment…

  4. Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This set of "Professional Competency Areas" is intended to define the broad professional knowledge, skills, and for some competencies, attitudes expected of student affairs professionals working in the U.S., regardless of their area of specialization or positional role within the field. All student affairs professionals should be able to…

  5. Professional Competencies for Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsch, Patty; Cortez, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the integration of the ACPA/NASPA Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners (ACPA/NASPA, 2010) on community college campuses. The competencies provide specific skill sets for a broad range of student affairs practice areas that should be met by professionals throughout their careers.…

  6. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers.

    PubMed

    Slagboom, M; Kargo, M; Edwards, D; Sørensen, A C; Thomasen, J R; Hjortø, L

    2016-12-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers' preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers and 290 conventional farmers answered the survey, all with Holstein cows. The most preferred trait improvement was cow fertility, and the least preferred was calving difficulty. By means of cluster analysis, we identified 4 distinct clusters of farmers and named them according to the trait improvements that were most preferred: Health and Fertility, Production and Udder Health, Survival, and Fertility and Production. Some herd characteristics differed between clusters; for example, farmers in the Survival cluster had twice the percentage of dead cows in their herds compared with the other clusters, and farmers that gave the highest ranking to cow and heifer fertility had the lowest conception rate in their herds. This finding suggests that farmers prefer to improve traits that are more problematic in their herd. The proportion of organic and conventional farmers also differed between clusters; we found a higher proportion of organic farmers in the production-based clusters. When we analyzed organic and conventional data separately, we found that organic farmers ranked production traits higher than conventional farmers. The herds of organic farmers had lower milk yields and lower disease incidences, which might explain the high ranking of milk production and the low ranking of disease traits. This study shows that heterogeneity exists in farmers' preferences for

  7. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  8. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2016-08-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  9. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies.

  10. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  11. Farmer's Lung Disease. A Review.

    PubMed

    Cano-Jiménez, Esteban; Acuña, Adelaida; Botana, María Isabel; Hermida, Teresa; González, María Guadalupe; Leiro, Virginia; Martín, Irene; Paredes, Sonia; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is a form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) caused by inhaling microorganisms from hay or grain stored in conditions of high humidity in the agricultural workplace. It is probably underdiagnosed, especially in northern Spain, where climatic conditions favor the development of this disease. According to previous studies, the most common antigens are usually thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi. The epidemiology of the disease is not well known, and is based on studies conducted by Central European and Asian groups. The clinical presentation may vary, differentiating the chronic (exposure to lower concentrations of the antigen over a longer period time) and the acute forms (after exposure to high concentrations of the antigen). In patients with respiratory symptoms and agricultural occupational exposure, radiological, lung function and/or anatomical pathology findings must be compatible with FLD, bronchoalveolar lavage must show lymphocytosis, and tests must find sensitivity to the antigen. The main treatment is avoidance of the antigen, so it is essential to educate patients on preventive measures. To date, no controlled studies have assessed the role of immunosuppressive therapy in this disease. Corticosteroid treatment has only been shown to accelerate resolution of the acute forms, but there is no evidence that it is effective in preventing disease progression in the long-term or reducing mortality.

  12. Farmer Heroes Manage Nutrients On Farm

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These featured farmers have been identified by the National Association of Conservation Districts and EPA for implementing specific best management practices to reduce pollution while also improving or sustaining their profits, soil quality or yields.

  13. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  14. Analyzing the heterogeneity of farmers' preferences for improvements in dairy cow traits using farmer typologies.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Amer, P R; Santos, B F S; Axford, M; Pryce, J E

    2015-06-01

    Giving consideration to farmers' preferences for improvements in animal traits when designing genetic selection tools such as selection indexes might increase the uptake of these tools. The increase in use of genetic selection tools will, in turn, assist in the realization of genetic gain in breeding programs. However, the determination of farmers' preferences is not trivial because of its large heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to quantify Australian dairy farmers' preferences for cow trait improvements to inform and ultimately direct the choice of traits and selection indexes in the 2014 review of the National Breeding Objective. A specific aim was to analyze the heterogeneity of preferences for cow trait improvements by determining whether there are farmer types that can be identified with specific patterns of preferences. We analyzed whether farmer types differed in farming system, socioeconomic profile, and attitudes toward breeding and genetic evaluation tools. An online survey was developed to explore farmers' preferences for improvement in 13 cow traits. The pairwise comparisons method was used to derive a ranking of the traits for each respondent. A total of 551 farmers fully completed the survey. A principal component analysis followed by a Ward hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group farmers according to their preferences. Three types of farmers were determined: (1) production-focused farmers, who gave the highest preference of all for improvements in protein yield, lactation persistency, feed efficiency, cow live weight, and milking speed; (2) functionality-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for improvements in mastitis, lameness, and calving difficulty; and (3) type-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for mammary system and type. Farmer types differed in their age, their attitudes toward genetic selection, and in the selection criteria they use. Surprisingly, farmer types did not differ for herd size

  15. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  16. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  17. Black Farmers: Why Such a Severe and Continuing Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes reasons for the precipitous drop in the number of Black farmers since the 1950s. Today, most Black farmers have very small operations and are at an advanced age. A healthy rural nonfarm economy is essential to supplement farmers incomes. The Agriculture Credit Act of 1987 offers low-interest loans to Black farmers. (KS)

  18. 2014 - 2015 Civil Affairs Issue Papers: The Future of Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-18

    the future of Civil Affairs includes some hopeful prospects thanks to practical steps recently taken.” All three panels agreed that in looking to...Guard and Reserve forces will continue into the future . This is at odds with the prior, strategic use of those forces, which historically expected...2014 - 2015 CIVIL AFFAIRS ISSUE PAPERS: THE FUTURE OF CIVIL AFFAIRS Edited by Christopher Holshek John C. Church, Jr.ISBN: 978-0-9861865-0-9 USAWC

  19. The APS in Public Affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2000-04-01

    Although the American Physical Society was created for the interchange of scientific ideas, the call to the founding meeting included the observation that the organization "could not fail to have an important influence in all matters affecting the interest of physicists". However for most of its history APS did not behave like "just another interest group in American society". Instead, at the beginning, it limited itself to such successful initiatives as the creation of the Bureau of Standards and such unsuccessful ones as adoption of the metric system. After World War II, speaking out on behalf of the freedom of science and scientists, such as Astin, Condon, and Oppenheimer, became important. In the 1970's, pushed by members, the Society became more "political", sponsoring sessions and studies on defense issues, taking a stand for the Equal Rights Amendment and creating the Panel on Public Affairs and the Forum on Physics and Society. Only in the last fifteen years has the APS unabashedly lobbied for the economic interests of physics and physicists. Adopting this new, if unavoidable role may have unintended consequences for the willingness and effectiveness of APS in speaking out on other public issues.

  20. Synthesizing Existing CSMA and TDMA Based MAC Protocols for VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiawei; Li, Qi; Zhong, Shaohua; Liu, Lianhai; Zhong, Ping; Wang, Jianxin; Ye, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Many Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based medium access control (MAC) protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been proposed recently. Contrary to the common perception that they are competitors, we argue that the underlying strategies used in these MAC protocols are complementary. Based on this insight, we design CTMAC, a MAC protocol that synthesizes existing strategies; namely, random accessing channel (used in CSMA-style protocols) and arbitral reserving channel (used in TDMA-based protocols). CTMAC swiftly changes its strategy according to the vehicle density, and its performance is better than the state-of-the-art protocols. We evaluate CTMAC using at-scale simulations. Our results show that CTMAC reduces the channel completion time and increases the network goodput by 45% for a wide range of application workloads and network settings. PMID:28208590

  1. Synthesizing Existing CSMA and TDMA Based MAC Protocols for VANETs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiawei; Li, Qi; Zhong, Shaohua; Liu, Lianhai; Zhong, Ping; Wang, Jianxin; Ye, Jin

    2017-02-10

    Many Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based medium access control (MAC) protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been proposed recently. Contrary to the common perception that they are competitors, we argue that the underlying strategies used in these MAC protocols are complementary. Based on this insight, we design CTMAC, a MAC protocol that synthesizes existing strategies; namely, random accessing channel (used in CSMA-style protocols) and arbitral reserving channel (used in TDMA-based protocols). CTMAC swiftly changes its strategy according to the vehicle density, and its performance is better than the state-of-the-art protocols. We evaluate CTMAC using at-scale simulations. Our results show that CTMAC reduces the channel completion time and increases the network goodput by 45% for a wide range of application workloads and network settings.

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report covers 1)Worldwide Topics 2)East-West Relations 3)Socialist Community, CEMA 4)General Economic Affairs 5)West Europe 6)East Europe 7)Latin America 8)China, East Asia and 9)Near East and South Asia.

  3. Public affairs events at Ocean Sciences Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-02-01

    AGU public affairs will be cohosting two special events at Ocean Sciences 2012 that offer scientists opportunities to expand their communication, policy, and media experience. Join the conversations that highlight two important topics to connect science to society.

  4. USSR Report, Economic Affairs, No. 1037.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The articles are PLANNING AND PLAN IMPLEMENTATION: Overall Approach to Solution of Planning, Incentive Problems Urged, and REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT : Union Republic Statistical Officials Quantify Progress.

  5. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-03-31

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid.

  6. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  7. Professionalism, Scholarly Practice, and Professional Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Stan; Stimpson, Matthew T.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of recent literature on professionalism in student affairs. Attention is given to the nature of professionalism, a discussion of student affairs as a profession, the scholarly practice of student affairs, and professional development in student affairs. The authors note that an assumption of professionalism…

  8. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  9. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AFFAIRS Xu Dixin on Population Control, Free Economy (Xu Dixin; SHIJIE JINGJI DAOBAO, 26 Nov 84) »o 11 Procuratorial Organs Praised for...NATIONAL AFFAIRS PROCURATORIAL ORGANS PRAISED FOR CORRECTING INJUSTICES Beijing ZHONGGUO FAZHI BAO in Chinese 19 Oct 84 p 1 [Article by Xu Sen [1776...2773]: " Procuratorial Organs Nationwide Handled 6 Million Cases in 6 Years"] [Text] In the past 6 years, procuratorial organs at all levels dealt

  10. Restructuring Civil Affairs for Persistent Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    Simpson II U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas AY 2010...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Major Samuel K. Simpson II, United States Army 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...should increase and realign the force structure of the reserve and active components civil affairs; split the U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological

  11. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    180100 JPRS-EEl-84-053 8 May 1984 East Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS Wfaaöcai üaitoüteö ^^mAUTTmmmcfmiis 19980729 050...Virginia 22201. JPRS-EEI-84-053 8 May 1984 EAST EUROPE REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS CZECHOSLOVAKIA Brigade Khozraschet, Team Work...SVET HOSPODARSTVI, 22 Sep 83) 15 GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC March 1984 EINHEIT: Technology’s Role in SED Economic Strategy (EINHEIT, No

  12. Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition. Preliminary Assessment of Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Van Tilburg, Emmalou

    Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), the Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program in Ohio, was designed to help farm families assess their skills and interests in nonfarm employment. The processes used by agents in counseling families were evaluated. The program was designed by personnel of the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service (OCES) to…

  13. A Flexible CSMA based MAC Protocol for Software Defined Radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, André; Kalil, Mohamed A.; Mitschele-Thiel, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we propose a flexible CSMA based MAC protocol which facilitates research and experimentation using software define radios. The modular architecture allows to employ the protocol on platforms with heterogeneous hardware capabilities and provides the freedom to exchange or adapt the spectrum sensing mechanism without modifying the MAC protocol internals. We discuss the architecture of the protocol and provide structural details of its main components. Furthermore, we present throughput measurements that have been obtained on an example system using host-based spectrum sensing.

  14. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  15. The Gendered Nature of Student Affairs: Issues of Gender Equity in Student Affairs Professional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Evelyn LaVette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gendered nature of the student affairs profession by investigating how three student affairs professional associations, the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), ACPA: College Student Educators International, and the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I)…

  16. Putting Descartes before the Horse: Opportunities for Advancing the Student Affairs Link with Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarid, Lucas

    1999-01-01

    Article challenges the division between student and academic affairs and encourages a view of learning and reason in a more holistic and integrated fashion. Outlines the historical factors for the separation of student and academic affairs and offers the programs instituted at Bellarmine College as examples of effective collaboration between…

  17. Academic Affairs and Student Affairs Partnerships Promoting Diversity Initiatives on Campus: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePeau, Lucy Anne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education research suggests student affairs and academic affairs partner to address challenges on campus, such as building inclusive environments for diverse students and staff, but evidence about "how" partnerships form is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory was to understand…

  18. Preparing for Fiscal Leadership in Student Affairs: The Senior Student Affairs Officer Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Stephanie C.; Williams, Terry E.

    2010-01-01

    Success within today's challenging economic environment mandates that senior student affairs officers in higher education possess a sophisticated financial and budgetary skill set. Limited research addresses avenues through which professionals might best acquire the financial acumen needed. To address this gap, 19 senior student affairs officers…

  19. Student Affairs and Academic Affairs Collaborations in the Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Needham Yancey; Mullendore, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between academic affairs and student affairs units in higher education settings has traditionally and historically been troubled by the divergent understandings of each other's institutional role and the systematic division of labor between the two. However, for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is a desire to…

  20. 42 CFR 405.1130 - Effect of the MAC's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of the MAC's decision. 405.1130 Section 405.1130 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Determinations, Redeterminations, Reconsiderations, and Appeals Under...

  1. Simulation and Analysis of a Wireless Mac Protocol: MACAW.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    MACAW (Medium Access Collision Avoidance Wireless) is a new MAC protocol for wireless LANs proposed by Bharghavan et al. Ref. 2 based on Karn’s MACA...performance of the MACAW protocol occurs at approximately 50% channel load. We have also shown the importance of the backoff algorithm, and finally, we have

  2. MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbus, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents MAC/FAC, a model of similarity-based retrieval that attempts to capture psychological phenomena; discusses its limitations and extensions, its relationship with other retrieval models, and its placement in the context of other work on the nature of similarity. Examines the utility of the model through psychological experiments and…

  3. MAC mini acceptance test procedures, software Version 3.3

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some improvements made to it to to change slightly the access authorized users had to the modification of critical data. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  4. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  5. The MacArthur Foundation in Nigeria: Report on Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Nigeria passed an important milestone: one elected government passed power to another for the first time in the nation's history. Though imperfect, the poll demonstrated powerfully that Nigeria's representative democracy was not a transient phase between periods of military repression but a growing reality. For 20 years, the MacArthur…

  6. What if MacGyver Taught Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip; Leech, Trey

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising childhood obesity rates, many physical educators find themselves with declining financial resources. Similar to how MacGyver had to do when he was in a bind on his self-titled television show, physical educators need to think creatively when providing equipment for use by their students. The problem that has been identified is:…

  7. Modeling Woven Polymer Matrix Composites with MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) is used to predict the elastic properties of plain weave polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The traditional one step three-dimensional homogertization procedure that has been used in conjunction with MAC/GMC for modeling woven composites in the past is inaccurate due to the lack of shear coupling inherent to the model. However, by performing a two step homogenization procedure in which the woven composite repeating unit cell is homogenized independently in the through-thickness direction prior to homogenization in the plane of the weave, MAC/GMC can now accurately model woven PMCs. This two step procedure is outlined and implemented, and predictions are compared with results from the traditional one step approach and other models and experiments from the literature. Full coupling of this two step technique with MAC/ GMC will result in a widely applicable, efficient, and accurate tool for the design and analysis of woven composite materials and structures.

  8. Proposal and Rationale for the Development of a Mac Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordner, Marsha

    At Clark State Community College (CSCC), in Ohio, faculty in the Commercial Art and English departments have investigated and debated the best uses for a Mac Lab. Computer needs for the Commercial Art Program were determined through visits to local businesses that produce art on a commercial level; to local secondary school commercial art…

  9. Integrated, Kerberized Login on MacOS X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotz, Henry B.

    2006-01-01

    Context for this information. MacOS X login process and available hooks. Authorization Services configuration. Authorization Services plug-in s. Kerberos plug-in s. Other bugs and recommendations. Authorization Services Called by loginwindow, screen saver and fast user switching. It calls Directory Services, Login Hook, and Login Items (System Preferences).

