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Sample records for affairs normative aging

  1. Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality.

  2. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

    2015-12-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife.

  3. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

    2009-01-01

    We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

  4. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

    PubMed

    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people.

  5. Normative and Structural Perspectives on Age in a Work Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara S.

    Age grading, the differentiation of social groups by members' age judgments, is widely regarded to be a universal aspect of social life. Most studies have examined age structurally (demographically), rather than normatively (modally). This study presents survey data measuring employees' age judgments of managerial careers collected from an…

  6. Understanding inter-individual variability in purpose: Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Patrick L; Turiano, Nicholas A; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2015-09-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of having a purpose in older adulthood; however, little is known about whether and how individuals vary on sense of purpose over time. The current study examined patterns of mean- and individual-level change in purpose among men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (n = 587, M(age) = 74 years) across a 3-year span. Findings demonstrate that while little mean-level change was present, there was interindividual variability in change. Further research is needed to understand why these changes occur, as age, health status, and personality failed to predict individual fluctuations in purpose.

  7. The Digital Age of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.; Junco, Reynol

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the student affairs profession in the digital age. The authors explore new challenges educators and professionals face as new areas are added and expanded, how social networks and digital technology tools continue to evolve, and what skills are needed to engage with students in person and online.

  8. Understanding inter-individual variability in purpose in life: Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of having a purpose in older adulthood; however, little is known about whether and how individuals vary on sense of purpose over time. The current study examined patterns of mean- and individual-level change in purpose among men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (n = 587; Mage = 74 years) across a three-year span. Findings demonstrate that while little mean-level change was present, there was inter-individual variability in change. Further research is needed to understand why these changes occur, as age, health status, and personality failed to predict individual fluctuations in purpose. PMID:26146887

  9. Ages of Speech Sound Acquisition: Comparisons and Critiques of Several Normative Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Ann B.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of normative ages of speech sound acquisition vary in speech sample and methods used. Review of studies which sample spontaneous speech indicates that these data have characteristics that make them difficult to use as norms. Desirable characteristics of normative investigations of speech and sound acquisition are proposed. (Author/CL)

  10. The natural, the normal and the normative: contested terrains in ageing and old age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Higgs, Paul F

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in health and longevity in countries such as the UK and USA have radically destabilised notions of ageing and old age. From the 19th century onwards the idea of a natural lifecourse following normatively understood stages ending in infirmity and death has been challenged by social and bio-medical developments. Breakthroughs in bio-gerontology and in bio-medicine have created the possibility of an increasingly differentiated idea of normal ageing. The potential to overcome or significantly reduce the age-associated effects of bodies growing older has led many social gerontologists to argue for a return to a more 'normatively' based conception of ageing and old age. This paper examines and outlines the tensions between these different discourses and points out that our understanding of the norm is also fast changing as it intersects with the somatic diversity inherent in contemporary consumer society. Drawing on the theoretical work of Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, this paper argues that the normalization of diversity leads to a reworking of the idea of normativity which in turn is reflected in profound transformations at the level of institutional arrangements and legal systems. Such changes not only lead to more discussion of what is legally and socially acceptable but also potentially lead to greater calls for regulation concerning outcomes. In this paper we argue that we need to distinguish between the newly reconfigured domains of the natural, the normal and the normative now being utilised in the understanding of ageing if we are to understand this important field of health.

  11. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Tooth Loss in Men: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Nie, Huiling; Garcia, Raul I.; Hu, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals previously exposed to lead remain at risk because of endogenous release of lead stored in their skeletal compartments. However, it is not known if long-term cumulative lead exposure is a risk factor for tooth loss. Objectives We examined the association of bone lead concentrations with loss of natural teeth. Methods We examined 333 men enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. We used a validated K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) method to measure lead concentrations in the tibial midshaft and patella. A dentist recorded the number of teeth remaining, and tooth loss was categorized as 0, 1–8 or ≥ 9 missing teeth. We used proportional odds models to estimate the association of bone lead biomarkers with tooth loss, adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes, and other putative confounders. Results Participants with ≥ 9 missing teeth had significantly higher bone lead concentrations than those who had not experienced tooth loss. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, men in the highest tertile of tibia lead (> 23 μg/g) and patella lead (> 36 μg/g) had approximately three times the odds of having experienced an elevated degree of tooth loss (≥ 9 vs. 0–8 missing teeth or ≥ 1 vs. 0 missing teeth) as those in the lowest tertile [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60–5.76 and OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30–4.49, respectively]. Associations between bone lead biomarkers and tooth loss were similar in magnitude to the increased odds observed in participants who were current smokers. Conclusion Long-term cumulative lead exposure is associated with increased odds of tooth loss. PMID:20019902

  12. Do Hassles and Uplifts Change with Age? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed three scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Growth based modelling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative non-linear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

  13. Judi Dench's age-inappropriateness and the role of M: challenging normative temporality.

    PubMed

    Krainitzki, Eva

    2014-04-01

    This article approaches Judi Dench's role as M in the long-running James Bond series from a gender and ageing studies' perspective and explores this character's subversion of normative concepts of gender and temporality. Based on the assumption that cultural narratives shape our understanding of ageing, it examines how M disrupts prescribed age- and gender roles, presenting an alternative within films which otherwise perpetuate normative notions of a sexualised, youthful femininity. It focusses on Dench's return as M in Casino Royale (2006), as an instance of anachronism (Russo, 1999), subverting viewers' expectation of linear timelines and examines M's challenge of normative age-appropriateness in Skyfall (2012). Despite M's portrayal as a more vulnerable female character in the latter, this article presents her character as an alternative to traditional portrayals of older women on screen.

  14. Do Cherished Children Age Successfully? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lewina O.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Wang, Joyce M.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (1) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains; (2) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life; and (3) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M=69, SD=7). Analyses yielded three profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and non-normative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed seven years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n=496; age: M=76, SD=7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. PMID:26436456

  15. The Leicester cerebral haemodynamics database: normative values and the influence of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikil; Panerai, Ronney B; Haunton, Victoria; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saeed, Nazia P; Salinet, Angela; Brodie, Fiona; Syed, Nazia; D'Sa, Schnell; Robinson, Thompson G

    2016-09-01

    Normative values of physiological parameters hold significance in modern day clinical decision-making. Lack of such normative values has been a major hurdle in the translation of research into clinical practice. A large database containing uniform recordings was constructed to allow more robust estimates of normative ranges and also assess the influence of age and sex. Doppler recordings were performed on healthy volunteers in the same laboratory, using similar protocols and equipment. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart-rate, electrocardiogram, and end-tidal CO2 were measured continuously. Bilateral insonation of the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed using TCD following a 15 min stabilisation, and a 5 min baseline recording. Good quality Doppler recordings for both MCAs were obtained in 129 participants (57 female) with a median age of 57 years (range 20-82). Age was found to influence baseline haemodynamic and transfer function analysis parameters. Cerebral blood flow velocity and critical closing pressure were the only sex-related differences found, which was significantly higher in females than males. Normative values for cerebral haemodynamic parameters have been defined in a large, healthy population. Such age/sex-defined normal values can be used to reduce the burden of collecting additional control data in future studies, as well as to identify disease-associated changes.