  10. Generation of MAC waves by convection in Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, Etienne; Buffett, Bruce

    2017-03-01

    Convection in Earth's core is a viable mechanism for generating MAC waves when the top of the core is stably stratified. We quantify the generation mechanism by extending the physical description of MAC waves to include a source term due to buoyancy forces in the convecting part of the core. Solutions for the forced motion are obtained using a Green's function, which is constructed from the eigenfunctions for the unforced motion. When the source term is evaluated using the output of a numerical geodynamo model, the largest excitation occurs at even spherical harmonic degrees, corresponding to waves with symmetric azimuthal flow about the equator. We also find that the magnitude of the source term decreases at periods shorter than about 60 years. As a result most of the wave generation is confined to waves with periods of 60 years or longer. Quantitative predictions for the wave amplitudes depend on the projection of the source term into the eigenfunction of the waves. Strong stratification limits the penetration of density anomalies into the stratified layer, which means that the source term is confined to the lowermost part of the layer. Overtones of MAC waves with large amplitudes in the lower part of the stratified layer are more effectively generated by convection, even though these waves are heavily damped by magnetic diffusion. Generation of MAC waves by convection establishes a physical link between observable wave motion and deeper convective processes. Detection of changes in the amplitude and phase of MAC waves would constrain the generation processes and offer insights into the nature of the convection.

  11. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1952 architectural drawings by Strategic Air Command, MacDill Air Force Base) BASE LAYOUT, 1952 - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  12. Modelling of Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Slot IP Internet Protocol LAN Local Area Network MAC Medium Access Control MACAW Medium Access Protocol for Wireless LANs MANET Mobile Ad-hoc...Unforced state – It waits after entering the state until it is invoked by another process or an interrupt. It is in dark grey on this report, and red ... green in OPNET. A MAC process model is built for general initialisations of the MAC module, and to invoke the selected MAC protocol process model

  13. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-05-09

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes.

  14. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  15. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; MacDill Air Force....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  16. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

  17. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  18. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  19. Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)

  20. Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

  1. MacB ABC transporter is a dimer whose ATPase activity and macrolide-binding capacity are regulated by the membrane fusion protein MacA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Barrera, Nelson P; Frankish, Helen M; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Robinson, Carol V; Borges-Walmsley, M Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2009-01-09

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled.

  2. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Affairs Council of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Public Session Meeting AGENCY.... Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-5303, Washington, DC 20210; phone (202) 693-4811.... ADDRESSES: The LAC will meet at the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  3. Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

  4. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

  5. Educational Interests, Needs and Learning Preferences of Immigrant Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamant, Thaddeus

    2014-01-01

    The immigrant population is growing in rural Minnesota, and those who are interested in farming will be replacing a dwindling population of traditionally white farmers. Like traditional American farmers, immigrant farmers have a need for continuing education to keep them up on best practices and new technology in agriculture. Minnesota's…

  6. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  7. RE:FIT: Assessing Career Potential for Dislocated Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Tilberg, Emmalou Van

    1988-01-01

    Notes that the geographic separation and autonomy experienced by farmers creates a unique challenge for career and crisis counseling programs. Provides an overview of Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), a dislocated farmer assistance effort created by the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service to provide outplacement services such as…

  8. Preferred Knowledge Sources for Beginning Farmers: The Case of Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislen, Lilian; Tanaka, Keiko; Jacobsen, Krista

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of preferred knowledge sources for beginning farmers and differences in knowledge networks between "heritage" and "nonheritage" farmers. The purpose of the analysis is to support the reassessment of training, technical assistance, and other needs of beginning farmers to be able to develop more…

  9. 75 FR 72780 - Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers AGENCY: Departmental... on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers (Committee) will be held to discuss and explore USDA policy options designed to create and sustain ``New and Beginning Farmers and Ranchers.'' DATES: The public meetings...

  10. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  11. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff... ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 14, 2010....

  12. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  13. 75 FR 49886 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633; or by e-mail at: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit ] the TAA for Farmers' Web...

  14. Attitudes of Small Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Benny L.

    To design public issues education programs to meet the needs of small farmers, the Cooperative Extension programs at Prairie View A&M University (Texas) and nine other 1890 land grant institutions surveyed small farmers' opinions concerning the 1995 farm bill. Responses were received from 644 farmers in the states in which these institutions…

  15. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA... Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) on December 2, 2009. The purpose of the Committee is to..., methods of maximizing participation of minority farmers and ranchers in Department of Agriculture...

  16. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  17. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  18. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS): utility in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2008-07-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have now been extensively incorporated in the management of infertile couples. But even after rapid methodological and technological advances the success rates of these procedures have been below expectations. This has led to development of many sperm preparation protocols to obtain an ideal semen sample for artificial reproduction. Sperm apoptosis has been heavily linked to failures in reproductive techniques. One of the earliest changes shown by apoptotic spermatozoa is externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) is a novel sperm preparation technique that separates apoptotic and non-apoptotic spermatozoa based on the expression of phosphatidylserine. This has led to the incorporation of MACS as a sperm preparation technique. The review highlights the principle and mechanism of this novel technique and enumerates its advantages as a sperm preparation technique. Its utility in ART as an efficient tool for sperm recovery and its application in cryopreservation of semen samples is also explained.

  19. [Risk behavior among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece].

    PubMed

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Marć, Małgorzata; Sobolewski, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of science and medical environments and the society in the scope of behavioral conditioning of many diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, tumors and injuries motivates to shape pro-health behaviors and eliminate harmful habit also in rural areas. There is a need for constant monitoring of behaviors related to health among rural areas inhabitants. The results enriches present state of knowledge in that scope, as well as might be use to increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education activities and shape pro-health lifestyle among rural areas inhabitants, and particularly among farmers. The aim of the study was to acquaint socio-demographic features related to risk behaviors (tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking) among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece. The study was carried out between January and December 2009 among 755 farmers with national health insurance KRUS for minimum last year, living in Podkarpacie Provinece, whom had their own farm business, owned a farm either spouse or household member works on the farm. The study population was purposefully chosen. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire including above all questions considering tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and demographic issues. Results from questionnaires were analyzed using the statistical package STATISTICA 9.0 (Statsoft). The gathered data was statistically prepared using chi-square test, logistic regression model with stepwise and progressive regression. Based on results it was assumed that frequency of tobacco smoking in the studied group values 31.5%. More frequent smoke: men than women, people with high economic status and those evaluating their Heath state as a good one. Gender and material status are strong predictors of tobacco smoking among farmers. Age and level of education do not influence on tobacco smoking among studied farmers. Frequency of alcohol drinking in the studied group values 82.0%. More

  20. Preliminary results on B-anti B mixing from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.

    1987-05-01

    An excess of like-charge dimuons has been observed with the MAC detector in multihadron events produced in e e annihilation at s = 29 GeV. If this excess is attributed to B - anti B mixing, the corresponding value of the mixing parameter chi = GAMMA(B X)/GAMMA(B X) is chi = 0.21/sub -0.15//sup +0.25/ and chi > 0.02 at 90% C.L.

  1. Student Affairs and Services Stream: College Quarterly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddel, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "College Quarterly" recently introduced a stream for academic and scholar-practitioner dialogue concerning student affairs and services. To contribute to the growth and enhancement of the field, scholars and scholar-practitioners are invited to contribute original pieces that advance scholarship and/or practice around facilitating…

  2. The Digital Age of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.; Junco, Reynol

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the student affairs profession in the digital age. The authors explore new challenges educators and professionals face as new areas are added and expanded, how social networks and digital technology tools continue to evolve, and what skills are needed to engage with students in person and online.

  3. Toward the Professionalization of Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, D. Stanley; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The field of student affairs is an emerging profession with its own distinct theory base and preparation criteria. Professional organizations need to collaborate on research and actions concerning professional issues. A workable code of ethics and a professional attitude by practitioners will insure progress toward professionalization. (RC)

  4. Becoming a Reflective Student Affairs Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with 12 student affairs administrators revealed that respondents were applied theorists and reflective practitioners; action phase of reflective process was integral to decision making; respondents believed their thinking patterns remained constant throughout life; formal education played minimal role in helping administrators become…

  5. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  6. Office of Indian Affairs 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    This report outlines the activities of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) for 1984 in accordance with its directive to investigate, study, consider and act upon the entire subject of Indian conditions and relations within the State of New Mexico, including but not restricted to, problems of health, economy, education, legislation, and…

  7. Education for America's Role in World Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, John, Ed.; Ryerson, Andre, Ed.

    This collection of essays by leading policy analysts and educators investigate the often contradictory claims of global, peace, multicultural and citizenship education and examines what U.S. students should know about world affairs in the post-cold war era. The essays suggest methods of change based on a strong academic core of history,…

  8. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  9. The Role of Congress in Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, William J.

    An examiniation of past and recent federal legislation affecting American Indians reveals the important role of Congress in developing policy for Indian affairs. The role of Congress inititally seemed directed toward providing a legal means of taking Indian land and other resources for the benefit of non-Indians. Subsequent policy has varied…

  10. The New Media in Public Affairs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eugene I.

    This paper on innovations in public affairs education begins by enumerating some of the newer available means of communication--slow-scan television, computers, tape recordings, games and models, telephone instruction, multiple channel FM radio, libraries of tapes and slides--and discusses proposals to interconnect educational television…

  11. Office of Indian Affairs 1985 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    The major goals of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) in 1985 were to enhance Indian education concerns, aid tribes in economic development, and effectuate a smooth working relationship between state, local, and tribal governments in the spirit of and through the use of the Joint Powers Act. Advancement is reflected in all these areas.…

  12. TQM: Finding a Place in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tyrone A.

    1996-01-01

    Critically examines Total Quality Management (TQM). Analyzes the concepts and practices of TQM and its failure to live up to expectations in higher education. Emphasizes the problems inherent with TQM initiatives in an educational environment and outlines ways that student affairs officials can proactively apply TQM to support universities'…

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    disease affecting our social organism. It was precisely authors writing on public affairs, scientists, journalists, teachers, and engineers who...tremor or jolt. Well-known scientists are working on the problem. Our generation has itself become the creator and chron - icler of the Davit

  14. Briefing Teams in World Affairs Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Joe P.

    1992-01-01

    In a college world affairs course, the teacher acted as foreign policy/national security advisor to the president and assigned students as staff members for different geographic regions. Students briefed him daily, first on current events, then on specific issues. Students enjoyed the challenging assignments, intensive questioning, and policy…

  15. Communication, Public Affairs Knowledge, and Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, K. E.; Rush, Ramona R.

    The impact of print and electronic media orientations upon the public affairs knowledge of older persons was investigated through interviews with 59 participants in a foster grandparents program, 68 participants in a retired senior volunteer program, and 23 members of a retired teachers association. Analysis of results indicated a clear pattern in…

  16. Student Employee Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athas, Christina; Oaks, D'Arcy John; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Employment within student affairs divisions offers environments in which students can apply the knowledge they have gained, as well as acquire new competencies, helping them to build solid foundations for their futures. Researchers used an online survey to assess the outcomes associated with part-time student employment within the student affairs…

  17. Public Affairs Manual. Revised 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This public affairs manual is designed for health, physical education, and recreation personnel. It begins with a position statement by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER). In section two, resources and procedures for crises action at the local and state level are discussed. Several organizational models…

  18. Bibliography of Serials on Caribbean Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Dennis; Milman, Claudio

    An alphabetical listing of serial titles that are relevant to Caribbean affairs and culture is provided. Annotations include the individual publication's scope of coverage as well as its frequency of appearance (monthly, quarterly, weekly, etc.) and postal address. The same type of information regarding newspapers published in the Caribbean area…

  19. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC). User Guide: Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code's (MAC) who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells (GMC), micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, (2) different integration algorithms may be selected, (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented, and (4) a variety of fiber and laminate architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  20. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC) User Guide: Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code, MAC, who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells, GMC, micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triple ply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control), and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed; (2) different integration algorithms may be selected; (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented; and (4) a variety of fiber architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  1. 76 FR 2761 - Proposed Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause 852.... Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulation Clauses 852.237-7, Indemnification and Medical Liability Insurance. b. Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulation Clauses 852.237-71, Indemnification and Insurance....

  2. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  3. Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentz, Audrey L.; And Others

    This book describes significant issues and trends in the evolution of student affairs and reviews current methods and models of practice. The chapters are: (1) "The Philosophical Heritage of Student Affairs," by Stan Carpenter, reviewing the relationship between educational philosophy and student services; (2) "A History of Student Affairs," by…

  4. The Invisible Leaders: Student Affairs Mid-Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert B., Ed.

    This monograph, intended for a broad range of student affairs practitioners, provides eight papers on mid-level managers in higher education student affairs whose needs have perhaps been subsumed within other aspects of career tenure or career specialty. The following papers are included: "Defining Student Affairs Mid-management" by Robert B.…

  5. Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-05-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group.

  6. Farmer Decision-Making for Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M.; Niles, M.; Salerno, J.

    2015-12-01

    This talk will provide an overview of several studies of how farmers make decisions about climate change adaptation and mitigation. A particular focus will be the "limiting factors hypothesis", which argues that farmers will respond to the climate variables that usually have the largest impact on their crop productivity. For example, the most limiting factor in California is usually water so how climate change affects water will be the largest drive of climate adaptation decisions. This basic idea is drawn from the broader theory of "psychological distance", which argue that human decisions are more attuned to ideas that are psychologically closer in space, time, or other factors. Empirical examples come from California, New Zealand, and Africa.

  7. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives.

  8. Sounding of the Plasmasphere by McMAC Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; McMAC Team

    2012-04-01

    Properly positioned ground magnetometers can be used to detect resonance of magnetospheric field lines as a way to make unique observations of the plasma mass density of the magnetosphere. In this paper we describe the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies systematically observed by the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC), which consists of 10 stations in the United States and Mexico along 300° magnetic longitude. With an average separation by 272 km between adjacent stations McMAC is well suited to remotely sensing the plasma density at L-values between 1.6 and 3.3 through the gradient method of FLR measurements. We analyzed a full year of McMAC observations spanning between July 2006 and June 2007, and FLR frequencies were automatically identified in cross-phase and cross-power spectrograms by a computer routine. In all of the FLR observations by pairs of McMAC stations, the occurrence rate of FLR can reach as high as 55% around local noon at L = 2.7. The occurrence rate drops at lower latitudes due to weaker FLR signals. At L = 3.3 the FLR occurrence is clearly reduced in afternoon hours, possibly because of occasional presence of the plasmapause that can obstruct FLR generation and/or detection. By examining the results from all possible pairs of McMAC stations, we find that, at L ≤ 2.5, FLR signatures can still be found even when the separation between two stations exceeds 1000 km. The fundamental mode FLR frequencies, in addition to the inferred equatorial plasma mass densities of the magnetosphere, are tabulated with respect to L-value and time. The most probable fundamental mode frequency is found to be approximately 75 mHz at L = 1.6 and decreases with increasing L-value. The distribution of the fundamental mode frequency at L = 3.3, however, exhibits two distinct groups: The lower frequencies centered at 10 mHz representing the measurements inside the plasmasphere whereas the higher frequencies centered at 39 mHz indicating the faster field

  9. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  10. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R

    1991-12-01

    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints.

  11. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics--most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health.

  12. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC.

  13. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of Review for Submission 2011-01 AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for farmer's lung in greenhouse farmers: an epidemiological study of 5,880 farmers from Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Chen, Donghong; Fu, Shuang; Ren, Yangang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Mingjing; He, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiaoge

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this epidemiological study were to evaluate the prevalence of farmer's lung disease (FLD) and to explore the potential risk factors for FLD among Chinese greenhouse farmers. A total of 835 plastic film greenhouses, including 5,880 active farmers who engaged in crop cultivation or poultry farming, were randomly selected from the rural regions of Northeastern China. These farmers participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. 5,420 greenhouse farmers accepted and answered questionnaires in full (response rate, 92.18 %). Prevalence of FLD among these farmers was 5.7 % (308/5,420). Besides, a number of classic risk factors for FLD were identified, such as years of age, shorter time interval for re-entry greenhouse, ventilation frequency of greenhouse more than once per 4 h, the area of greenhouses greater than 30 m(2) but without a ventilation facility, ventilation duration less than 30 min every time, greenhouse with height less than 1.8 m, greenhouse with humidity greater than 65 %, frequent exposure to moldy materials in greenhouse, living inside greenhouse, and et al. FLD is and will continue to be a real health problem for Chinese farmers. If these preventive measures are implemented, the prevalence of FLD in Chinese greenhouse farmers might be greatly reduced.