  16. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461

  17. Normative and Structural Perspectives on Age in a Work Organization,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Professional Apprentice: Observations on Fieldwork Roles in Two Organizational Settings." In S.B. Bacharach (ed.), Research in Organizational Sociology...Career: Its Meaning, Its Satisfactions, Its Difficulties." In press: Journal of Occupational Behavior. November, 1982. TR-12 Schein, Edgar H. "The Role of...behavior because the distribution of ages within a social group constrains the roles and statuse; allocated to members. The scarcity of young marriageable

  18. Dietary anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function: longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study123

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J; Cassidy, Aedín; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether habitual intake of dietary flavonoids, known for their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, affects longitudinal change in lung function. Objective: We investigated whether different flavonoid subclasses present in the habitual diet were associated with beneficial changes in lung function over time in the elderly. Design: This longitudinal analysis included 839 participants from the VA (Veterans Affairs) Normative Aging Study whose lung function [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] was measured at 2 and up to 5 visits between 1992 and 2008 (n = 2623 measurements). Yearly average intake of major flavonoid subclasses (anthocyanins, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) was calculated from food-frequency questionnaires at each visit. We estimated adjusted differences in annual change in lung function associated with each flavonoid subclass, categorized into quartiles, in linear mixed-effects regression models after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary confounders. Results: Strong inverse associations were found between anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function. Independent of dietary and nondietary risk factors, slower rates of FEV1 and FVC decline by 23.6 (95% CI: 16.6, 30.7) and 37.3 (95% CI: 27.8, 46.8) mL/y, respectively, were observed in participants in the fourth quartile of intake compared with participants in the first quartile (P-trend < 0.0001). The protective associations observed for anthocyanin intake were present in both current/former and never smokers. Compared with no or very low intakes, an intake of ≥2 servings of anthocyanin-rich blueberries/wk was associated with slower decline in FEV1 and FVC by 22.5 (95% CI: 10.8, 34.2) and 37.9 (95% CI: 22.1, 53.7) mL/y, respectively. To a lesser extent, higher flavan-3-ol intake was also associated with slower lung function decline. Conclusions: An attenuation of age-related lung function

  19. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  20. Normative values for mandibular mobility in Scandinavian individuals 4-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stoustrup, P; Kristensen, K D; Küseler, A; Herlin, T; Pedersen, T K

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of mandibular mobility is an important part of the clinical oro-facial examination of paediatric and adolescent patients. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to establish age-related normative values for mandibular mobility in a Scandinavian paediatric and adolescent cohort and to assess the validity of universal cut-off values for lower 'normal' mandibular ranges of motion. A total of 1114 Danish individuals between 4-17 years of age were included. Maximal mouth opening capacity and laterotrusion capacity were assessed, in each individual, according to a standardised measurement protocol. The mean maximal mouth opening capacity gradually increased from 38 mm (SD 6·1 mm) at age 4 to 54·5 mm (SD 6·8 mm) at age 17. No inter-gender difference in maximal mouth opening capacity was observed (P > 0·15). The mean maximal laterotrusion capacity gradually increased from 7·4 mm (SD. 1·1 mm) at age four to 10·1 mm (SD 1·9 mm) at age 17. A statistical significant inter-gender difference of 0·8 mm (SD 0·4 mm) was observed in relation to the total laterotrusion capacity; however, the clinical relevance of this significant difference is questionable. Normative values of mandibular function was established in individuals 4-17 years of age. Our findings oppose the use of a single universal cut-off value for 'normal' range of motion in paediatric and adolescent patients. Instead, we recommend to use the age-related normative values of mandibular range of motion as basis for the assessment of the development of oro-facial function.

  1. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  2. A Validated Normative Model for Human Uterine Volume from Birth to Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ginbey, Eleanor; Chowdhury, Moti M.; Bath, Louise E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound and/or pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are safe, accurate and non-invasive means of determining the size and configuration of the internal female genitalia. The assessment of uterine size and volume is helpful in the assessment of many conditions including disorders of sex development, precocious or delayed puberty, infertility and menstrual disorders. Using our own data from the assessment of MRI scans in healthy young females and data extracted from four studies that assessed uterine volume using transabdominal ultrasound in healthy females we have derived and validated a normative model of uterine volume from birth to age 40 years. This shows that uterine volume increases across childhood, with a faster increase in adolescence reflecting the influence of puberty, followed by a slow but progressive rise during adult life. The model suggests that around 84% of the variation in uterine volumes in the healthy population up to age 40 is due to age alone. The derivation of a validated normative model for uterine volume from birth to age 40 years has important clinical applications by providing age-related reference values for uterine volume. PMID:27295032

  3. Mental health differences among retirees and workers: findings from the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Bossé, R; Aldwin, C M; Levenson, M R; Ekerdt, D J

    1987-12-01

    Researchers during the past decade have found little effect of retirement on physical health. However, retirement entails a number of losses, and its effect on mental health, as measured by the prevalence of psychological symptoms, is unclear. We examined psychological symptoms in a sample of 1,513 older men, participants in the Normative Aging Study, using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 1983). Analyses of variance indicated that retirees reported more psychological symptoms than did workers, even after controlling for physical health status. Exploratory analyses examining the circumstances of retirement found no effects for length of retirement or part-time employment, but did find effects for the timing of retirement. Both early and late retirees reported more psychological symptoms. Late workers (aged 66 and older) reported the fewest symptoms. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  4. Untimed Design Fluency in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometrics and Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. Although normative data for older adults (OAs) are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed test, the Graphic Pattern Generation Test (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher-level executive abilities-for example, in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy OAs and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably and that this short form has high test-retest and interrater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared with OAs. A cutoff score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indexes, thereby underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD.

  5. Normative Data on Nasalance Scores for Swedish as Measured on the Nasometer: Influence of Dialect, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnegard, Karin; van Doorn, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish normative nasalance values for Swedish speaking children as measured with the Nasometer[TM] II, and to investigate differences due to regional dialect, gender, and age. Two hundred and twenty healthy children aged 4-5, 6-7, and 9-11 years were included. Group mean nasalance scores for four speech stimuli were…

  6. Lead Exposure and Tremor among Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Hu, Howard; Louis, Elan D.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tremor is one of the most common neurological signs, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Case–control studies suggest an association between blood lead and essential tremor, and that this association is modified by polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) gene. Objective: We aimed to examine the relationship between lead and tremor, including modification by ALAD, in a prospective cohort study, using both blood lead and bone lead—a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure. Methods: We measured tibia (n = 670) and patella (n = 672) bone lead and blood lead (n = 807) among older men (age range, 50–98 years) in the VA Normative Aging Study cohort. A tremor score was created based on an approach using hand-drawing samples. ALAD genotype was dichotomized as ALAD-2 carriers or not. We used linear regression adjusted for age, education, smoking, and alcohol intake to estimate the associations between lead biomarkers and tremor score. Results: In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginal association between quintiles of all lead biomarkers and tremor scores (p-values < 0.13), which did not persist in adjusted models. Age was the strongest predictor of tremor. Among those younger than the median age (68.9 years), tremor increased significantly with blood lead (p = 0.03), but this pattern was not apparent for bone lead. We did not see modification by ALAD or an association between bone lead and change in tremor score over time. Conclusion: Our results do not strongly support an association between lead exposure and tremor, and suggest no association with cumulative lead biomarkers, although there is some suggestion that blood lead may be associated with tremor among the younger men in our cohort. Citation: Ji JS, Power MC, Sparrow D, Spiro A III, Hu H, Louis ED, Weisskopf MG. 2015. Lead exposure and tremor among older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:445–450; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408535

  7. Age and education corrected older adult normative data for a short form version of the Financial Capacity Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Age and Education Corrected Older Adult Normative Data for a Short Form Version of the Financial Capacity Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C.; Marson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Due to its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument – Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within four empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: 1) compare an individual’s performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, 2) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and 3) make comparisons between these aspects. PMID:26168311

  9. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  10. Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study

    PubMed Central

    Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological aging; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation age (DNAm-age), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological age. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-age with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC exposure levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-age was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-age using linear mixed effects models adjusted for age, lifestyle/environmental factors, and aging-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-age. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-age in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-age were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-age and suggest that DNAm-age is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791

  11. Air pollution and DNA methylation: interaction by psychological factors in the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Madrigano, Jaime; Baccarelli, Andrea; Mittleman, Murray A; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S; Cantone, Laura; Kubzansky, Laura; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-01

    DNA methylation is a potential pathway linking air pollution to disease. Studies indicate that psychological functioning modifies the association between pollution and morbidity. The authors estimated the association of DNA methylation with ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM(2.5)) and black carbon, using mixed models. DNA methylation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene, iNOS, and the glucocorticoid receptor gene, GCR, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing of 1,377 blood samples from 699 elderly male participants in the VA Normative Aging Study (1999-2009). The authors also investigated whether this association was modified by psychological factors including optimism or pessimism, anxiety, and depression. iNOS methylation was decreased after acute exposure to both black carbon and PM(2.5). A 1-μg/m(3) increase in exposure to black carbon in the 4 hours preceding the clinical examination was associated with a 0.9% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4) in iNOS, and a 10-μg/m(3) increase in exposure to PM(2.5) was associated with a 0.6% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.03, 1.1) in iNOS. Participants with low optimism and high anxiety had associations that were 3-4 times larger than those with high optimism or low anxiety. GCR methylation was not associated with particulate air pollution exposure.

  12. Telomere Length, Long-Term Black Carbon Exposure, and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Colicino, Elena; Wilson, Ander; Frisardi, Maria Chiara; Prada, Diddier; Power, Melinda C.; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with age-related cognitive impairment, possibly because of enhanced inflammation. Leukocytes with longer telomere length (TL) are more responsive to inflammatory stimuli, yet TL has not been evaluated in relation to air pollution and cognition. Objectives: We assessed whether TL modifies the association of 1-year exposure to black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, with cognitive function in older men, and we examined whether this modification is independent of age and of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation. Methods: Between 1999 and 2007, we conducted 1–3 cognitive examinations of 428 older men in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study. We used covariate-adjusted repeated-measure logistic regression to estimate associations of 1-year BC exposure with relative odds of being a low scorer (≤ 25) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is a proxy of poor cognition. Confounders included age, CRP, and lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. Results: Each doubling in BC level was associated with 1.57 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.05) times higher odds of low MMSE scores. The BC-MMSE association was greater only among individuals with longer blood TL (5th quintile) (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.37, 7.59; p = 0.04 for BC-by-TL-interaction). TL and CRP were associated neither with each other nor with MMSE. However, CRP modified the BC-MMSE relationship, with stronger associations only at higher CRP (5th quintile) and reference TL level (1st quintile) (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.79; p = 0.04 for BC-by-CRP-interaction). Conclusions: TL and CRP levels may help predict the impact of BC exposure on cognitive function in older men. Citation: Colicino E, Wilson A, Frisardi MC, Prada D, Power MC, Hoxha M, Dioni L, Spiro A III, Vokonas PS, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz JD, Baccarelli AA. 2017. Telomere length, long-term black carbon exposure, and cognitive function in a cohort of older

  13. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults age 70-99.

    PubMed

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Belden, Christine M; O'Connor, Kathy; Evans, Linda; Coon, David W; Nieri, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The original validation study for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) suggests a cutoff score of 26; however, this may be too stringent for older adults, particularly for those with less education. Given the rapidly increasing number of older adults and associated risk of dementia, this study aims to provide appropriate age- and education-adjusted norms for the MoCA. Data from 205 participants in an ongoing longevity study were used to derive normative data. Individuals were grouped based on age (70-79, 80-89, 90-99) and education level (≤12 Years, 13-15, ≥16 Years). There were significant differences between age and education groups with younger and more educated participants outperforming their counterparts. Forty-six percent of our sample scored below the suggested cutoff of 26. These normative data may provide a more accurate representation of MoCA performance in older adults for specific age and education stratifications.

  14. Biological relevance of fatty acyl heterogeneity to the neural membrane dynamics of Rhesus macaques during normative aging

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sin Man; Chua, Gek Huey; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Su, Bing; Shui, Guanghou

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomic analyses of the frontal cortex of Rhesus macaques across three selected age groups (young, sexually-mature, old) revealed that docosahexaenoic acids (DHAs) displayed notable and unique accretions in sexually-mature macaques for all phospholipid classes examined, which were not observable in all remaining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) investigated. On the other hand, arachidonic acid (ARA) exhibited sharp attritions in the membrane lipidomes of sexually-mature macaques, a decline which was attenuated only for cardiolipins (CLs). DHA enrichment in phospholipids was lost in old macaques, with accompanying augmentations in very-long-chain sphingomyelins (VLC-SMs). Age-dependent alterations in membrane lipidomes point to a possibly complex temporal interplay between DHA-enriched membrane microdomains and SM-/cholesterol-rich rafts in neural membranes during normative aging. Lipid co-regulation data revealed an increasingly intense degree of co-regulation between membrane lipid classes with age, and suggest that reduction in CLs during normative brain aging may prompt alternative membrane lipid synthetic pathways driven by a compromised energy availability in the aging brain. PMID:27517158

  15. Zinc Supplementation Sustained Normative Neurodevelopment in a Randomized, Controlled Trial of Peruvian Infants Aged 6–18 Months12

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L.; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264. PMID:24850625

  16. Zinc supplementation sustained normative neurodevelopment in a randomized, controlled trial of Peruvian infants aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L; Caulfield, Laura E

    2014-08-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264.

  17. Age- and gender-adjusted normative data for the German version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test from healthy subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

  18. The Brief Repeatable Battery: psychometrics and normative values with age, education and gender corrections in a Serbian population.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, D; Petrovic, M; Antanasijevic, I; Marinkovic, J; Stojanovic, T; Obradovic, S

    2012-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is present in up to 65 % of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The Brief Repeatable Battery of neuropsychological tests (BRB) is one of the most used neuropsychological tools for cognitive assessment in MS. However, relative lack of normative data limits its application in research and clinical practice. In order to obtain normative data for a Serbian population, we administered the BRB version A to 140 healthy subjects and assessed the influence of demographic factors such as gender, age, and education on the tests' scores. We also calculated corrections for these factors. Higher education was associated with better performance on all the tests. Age influenced all the tests, except the word list generation, higher age being associated with worse performance on all other tests. Women performed worse on the paced auditory serial addition test 2, no other gender differences were observed. Our data obtained for the Serbian population could further improve use of the BRB in clinical practice and for the research purposes, establishing cognitive evaluation as a part of standard neurological examination of MS patients.

  19. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  20. Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The world was different when the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was released 30 years ago. Concerns over the environment and what we now call the ‘social determinants of health’ were prominent in 1986. But the acceleration of ecological crises and economic inequalities since then, in a more complex and multi-polar world, pose dramatically new challenges for those committed to the original vision of the Charter. Can the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agreed to by all the world’s governments, offer a new advocacy and programmatic platform for a renewal of health promotion’s founding ethos? Critiqued from both the right and the left for, respectively, their aspirational idealism and lack of political analysis, the SDGs are an imperfect but still compelling normative statement of how much of the world thinks the world should look like. Many of the goals and targets provide signals for what we need to achieve, even if there remains a critical lacuna in articulating how this is to be done. The fundamental flaw in the SDGs is the implicit assumption that the same economic system, and its still-present neoliberal governing rules, that have created or accelerated our present era of rampaging inequality and environmental peril can somehow be harnessed to engineer the reverse. This flaw is not irrevocable, however, if health promoters – practitioners, researchers, advocates – focus their efforts on a few key SDGs that, with some additional critique, form a basic blueprint for a system of national and global regulation of capitalism (or even its transformation) that is desperately needed for social and ecological survival into the 22nd century. Whether or not these efforts succeed is a future unknown; but that the efforts are made is a present urgency. PMID:28005546