  15. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    0 "N 084170 JPRS-CPS-85-002 8 January 1985 China Report POLITICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND MILITARY AFFAIRS 19990505 133 PKOWALITY *H«*ttSD...8217Star War.s’ Program (Zhuang Qubing; GUOJI WENTI YANJIU, No 4 , 13 Oct 84) 1 United States, USSR Compete for Dominance in Middle East (Wan Guang...Service, 8 Dec 84) 26 EASTERN EUROPE Ceausescu Greets PRC President Li Xiannian (AGERPRES, 4 Oct 84) 27 -a - [III - CC - 80

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    30 SOCIAL ISSUES Failure of Cooperative Agreement Leads to Hunger Strike [ S . Stepanov; KAZAKHSTANSKA YA PRA VDA, 24 Jan 89...72 JPRS-UPA-89-025 27 APRIL 1989 2 Political Affairs UzSSR: Informal Groups Accused of Exploiting Nationality Issues [ S . Usmanov; PRA VDA...of construction are also linked with the current year less than half of that sum was allocated for shortage of hoisting and earth -digging machinery

  17. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Discussed (Qu Xingxuan; SHANXI RIBAO, 15 Jun 83) 77 HEBEI RIBAO Comments on Promotion of Technical Cadres (Song Yufeng; HEBEI...yesterday’s Foreign Affairs Commission meeting that France’s objective in Chad is to promote negotiations, and that the Chadian problem should be solved...taking firm hold on reorganization of all tasks to eliminate the chaos of the ’Great Cultural Revolution1 in order to promote stability and unity

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rights as the right to join and organize political parties, to take part in political life , and to administer state affairs are singled out...status of workers. Along with the right to labor, it affirms such pivotal rights as the right to equal wages for an equal quantity and quality of work...play an important role in the country’s political life . And what is no less important— the increased pressure on Duarte from the left and the right

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-15

    1920 PRAVDA and other newspapers carried an article by I. Stalin, RSFSR People’s Commissar for Nationality Affairs, " Long Live Soviet Armenia...are declared annulled. Nagornyy Karabakh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan are recognized as a part of the Armenian Socialist Republic. " Long live the...and all the benefits of the Soviet system will be extended to all Armenia’s citizens in equal measure. " Long live the brotherhood of the Soviet

  20. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE - SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 .. (7 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from...of the agreement and thinks that the United States and Israel "expect the two parties to depart from the line which is antagonistic to their Middle...Regional Foreign Affairs Office and the Regional Tourism Corporation; and responsible persons of departments concerned in the region attended the banquet

  1. USSR Report, Military Affairs, No. 1775.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    possessed such qualities as revolutionary scope and practi- cality, a deep and lucid intellect, a strong feeling of friendship and comradeship...heroism of mass and prosaic work." (Question] One can often hear: "The soldier who does not dream of being a general is a poor soldier." Here you...Konstantin Petrovich, attained the greatest heights in soldierly affairs and became a marshal of a combat arm. One can say, your dream has come

  2. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    313202 JPRS-EEI-84-106 2 0 September 1984 East Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS mfmSöTicm sfÄTHrär Approved for public mlexxm...were developed. The chemical industry has successfully collaborated with the USSR in the area of polymer additives. Development of CD Antioxidant...production, of course, we need at the same time to build the food processing industry , production of chemicals for pest and disease control, we have to

  3. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    something at which to look closely, besides porno - graphy. For example, to notice and report in good time that video takes root more rapidly far away from...analyzed the state of affairs. In letters and during meetings with the deputies, the voters expressed concern that the number of teen -agers, who do not...are left to their own resources. Difficult teen -agers are not very eagerly accepted into the various circles and sports sections. The lists of bad

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-08

    nations and nationali- tion that had risen to defend the gains of Great October. ties , and for the pooling of efforts to deal with the In subsequent...and ecological-and proposes a comprehensive their native land. We should continue to develop stronger set of measures for resolving them. ties with ...increased. The actions of the staff members of the internal -affairs organs are falling with In the fight against crime among youths we need to seek

  5. Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Allan B

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

  6. STS-52 Payload Specialist MacLean during camera training at JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean practices using a camera for the Earth observations portion of his scheduled October spaceflight. MacLean, standing on the aft flight deck, points a HASSELBLAD camera out overhead window W8 during the training session in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The CCT is part of the shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. MacLean represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

  7. DCFRN: a radio network for small farmers.

    PubMed

    Amt, W

    1986-01-01

    The Developing Countries Farm Radio Network (DCFRN), a media group founded in 1979, is committed to assisting small farmers to increase their food supplies by using established radio stations along with other local communication channels to spread agricultural information. The success of this effort is evident in the fact that over 500 broadcasters or organizations in over 100 countries disseminate DCFRN information to an estimated 100,000,000 listeners in about 100 languages. 9 packets have been produced and distributed thus far. Information is gathered on appropriate and inexpensive technologies grassroots level farmers use in developing countries to increase food production, decrease post harvest losses and to make more efficient use of food. The source of this information is on-site interviews with small farmers, farm broadcasters, extension workers, health workers, scientists, and university and government officials; printed materials; and feedback from questionnaires that are included in each information packet. Information on agricultural or nutritional innovations must be developed, tested, and proven in the developing world and must be adaptable in other developing countries in order to be put on tape and then be disseminated by DCFRN. The radio scripts are prepared in a culturally and religiously neutral style. The scripts cover a wide variety of agricultural or health and nutrition issues. Each packet contains "The Blue Sheet," DCFRN's newsletter for participants in the Network. It provides current information about the Network and also covers other development issues not included in the radio scripts. DCFRN information also has been used in newspaper articles, posters, classroom teaching, video tapes, television shows, loudspeaker broadcasts, and puppet shows.

  8. MQ-MAC: a multi-constrained QoS-aware duty cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Rahman, Md Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2010-01-01

    Energy conservation is one of the striking research issues now-a-days for power constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and hence, several duty-cycle based MAC protocols have been devised for WSNs in the last few years. However, assimilation of diverse applications with different QoS requirements (i.e., delay and reliability) within the same network also necessitates in devising a generic duty-cycle based MAC protocol that can achieve both the delay and reliability guarantee, termed as multi-constrained QoS, while preserving the energy efficiency. To address this, in this paper, we propose a Multi-constrained QoS-aware duty-cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in WSNs (MQ-MAC). MQ-MAC classifies the traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands. Through extensive simulation using ns-2 we evaluate the performance of MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC provides the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the nature of the traffic classes as well as achieves energy efficiency.

  9. MQ-MAC: A Multi-Constrained QoS-Aware Duty Cycle MAC for Heterogeneous Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Rahman, Md. Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2010-01-01

    Energy conservation is one of the striking research issues now-a-days for power constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and hence, several duty-cycle based MAC protocols have been devised for WSNs in the last few years. However, assimilation of diverse applications with different QoS requirements (i.e., delay and reliability) within the same network also necessitates in devising a generic duty-cycle based MAC protocol that can achieve both the delay and reliability guarantee, termed as multi-constrained QoS, while preserving the energy efficiency. To address this, in this paper, we propose a Multi-constrained QoS-aware duty-cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in WSNs (MQ-MAC). MQ-MAC classifies the traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands. Through extensive simulation using ns-2 we evaluate the performance of MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC provides the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the nature of the traffic classes as well as achieves energy efficiency. PMID:22163439

  10. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  11. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  12. Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural…

  13. Why Farmers Persist in or Drop Out of Young Farmer Instructional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, H. R.; Thompson, J. F.

    A study was conducted to determine why some young farmers continue to attend Wisconsin's five-year (part-time) instructional program and others drop out. Specifically, both groups were compared in personal characteristics, satisfaction regarding in-class instruction, satisfaction regarding on-farm instruction, and relevance of program to student's…

  14. Farmers, streams, information, and money: does informing farmers about riparian management have any effect?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Heather M; Leland, Louis S; Niven, Brian E

    2002-11-01

    We assessed relationships between the extent to which farmers reported exposure to relevant information and their attitudes towards, knowledge about, and degree of adoption of riparian management strategies. We also examined associations between knowledge of, or receipt of, financial assistance for riparian fencing/planting and intentions for and extent of adoption of this strategy. A mail survey of 718 pastoral farmers in Otago and Southland in New Zealand [294 surveys returned (41%)] yielded 279 usable questionnaires. Indices were developed to reflect range and frequency of information use and range of practices adopted. Attitudes were measured using Likert-type responses to 11 statements, and knowledge as a score on a ten-question true/false test. Positive relationships between information and the three main response variables (attitude, knowledge, and adoption) were weak but significant and systematic. These associations remained significant when important demographic and farm characteristics were taken into account. Informed farmers were more likely to report intentions to carry out riparian fencing or planting within the next year. Farmers who were aware that funding was available were also more likely to state this intention, independent of information level. The reported extent to which waterways had been fenced to exclude stock was related to receipt of funding, but not to information level. Financial factors were the most influential barrier preventing adoption of permanent fencing. Our research shows a positive correlation between the receipt of information and funding and the adoption of specific riparian management measures.

  15. Survey data of stated farmer׳s preferences and willingness to supply straw.

    PubMed

    Giannoccaro, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides a data description on article entitled "Assessing farmers׳ willingness to supply biomass as energy feedstock: Cereal straw in Apulia (Italy)" (G. Giannoccaro, C.B. de Gennaro, E. DeMeo, M. Prosperi, 2017). This DiB consists of data obtained through a survey to farmers in Foggia Province, Italy. The survey was carried out by means of a structured questionnaire administrated to about 200 local wheat producers. Face to face interviews were carried out by professionals. From the hard copy of questionnaire, data were firstly transferred into an excel sheet, than exported to STATA.14 software. The file contains text, dummy and metric variables with reference to a number of variables such as on-farm structural features (land size, crops, livestock units, grain and straw yields, etc.), socio-economic (straw price, willingness to accept, off-farm job, income, membership of farm union, etc.) and personal (farmer׳s age, family members, educational level, etc.). Data has not been uploaded to a public repository.

  16. Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of…

  17. Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used…

  18. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation.

  19. MacXAFS: An EXAFS analysis package for the Macintosh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, C.; Furenlid, L.; Elam, T.

    1995-02-01

    We present an EXAFS analysis package that runs on the Apple Macintosh. (Certain commercial products are identified in the article for the sake of completeness. This does not constitute and endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Naval Research Laboratory, or Broohaven National Lab.) The MacXAFS package is derived from a suite of EXAFS analysis programs originally written at the University of Washington. The MacXAFS package preserves the portable computational kernel of this well-tested group of programs and adds a graphical interface by using HyperCard. Communication between the core analysis programs and the HyperCard interface is done by using ASCII script files that direct the execution of the FORTRAN-based analysis programs. The user is largely insulated from the FORTRAN code, but instead interacts with the more intuitive Hypercard interface. This implementation preserves the portability of the ANSI FORTRAN programs, while taking full advantage of the platform-specific user interface features of the Macintosh. Computationally intensive programs, such as the ab initio XAFS calculation program FEFF can be executed remotely via a TCP/IP connection. Due to the clean separation of the interface and the computational kernel, this package is readily extensible by writing new programs, in FORTRAN or any other language, and adding the corresponding interface element in the HyperCard stack.

  20. OsteoMacs: Key players around bone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miron, Richard J; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2016-03-01

    Osteal macrophages (OsteoMacs) are a special subtype of macrophage residing in bony tissues. Interesting findings from basic research have pointed to their vast and substantial roles in bone biology by demonstrating their key function in bone formation and remodeling. Despite these essential findings, much less information is available concerning their response to a variety of biomaterials used for bone regeneration with the majority of investigation primarily focused on their role during the foreign body reaction. With respect to biomaterials, it is well known that cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the first cell types in contact with implanted biomaterials. Here they demonstrate extremely plastic phenotypes with the ability to differentiate towards classical M1 or M2 macrophages, or subsequently fuse into osteoclasts or multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). These MNGCs have previously been characterized as foreign body giant cells and associated with biomaterial rejection, however more recently their phenotypes have been implicated with wound healing and tissue regeneration by studies demonstrating their expression of key M2 markers around biomaterials. With such contrasting hypotheses, it becomes essential to better understand their roles to improve the development of osteo-compatible and osteo-promotive biomaterials. This review article expresses the necessity to further study OsteoMacs and MNGCs to understand their function in bone biomaterial tissue integration including dental/orthopedic implants and bone grafting materials.

  1. Simulating farmer behaviour under water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, SIlvia; Erfani, Tohid; Henriques, Catarina; Maziotis, Alexandros; Garbe, Jennifer; Swinscoe, Thomas; Harou, Julien; Weatherhead, Keith; Beevers, Lindsay; Fleskens, Luuk

    2015-04-01

    Increasing water scarcity may lead water managers to consider alternative approaches to water allocation including water markets. One concern with markets is how will specific sectors interact with a potential water market, when will they gain or loose water and will they benefit economically - why, when and how? The behaviours of different individual abstractors or institutional actors under water markets is of interest to regulators who seek to design effective market policies which satisfy multiple stakeholder groups. In this study we consider two dozen agricultural water users in eastern England (Nar basin). Using partially synthetic but regionally representative cropping and irrigation data we simulate the buying and selling behaviour of farmers on a weekly basis over multiple years. The impact of on-farm water storage is assessed for farmers who own a reservoir. A river-basin-scale hydro-economic multi-agent model is used that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under various licensing regimes. Weekly varying economic demand curves for water are calibrated based on historical climate and water use data. The model represents the trade-off between current use value and expected gains from trade to reach weekly decisions. Early results are discussed and model limitations and possible extensions are presented.

  2. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Marnie L; Wright, Nick; Wapenaar, Wendela; Jarratt, Susanne; Hobson-West, Pru; Richens, Imogen F; Kaler, Jasmeet; Buchanan, Heather; Huxley, Jonathan N; O'Connor, Heather M

    2016-10-11

    Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB) were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission). Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if disease was diagnosed on the farm already, or was occurring on other farms. Farmers described undertaking a form of personal risk assessment when deciding if practices were worth doing, which did not always involve building in disease specific factors or opinions from veterinarians or other advisors. These results indicate that further guidance about the intricacies of control and prevention principles in relation to specific animal diseases may be required, with an obvious role for veterinarians. There appears to be an opportunity for farm advisors and herd health professionals to further understand farmer beliefs behind certain attitudes and target communication and advice accordingly to further enhance dairy cattle health and welfare.

  3. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Marnie L.; Wright, Nick; Wapenaar, Wendela; Jarratt, Susanne; Hobson-West, Pru; Richens, Imogen F.; Kaler, Jasmeet; Buchanan, Heather; Huxley, Jonathan N.; O’Connor, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Further understanding of why dairy farmers do not engage in disease prevention and control strategies (biosecurity) is required. Using semi-structured interviews informed by a health psychology approach with 25 dairy farmers, a number of barriers, such as disease testing inaccuracies, types of disease transmission, perceived lack of risk and effectiveness of measures, were identified. Motivators included being advised to undertake measures by veterinarians, and the increased threat and severity of the disease in focus. These results suggest there is an advantage to farm advisors and herd health professionals understanding and working with the beliefs of individual dairy farmers to target appropriate communication and advice strategies relating to biosecurity recommendations. Abstract Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB) were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission). Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if

  4. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    61 RENMIN RIBAO Roundup of Symposium on Dr Sun Yat-sen (Jiang Shaozhen; RENMIN RIBAO, 1 Feb 85) 62 Symposium on Confucius’ Educational...and the masses was zeroed in on implementing the party’s policies. When something cropped up, people used to ask: Is this in conformity with the...and patients. CSO: 4000/108 61 JPRS-CPS-85-019 1 March 1985 NATIONAL AFFAIRS RENMIN RIBAO ROUNDUP OF SYMPOSIUM ON DR SUN YAT-SEN HK070427

  5. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    creating a new capital with a population of 100,000. Covering the entire JPRS-UPA-89-041 27 June 1989 26 PARTY, STATE AFFAIRS Ararat Valley with asphalt ...wonder and veneration, the more and the longer I ponder them. These are the star- studded sky above my head and the moral imperative inside my soul...society to defend against them and to set up LTPs. Now patients have been allowed to get visits from relatives and to wear civilian clothes; they

  6. Comparative study of MacCormack and TVD MacCormack schemes for three-dimensional separation at wing/body junctions in supersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshmanan, Balakrishnan; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1992-01-01

    A robust, discontinuity-resolving TVD MacCormack scheme containing no dependent parameters requiring adjustment is presently used to investigate the 3D separation of wing/body junction flows at supersonic speeds. Many production codes employing MacCormack schemes can be adapted to use this method. A numerical simulation of laminar supersonic junction flow is found to yield improved separation location predictions, as well as the axial velocity profiles in the separated flow region.