  1. Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2016-07-18

    The world was different when the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was released 30 years ago. Concerns over the environment and what we now call the 'social determinants of health' were prominent in 1986. But the acceleration of ecological crises and economic inequalities since then, in a more complex and multi-polar world, pose dramatically new challenges for those committed to the original vision of the Charter. Can the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agreed to by all the world's governments, offer a new advocacy and programmatic platform for a renewal of health promotion's founding ethos? Critiqued from both the right and the left for, respectively, their aspirational idealism and lack of political analysis, the SDGs are an imperfect but still compelling normative statement of how much of the world thinks the world should look like. Many of the goals and targets provide signals for what we need to achieve, even if there remains a critical lacuna in articulating how this is to be done. The fundamental flaw in the SDGs is the implicit assumption that the same economic system, and its still-present neoliberal governing rules, that have created or accelerated our present era of rampaging inequality and environmental peril can somehow be harnessed to engineer the reverse. This flaw is not irrevocable, however, if health promoters - practitioners, researchers, advocates - focus their efforts on a few key SDGs that, with some additional critique, form a basic blueprint for a system of national and global regulation of capitalism (or even its transformation) that is desperately needed for social and ecological survival into the 22nd century. Whether or not these efforts succeed is a future unknown; but that the efforts are made is a present urgency.

  2. Normative data for hand grip strength and key pinch strength, stratified by age and gender for a multiethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Ngee Wei; Goh, Hui Ting; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip Jun Hua; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hand strength is a good indicator of physical fitness and frailty among the elderly. However, there are no published hand strength references for Malaysians aged > 65 years. This study aimed to establish normative data for hand grip strength (HGS) and key pinch strength (KPS) for Malaysians aged ≥ 60 years, and explore the relationship between hand strength and physical ability. METHODS Healthy participants aged ≥ 60 years with no neurological conditions were recruited from rural and urban locations in Malaysia. HGS and KPS were measured using hand grip and key pinch dynamometers. Basic demographic data, anthropometric measures, modified Barthel Index scores and results of the Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT) were recorded. RESULTS 362 subjects aged 60–93 years were recruited. The men were significantly stronger than the women in both HGS and KPS (p < 0.001). The hand strength of the study cohort was lower than that of elderly Western populations. Significant correlations were observed between hand strength, and residential area (p < 0.001), FRT (r = 0.236, p = 0.028), TUG (r = −0.227, p = 0.009) and JTHFT (r = −0.927, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION This study established reference ranges for the HGS and KPS of rural and urban elderly Malaysian subpopulations. These will aid the use of hand strength as a screening tool for frailty among elderly persons in Malaysia. Future studies are required to determine the modifiable factors for poor hand strength. PMID:26768064

  3. Psychological factors and DNA methylation of genes related to immune/inflammatory system markers: the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Kubzansky, Laura D; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although psychological factors have been associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), the underlying pathways for these associations have yet to be elucidated. DNA methylation has been posited as a mechanism linking psychological factors to CHD risk. In a cohort of community-dwelling elderly men, we explored the associations between positive and negative psychological factors with DNA methylation in promoter regions of multiple genes involved in immune/inflammatory processes related to atherosclerosis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants Samples of 538 to 669 men participating in the Normative Aging Study cohort with psychological measures and DNA methylation measures, collected on 1–4 visits between 1999 and 2006 (mean age=72.7 years at first visit). Outcome measures We examined anxiety, depression, hostility and life satisfaction as predictors of leucocyte gene-specific DNA methylation. We estimated repeated measures linear mixed models, controlling for age, smoking, education, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes, % lymphocytes, % monocytes and plasma folate. Results Psychological distress measured by anxiety, depression and hostility was positively associated, and happiness and life satisfaction were inversely associated with average Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and coagulation factor III (F3) promoter methylation levels. There was some evidence that hostility was positively associated with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) promoter methylation, and that life satisfaction was inversely associated with TLR-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter methylation. We observed less consistent and significant associations between psychological factors and average methylation for promoters of the genes for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Conclusions These findings suggest that positive and negative

  4. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension: Further analyses of the normative aging study data

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.; Kim, Rokho; Korrick, S. |; Rotnitzky, A.

    1996-12-31

    In an earlier report based on participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, we found a significant association between the risk of hypertension and lead levels in tibia. To examine the possible confounding effects of education and occupation, we considered in this study five levels of education and three levels of occupation as independent variables in the statistical model. Of 1,171 active subjects seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 563 provided complete data for this analysis. In the initial logistic regression model, acre and body mass index, family history of hypertension, and dietary sodium intake, but neither cumulative smoking nor alcohol ingestion, conferred increased odds ratios for being hypertensive that were statistically significant. When the lead biomarkers were added separately to this initial logistic model, tibia lead and patella lead levels were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for hypertension. In the final backward elimination logistic regression model that included categorical variables for education and occupation, the only variables retained were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and tibia lead level. We conclude that education and occupation variables were not confounding the association between the lead biomarkers and hypertension that we reported previously. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Do Hassles Mediate between Life Events and Mortality in Older Men? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Choun, Soyoung; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether hassles mediated the effect of life events on mortality in a sample of 1,293 men (Mage = 65.58, SD = 7.01), participants in the VA Normative Aging Study. We utilized measures of stressful life event (SLE) and hassles from 1989 to 2004, and men were followed for mortality until 2010. For life events and hassles, previous research identified three and four patterns of change over time, respectively, generally indicating low, moderate, and high trajectories, with one moderate, non-linear pattern for hassles (shallow U curve). Controlling for demographics and health behaviors, we found that those with moderate SLE trajectories (38%) more likely to die than those with low SLE trajectories, HR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.16, 3.45]. Including the hassles classes showed that those with the moderate non-linear hassles trajectory were 63% more likely to die than those with low hassles trajectory, HR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.19, 2.23],, while those with consistently high hassles trajectory were over 3 times more likely to die, HR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.58, 6.89]. However, the HR for moderate SLE trajectory decreased only slightly to 1.38, 95% CI [1.13, 1.68], suggesting that the two types of stress have largely independent effects on mortality. Research is needed to determine the physiological and behavioral pathways through which SLE and hassles differentially affect mortality. PMID:24995936

  6. Emotional Reactivity and Mortality: Longitudinal Findings From the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Chan, Wai; Almeida, David M.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Evidence suggests a predictive association between emotion and mortality risk. However, no study has examined dynamic aspects of emotion in relation to mortality. This study used an index of emotional reactivity, defined as changes in positive or negative affect in response to daily stressors, to predict 10-year survival. Methods. An 8-day daily diary study was conducted in 2002 on 181 men aged 58–88. Multilevel models were employed to estimate emotional reactivity coefficients, which were subsequently entered into a Cox proportional hazards model to predict mortality. Results. Results indicated that positive emotional reactivity, that is, greater decreases in positive affect in response to daily stressors, increased mortality risk. Negative emotional reactivity did not predict mortality. Discussion. Findings highlight the potential importance of dynamic aspects of positive affect in prediction of physical health outcomes such as mortality. PMID:24170714

  7. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Sina; Vanstone, Catherine A.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2012-01-01

    For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD) and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation), weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada). Whole body (WB) as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4) and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc.) providing bone mineral content (BMC) for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0 ± 14.2 versus 227.0 ± 29.7 g), spine BMC by 130% (2.35 ± 0.42 versus 5.37 ± 1.02 g), and femur BMC by 190% (2.94 ± 0.54 versus 8.50 ± 1.84 g). Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266 ± 0.044 versus 0.304 ± 0.044 g/cm2) during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals. PMID:23091773

  8. Air pollution and gene-specific methylation in the Normative Aging Study: association, effect modification, and mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Lepeule, Johanna; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Baccarelli, Andrea; Coull, Brent A; Tarantini, Letizia; Vokonas, Pantel S; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-03-01

    The mechanisms by which air pollution has multiple systemic effects in humans are not fully elucidated, but appear to include inflammation and thrombosis. This study examines whether concentrations of ozone and components of fine particle mass are associated with changes in methylation on tissue factor (F3), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). We investigated associations between air pollution exposure and gene-specific methylation in 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999-2009). We repeatedly measured methylation at multiple CpG sites within each gene's promoter region and calculated the mean of the position-specific measurements. We examined intermediate-term associations between primary and secondary air pollutants and mean methylation and methylation at each position with distributed-lag models. Increase in air pollutants concentrations was significantly associated with F3, ICAM-1, and TLR-2 hypomethylation, and IFN-γ and IL-6 hypermethylation. An interquartile range increase in black carbon concentration averaged over the four weeks prior to assessment was associated with a 12% reduction in F3 methylation (95% CI: -17% to -6%). For some genes, the change in methylation was observed only at specific locations within the promoter region. DNA methylation may reflect biological impact of air pollution. We found some significant mediated effects of black carbon on fibrinogen through a decrease in F3 methylation, and of sulfate and ozone on ICAM-1 protein through a decrease in ICAM-1 methylation.

  9. Normative data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Japanese school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although child mental health problems are among the most important worldwide issues, development of culturally acceptable mental health services to serve the clinical needs of children and their families is especially lacking in regions outside Europe and North America. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was developed in the United Kingdom and is now one of the most widely used measurement tools for screening child psychiatric symptoms, has been translated into Japanese, but culturally calibrated norms for Japanese schoolchildren have yet to be established. To this end, we examined the applicability of the Japanese versions of the parent and teacher SDQs by establishing norms and extending validation of its psychometric properties to a large nationwide sample, as well as to a smaller clinical sample. Methods The Japanese versions of the SDQ were completed by parents and teachers of schoolchildren aged 7 to 15 years attending mainstream classes in primary or secondary schools in Japan. Data were analyzed to describe the population distribution and gender/age effects by informant, cut-off scores according to banding, factor structure, cross-scale correlations, and internal consistency for 24,519 parent ratings and 7,977 teacher ratings from a large nationwide sample. Inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities and convergent and divergent validities were confirmed for a smaller validation sample (total n = 128) consisting of a clinical sample with any mental disorder and community children without any diagnoses. Results Means, standard deviations, and banding of normative data for this Japanese child population were obtained. Gender/age effects were significant for both parent and teacher ratings. The original five-factor structure was replicated, and strong cross-scale correlations and internal reliability were shown across all SDQ subscales for this population. Inter-rater agreement was satisfactory, test-retest reliability was

  10. Cumulative lead exposure is associated with reduced olfactory recognition performance in elderly men: the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Grashow, Rachel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Olfactory dysfunction has been identified as an early warning sign for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and more. A few occupational and environmental exposures have also been associated with reduced olfactory function, although the effects of long term environmental exposure to lead on olfactory dysfunction have not been explored. Here we performed olfactory recognition testing in elderly men in a community-dwelling cohort and examined the association with cumulative lead exposure, as assessed by lead in tibial and patellar bone. Methods Olfactory recognition was measured in 165 men from the Normative Aging Study (NAS) who had previously taken part in bone lead measurements using K-X-Ray fluorescence (KXRF). Olfactory recognition was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Associations between olfactory recognition, global cognition and cumulative lead exposure were estimated using linear regression, with additional adjustment for age, smoking, and functional polymorphism status for hemochromatosis (HFE), transferrin (TfC2), glutathione-s-transferase Pi1 (GSTP1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Sensitivity analyses explored olfactory recognition in men with high global cognitive function as measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE). Results The average age of the NAS participants at the time of olfactory recognition testing was 80.3 (standard deviation or SD = 5.7) years. Mean tibia lead was 16.3 (SD = 12.0) μg/g bone, mean patella lead was 22.4 (SD = 14.4) μg/g bone, and mean UPSIT score was 26.9 out of 40 (SD = 7.0). Consistent with previous findings, age at olfaction testing was negatively associated with UPSIT score. Tibia (but not patella) bone lead was negatively associated with olfaction recognition (per 15 μg/g tibia lead: β = −1.57; 95% CI: −2.93, −0.22; p = 0.02) in models adjusted for smoking and age. Additional adjustment for education did not

  11. The effects of the Columbia shuttle disaster on the daily lives of older adults: findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Neupert, S D; Almeida, D M; Mroczek, D K; Spiro, A

    2006-05-01

    During 2002-2003 the VA Normative Aging Study conducted an eight-day diary survey of stressors and well-being. A sub-sample of 19 men and 13 women (mean age = 71.78) completed daily questionnaires before and after the Columbia shuttle exploded on 1st February 2003, presenting a unique look into peoples' daily lives before and after a tragic event. Results indicated no significant changes in negative affect or physical symptoms, but people reported significant decreases in both positive affect and memory failures on days following the shuttle explosion. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol, and video gaming.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modeled from input from a whole-report assessment based on a theory of visual attention. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity, and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.

  13. Google and the "Twisted Cyber Spy" Affair: US-Chinese Communication in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Stephen John

    2011-01-01

    The "twisted cyber spy" affair began in 2010, when Google was attacked by Chinese cyber-warriors charged with stealing Google's intellectual property, planting viruses in its computers, and hacking the accounts of Chinese human rights activists. In the ensuing international embroglio, the US mainstream press, corporate leaders, and White…

  14. Impact of Rural Residence on Survival of Male Veterans Affairs Patients after Age 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Todd A.; Wallace, Amy E.; Weeks, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: More than 1 in 5 Veterans Affairs (VA) users lives in a rural setting. Rural veterans face different barriers to health care than their urban counterparts, but their risk of death relative to their urban counterparts is unknown. The objective of our study was to compare survival between rural and urban VA users. Methods: We linked the…

  15. Measuring health-related quality of life in the population of Tetouan, Morocco, by the SF-36: normative data and the influence of gender and age.

    PubMed

    El Emrani, L; Senhaji, M; Bendriss, A

    2016-04-28

    Measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an essential complement to medical evaluation. However, few studies of this type have been conducted in Morocco. This study aims to develop normative data for the SF-36 and analyse the HRQOL according to gender and age in the population of Tetouan city, Morocco. The SF-36 was administered to a sample selected by quotas containing 385 subjects aged over 16 years living in Tetouan. Comparisons of means were done to determine the significance of differences. The study population perceived mental health to be worse than physical health. Men presented significantly higher mean scores than women for all domains of the SF-36. Perceived health, especially physical health, declines with age, and so participants over the age of 55years recorded a poor perception of their health in the majority of domains measured. The results highlight the vulnerability of the two groups: women and the elderly.

  16. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height

    PubMed Central

    Steiber, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17–90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006–2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men’s and women’s 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a ‘weak grip’. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65–69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80–90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a ‘critically weak grip’ that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value. PMID:27701433

  17. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height.