  7. 76 FR 59741 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; National Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... statements in response to this notice to Paula Church Albertson, Office of Trade and Labor Affairs, ILAB, U.S...; fax (202) 693- 4784. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula Church Albertson, Designated Federal... be submitted to Paula Church Albertson at the address listed above. Submissions received by October...

  8. Student Affairs Case Management: Merging Social Work Theory with Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sharrika D.; Hazelwood, Sherry; Hayden, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Case management is a functional area in higher education and student affairs that emerged after the mass shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007. Although new to higher education, case management emerged from established social work practice. This article compares social work theory and case management standards with a new case management model for…

  9. Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.…

  10. A Meta-Analytic Review of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Hakim, Amy; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2002-01-01

    Using meta analysis, examined the predictive validity of scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (C. MacAndrew, 1965). Compared results for 161 studies with results for 63 studies using cut scores. Discusses why the use of continuous measures rather than cut scores is recommended. (SLD)

  11. Paradox applications integration ATP`s for MAC and mass balance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.; Mullaney, J.E.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs.

  12. Morphological evaluation of sperm from infertile men selected by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS).

    PubMed

    Curti, Gianni; Skowronek, Fernanda; Vernochi, Rita; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Ana Laura; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Juan Carlos; Casanova, Gabriela; Sapiro, Rossana

    2014-12-01

    Electron microscopy analysis performed in five infertile human subjects after sperm selection by swim-up followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrated a decrease in the number of spermatozoa with characteristics compatible with cell death. However, no significant differences were found when the swim-up/MACS semen fraction was compared with swim-up fraction alone.

  13. High-Accuracy Compact MacCormack-Type Schemes for Computational Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.; Turkel, E.

    1998-01-01

    Using MacCormack-type methods, a new class of highly accurate compact MacCormack-type schemes is derived which does not require a tridiagonal matrix inversion to obtain the spatial derivatives. Two examples are shown, and results of these schemes for three linear and nonlinear CAA Benchmark Problems are presented.

  14. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  17. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  18. MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 lunar highland meteorites - General description and consortium overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Schwarz, Carol; Score, Roberta; Mason, Brian

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 meteorites found in nearby locations in Antarctica, which are considered to be pieces of the same meteorite, are described. MAC88104/5 is an anorthositic breccia consisting of numerous small clasts in a glassy matrix. A summary list of lunar meteorites and a review of consortium research are presented.

  19. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAC organisms are able to grow, persist, and colonize in water distribution systems and may amplify in hospital hot water systems. This study examined the response of MAC organisms (M. avium, M. intracellulare, and MX) to a range of temperatures commonly associated with drinking...

  20. Environmental Assessment for Construction/Replacement Military Family Housing- Phase 5 MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    CONTACTED Kevin Gokeman 6 CES/CEC 2610 Pink Flamingo Avenue MacDill AFB, FL 33621 1-813-828-8681 Steve Boyd 6 CES/CEPP 2610 Pink Flamingo ... Flamingo Avenue MacDill AFB, FL 33621 1-813-828-8685 DECEMBER 2003 FINAL 5-1 List of Preparers Environmental Assessment for

  1. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  2. A study of suicide in farmers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, A; Hawton, K; Simkin, S

    1997-07-01

    The proportional mortality ratio for suicide is higher in farmers than in the general population. The reasons for this are likely to be complex, but may include easy availability of firearms, stress related to work, financial difficulties, and family problems. A psychological autopsy study of suicide in 84 farmers who died between 1991-1994 is presented and some preliminary findings are discussed.

  3. Dislocated Farmers: Number, Distribution, and Impacts. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.; Olmstead, Alan L.

    This report is an overview of the current status of farmers in the U.S. economy, with an emphasis on the characteristics of displaced farmers, the reasons for their displacement, the effects of their displacement on the economy, and some policy recommendations for the future. Following an executive summary, the report is organized in five…

  4. Exposure assessment and lung function in pig and poultry farmers

    PubMed Central

    Radon, K; Weber, C; Iversen, M; Danuser, B; Pedersen, S; Nowak, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the relation between spirometric findings and farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings. Farmers have traditionally been described as having one of the most dangerous occupations, so a large scale study on European farmers was carried out. This is the report of the second part of that study.
METHODS—40 pig farmers in Denmark and 36 poultry farmers in Switzerland were chosen randomly and were assessed over 1 working day.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) baseline spirometric results in pig farmers were higher than in poultry farmers (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (% of reference value) 108.3 (16.7) v 100.2 (14.2); p=0.04). Baseline lung function results were significantly associated with ventilation of the animal houses. Furthermore, temperature was related to spirometric findings in pig farmers.
CONCLUSIONS—Ventilation of the animal house and temperature might influence respiratory morbidity in farmers.


Keywords: ventilation; micro-organism; European multicentre study PMID:11351057

  5. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... can be obtained at the Web site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL...

  6. Agricultural Mechanical Skills Needed by Farmers in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Earl S.; Knotts, Clifton Don

    This study identified skills that should be taught in the agricultural mechanics area of production vocational agriculture courses in Texas high schools. The data were obtained from questionnaires given to 50 young farmers who had been recognized by the State Association of Young Farmers of Texas for outstanding farming programs during one of the…

  7. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by three... benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA,...

  8. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY... (FAS) today accepted and began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the...: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202)...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  14. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

  15. Helping Farmers Access Farmland: New Jersey's New Land Link Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Brian J.; Marxen, Lucas J.; Everett, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Camille L.; Kimmel, David A.; Cook, Justine C.

    2015-01-01

    Access to land is a common obstacle for beginning farmers and established farmers seeking to expand their operations. Particularly in urban-influenced areas, leasing farmland is often more financially feasible than fee ownership. Locating available land or the right leasing situation, however, can be difficult. NJ Land Link (http://njlandlink.org)…

  16. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  17. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.263A-4. The cost of farm machinery, equipment, and farm buildings represents a capital investment... farmers. (a) Farms engaged in for profit. A farmer who operates a farm for profit is entitled to deduct... including the value of farm produce grown upon the farm or the labor of the taxpayer. For rules...

  18. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 1.263A-4. The cost of farm machinery, equipment, and farm buildings represents a capital investment... farmers. (a) Farms engaged in for profit. A farmer who operates a farm for profit is entitled to deduct... including the value of farm produce grown upon the farm or the labor of the taxpayer. For rules...

  19. Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

  20. [Materials for the substantiation of the biological MAC of benzene].

    PubMed

    Ulanova, I P; Avilova, G G; Karpukhina, E A; Karimova, L K; Boĭko, V I; Makar'eva, L M

    1990-09-01

    Relatively great amount of benzene-originated phenol, the presence of a definite relationship between phenol amount in the urine and benzene content in the air indicate that it is reasonable to use a phenol sample as an exposure test. To determine the intensity of benzene exposure, data on phenol content in the urine of people working at some big-tonnage enterprises has been analyzed. On the basis of the national and foreign literature data on the correlation between the phenol urine concentration and the level of benzene exposure a regression equation was deduced, which has made it possible to calculate phenol content in the urine on the level of average working day benzene concentration adopted in the USSR. This value equals 15 mg/l, which was proposed as a biological benzene MAC.

  1. Interference Analysis Status and Plans for Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Interference issues related to the operation of an aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) in the C-Band (specifically 5091-5150 MHz) is being investigated. The issue of primary interest is co-channel interference from AeroMACS into mobile-satellite system (MSS) feeder uplinks. The effort is focusing on establishing practical limits on AeroMACS transmissions from airports so that the threshold of interference into MSS is not exceeded. The analyses are being performed with the software package Visualyse Professional, developed by Transfinite Systems Limited. Results with omni-directional antennas and plans to extend the models to represent AeroMACS more accurately will be presented. These models should enable realistic analyses of emerging AeroMACS designs to be developed from NASA Test Bed, RTCA 223, and European results.

  2. MicMac GIS application: free open source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L.; Moutinho, O.; Teodoro, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS) for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery. MicMac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface (for each command). The main objective of this work was the integration of MicMac with QGIS, which is also an open source software, in order to create a new open source tool applied to photogrammetry/remote sensing. Python language was used to develop the application. This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces. The toolbar is composed by three buttons: produce the points cloud, create the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and produce the orthophoto of the study area. The application was tested considering 35 photos, a subset of images acquired by a RPAS in the Aguda beach area, Porto, Portugal. They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM. The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements. This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities.

  3. 76 FR 14371 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Farmers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Forms and Regulations AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program Financial Report (Form FNS-683); WIC Farmers'...

  4. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  5. Understanding Entry-Level Student Affairs Practitioners' Perceptions of and Involvement in Professional Development in the Student Affairs Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate entry-level student affairs practitioners' perceptions of professional development and their involvement in individualized professional development opportunities within the student affairs field. The literature review explored the founding of student affairs, a historical review of student affairs,…

  6. An Assessment Model as Best Practice in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutt, Michael D.; Garrett, J. Matthew; Lynch, John W.; Dean, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    The phrase "best practice" is used often in student affairs, but the term lacks a common and accepted definition. This results in the implementation of programs and services that are neither grounded nor assessed. A model is proposed here that suggests a best practice process that integrates foundational student affairs documents and applies the…

  7. Student Affairs Progress toward Professionalism: Recommendations for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatakos, Louis C.

    1981-01-01

    Discussed changes in the field of student affairs suggesting that they have not been as directional or significant as they should have been. Due to increasing pressures of accountability and rising professional expectations, it is recommended that student affairs personnel accept and respond to the ever-present goal of professional recognition.…

  8. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  9. Factors That Influence Attrition of New Professionals in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Jenine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to identify factors that contribute to the attrition of new professionals in the field of student affairs. Student affairs professionals report low levels of commitment to the field and depart from the field at rates ranging from 32% to 61% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chrisholm, 1983; Rosen et al., 1980; Rosser…

  10. Enhancing the Professionalisation of Student Affairs through Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    The past decades have seen an increase in the attention and focus of student affairs work in Africa. As the profession works to strengthen its reputation and value within higher education through conferences, organisations and publications, student affairs professionals can also raise the stature of the profession through work on their individual…

  11. Student Affairs Research. A National Survey Report on University Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poduska, Paul R.

    The current status of student affairs research programs at universities throughout the U.S. is examined in a survey project. The need for the development of student affairs management systems is cited. The questionnaire used in the survey covered four broad areas: (1) background information on responding institutions; (2) information about the…

  12. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials... general public and for internal audiences, in support of EPA policies and programs. The Office provides... Assistant Administrator for External Affairs and the Agency's senior policy officials in guiding...

  13. Preserving the History of a Student Affairs Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    The following is a brief overview regarding: the history and development of Student Affairs as it pertains to (a) preserving the history of a professional association, (b) value and benefits of a professional Student Affairs association, (c) establishing and assessing goals and (d) organizational development/change within a professional…

  14. College Student Concerns: Perceptions of Student Affairs Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase awareness of the perceptions of student affairs professionals regarding the most frequent and challenging concerns facing college students today. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the country were surveyed about their perceptions…

  15. Good Practice in Student Affairs: Principles To Foster Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    This book, based on the conclusions of a study of practices in college student affairs, presents nine papers which identify the best practices in student affairs, review research used to define the best practices, and give examples of how to use these practices in the field. The book is based on a 1996 meeting of an interdisciplinary study group…

  16. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed by a Director who reports to the Assistant... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials, on public affairs aspects of the Agency's activities and programs. The Office of Public...

  17. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed by a Director who reports to the Assistant... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials, on public affairs aspects of the Agency's activities and programs. The Office of Public...

  18. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed by a Director who reports to the Assistant... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials, on public affairs aspects of the Agency's activities and programs. The Office of Public...

  19. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed by a Director who reports to the Assistant... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials, on public affairs aspects of the Agency's activities and programs. The Office of Public...

  20. Responsible Student Affairs Practice: Merging Student Development and Quality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitner, Phillip A.; And Others

    The merging of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Involvement Theory into a managerial philosophy can assist student affairs professionals with an approach for conducting work that improves student affairs practice. When merged or integrated, accountability can easily be obtained because the base philosophies of qualitative research, TQM, and…

  1. The Role of Public Affairs in Special Operations and Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    QUESTIONNAIRE .......................................................................... 110 C. SOF STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE ...Special Operations Task Force LFA Lead Federal Agency PA Public Affairs PAO Public Affairs Officer vii PDD Presidential Decision Directive PMIO Post...53 TABLES Table Page 1. SOF Student Questionnaire Answers................................................................ 83 2. SOF Student

  2. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on July 15, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  3. Regional Affairs Strategist: Deliberate Development for Senior Officers?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    Columbia School of International and Public Affairs, http://sipa.columbia.edu/ about_sipa/index.html. Conway, John L., “The View from the Tower of Babel ...academic_affairs/dli_catalog/mission.htm 20 John L. Conway, “The View from the Tower of Babel ,” Air and Space Power Journal, Summer, 2005 21 Interagency

  4. Student Affairs Preparation Programs: Should They Be Accredited?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbers, Larry H.; Kruempel, Beverly J.

    1992-01-01

    Examined attitudes among leaders in the field about student affairs preparation programs and their accreditation. Findings from 257 administrators revealed significant differences among chief student affairs officers (CSAOs), deans of education, and program chairs in their attitudes toward preparation programs at their institutions. CSAOs were…

  5. A Case Study of Student Affairs in Professional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overly, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of conducting this study is to explore how student affairs professionals in professional schools acquire the knowledge and skill set to be effective in such positions. The need for such research arose after a review of the literature revealed inattention to the practice of student affairs in professional schools. Qualitative…

  6. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Fiona J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Students in the field, as well as experienced practitioners and administrators, will herein find an up-to-date and in-depth study of the major student affairs functions of a comprehensive campus program. Within its covers, the graduate student will find chapters describing everything the person new to student affairs needs to know about the major…

  7. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75 Section 952.204-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs....

  8. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75 Section 952.204-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs....

  9. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75 Section 952.204-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs....

  10. Why Do They Leave? Departure from the Student Affairs Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Tara E.

    2013-01-01

    Departure among student affairs administrators in higher education has been an issue for decades (Evans, 1988; Lorden, 1998; Tull, 2006). Rates of departure from student affairs within the first five years of experience are estimated at 50% to 60% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chisholm, 1983; Lorden, 1998; Tull, 2006). However, there is very little…

  11. Continuing Education Director's Guide to Informal Education for Public Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Special Continuing Education.

    This guide for the director of continuing education focuses upon stimulating participation in civic and public affairs education. Suggestions are given as to: (1) how to write publicity releases concerning public affairs programs; (2) which audio-visual aids should be used in a given situation; (3) how field trips can be used most effectively; (4)…

  12. Helping Competencies of Student Affairs Professionals: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather student affairs professionals' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed to effectively help students. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the United States were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the helping skills they use…

  13. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  14. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  15. Perceptions of Assessment Competency among New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jaimie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Due to the declining state of the current economy, a greater demand is being placed on student affairs professionals to provide evidence of the success of their programs, their impact on student learning and development and overall contributions to the undergraduate learning experience. It is a growing imperative that student affairs professionals…

  16. The Organizational Realities of Student Affairs: A Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Jeremiah B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the organizational functions of student-affairs at Indiana University and to understand the nature of the conflict between student-affairs and the larger organization. This study utilized the case-study research design. Much of the data collected and analyzed during this case study were of a historical…

  17. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area... section shall be enforced by the Commander, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida, and/or such persons...

  18. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Never-Smoking Dairy Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Work-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a considerable part of the disease burden globally. Objective : To assess the COPD prevalence and characteristics in never-smoking dairy farmers. Materials and Methodology : We have conducted a cross-sectional study with 75 male dairy farmers aged 26 to 59 years, and compared them with equivalent number of male office workers similar by age, and duration of employment. Data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job history and daily activities were obtained by questionnaire. Lung functional testing of the examined subjects included baseline spirometry, and bronchodilator reversibility measurement. Results : Dairy farmers showed higher prevalence of overall respiratory symptoms, but significant difference was noticed for cough, phlegm, and dyspnea. Dairy farmers had more prevalent work-related respiratory symptoms, being significant for overall symptoms, cough, and phlegm. The mean baseline values of spirometric parameters were lower in dairy farmers, but significance was reported for FEV1/FVC%, MEF50, MEF75, and MEF25-75. Dairy farmers had significantly higher COPD prevalence than office controls (10.7% vs 2.7%, P = 0,049). Dairy farmers and office controls showed significant association between COPD and age over 45 years. Dairy farmers had a significant association between COPD and employment duration of over 20 years (P = 0.023), but also between COPD and work-related chronic respiratory symptoms (P = 0.041). Conclusion : The study findings favor the cause-effect association between job exposure to respiratory hazards, and development of persistent airway obstruction among dairy farmers. PMID:25893027

  19. A cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol supporting a pipeline feature for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon

    2011-01-01

    Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  20. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon

    2011-01-01

    Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency. PMID:22163895

  1. A tale of two mitochondrial channels, MAC and PTP, in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kinnally, Kathleen W; Antonsson, Bruno

    2007-05-01

    The crucial step in the intrinsic, or mitochondrial, apoptotic pathway is permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Permeabilization triggers release of apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c, from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol where these factors ensure propagation of the apoptotic cascade and execution of cell death. However, the mechanism(s) underlying permeabilization of the outer membrane remain controversial. Two mechanisms, involving opening of two different mitochondrial channels, have been proposed to be responsible for the permeabilization; the permeability transition pore (PTP) in the inner membrane and the mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel (MAC) in the outer membrane. Opening of PTP would lead to matrix swelling, subsequent rupture of the outer membrane, and an unspecific release of intermembrane proteins into the cytosol. However, many believe PTP opening is a consequence of apoptosis and this channel is thought to principally play a role in necrosis, not apoptosis. Activation of MAC is exquisitely regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins, which are the sentinels of apoptosis. MAC provides specific pores in the outer membrane for the passage of intermembrane proteins, in particular cytochrome c, to the cytosol. The electrophysiological characteristics of MAC are very similar to Bax channels and depletion of Bax significantly diminishes MAC activity, suggesting that Bax is an essential constituent of MAC in some systems. The characteristics of various mitochondrial channels and Bax are compared. The involvement of MAC and PTP activities in apoptosis of disease and their pharmacology are discussed.

  2. LFA-1 is sufficient in mediating neutrophil emigration in Mac-1-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, H; Smith, C W; Perrard, J; Bullard, D; Tang, L; Shappell, S B; Entman, M L; Beaudet, A L; Ballantyne, C M

    1997-01-01

    To better define the specific function of Mac-1 (CD11b) versus LFA-1 (CD11a) and the other CD11 integrins in vivo, we have disrupted murine CD11b by targeted homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and generated mice which are homozygous for a mutation in CD11b. A null mutation was confirmed by Southern blotting, RNase protection assay, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Neutrophils isolated from mice deficient in Mac-1 were defective in adherence to keyhole limpet hemocyanin-coated glass, iC3b-mediated phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. When challenged by thioglycollate intraperitoneally, Mac-1-deficient mice had similar levels of neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneal cavity at 1, 2, and 4 h. Treatment with mAb to LFA-1 blocked 78% of neutrophil accumulation in Mac-1-deficient mice and 58% in wild-type mice. Neutrophil emigration into the peritoneal cavity 16 h after the implantation of fibrinogen-coated disks was not reduced in Mac-1-deficient mice whereas neutrophil adhesion to the fibrinogen-coated disks was reduced by > 90%. Neutrophils from Mac-1-deficient mice also showed reduced degranulation. Our results demonstrate that Mac-1 plays a critical role in mediating binding of neutrophils to fibrinogen and neutrophil degranulation, but is not necessary for effective neutrophil emigration, which is more dependent upon LFA-1. PMID:9077544

  3. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  4. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  5. Redefining Student Affairs through Digital Technology: A Ten-Year Historiography of Digital Technology Use by Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    The student affairs profession is at a crossroads (Torres & Walbert, 2010) given digital technology's growth and the academy's administrative expansion (Bowen, 2013). Student affairs administrators must simultaneously respond to digital technology's implications in students' lives (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) and to new state and federal…

  6. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  7. Localization of the membrane attack complex (MAC) in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The role of the membrane attack complex (MAC) as a mediator of renal tissue injury was evaluated in rats affected by bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced immune complex glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed concurrent deposits of IgG, BSA, C3, and the MAC along glomerular capillary walls, although the MAC manifested a more restricted distribution than that observed for immune complexes. Immunoelectron microscopic techniques were utilized to demonstrate immune complexes, C3, and the MAC within dense deposits in the subepithelial aspect of the basement membrane. Visceral epithelial foot processes were fused in areas overlying large dense deposits and exhibited intense staining for the MAC, lesser reactivity for C3 but IgG was absent from the foot process membranes. Smaller granular deposits of immune complexes, C3, and the MAC were observed in the subendothelial region of the lamina rara interna and the lamina densa. Immune complexes may activate the classical complement pathway causing diffuse injury to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), allowing subepithelial accumulation of complexes. These observations implicate the MAC as a mediator of GBM and juxtaposed podocyte membrane injury, thereby contributing to disruption of the glomerular filtration barrier. IgG and C3 were demonstrated within tubulointerstitial regions on the surface of collagen fibers in close proximity to the tubular basement membrane (TBM) of proximal convoluted tubules. Within the TBM, C3 localization was prominent with diminished reactivity for the MAC, but IgG was not detectable. The demonstration of C3 and scant MAC deposits in the TBM of nonimmunized control rats without evidence of interstitial IgG and C3 deposits suggests that both nonimmune and immune processes play a role in the pathogenesis of extraglomerular lesions. Evidence derived from these morphologic studies indicates that the MAC is associated with injury to the GBM, foot process membranes of visceral

  8. MAC to VAX Connectivity: Heartrate Spectral Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan H.; Faruque, Monazer

    1993-01-01

    The heart rate Spectral Analysis System (SAS) acquires and analyzes, in real-time, the Space Shuttle onboard electrocardiograph (EKG) experiment signals, calculates the heartrate, and applies a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) to the heart rate. The system also calculates other statistical parameters such as the 'mean heart rate' over specific time period and heart rate histogram. This SAS is used by NASA Principal Investigators as a research tool to determine the effects of weightlessness on the human cardiovascular system. This is also used to determine if Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) is an effective countermeasure to the orthostatic intolerance experienced by astronauts upon return to normal gravity. In microgravity, astronauts perform the LBNP experiment in the mid deck of the Space Shuttle. The experiment data are downlinked by the orbiter telemetry system, then processed and analyzed in real-time by the integrated Life Sciences Data Acquisition (LSDS) - Spectral Analysis System. The data system is integrated within the framework of two different computer systems, VAX and Macintosh (Mac), using the networking infrastructure to assist the investigators in further understanding the most complex machine on Earth--the human body.

  9. MAC protocol for an ATM-based SuperPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, John D.; Koulouris, John; Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.

    1996-11-01

    Developments in optical amplifiers and the tendency towards fewer and larger switching stages made feasible and desirable the concept of SuperPONs with a range of 100km. Up to 15000 residential customers can share the SuperPON on a TDMA basis lowering the cost of access to B-ISDN services. Tree PONs require a MAC protocol to arbitrate the access to upstream slots among the competing customer ATM cells in a dynamic and efficient way. The protocol presented in this work combines different access mechanisms according to service quality requirements. All bursty traffic is manipulated transparently using a reservation approach with closed loop control so as to handle the unpredictability of arrivals. In contrast, voice, N-ISDN and other delay sensitive services are provided with unsolicited access permits. In addition, composite cells offered quasi- synchronous permits are used to support STM legacy traffic without echo-cancellers. So, ABR traffic which is delay tolerant and more cost sensitive, can and should be concentrated with full exploitation of multiplexing gain prospects. The permit distribution algorithm focuses on cell spacing, control of CDV, almost jitter free access for synchronous traffic and efficiency for ABR traffic.

  10. Sandbox for Mac Malware v 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Walkup, Elizabeth

    2016-05-19

    This software is an analyzer for automated sandbox analysis of malware on the OS X operating system. It runs inside an OS X virtual machine to collect data about what happens when a given file is opened or run. As of August 2014, there was no sandbox software for Mac OS X malware, as it requires different methods from those used on the Windows OS (which most sandboxes are written for). This software adds OS X analysis capabilities to an existing open-source sandbox, Cuckoo Sandbox (http://cuckoosandbox.org/), which previously only worked for Windows. The analyzer itself can take many different types of files as input: the traditional Mach-O and FAT executables, .app files, zip files, Python scripts, Java archives, and web pages, as well as PDFs and other documents. While the file is running, the analyzer also simulates rudimentary human interaction with clicks and mouse movements in order to bypass the tests some malware use to see if they are being analyzed. The analyzer outputs several different kinds of data: function call traces, network captures, screenshots, and all created and modified files. This work also includes a static analysis Cuckoo module for Mach-O binary files. It extracts file structures, code library imports and exports, and signatures. This data can be used along with the analyzer results to create signatures for malware.

  11. Pliable Cognitive MAC for Heterogeneous Adaptive Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Borhanuddin Mohd; Sali, Aduwati

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of wireless monitoring and surveillance applications in several domains reinforces the trend of exploiting emerging technologies such as the cognitive radio. However, these technologies have to adjust their working concepts to consider the common characteristics of conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN), still an immature technology, has to deal with new networks that might have different types of data, traffic patterns, or quality of service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we design and model a new cognitive radio-based medium access control (MAC) algorithm dealing with the heterogeneous nature of the developed networks in terms of either the traffic pattern or the required QoS for the node applications. The proposed algorithm decreases the consumed power on several fronts, provides satisfactory levels of latency and spectrum utilization with efficient scheduling, and manages the radio resources for various traffic conditions. An intensive performance evaluation is conducted to study the impact of key parameters such as the channel idle time length, node density, and the number of available channels. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows a better performance than the comparable protocols. Moreover, the results manifest that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real time monitoring applications. PMID:27257964

  12. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  13. A MAC Protocol to Support Monitoring of Underwater Spaces.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Ochoa, Sergio F; Meseguer, Roc; Eggly, Gabriel; Pistonesi, Marcelo F

    2016-06-27

    Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of their everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills), oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geolocalization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. The challenge of performing underwater communications is well known, provided that radio signals are useless in this medium, and a wired solution is too expensive. Therefore, the sensors in these networks transmit their information using acoustic signals that propagate well under water. This data transmission type not only brings an opportunity, but also several challenges to the implementation of these networks, e.g., in terms of energy consumption, data transmission and signal interference. In order to help advance the knowledge in the design and implementation of these networks for monitoring underwater spaces, this paper proposes a MAC protocol for acoustic communications between the nodes, based on a self-organized time division multiple access mechanism. The proposal was evaluated using simulations of a real monitoring scenario, and the obtained results are highly encouraging.

  14. A MAC Protocol to Support Monitoring of Underwater Spaces †

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Meseguer, Roc; Eggly, Gabriel; Pistonesi, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of their everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills), oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geolocalization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. The challenge of performing underwater communications is well known, provided that radio signals are useless in this medium, and a wired solution is too expensive. Therefore, the sensors in these networks transmit their information using acoustic signals that propagate well under water. This data transmission type not only brings an opportunity, but also several challenges to the implementation of these networks, e.g., in terms of energy consumption, data transmission and signal interference. In order to help advance the knowledge in the design and implementation of these networks for monitoring underwater spaces, this paper proposes a MAC protocol for acoustic communications between the nodes, based on a self-organized time division multiple access mechanism. The proposal was evaluated using simulations of a real monitoring scenario, and the obtained results are highly encouraging. PMID:27355950

  15. Modified pterional craniotomy without "MacCarty keyhole".

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Samuel; Mizrahi, Cezar José; Margolin, Emil; Spektor, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    Pterional craniotomy is one of the most widely used approaches in neurosurgery. The MacCarty keyhole has remained the preferred means of beginning the craniotomy to achieve a low access point; however, the bone opening may result in a residual defect and an aesthetically unpleasant depression in the periorbital area. We present our modification of the traditional technique. Instead of drilling the keyhole in the frontoperiorbital area, the classical location, we perform a 5 × 15 mm strip craniectomy at the lowest accessible point in the infratemporal fossa, corresponding to the projection of the most lateral point of the sphenoid ridge. The anterior half of this opening exposes the basal frontal dura, while the posterior half brings the temporal dura into view. This modified technique was applied in 48 pterional craniotomies performed for removal of a variety of neoplasms during 2014-2015. There were no approach-related complications. Aesthetic outcomes and patient acceptance have been good; no patient developed skin depression in the periorbital area. In our experience, craniotomy for a pterional approach with the lowest possible access to the frontotemporal skull base may be performed by drilling a narrow oblong opening, without the use of any keyhole or burr hole, to create a smaller skull defect and achieve optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  16. Bessemer, AL receives Technical Assistance to Start Farmers Market

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Bessemer, AL has been selected as one of 27 rural community projects across the country to participate in Local Foods, Local Places, a federal initiative that helps communities increase economic opportunities for local farmers and related

  17. Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

    2000-01-01

    A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

  18. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  19. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  20. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  1. How diverse a farmer-managed wheat landrace can be?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation in phenological, quantitative and qualitative traits was assessed in geographically-isolated, farmer-managed wheat landrace populations grown under subsistence farming conditions. Several multivariate, genetic diversity and sequential equation modeling procedures were used to bu...

  2. Soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues: Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Falco, Salvatore; Zoupanidou, Elisavet

    2017-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues. We use a large, original, farm-level panel dataset. Findings indicate that both crop biodiversity and soil fertility have positive effects on farmers' revenues. It is also shown that crop biodiversity and soil fertility may act as substitutes. These results provide evidence for the important role of diversity in the resilience of agroecosystems. Crop diversification can be a potential strategy to support productivity when soils are less fertile.

  3. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  4. Public Affairs: Maintaining Credibility While Evolving with Strategic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    Department, 2004), 17. 22 Pamela Keeton and Mark McCann, “Information Operations, STRATCOM, and Public Affairs,” Military Review 85, Iss. 6 (November...Public Affairs Doctrine,” 92. 29 Scanlon, “Military Public Affairs Doctrine,” 95. 30 Keeton and McCann, “Information Operations,” 83-84. 31 Andrew...United States,” Joint Force Quarterly 39, (4th Quarter 2005): 108-114. Keeton , Pamela and Mark McCann. “Information Operations, STRATCOM, and

  5. Adaptive low-power listening MAC protocol based on transmission rates.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kwang-il; Yi, Gangman

    2014-01-01

    Even though existing low-power listening (LPL) protocols have enabled ultra-low-power operation in wireless sensor networks (WSN), they do not address trade-off between energy and delay, since they focused only on energy aspect. However, in recent years, a growing interest in various WSN applications is requiring new design factors, such as minimum delay and higher reliability, as well as energy efficiency. Therefore, in this paper we propose a novel sensor multiple access control (MAC) protocol, transmission rate based adaptive low-power listening MAC protocol (TRA-MAC), which is a kind of preamble-based LPL but is capable of controlling preamble sensing cycle adaptively to transmission rates. Through experiments, it is demonstrated that TRA-MAC enables LPL cycle (LC) and preamble transmission length to adapt dynamically to varying transmission rates, compensating trade-off between energy and response time.