    PubMed

    Steiber, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17-90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006-2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men's and women's 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a 'weak grip'. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65-69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80-90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a 'critically weak grip' that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

  18. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle‐run test in a population‐based sample of school‐aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study

    PubMed Central

    Palacios‐López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto‐Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa‐Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso‐Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk. Methods A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health‐related FITNESSGRAM cut‐points for low CRF. Results Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). Conclusions Our results provide sex‐ and age‐specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle‐run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population‐based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin‐American city at high altitude. PMID:27500986

  19. Multivariate normative comparisons using an aggregated database.

    PubMed

    Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Murre, Jaap M J; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-01-01

    In multivariate normative comparisons, a patient's profile of test scores is compared to those in a normative sample. Recently, it has been shown that these multivariate normative comparisons enhance the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment. However, multivariate normative comparisons require multivariate normative data, which are often unavailable. In this paper, we show how a multivariate normative database can be constructed by combining healthy control group data from published neuropsychological studies. We show that three issues should be addressed to construct a multivariate normative database. First, the database may have a multilevel structure, with participants nested within studies. Second, not all tests are administered in every study, so many data may be missing. Third, a patient should be compared to controls of similar age, gender and educational background rather than to the entire normative sample. To address these issues, we propose a multilevel approach for multivariate normative comparisons that accounts for missing data and includes covariates for age, gender and educational background. Simulations show that this approach controls the number of false positives and has high sensitivity to detect genuine deviations from the norm. An empirical example is provided. Implications for other domains than neuropsychology are also discussed. To facilitate broader adoption of these methods, we provide code implementing the entire analysis in the open source software package R.

  20. Multivariate normative comparisons using an aggregated database

    PubMed Central

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2017-01-01

    In multivariate normative comparisons, a patient’s profile of test scores is compared to those in a normative sample. Recently, it has been shown that these multivariate normative comparisons enhance the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment. However, multivariate normative comparisons require multivariate normative data, which are often unavailable. In this paper, we show how a multivariate normative database can be constructed by combining healthy control group data from published neuropsychological studies. We show that three issues should be addressed to construct a multivariate normative database. First, the database may have a multilevel structure, with participants nested within studies. Second, not all tests are administered in every study, so many data may be missing. Third, a patient should be compared to controls of similar age, gender and educational background rather than to the entire normative sample. To address these issues, we propose a multilevel approach for multivariate normative comparisons that accounts for missing data and includes covariates for age, gender and educational background. Simulations show that this approach controls the number of false positives and has high sensitivity to detect genuine deviations from the norm. An empirical example is provided. Implications for other domains than neuropsychology are also discussed. To facilitate broader adoption of these methods, we provide code implementing the entire analysis in the open source software package R. PMID:28267796

  1. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Montagne, Barbara; Hendriks, Angelique W; Perrett, David I; de Haan, Edward H F

    2014-03-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception.

  2. Normative bone mineral density z-scores for Canadians aged 16 to 24 years: the Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Langsetmo, Lisa; Berger, Claudie; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ioannidis, George; Webber, Colin; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Brown, Jacques P; Hanley, David A; Josse, Robert; Kreiger, Nancy; Prior, Jerilynn; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kirkland, Susan; Goltzman, David; Davison, Kenneth Shawn

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop bone mineral density (BMD) reference norms and BMD Z-scores at various skeletal sites, to determine whether prior fracture and/or asthma were related to BMD, and to assess possible geographic variation of BMD among Canadian youth aged 16-24 yr. Z-Scores were defined as the number of standard deviations from the mean BMD of a healthy population of the same age, race, and sex. Z-Scores were calculated using the reference sample defined as Canadian Caucasian participants without asthma or prior fracture. Reference standards were created for lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total hip, and greater trochanter, by each year of age (16-24 yr), and by sex. The Z-score norms were developed for groups noted earlier. Mean Z-scores between the asthma or fracture subgroups compared with the mean Z-scores in the reference sample were not different. There were minor differences in mean BMD across different Canadian geographic regions. This study provides age, sex, and skeletal site-specific Caucasian reference norms and formulae for the calculation of BMD Z-scores for Canadian youth aged 16-24 yr. This information will be valuable to help to identify individuals with clinically meaningful low BMD.

  3. Normative shifts of cortical mechanisms of encoding contribute to adult age differences in visual-spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-06-01

    The capacity of visual-spatial working memory (WM) declines from early to late adulthood. Recent attempts at identifying neural correlates of WM capacity decline have focused on the maintenance phase of WM. Here, we investigate neural mechanisms during the encoding phase as another potential mechanism contributing to adult age differences in WM capacity. We used electroencephalography to track neural activity during encoding and maintenance on a millisecond timescale in 35 younger and 35 older adults performing a visual-spatial WM task. As predicted, we observed pronounced age differences in ERP indicators of WM encoding: Younger adults showed attentional selection during item encoding (N2pc component), but this selection mechanism was greatly attenuated in older adults. Conversely, older adults showed more pronounced signs of early perceptual stimulus processing (N1 component) than younger adults. The amplitude modulation of the N1 component predicted WM capacity in older adults, whereas the attentional amplitude modulation of the N2pc component predicted WM capacity in younger adults. Our findings suggest that adult age differences in mechanisms of WM encoding contribute to adult age differences in limits of visual-spatial WM capacity.

  4. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory: normative data by sex and age from a Spanish normal randomized sample

    PubMed Central

    Labad, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes; Gaviria, Ana; Bayón, Carmen; Vilella, Elisabet; Cloninger, C. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The psychometric properties regarding sex and age for the revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and its derived short version, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-140), were evaluated with a randomized sample from the community. Methods. A randomized sample of 367 normal adult subjects from a Spanish municipality, who were representative of the general population based on sex and age, participated in the current study. Descriptive statistics and internal consistency according to α coefficient were obtained for all of the dimensions and facets. T-tests and univariate analyses of variance, followed by Bonferroni tests, were conducted to compare the distributions of the TCI-R dimension scores by age and sex. Results. On both the TCI-R and TCI-140, women had higher scores for Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness than men, whereas men had higher scores for Persistence. Age correlated negatively with Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness and positively with Harm Avoidance and Self-transcendence. Young subjects between 18 and 35 years had higher scores than older subjects in NS and RD. Subjects between 51 and 77 years scored higher in both HA and ST. The alphas for the dimensions were between 0.74 and 0.87 for the TCI-R and between 0.63 and 0.83 for the TCI-140. Conclusion. Results, which were obtained with a randomized sample, suggest that there are specific distributions of personality traits by sex and age. Overall, both the TCI-R and the abbreviated TCI-140 were reliable in the ‘good-to-excellent’ range. A strength of the current study is the representativeness of the sample. PMID:26713237

  5. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory: normative data by sex and age from a Spanish normal randomized sample.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Labad, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes; Gaviria, Ana; Bayón, Carmen; Vilella, Elisabet; Cloninger, C Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The psychometric properties regarding sex and age for the revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and its derived short version, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-140), were evaluated with a randomized sample from the community. Methods. A randomized sample of 367 normal adult subjects from a Spanish municipality, who were representative of the general population based on sex and age, participated in the current study. Descriptive statistics and internal consistency according to α coefficient were obtained for all of the dimensions and facets. T-tests and univariate analyses of variance, followed by Bonferroni tests, were conducted to compare the distributions of the TCI-R dimension scores by age and sex. Results. On both the TCI-R and TCI-140, women had higher scores for Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness than men, whereas men had higher scores for Persistence. Age correlated negatively with Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness and positively with Harm Avoidance and Self-transcendence. Young subjects between 18 and 35 years had higher scores than older subjects in NS and RD. Subjects between 51 and 77 years scored higher in both HA and ST. The alphas for the dimensions were between 0.74 and 0.87 for the TCI-R and between 0.63 and 0.83 for the TCI-140. Conclusion. Results, which were obtained with a randomized sample, suggest that there are specific distributions of personality traits by sex and age. Overall, both the TCI-R and the abbreviated TCI-140 were reliable in the 'good-to-excellent' range. A strength of the current study is the representativeness of the sample.

  6. Treating age-related macular degeneration: comparing the use of two drugs among medicare and veterans affairs populations.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Suzann; Pal Chee, Christine; Asch, Steven M; Baker, Laurence C; Boothroyd, Derek; Wagner, Todd H; Bundorf, M Kate

    2015-02-01

    While new biologics have revolutionized the treatment of age-related macular degeneration-the leading cause of severe vision loss among older adults-these new drugs have also raised concerns over the economic impact of medical innovation. The two leading agents are similar in effectiveness but vary greatly in price-up to $2,000 per injection for ranibizumab compared to $50 for bevacizumab. We examined the diffusion of these drugs in fee-for-service Medicare and Veterans Affairs (VA) systems during 2005-11, in part to assess the impact that differing financial incentives had on prescribing. Physicians treating Medicare patients have a direct financial incentive to prescribe the more expensive agent (ranibizumab), while VA physicians do not. Medicare injections of the more expensive ranibizumab peaked in 2007 at 47 percent. Beginning in 2009 the less expensive bevacizumab became the predominant therapy for Medicare patients, accounting for more than 60 percent of injections. For VA patients, the distribution of injections across the two drugs was relatively equal, particularly from 2009 to 2011. Our analysis indicates that there are opportunities in both the VA and Medicare to adopt more value-conscious treatment patterns and that multiple mechanisms exist to influence utilization.

  7. Normativity, agency, and life.

    PubMed

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time.

  8. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): methods and sample characteristics.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Blesa, Rafael; Aguilar, Miquel; Gramunt-Fombuena, Nina; Gómez-Ansón, Beatriz; Oliva, Rafael; Molinuevo, José Luis; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the methods and sample characteristics of a series of Spanish normative studies (The NEURONORMA project). The primary objective of our research was to collect normative and psychometric information on a sample of people aged over 49 years. The normative information was based on a series of selected, but commonly used, neuropsychological tests covering attention, language, visuo-perceptual abilities, constructional tasks, memory, and executive functions. A sample of 356 community dwelling individuals was studied. Demographics, socio-cultural, and medical data were collected. Cognitive normality was validated via informants and a cognitive screening test. Norms were calculated for midpoint age groups. Effects of age, education, and sex were determined. The use of these norms should improve neuropsychological diagnostic accuracy in older Spanish subjects. These data may also be of considerable use for comparisons with other normative studies. Limitations of these normative data are also commented on.

  9. Public Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    military assistance to civil authorities ( MACA ), including consequence management activities. The Armed Forces of the United States support the NSHS...mission and the close relationship between HD and homeland security, homeland defense missions may be conducted in a manner similar to MACA (i.e., with a...during a major event. 4. Public Affairs Operations Under the National Response Plan a. The NRP outlines the federal (including DOD MACA ) response to

  10. Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

    We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

  11. Revised normative values for grip strength with the Jamar dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Peters, Martine J H; van Nes, Sonja I; Vanhoutte, Els K; Bakkers, Mayienne; van Doorn, Pieter A; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G

    2011-03-01

    The Jamar dynamometer has been widely used in various chronic illnesses and has demonstrated its strength as a potential prognostic indicator. Various stratified normative values have been published using different methodologies, leading to conflicting results. No study used statistical techniques considering the non-Gaussian distribution of the obtained grip strength (GS) values. Jamar GS was assessed in 720 healthy participants, subdivided into seven age decade groups consisting of at least 50 men and 50 women each. Normative values (median and fifth values) were calculated using quantile regressions with restricted cubic spline functions on age. Possible confounding personal factors (hand dominance, length, weight, hobby, and job categorization) were examined. Clinically applicable revised normative values for the Jamar dynamometer, stratified for age and gender, are presented. Hand dominance had no influence. Other personal factors only minimally influenced final values. This study provides revised normative GS values for the Jamar dynamometer.

  12. Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

    This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national…

  13. Quantile Regression Analysis of the Distributional Effects of Air Pollution on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability, Blood Lipids, and Biomarkers of Inflammation in Elderly American Men: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Peters, Annette; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have observed associations between air pollution and heart disease. Susceptibility to air pollution effects has been examined mostly with a test of effect modification, but little evidence is available whether air pollution distorts cardiovascular risk factor distribution. Objectives: This paper aims to examine distributional and heterogeneous effects of air pollution on known cardiovascular biomarkers. Methods: A total of 1,112 men from the Normative Aging Study and residents of the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area with mean age of 69 years at baseline were included in this study during the period 1995–2013. We used quantile regression and random slope models to investigate distributional effects and heterogeneity in the traffic-related responses on blood pressure, heart rate variability, repolarization, lipids, and inflammation. We considered 28-day averaged exposure to particle number, PM2.5 black carbon, and PM2.5 mass concentrations (measured at a single monitor near the site of the study visits). Results: We observed some evidence suggesting distributional effects of traffic-related pollutants on systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability, corrected QT interval, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). For example, among participants with LDL cholesterol below 80 mg/dL, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 black carbon exposure was associated with a 7-mg/dL (95% CI: 5, 10) increase in LDL cholesterol, while among subjects with LDL cholesterol levels close to 160 mg/dL, the same exposure was related to a 16-mg/dL (95% CI: 13, 20) increase in LDL cholesterol. We observed similar heterogeneous associations across low versus high percentiles of the LDL distribution for PM2.5 mass and particle number. Conclusions: These results suggest that air pollution distorts the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors, and that, for several outcomes, effects may be

  14. Age and task differences in functional fitness in older women: comparisons with Senior Fitness Test normative and criterion-referenced data.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Diane E; Talley, Susan Ann; Goldberg, Allon

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in physical abilities, such as strength and flexibility, contribute to functional losses. However, older individuals may be unaware of what specific physical abilities compromise independent functioning. Three groups of women, aged 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 to 92 years, were administered the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) to determine age differences in physical abilities and risk for functional losses. The oldest group showed significant differences in lower body strength, aerobic endurance, and agility and dynamic balance when compared with the other groups who performed similarly. Across all groups, a faster rate of decline was found for lower body strength (50.6%) and dynamic balance and agility (45.7%) than upper body strength (21.3%) and aerobic endurance (33.6%). Criterion-referenced (CR) fitness standards suggested that 45% of the individuals were at risk for loss of independent functioning. This study highlights age-related differences in physical abilities and the risk for the loss of independence in later life.

  15. China Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is China Report include Economic Affairs. It contains the issues with different topics on People’s Republic of China: Provincial Affairs, Economic Planning, Economic Management, Finance and Banking, Mineral Resources , Industry, Transportation.

  16. Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-Deoxyguanosine as a Biomarker of Oxidative DNA Damage Induced by Ambient Pollution in the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Cizao; Fang, Shona; Wright, Robert O; Suh, Helen; Schwartz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies show that exposure to air pollution damages human health, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. One suggested pathway is via oxidative stress. Objectives This study is to examine associations between exposure to air pollution and oxidative DNA damage, as indicated by urinary 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations in aging participants during 2006-2008. Methods We fit linear regression models to examine associations between air pollutants and 8-OHdG adjusting for potential confounders. Results 8-OHdG was significantly associated with ambient particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), the number of particles (PN), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), maximal 1-hour ozone (O3), sulfate (SO42-) and organic carbon (OC), but not with black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO) or elemental carbon (EC). Effects were more apparent with multi-week averages of exposures. Per IQR increases of 21-day averages of PM2.5, PN, BC, EC, OC, CO, SO42-, NO2 and maximal 1-hour O3 were associated with 30.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.3%, 52.2%), -13.1% (95%CI: -41.7%, 15.5%), 3.0% (95% CI: -19.8%, 25.8%), 5.3% (95% CI: -23.6%, 34.2%), 24.4% (95% CI: 1.8%, 47.1%), -2.0% (95% CI: -12.4%, 8.3%), 29.8% (95% CI: 6.3%, 53.3%), 32.2% (95% CI: 7.4%, 56.9%) and 47.7% (95% CI: 3.6%, 91.7%) changes in 8-OHdG, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that aging participants experienced an increased risk of developing oxidative DNA injury after exposure to the secondary, but not primary ambient pollutants. PMID:20980452