  6. BIG MAC: A bolometer array for mid-infrared astronomy, Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, C. M.; Decher, R.; Baugher, C.

    1985-01-01

    The infrared array referred to as Big Mac (for Marshall Array Camera), was designed for ground based astronomical observations in the wavelength range 5 to 35 microns. It contains 20 discrete gallium-doped germanium bolometer detectors at a temperature of 1.4K. Each bolometer is irradiated by a square field mirror constituting a single pixel of the array. The mirrors are arranged contiguously in four columns and five rows, thus defining the array configuration. Big Mac utilized cold reimaging optics and an up looking dewar. The total Big Mac system also contains a telescope interface tube for mounting the dewar and a computer for data acquisition and processing. Initial astronomical observations at a major infrared observatory indicate that Big Mac performance is excellent, having achieved the design specifications and making this instrument an outstanding tool for astrophysics.

  7. Austin MacCormick and the Education of Adult Prisoners: Still Relevant Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, Isabel

    1997-01-01

    Austin MacCormick's 1931 model for correctional education is applicable in today's prisons. It describes the program, facilities, teaching staff, and curriculum, which includes literacy, math, social sciences, health, vocational, social, and cultural education. (SK)

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, 1934, DETAIL OF CORNICE (SOUTH ELEVATION). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF MANTEL (PARLOR -- SOUTH WALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  10. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF STAIR (1st STORY -- REAR HALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  11. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 23, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 23, 1934, DETAIL OF MANTEL (LIVING ROOM -- WEST WALL). - Edwin Forrest House, 436 West Twenty-second Street, New York County, NY

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 23, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 23, 1934, DETAIL OF DOORWAY (LIVING ROOM -- NORTH WALL). - Edwin Forrest House, 436 West Twenty-second Street, New York County, NY

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 10, 1934, DETAIL OF PORTICO (FROM SOUTHWEST). - Old Leake & Watts Orphanage, Amsterdam Avenue & 110th Street, New York County, NY

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 DETAIL OF STAIR (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  17. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 DETAIL OF STAIR, DOOR AND COLUMNS (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  18. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 INSIDE STAIR (LOOKING SOUTH). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  19. Industrial WSN Based on IR-UWB and a Low-Latency MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Rafael; Underberg, Lisa; Wulf, Armin; Kays, Ruediger

    2016-07-01

    Wireless sensor networks for industrial communication require high reliability and low latency. As current wireless sensor networks do not entirely meet these requirements, novel system approaches need to be developed. Since ultra wideband communication systems seem to be a promising approach, this paper evaluates the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 impulse-radio ultra-wideband physical layer and the IEEE 802.15.4 Low Latency Deterministic Network (LLDN) MAC for industrial applications. Novel approaches and system adaptions are proposed to meet the application requirements. In this regard, a synchronization approach based on circular average magnitude difference functions (CAMDF) and on a clean template (CT) is presented for the correlation receiver. An adapted MAC protocol titled aggregated low latency (ALL) MAC is proposed to significantly reduce the resulting latency. Based on the system proposals, a hardware prototype has been developed, which proves the feasibility of the system and visualizes the real-time performance of the MAC protocol.

  20. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  1. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  2. Use of Different Information Sources for Decision Making by Traditional Farmers in a Progressive Knowledge System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1989-01-01

    A study determined the use of different information sources for decision making used by traditional Arab farmers in Israel. A questionnaire was used to interview 48 farmers from 4 villages in the Nazareth region and 56 farmers from 5 villages in the Gaza strip in their homes. Farmers were asked to name major innovations they had adopted during the…

  3. Orphan boy the farmer: evaluating folktales to teach safety to Hmong farmers.

    PubMed

    Schermann, Michele A; Bartz, Penny; Shutske, John M; Moua, MaiKia; Vue, Pa Chia; Lee, Tou Thai

    2007-01-01

    Many Hmong refugees continue their cultural tradition of farming in the United States. The purpose of this project was to evaluate culturally based storytelling as a method to convey farming safety information to Hmong families. Hmong have an oral tradition; spoken stories are used to teach about heritage, as well as personal and social values, and end with a lesson or moral that can apply to their lives. Stories from "Orphan Boy the Farmer" illustrate hazards, behaviors, consequences, and control strategies related to farm work typical of Hmong farming in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The message of the 3 stories is that the successful farmer works safely and keeps his children safe from injury. Three stories were read, in Hmong, at 6 events in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Data were collected from 118 participants using focus group discussions. Transcripts were translated and analyzed to identify ideas and reactions to the stories expressed by participants. Findings indicate that storytelling was an appealing delivery method for most of the participants of this study. Participants were able to recount story content pertaining to farming safety and relate messages to their experiences dealing with hazards; unanticipated findings uncovered barriers to adopting safe practices. Several aspects of the storytelling performance influence its effectiveness. Development of folktale content and implementation of storytelling performances are described.

  4. John MacCulloch, MD (1773-1835): a dedicated geologist.

    PubMed

    Hull, Gillian

    2007-11-01

    The teaching in Scottish medical schools in the second half of the 18th century had a reputation that stretched far beyond Britain. Edinburgh attracted students not only for its high academic standards but also for its freedom from religious constraints and its developing interest in the sciences. John MacCulloch was taught at Edinburgh by Joseph Black (1728-99) who had chosen chemistry as a career rather than medicine. Already MacCulloch's enquiring mind ranged over many subjects.

  5. The Macolumn - the Mac gets geophysical. [A review of geophysical software for the Apple Macintosh computer

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B. )

    1990-02-01

    Seismic Processing Workshop, a program by Parallel Geosciences of Austin, TX, is discussed in this column. The program is a high-speed, interactive seismic processing and computer analysis system for the Apple Macintosh II family of computers. Also reviewed in this column are three products from Wilkerson Associates of Champaign, IL. SubSide is an interactive program for basin subsidence analysis; MacFault and MacThrustRamp are programs for modeling faults.

  6. Evaluation of a High-Accuracy MacCormack-Type Scheme Using Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.

    1997-01-01

    Due to their inherent dissipation and stability, the MacCormack scheme and its variants have been widely used in the computation of unsteady flow and acoustic problems. However, these schemes require many points per wavelength in order to propagate waves with a reasonable amount of accuracy. In this work, the linear wave propagation characteristics of MacCormack-type schemes are shown by solving several of the CAA Benchmark Problems.

  7. The Operational Leadership of General Douglas MacArthur in OPERATION CHROMITE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. The Operational Leadership of General Douglas MacArthur in OPERATION CHROMITE by Judie A. Heineman Commander, United...Operations. The contents of this paper reflect my own personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the Naval War College or the Department of...MacArthur in Operation Chromite 9. Personal Author: Judie Ann Heineman, Commander, United States Navy 10.Type of Report: FINAL 11. Date of Report: 13

  8. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT... of farmer or vendor (i.e., fruit, vegetable, herb, baker) and secondly, on the specific types...

  9. Delayed wound healing in Mac-1-deficient mice is associated with normal monocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sisco, Mark; Chao, Jerome D; Kim, Injoong; Mogford, Jon E; Mayadas, Tanya N; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    The Mac-1 integrin is an important mediator of migration and inflammatory activation of neutrophils and monocytes. However, the role of Mac-1 in modulating macrophage emigration and activation and its subsequent impact on cutaneous wound healing have not been fully elucidated. To examine the significance of Mac-1 to murine wound healing, we measured epithelialization and granulation tissue formation in partial-thickness ear wounds and full-thickness head wounds, respectively, in Mac-1-deficient mice. Wounds were histologically analyzed at postwounding days 3, 5, and 7. The gap measured between the leading edges of inward-migrating granulation tissue was significantly increased in knockout mice compared with control animals at day 5 (3.8+/-0.3 vs. 2.6+/-0.5 mm; p<0.001) and day 7 (2.2+/-0.4 vs. 0.96+/-0.73 mm; p=0.005). Epithelial gap measurements were also increased in knockout mice vs. wild-type controls at days 3 (0.62+/-0.02 vs. 0.54+/-0.07 mm; p<0.05) and 5 (0.58+/-0.06 vs. 0.39+/-0.08 mm; p<0.001). Immunohistochemistry showed equal numbers of macrophages in knockout and control wounds. These findings show that Mac-1 is required for normal wound healing but that the attenuation in the deposition of granulation tissue and wound epithelialization in Mac-1 knockout mice is not associated with decreased monocyte migration into the wound.

  10. Considerations for Improving the Capacity and Performance of AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has progressed from concept through prototype development, testing, and standards development and is now poised for the first operational deployments at nine US airports by the Federal Aviation Administration. These initial deployments will support fixed applications. Mobile applications providing connectivity to and from aircraft and ground-based vehicles on the airport surface will occur at some point in the future. Given that many fixed applications are possible for AeroMACS, it is necessary to now consider whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS will be reached even before the mobile applications are ready to be added, since AeroMACS is constrained by both available bandwidth and transmit power limitations. This paper describes some concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity of AeroMACS, with a particular emphasis on gains that can be derived from the addition of IEEE 802.16j multihop relays to the AeroMACS standard, where a significant analysis effort has been undertaken.

  11. Functional implications of an intermeshing cogwheel-like interaction between TolC and MacA in the action of macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-04-15

    Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC α-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC α-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA α-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the α-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel.

  12. Healthier land, healthier farmers: considering the potential of natural resource management as a place-focused farmer health intervention.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Jacki; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V

    2013-11-01

    Farmers have particular wellbeing-related vulnerabilities that conventional health interventions struggle to address. We consider the potential of natural resource management (NRM) programs, which reach large numbers of farmers, as non-conventional place-focused wellbeing interventions. Although designed to address environmental degradation, NRM can influence the wellbeing of farmers. We used qualitative meta-synthesis to reanalyse studies examining social dimensions of NRM in Australia and generate a theoretical framework identifying potential pathways between NRM and wellbeing, intended to inform subsequent empirical work. Our results suggest NRM programs influence several important determinants of farmer wellbeing, in particular social capital, self-efficacy, social identity, material wellbeing, and health itself. The pathways by which NRM influences these determinants are mediated by distal factors such as changes in land conditions, farmer skills and knowledge and resources accessible to farmers. These, in turn, are moderated by the design and delivery of NRM programs, suggesting potential to enhance the health benefits of NRM through specific attention to program design.

  13. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  14. Information Operations and Public Affairs: A Union of Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    information operations at the strategic and operational levels of war, they should consider the public context of the debate. Further, they should take...interpret the guidance and therefore organize differently. The conviction that public affairs and information operations are oil and water and do not...doctrine and the variations in information operations and public affairs doctrine at all levels . The Air Force has the most collaborative and coordinated

  15. Identification of a copper-induced intramolecular interaction in the transcription factor Mac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, L T; Winge, D R

    1998-01-01

    Mac1 mediates copper (Cu)-dependent expression of genes involved in high-affinity uptake of copper ions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mac1 is a transcriptional activator in Cu-deficient cells, but is inhibited in Cu-replete cells. Mac1 resides within the nucleus in both Cu-deficient and Cu-loaded cells. Cu inhibition of Mac1 appears to result from binding of eight copper ions within a C-terminal segment consisting of two Cys-rich motifs. In addition, two zinc ions are bound within the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Only 4-5 mol. eq. Cu are bound to a mutant Mac1 (His279Gln substitution) that is impervious to Cu inhibition. The CuMac1 complex is luminescent, indicative of copper bound in the Cu(I) state. Cu binding induces a molecular switch resulting in an intramolecular interaction in Mac1 between the N-terminal DNA-binding domain and the C-terminal activation domain. This allosteric interaction is Cu dependent and is not observed when Mac1 contained the mutant His279Gln substitution. Fusion of the minimal DNA-binding domain of Mac1 (residues 1-159) to the minimal Cu-binding activation domain (residues 252-341) yields a functional Cu-regulated transcriptional activator. These results suggest that Cu repression of Mac1 arises from a Cu-induced intramolecular interaction that inhibits both DNA binding and transactivation activities. PMID:9736617

  16. Smallholder farmers' behavioural intentions towards sustainable agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Zeweld, Woldegebrial; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Tesfay, Girmay; Speelman, Stijn

    2017-02-01

    The introduction of sustainable practices is considered a win-win strategy for low-income countries because of its potential to simultaneously improve food security and address environmental issues. Despite the numerous studies that focus on the adoption of technological innovations, little work has been done on the socio-psychological behaviour of farmers with regard to sustainable practices. This study investigates smallholder farmers' intentions towards two practices: minimum tillage and row planting. The decomposed theory of planned behaviour is used as a theoretical framework to analyse the intentions. The findings reveal that attitudes and normative issues positively explain farmers' intentions to adopt both practices. Perceived control also has a positive significant effect on the intention to apply minimum tillage. When the intention is formed, farmers are expected to carry out their intention when opportunities arise. Moreover, perceived usefulness, social capital, and perceived ease of operation are also significant predictors of farmers' attitudes. Furthermore, social capital and training are factors that positively affect the normative issue, which in turn also positively mediates the relationship between training, social capital and intention. Finally, it is shown that neither the perceived resources nor information from the media significantly affect farmers' intentions. This paper thus confirms that social capital, personal efficacy, training and perceived usefulness play significant roles in the decision to adopt sustainable practices. In addition, willingness to adopt seems to be limited by negative attitudes and by weak normative issues. Therefore, to improve adoption of sustainable practices by smallholder farmers, attention should be given to socio-psychological issues. This could lead to improvements in farm productivity and enhance the livelihoods of smallholders.

  17. Status of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization. Hearing Before the United States Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, 95th Congress, 2nd Session on Oversight on the Status of the Reorganization of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The objective of the August 16, 1978, United States Senate hearing was to determine reorganization plans for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs, two Deputy Secretaries, and Mr. Charles Trimble of the United Effort Trust testified before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. The…

  18. Social theory and current affairs: a framework for intellectual engagement.

    PubMed

    Stones, Rob

    2014-06-01

    The paper aims to facilitate more adequate critical engagement with current affairs events by journalists, and with current affairs texts by audiences. It draws on social theory to provide the intellectual resources to enable this. The academic ambition is for the framework to be adopted and developed by social thinkers in producing exemplary critical readings of news and current affairs texts. To this end it is offered as a research paradigm. The paper situates its argument in relation to the wider literature in media and cultural studies, acknowledging the subtle skills required to appreciate the relative autonomy of texts. However, it draws attention to the lack of an adequate perspective with which to assess the frames, representations, and judgments within news and current affairs texts. To address this lacuna it proposes the conception of a social-theoretical frame, based on a number of meta-theoretical approaches, designed to provide audiences with a systematic means of addressing the status and adequacy of individual texts. Social theoretical frames can reveal the shortcomings of media framing of the contextual fields within which news and current affairs events take place. Two illustrative case studies are used to indicate the value and potential of the approach: the analysis of a short newspaper report of the return of protesters to Cairo's Tahrir Square in 2011, and a critique of four current affairs reports from various genres on the political turmoil in Thailand leading up to the clashes of May 2010.

  19. THE FUTURE FARMER OF TODAY IS THE SUCCESSFUL FARMER OF TOMORROW, AN AUTHORITATIVE REPORT ON THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND THE ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Farmers of America, Washington, DC.

    A SYNOPSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNICATIONS BEHAVIOR OF ADOPTERS OF NEW FARM IDEAS, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO HOW AN AGGRESSIVE MARKETING PROGRAM CAN BE KEYED TO THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS IS PRESENTED. THE DIFFUSION PROCESS INVOLVES THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS FROM THE SOURCES OF DEVELOPMENT TO THE ADOPTER THROUGH…

  20. Is the Use of Video Conferencing and Supporting Technologies a Feasible and Viable Way to Woo Farmers Back into Farmer Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; Fraser, Tom

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota State University (USA) have been using video conferencing as a delivery mode for farmer education for about twenty years and report that their farmers find this delivery method both practical and worthwhile. With the number of New Zealand farmers attending learning events decreasing, due mainly to time and cost, maybe it is time to…

  1. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation.

  2. Farmers' confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Enticott, G; Maye, D; Ilbery, B; Fisher, R; Kirwan, J

    2012-02-25

    This paper examines UK farmers' levels of confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and their trust in the Government's ability to deal with bTB. In 2010, a badger vaccine based on the BCG vaccine was licensed following field trials and used as part of the UK Government's Badger Vaccination Deployment Project. A stratified random sample of cattle farmers in five different locations of England was surveyed using a telephone survey to elicit their views of badger vaccination. The survey provided a total of 341 responses with a response rate of 80 per cent. Results suggest that the farmers are cautious about badger vaccination, appearing to be neither overly confident nor unconfident in it. However, the farmers did not reveal high levels of trust in the Government to manage bTB policy or badger vaccination. There were no differences in the levels of confidence or trust between farms that were under bTB restrictions at the time of the survey and those that were not or between farms with historically high levels of bTB. Analysis of principal components suggests that 33 per cent of the farmers accepted badger vaccination, but that acceptance is dependent on the wider social and political environment.

  3. Cadmium levels in kidney cortex in Swedish farmers

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, U.; Schuetz, A.; Bensryd, I.; Nilsson, A.; Skerfving, S.; Mattsson, S.

    2000-01-01

    The cadmium levels in kidney cortex (K-Cd) did not differ statistically between 10 nonsmoking farmers from the south of Sweden, who had a high intake of locally produced food and who were affected by acid precipitation (as indicated by low pH in the drinking water from their private wells) and 10 farmers less affected. Neither did 10 farmers selected because of high blood cadmium (B-Cd) differ from 10 with low [medians: K-Cd, 15 vs 9 {micro}g/g; B-Cd, 2.6 vs 1.3 nmol/L (0.29 vs 0.14 {micro}g/L)]. In all 40 farmers, there was an increase of urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) with decreasing drinking water pH. Further, K-Cd increased with rising B-Cd, and both B-Cd, and U-Cd rose with increasing age. Further, there was an association between U-Cd and B-Cd. The authors could not demonstrate with certainty any effect of the acid precipitation on the cadmium retention in the farmers, although the association between U-Cd and drinking water pH deserves further study.

  4. Puumala virus infections in Finland: increased occupational risk for farmers.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, K; Paunio, M; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Vaheri, A; Vapalahti, O

    1999-06-15

    Puumala hantavirus, transmitted by bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), causes a mild-type hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The disease is common in Finland and is considered an occupational hazard for farmers, but the actual risk has not been assessed by analytical studies. Data on 5,132 serologically confirmed Puumala virus infections during 1989-1994 were analyzed, and cases among farmers and the population living in similar conditions were compared. The farmers contracted the disease earlier and more often than did the comparison group. In the province of Mikkeli with the highest incidence (70/100,000), the risk ratio was 5.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-8.4) for 20- to 29-year-old farmers; in the older age groups, the risk was still increased but the risk ratios were lower. The peak incidence in the comparison group was 10 years later (age group 30-39 years). For the whole country, the result was similar although less marked. The average risk ratio adjusted by age, sex, and geographic variation was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.8) for the whole country and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.3) for the Mikkeli province, where 80% of Puumala virus infections among young farmers could be estimated to be attributable to occupation.

  5. Closing yield gaps in China by empowering smallholder farmers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Cao, Guoxin; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Liu, Quanqing; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Shen, Jianbo; Jiang, Rongfeng; Mi, Guohua; Miao, Yuxin; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2016-09-29

    Sustainably feeding the world's growing population is a challenge, and closing yield gaps (that is, differences between farmers' yields and what are attainable for a given region) is a vital strategy to address this challenge. The magnitude of yield gaps is particularly large in developing countries where smallholder farming dominates the agricultural landscape. Many factors and constraints interact to limit yields, and progress in problem-solving to bring about changes at the ground level is rare. Here we present an innovative approach for enabling smallholders to achieve yield and economic gains sustainably via the Science and Technology Backyard (STB) platform. STB involves agricultural scientists living in villages among farmers, advancing participatory innovation and technology transfer, and garnering public and private support. We identified multifaceted yield-limiting factors involving agronomic, infrastructural, and socioeconomic conditions. When these limitations and farmers' concerns were addressed, the farmers adopted recommended management practices, thereby improving production outcomes. In one region in China, the five-year average yield increased from 67.9% of the attainable level to 97.0% among 71 leading farmers, and from 62.8% to 79.6% countywide (93,074 households); this was accompanied by resource and economic benefits.

  6. On Proper Selection of Multihop Relays for Future Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2015-01-01

    As the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has evolved from a technology concept to a deployed communications network over major US airports, it is now time to contemplate whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS is sufficient to meet the demands set forth by all fixed and mobile applications over the airport surface given the AeroMACS constraints regarding bandwidth and transmit power. The underlying idea in this article is to present IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX as a technology that can address future capacity enhancements and therefore is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements and virtually no rise in interference levels to co-allocated applications. The IEEE 802.16j-based multihop relay systems are briefly described. The focus is on key features of this technology, frame structure, and its architecture. Next, AeroMACS is described as a WiMAX-based wireless network. The two major relay modes supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment, i.e., transparent and non-transparent are described. The benefits of employing multihop relays are listed. Some key challenges related to incorporating relays into AeroMACS networks are discussed. The selection of relay type in a broadband wireless network affects a number of network parameters such as latency, signal overhead, PHY (Scalable Physical Layer) and MAC (Media Access Layer) layer protocols, consequently it can alter key network quantities of throughput and QoS (Quality of Service).

  7. Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

  8. An energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management for delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Qiyue; Qu, Yugui; Zhao, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC) for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.

  9. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water.

  10. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research.

  11. Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, B; Schöniger, S; Faigle, M; Eichner, M; Dietz, K

    1997-01-01

    Survival and distribution of legionellae in the environment are assumed to be associated with their multiplication in amoebae, whereas the ability to multiply in macrophages is usually regarded to correspond to pathogenicity. Since most investigations focused on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we examined the intracellular multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells, which express phenotypic and functional features of mature monocytes, and in Acanthamoeba castellanii, an environmental host of Legionella spp. According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. L. longbeachae serogroup 1, L. jordanis, and L. anisa were not able to multiply in either A. castellanii or Mono Mac 6 cells and are members of the first cluster. L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after infection and is the only member of the second cluster. L. steigerwaltii, L. gormanii, L. pneumophila serogroup 6 ATCC 33215, L. bozemanii, and L. micdadei showed a stable bacterial count in Mono Mac 6 cells after infection but a decreasing count in amoebae. They can be regarded as members of the third cluster. As the only member of the fourth cluster, L. oakridgensis was able to multiply slight in Mono Mac 6 cells but was killed within amoebae. A strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after 30 passages on SMH agar and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs are members of the fifth cluster, which showed multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a decrease of bacterial counts in A. castellanii. The sixth cluster is characterized by intracellular multiplication in both host cell systems and consists of several strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia, a strain of L. pneumophila

  12. A sociohydrological model for smallholder farmers in Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present a sociohydrological model that can help us to better understand the system dynamics of a smallholder farmer. It couples the dynamics of the six main assets of a typical smallholder farmer: water storage capacity, capital, livestock, soil fertility, grazing access, and labor. The hydroclimatic variability, which is a main driver and source of uncertainty of the smallholder system, is accounted for at subannual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms of smallholders (for example, adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers and selling livestocks) when farmers face adverse sociohydrological conditions, such as low annual rainfall, occurrence of dry spells, or variability of input or commodity prices. We have applied the model to analyze the sociohydrology of a cash crop producing smallholder in Maharashtra, India, in a semisynthetic case study setting. Of late, this region has witnessed many suicides of farmers who could not extricate themselves out of the debt trap. These farmers lacked irrigation and were susceptible to fluctuating commodity prices and climatic variability. We studied the sensitivity of a smallholder's capital, an indicator of smallholder well-being, to two types of cash crops (cotton and sugarcane), water storage capacity, availability of irrigation, initial capital that a smallholder starts with, prevalent wage rates, and access to grazing. We found that (i) smallholders with low water storage capacities and no irrigation are most susceptible to distress, (ii) a smallholder's well-being is low at low wage rates, (iii) wage rate is more important than absolution of debt, (iv) well-being is sensitive to water storage capacity up to a certain level, and (v) well-being increases with increasing area available for livestock grazing. Our results indicate that government intervention to absolve the debt of farmers or to invest in local storage to buffer rainfall variability may not be enough. In addition, alternative

  13. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  14. Silicon Nanostructures Produced by Modified MacEtch Method for Antireflective Si Surface.

    PubMed

    Nichkalo, Stepan; Druzhinin, Anatoly; Evtukh, Anatoliy; Bratus', Oleg; Steblova, Olga

    2017-12-01

    This work pertains to the method for modification of silicon (Si) wafer morphology by metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) technique suitable for fabrication of antireflective Si surfaces. For this purpose, we made different Au catalyst patterns on the surface of Si substrate. This modification allowed to obtain the close-packed Au nanodrop (ND) pattern that generates the nanowires (NWs) and the well-separated Au NDs, which induce the nanopore (NP) formation. The antireflective properties of these structures in comparison with NWs produced by the conventional Ag-MacEtch method were analysed. The total surface reflectance of 1~7% for SiNWs and ~17% for SiNPs was observed over the entire Si-absorbing region. Moreover, SiNWs prepared by Au-MacEtch demonstrate better antireflective properties in contrast to those formed by conventional Ag-assisted chemical etching. So, the use of SiNWs produced by the modified Au-MacEtch method as the antireflective material is favored over those prepared by Ag-MacEtch due to their higher light absorption and lower reflectance. The possible reason of these findings is discussed.

  15. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) wildland fire perimeters, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Sandra P.; Schneider, Norma J.; Guthrie, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) has been collecting and storing data on wildland fire perimeters since August 2000. The dataset presented via this U.S. Geological Survey Data Series product contains the GeoMAC wildland fire perimeter data for the calendar year 2008, which are based upon input from incident intelligence sources, Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and infrared (IR) imagery. Wildland fire perimeter data are obtained from the incidents, evaluated for completeness and accuracy, and processed to reflect consistent field names and attributes. After a quality check, the perimeters are loaded to GeoMAC databases, which support the GeoMAC Web application for access by wildland fire managers and the public. The wildland fire perimeters are viewed through the Web application. The data are subsequently archived according to year and state and are made available for downloading through the Internet in shapefile and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. These wildland fire perimeter data are also retained for historical, planning, and research purposes. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center HTTP site at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/outgoing/GeoMAC/historic_fire_data/. The links are also provided on the sidebar.

  16. Silicon Nanostructures Produced by Modified MacEtch Method for Antireflective Si Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichkalo, Stepan; Druzhinin, Anatoly; Evtukh, Anatoliy; Bratus', Oleg; Steblova, Olga

    2017-02-01

    This work pertains to the method for modification of silicon (Si) wafer morphology by metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) technique suitable for fabrication of antireflective Si surfaces. For this purpose, we made different Au catalyst patterns on the surface of Si substrate. This modification allowed to obtain the close-packed Au nanodrop (ND) pattern that generates the nanowires (NWs) and the well-separated Au NDs, which induce the nanopore (NP) formation. The antireflective properties of these structures in comparison with NWs produced by the conventional Ag-MacEtch method were analysed. The total surface reflectance of 1 7% for SiNWs and 17% for SiNPs was observed over the entire Si-absorbing region. Moreover, SiNWs prepared by Au-MacEtch demonstrate better antireflective properties in contrast to those formed by conventional Ag-assisted chemical etching. So, the use of SiNWs produced by the modified Au-MacEtch method as the antireflective material is favored over those prepared by Ag-MacEtch due to their higher light absorption and lower reflectance. The possible reason of these findings is discussed.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  18. Eliminating the Heart from the Curcumin Molecule: Monocarbonyl Curcumin Mimics (MACs)

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Dinesh; Kim, Yong Joon; Shim, Hyunsuk; Snyder, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin’s assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs). A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10–20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease and malaria. PMID:25547726

  19. Implementation of a reference management system, MacRefer, under HyperCard.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Sato, S; Horikoshi, I

    1996-06-01

    We have developed a reference management system, MacRefer, using HyperTalk on Macintosh personal computers. Using this program, one can automatically acquire data from databases created by EndNote Plus and from OVID- or Medlar-formatted records downloaded via an online use of Medline. The MacRefer's capability of formatting bibliographic database in user-defined formats is comparable with the exemplified bibliography maker, EndNote Plus. Moreover, MacRefer has several competitive features, which are insufficiently equipped with EndNote Plus. For example, MacRefer is capable of (1) maintaining subsets within a database, (2) executing complex, structured searches combining up to nine keywords for any data field with the results and search conditions preserved, and (3) easily browsing (a portion of) reference database. Although MacRefer cannot be recognized as an absolute alternative of EndNote Plus because of several limitations inherent to HyperCard, the compensatory use of these two programs will expand the personal utilization of bibliographic databases.

  20. A Power-Optimized Cooperative MAC Protocol for Lifetime Extension in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Wu, Shan; Huang, Bo; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In wireless sensor networks, in order to satisfy the requirement of long working time of energy-limited nodes, we need to design an energy-efficient and lifetime-extended medium access control (MAC) protocol. In this paper, a node cooperation mechanism that one or multiple nodes with higher channel gain and sufficient residual energy help a sender relay its data packets to its recipient is employed to achieve this objective. We first propose a transmission power optimization algorithm to prolong network lifetime by optimizing the transmission powers of the sender and its cooperative nodes to maximize their minimum residual energy after their data packet transmissions. Based on it, we propose a corresponding power-optimized cooperative MAC protocol. A cooperative node contention mechanism is designed to ensure that the sender can effectively select a group of cooperative nodes with the lowest energy consumption and the best channel quality for cooperative transmissions, thus further improving the energy efficiency. Simulation results show that compared to typical MAC protocol with direct transmissions and energy-efficient cooperative MAC protocol, the proposed cooperative MAC protocol can efficiently improve the energy efficiency and extend the network lifetime.

  1. A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun

    Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

  2. Halothane concentrations required to block the cardiovascular responses to incision (MAC CVR) in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Y; Dohi, S

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the halothane concentration in N2O required to block the cardiovascular responses to skin incision (MAC CVR) in infants and children. We studied 64 unpremedicated ASA 1 infants and children (one month to seven years). In each infant or child, anaesthesia was induced slowly with halothane and N2O, and an endotracheal tube was placed. The MAC CVR was assessed, after a steady state end-tidal halothane concentration had been established for ten minutes, by the "up and down technique" of Dixon. Positive responses were defined as an increase in MAP or HR > 10%. The MAC CVR50 values of halothane with 60% N2O were 1.16 +/- 0.23% at 1-6 mo, 1.17 +/- 0.18% at 7-12 mo, 0.95 +/- 0.26% at 1-3 yr, and 1.12 +/- 0.16% at 4-7 yr. The value at 1-3 years children was less than those in the other age groups (P < 0.05). The changes of MAP were correlated with changes of both HR and pupillary diameter. These results indicate that the values of MAC CVR50 of halothane in infants and children are higher than those required to block motor responses (MAC). The halothane requirement to block cardiovascular responses is lowest in the children aged one to three years.

  3. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) significantly decreases the hybridization efficiency of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Kuo, P L; Guo, H R

    2001-05-01

    Fetal cells were enriched from maternal blood using density gradient centrifugation of Histopaque followed by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) to select CD71-positive cells. For each specimen, cells partially purified by Histopaque were split into equal portions, and each portion was subjected to purification by MACS in parallel. Cells before and after MACS were subjected to dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with X- and Y-chromosome-specific probes. We found that the hybridization rates were decreased by approximately 10% after MACS based on duplicated analysis for each sample.

  4. Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Guo; Yang Huayan; Wang Chen; Zhang Feng; You Zhendong; Wang Guiying; He Cheng; Chen Yizhang . E-mail: yzchen0928@yahoo.com; Xu Zhihan . E-mail: zzxu@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2006-08-04

    Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to {beta}{sub 2} subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively.

  5. Comparing McGRATH® MAC, C-MAC®, and Macintosh Laryngoscopes Operated by Medical Students: A Randomized, Crossover, Manikin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Myungju; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the McGRATH MAC would decrease the time of intubation compared to C-MAC for novices. Thirty-nine medical students who had used the Macintosh blade to intubate a manikin fewer than 3 times were recruited. The participants performed sequential intubations on the manikin in two simulated settings that included a normal airway and a difficult airway (tongue edema). The intubation time, success rate of intubation, Cormack-Lehane grade at laryngoscopy, and difficulty using the device were recorded. Each participant was asked to identify the device that was most useful. The intubation time decreased significantly and by a similar amount to the McGRATH MAC and C-MAC compared to the Macintosh blade (P < 0.001 and P = 0.017, resp.). In the difficult airway, the intubation times were similar among the three devices. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC significantly increased the success rate of intubation, improved the Cormack-Lehane grade, and decreased the difficulty score compared to the Macintosh blade in both airway settings. The majority of participants selected the McGRATH MAC as the most useful device. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC may offer similar benefits for intubation compared to the Macintosh blade in normal and difficult airway situations. PMID:27703983

  6. Remembering the farmer in the agriculture policy and obesity debate.

    PubMed

    Farnese, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policies are often criticized for promoting the overconsumption of unhealthy foods, thereby contributing to rising obesity rates. This article explores the accuracy of claims that existing agricultural policies contribute to obesity and describes the conflict between traditional nutrition and agricultural policy goals. The article concludes by asserting that the challenges facing farmers must be considered in the redesign of agriculture policy to support obesity prevention goals of governments. If the needs of farmers are overlooked, efforts to improve the nutritional profile of the average American diet will be undermined.

  7. Optimal sensor placement for maximum area coverage (MAC) for damage localization in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiene, M.; Sharif Khodaei, Z.; Aliabadi, M. H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper an optimal sensor placement algorithm for attaining the maximum area coverage (MAC) within a sensor network is presented. The proposed novel approach takes into account physical properties of Lamb wave propagation (attenuation profile, direction dependant group velocity due to material anisotropy) and geometrical complexities (boundary reflections, presence of openings) of the structure. A feature of the proposed optimization approach lies in the fact that it is independent of characteristics of the damage detection algorithm (e.g. probability of detection) making it readily up-scalable to large complex composite structures such as aircraft stiffened composite panel. The proposed fitness function (MAC) is independent of damage parameters (type, severity, location). Statistical analysis carried out shows that the proposed optimum sensor network with MAC results in high probability of damage localization. Genetic algorithm is coupled with the fitness function to provide an efficient optimization strategy.

  8. An Energy-Efficient Mobility-Supporting MAC Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Chan; Lee, Jang-Won

    In this paper, we design an adaptive mobility-supporting MAC (AM-MAC) protocol for mobile sensor networks. In our protocol, as in S-MAC [1], each virtual cluster that consists of a subset of sensor nodes has its own listen-sleep schedule. Hence, when a mobile sensor node moves into a new virtual cluster, it needs to adapt to the listen-sleep schedule of the corresponding virtual cluster in a timely and energy efficient manner. To this end, in our protocol, we utilize schedule information on border nodes between virtual clusters. This allows us to implement fast and energy efficient listen-sleep schedule adaptation for mobile nodes, which consists of two main functions: energy efficient secondary listen period and smart scheduling adaptation. Simulation results show that our protocol can provide fast schedule adaptation while achieving energy efficiency.

  9. AeroMACS C-Band Interference Modeling and Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A new C-band (5091-5150 MHz) airport communications system designated as Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being planned under the Federal Aviation Administration s NextGen program. It is necessary to establish practical limits on AeroMACS transmission power from airports so that the threshold of interference into the Mobile Satellite Service (Globalstar) feeder uplinks is not exceeded. To help provide guidelines for these limits, interference models have been created with the commercial software Visualyse Professional. In this presentation, simulation results were shown for the aggregate interference power at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at each of up to 757 airports in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the surrounding area. Both omni-directional and sectoral antenna configurations were modeled. Effects of antenna height, beamwidth, and tilt were presented.

  10. The Utility of Discriminant Analysis for Predicting Farmers' Intentions to Participate in Farmer-Managed Irrigation Systems in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshani, Kiumars; Hossien Alibaygi, Amir; Afshar, Nasrin

    Participatory irrigation management has been problematic in most parts of the world and Iran has been no exception. The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management based on selected variables using discriminant analysis. A survey questionnaire was used to collect information from a sample of Water Cooperatives in Javanrood Townships using stratified random sampling (n = 106). Results indicated that age, educational level, attitude towards PIM, irrigation performance, landholding size, agricultural and non-agricultural income affected farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management.

  11. MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Keywords Manual. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the second volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, this document is the Keywords Manual, and Volume 3 is the Example Problem Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, applications of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume describes the basic information required to use the MAC/GMC 4.0 software, including a 'Getting Started' section, and an in-depth description of each of the 22 keywords used in the input file to control the execution of the code.

  12. MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Example Problem Manual. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the third volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, Volume 2 is the Keywords Manual, and this document is the Example Problems Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, application of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material, have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume provides in-depth descriptions of 43 example problems, which were specially designed to highlight many of the most important capabilities of the code. The actual input files associated with each example problem are distributed with the MAC/GMC 4.0 software; thus providing the user with a convenient starting point for their own specialized problems of interest.

  13. Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, María A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

  14. Fundamentally different roles for LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha4-integrin in neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Heit, Bryan; Colarusso, Pina; Kubes, Paul

    2005-11-15

    Although the LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha(4) integrins are required for chemotaxis, it is unknown how they are regulated or what specific role they play. Previously we demonstrated that fMLP and IL-8 induce chemotaxis via the p38 MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, respectively. Here we show that these chemoattractants also activate and use Mac-1 and LFA-1 in a differential manner during chemotaxis. Using integrin-specific substrata, we demonstrate that cell movement in response to IL-8 is mediated by Mac-1, whereas LFA-1 is required for directional migration. By contrast, chemotaxis to fMLP requires Mac-1 for cell movement, whereas LFA-1 and alpha(4)-integrin are required for directional migration. On serum protein, which contains ligands for LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha(4)-integrin, chemotaxis to fMLP is dependent on Mac-1, whereas chemotaxis to IL-8 is dependent on LFA-1. These results suggest that Mac-1 is the dominant integrin involved in chemotaxis to fMLP, and LFA-1 is the dominant integrin involved in chemotaxis to IL-8. Consistent with these observations, higher quantities of high-affinity Mac-1 are found on cells chemotaxing to fMLP then on cells chemotaxing to IL-8. Moreover, a much larger quantity of clustered LFA-1 was found on cells migrating to IL-8 compared to cells moving towards fMLP. When cells are presented with competing gradients of fMLP and IL-8, they preferentially migrate towards fMLP and activate/utilize integrins in a manner identical to fMLP alone. Under the same conditions, p38 MAPK inhibition abolishes the preferential migration to fMLP; instead, the cells migrate preferentially towards IL-8. The activation and utilization of integrins under these conditions are consistent with patterns observed with IL-8 alone. Together, these data suggest that fMLP and IL-8 differentially activate integrins for use during chemotaxis, that p38 MAPK is a major mediator in the activation and utilization of integrins, and selective integrin

  15. Relationship of DUI recidivism to moral reasoning, sensation seeking, and MacAndrew alcoholism scores.

    PubMed

    Little, G L; Robinson, K D

    1989-12-01

    115 convicted male DUI offenders were treated with Moral Reconation Therapy during their incarceration. Postrelease recidivism status (arrests) was correlated with the pretest, posttest, and change scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale, Life-purpose scores, and Moral Reasoning scores. Analysis showed that recidivism correlated positively and significantly with the pretest scores on the MacAndrew scale and approached significance with both pre- and posttest scores on the Sensation Seeking Scale. Recidivism status correlated negatively and significantly with scores on the highest levels of moral reasoning (Scale 6 pretest and posttest and Principled Reasoning pretest).

  16. POD/MAC-Based Modal Basis Selection for a Reduced Order Nonlinear Response Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to explore the applicability of a POD/MAC basis selection technique to a nonlinear structural response analysis. For the case studied the application of the POD/MAC technique resulted in a substantial improvement of the reduced order simulation when compared to a classic approach utilizing only low frequency modes present in the excitation bandwidth. Further studies are aimed to expand application of the presented technique to more complex structures including non-planar and two-dimensional configurations. For non-planar structures the separation of different displacement components may not be necessary or desirable.

  17. Additive contribution of nitrous oxide to halothane MAC in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Murray, D J; Mehta, M P; Forbes, R B; Dull, D L

    1990-08-01

    Fifty-one infants and small children (14.7 +/- 7.2 mo) were studied to determine the MAC of halothane in O2 (n = 11) and in the presence of three different nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations (25% [n = 13], 50% [n = 13], and 75% [n = 14]). In the three N2O groups, after randomly assigning patients to an N2O group, anesthesia was induced with halothane and N2O using a pediatric circle system. After endotracheal intubation, halothane and N2O end-expired concentrations were adjusted to predetermined concentrations. The initial halothane concentrations in each group were based on the assumption that each percent N2O reduced halothane concentrations by 0.01 vol % (assumed halothane MAC = 1.0 vol %). Based on the response of the preceding subject in each group, halothane concentrations were increased or decreased depending on whether the response was to move or not to move, respectively, in response to the surgical incision. The mean duration of constant end-tidal concentrations before skin incision was 10 min. End-tidal gases were sampled and measured from a separate distal sampling port of an endotracheal tube during controlled ventilation (Perkin-Elmer Mass Spectrometer). The MAC value for halothane in O2 was 0.94 +/- 0.08 vol % (mean +/- SD). The MAC values of halothane in the presence of 25%, 50%, and 75% N2O were 0.78 +/- 0.12 vol %, 0.44 +/- 0.10 vol %, and 0.29 +/- 0.06 vol %, respectively. All concentrations of N2O significantly reduced the MAC of halothane. A regression analysis through all four data points yielded a linear relationship (r2 = 0.87) with a predicted MAC for N2O of 105 vol %. Unlike halothane and isoflurane, the predicted MAC of N2O in infants and children is similar to that reported by others in adults. Similar to the results of clinical studies in adults, the contribution of N2O to halothane MAC in children is additive.

  18. Some Heartland Farmers Just Say No to Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Jeanne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing pollution and decreasing effectiveness of agrichemicals has spurred a new interest in "natural" farming practices in the midwestern United States. Provides the testimony of farmers who have converted their farming operations from chemically intensive to sustainable or alternative agricultural practices. (MCO)

  19. The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

  20. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  1. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... (No. 2011020) for trade adjustment assistance for coffee filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program by the Kona Coffee Farmers Association. The petition was accepted for review by USDA on July 21, 2010...' criterion, the Administrator was not able to certify the petition, making coffee producers in...

  2. Neurological effects of pesticide use among farmers in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

    2014-04-14

    The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04-6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.

  3. The Farmer and the Goose--A Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Gerald; Martelli, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the process of generalization. Illustrates the process by generalizing the classic problem of how a farmer can get a fox, a goose, and a bag of corn across a river in a boat that is large enough only for him and one of the three items. (MDH)

  4. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  5. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  6. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mulenga, Brian P; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters-notably, rising average temperature-there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  7. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  8. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  9. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  11. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  12. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  13. Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J. W.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or…

  14. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Catfish Farmers of America on behalf of U.S. farm-raised catfish producers. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of catfish contributed importantly to a greater than 15 percent decrease in...

  15. The History of Future Farmer Organizations around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of the Future Farmers of America in 1928 and its subsequent growth in size and scope was noticed around the world. Agricultural education professionals from dozens of other countries wanted to know about the organization and how it helped motivate young rural boys to study vocational agriculture and choose agriculture as a career…

  16. 75 FR 61121 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (petition nos. 2011002 and 2011022) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for shrimp filed under the fiscal... in Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210). Because both petitions met...

  17. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011016) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for northeast multi-species fish filed under the..., Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must...

  18. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011017) for trade adjustment assistance for apples filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  19. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011029) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  20. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (Nos. 2011023-2011027) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  1. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2010005) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for shrimp that was filed by the Southern... of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210). Individual shrimp producers in Alabama, Florida,...

  2. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by the... for free technical assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade...

  3. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (Nos. 2011024, 2011025) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  4. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No.'s 2011006-2011011, 2011028) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year... program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions...

  5. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2011014) for trade adjustment assistance for dried prunes filed under the fiscal year (FY... Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must demonstrate, using data for the...

  6. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011004) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program... 23, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the...

  7. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Prune Bargaining Association on behalf of prune... remarks for the record by faxing them to (202) 720-0876. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade...

  8. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... 2011021) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program ] by the... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  9. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011005) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program... 21, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the...

  10. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  11. Community support systems for farmers who live with disability.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Margaret N; Krassikouva-Enns, Olga; Ringaert, Laurie; Isfeld, Harpa

    2010-04-01

    To return to farming following the onset of a disabling injury or health condition is predicated on a supportive environment for the farm owner-operator. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators of returning to work after an injury or acquired disability, and to identify community supports (formal and informal) needed and available to farmers. This was a qualitative study using a participatory action research approach that involved a research team, an advisory group of seven stakeholder participants and semistructured interviews with farmers, their spouses, and service providers in the study communities. A total of 11 farmers and 17 service providers took part in a focus group or were interviewed individually with or without the spouse present. Focus group discussions and interviews were transcribed and analyzed using constant comparison method and team consensus of findings. Themes of barriers and facilitators for return to farming were identified as health care services, financial and economic issues, and "hands-on" assistance. Themes were organized into an ecological conceptual diagram depicting barriers and facilitators in the microsystem of the farm family, the mesosystem of the local farming community and regional health jurisdictions, and the macrosystem of the province and/or nation's social, legislative, and economic realities. Enhancing community support systems for farmers who become disabled as a result of injury or illness will require a multilevel system approach that involves health, financial, and labor resources.

  12. Iowa Adult Farmers' Perception of the Value of Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Keith L.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses the factors which influenced participation of adult farmers in educational programs and the factors which may have influenced changes in farming programs of the participants. These factors included size of farm operations, farm income, participation in farming, and community activities and sources of technical information.…

  13. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  14. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  15. 75 FR 9087 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... implements the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers program as reauthorized by the American Recovery...) 720-0638; or by fax at (202) 720-8461. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The American Recovery and... Maintenance of records, audits, and compliance. 1580.503 Recovery of overpayments. 1580.504...

  16. Educational Priorities of Small Farmers in West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Carey L.

    1995-01-01

    According to survey responses from 108 of 150 Western Tennessee small farmers, 53% had less than a high school education and most were near retirement age. Greatest educational needs were in the areas of crop marketing, soil conservation, and pesticide use. Individualized methods and a focus on improving technical knowledge and existing marketing…

  17. Women Farmers in Central America: Myths, Roles, Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudelman, Sally W.

    1994-01-01

    Improving economic opportunities for the increasing number of women farmers in rural Central America involves addressing low educational levels and challenging traditional social values. Government policies need to strengthen women's agricultural and natural-resource management skills by improving land access; encouraging membership in…

  18. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  19. Reduction of farmers' postural load during occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nevala-Puranen, N

    1995-12-01

    Farmers' back problems may be associated with the amount of back flexion and the handling of heavy loads. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation courses on female farmers' postural load. Twenty seven female farmers (aged from 32 to 52 years) took part in four rehabilitation courses at one rehabilitation centre in Finland. The subjects suffered from various musculoskeletal symptoms, which decreased their work ability. The rehabilitation courses included two periods: the first lasted for 3 weeks and the latter for 1 week, organized 6 months after the first period. The work postures and their load on the musculoskeletal system were classified by the computerized OWAS method in three daily work phases. During the 3-week periods new work techniques were learned, and simultaneous bent and twisted postures for the back decreased from 34 to 4% of all studied work postures. Similarly, postures with one or both arms above shoulder level were reduced from 44 to 24%. Rechecking after the 6-month period confirmed that the adoption of new work techniques was consistent. The study showed that female farmers could change their work techniques during this kind of intensive rehabilitation period, and the changes were seen 6 months later in the follow-up.

  20. Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, Daniel P.; Holmes, Glyen; Richardson, Vonda; Connerly, Charles

    A group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved methods of marketing…