  17. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

  18. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmerus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother--child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment.…

  19. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B

    2008-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making. PMID

  20. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmérus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother – child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety. PMID:16274437

  1. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  2. Normative data on the diurnal pattern of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ratings and its relation to age, sex, work, stress, sleep quality and sickness absence/illness in a large sample of daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Hallvig, David; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-03-29

    Self-rated sleepiness responds to sleep loss, time of day and work schedules. There is, however, a lack of a normative reference showing the diurnal pattern during a normal working day, compared with a day off, as well as differences depending on stress, sleep quality, sex, age and being sick listed. The present study sought to provide such data for the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Participants were 431 individuals working in medium-sized public service units. Sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, scale 1-9) was rated at six times a day for a working week and 2 days off (>90.000 ratings). The results show a clear circadian pattern, with high values during the morning (4.5 at 07:00 hours) and evening (6.0 at 22:00 hours), and with low values (3-4) during the 10:00-16:00 hours span. Women had significantly higher (0.5 units) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale values than men, as did younger individuals (0.3 units), those with stress (1.3 units above the low-stress group) and those with poor sleep quality (1.0 units above those with qood sleep quality). Days off showed reduced sleepiness (0.7 units), while being sick listed was associated with an increased sleepiness (0.8 units). Multiple regression analysis of mean sleepiness during the working week yielded mean daytime stress, mean sleep quality, age, and sex as predictors (not sleep duration). Improved sleep quality accounted for the reduced sleepiness during days off, but reduced stress was a second factor. Similar results were obtained in a longitudinal mixed-model regression analysis across the 7 days of the week. The percentage of ratings at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale risk levels (8 + 9) was 6.6%, but most of these were obtained at 22:00 hours. It was concluded that sleepiness ratings are strongly associated with time of day, sleep quality, stress, work day/day off, being ill, age, and sex.

  3. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  4. Performance of American Indian Children Compared with Koppitz Normative Population on the Bender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, L. M.; Asmussen, J. M.

    Differences in the normative data presented in the Koppitz Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt Test (a measure for diagnosing learning and neurological disorders) were compared for 838 elementary age children of the Sioux, Chippewa, Navajo, and Apache tribes and a Koppitz normative group. Considered were mean error differences and mean time…

  5. Normative Beliefs about Sharing Housing with an Older Family Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial…

  6. Designing normative open virtual enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Emilia; Giret, Adriana; Botti, Vicente

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest on developing virtual enterprises in order to deal with the globalisation of the economy, the rapid growth of information technologies and the increase of competitiveness. In this paper we deal with the development of normative open virtual enterprises (NOVEs). They are systems with a global objective that are composed of a set of heterogeneous entities and enterprises that exchange services following a specific normative context. In order to analyse and design systems of this kind the multi-agent paradigm seems suitable because it offers a specific solution for supporting the social and contractual relationships between enterprises and for formalising their business processes. This paper presents how the Regulated Open Multi-agent systems (ROMAS) methodology, an agent-oriented software methodology, can be used to analyse and design NOVEs. ROMAS offers a complete development process that allows identifying and formalising of the structure of NOVEs, their normative context and the interactions among their members. The use of ROMAS is exemplified by means of a case study that represents an automotive supply chain.

  7. Assessment battery for communication (ABaCo): normative data.

    PubMed

    Angeleri, Romina; Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-09-01

    The Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo) was introduced to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with cerebral lesions. The battery is organized into five evaluation scales focusing on separate components of pragmatic competence. In the present study, we present normative data for individuals 15-75 years of age (N = 300). The sample was stratified by age, sex, and years of education, according to Italian National Institute of Statistics indications in order to be representative of the general national population. Since performance on the ABaCo decreases with age and lower years of education, the norms were stratified for both age and education. The ABaCo is a valuable tool in clinical practice; the normative data provided here will enable clinicians to determine different kinds and specific levels of communicative impairments more precisely.

  8. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Resource Utilization and Supply; Regional Development ; and Introduction of New Technology;

  9. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-22

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Planning and Plan Implementation; Investment, Prices, Budget and Finance; Resource Utilization and Supply; and Regional Development .

  10. USSR Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-16

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The main topics are Economic Policy, Organization and Management; Investment, Prices, Budget and Finance; Resource Utilization and Supply and Regional Development .

  11. China Report, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is China Report include Economic Affairs. It contains the issues with different topics on People’s Republic of China: National Policy and Issues, Finance and Banking, Mineral Resources , Domestic Trade, Foreign Trade.

  12. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Imperialist Expansion (KNIZHNOYE OBOZRENIYE, No 37, 12 Sep 86) 2 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS Responses to PRAVDA Query on Direct Economic...Ties’ (Ya. Macheyevich, Yu. Shiryayev; PRAVDA, 13 Oct 86) 4 CEMA Economic Integration Defended Against Bourgeois Attacks (A. Nikolskiy...countries; they also reap a profit of 5 billion dollars. 13080/12859 CSO: 1807/039 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS RESPONSES TO PRAVDA QUERY ON

  13. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AFFAIRS CONTENTS SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS International Scientific Coordinating Conference in USSR (ZARYA VOSTOKA, 30 Oct 86) • ■ • • 1 ...Czechoslovak Meeting on S&T Cooperation With CEMA (EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 1 , Jan 87) 2 Non-Use of CEMA Economic Experience Queried (V. G...U.S. Export Control Laws Revised (Moscow in English to North America, 1 Mar 87) 64 Reagan’s 1984 Directive on Concentration Camps Noted (Vadim

  14. Normative data for idiomatic expressions.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Emily; Jambazova, Antonia A

    2017-02-01

    Idiomatic expressions such as kick the bucket or go down a storm can differ on a number of internal features, such as familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability, and these types of features have been the focus of a number of normative studies. In this article, we provide normative data for a set of Bulgarian idioms and their English translations, and by doing so replicate in a Slavic language the relationships between the ratings previously found in Romance and Germanic languages. Additionally, we compared whether collecting these types of ratings in between-subjects or within-subjects designs affects the data and the conclusions drawn, and found no evidence that design type affects the final outcome. Finally, we present the results of a meta-analysis that summarizes the relationships found across the literature. As in many previous individual studies, we found that familiarity correlates with a number of other features; however, such studies have shown conflicting results concerning literality and decomposability ratings. The meta-analysis revealed reliable relationships of decomposability with a number of other measures, such as familiarity, meaning, and predictability. Conversely, literality was shown to have little to no relationship with any of the other subjective ratings. The implications for these relationships in the context of the wider experimental literature are discussed, with a particular focus on the importance of attaining familiarity ratings for each sample of participants in experimental work.

  15. Public affairs plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  16. Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Moták, Ladislav; Axelrod, Bradley N; Woodard, John L; Preiss, Marek; Nikolai, Tomáš; Růžička, Evžen; Poreh, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Our analyses revealed significant relationships between most RAVLT indices and age and education. Normative data are provided not only for basic RAVLT scores, but for the first time also for a variety of derived (gained/lost access, primacy/recency effect) and error scores. The study confirmed a logarithmic character of the learning slope and is consistent with other studies. It enables the clinician to evaluate more precisely subject's RAVLT memory performance on a vast number of indices and can be viewed as a concrete example of Quantified Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment.

  17. Normative data for the pyramids and palm trees test in the Quebec-French population.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Brandy L; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol; Bier, Nathalie; Chouinard, Nancy; Cossette-Harvey, Mélissa; Daigle, Nathalie; Fradette, Catherine; Gagnon, Lise; Potvin, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Semantic memory tests assess long-term memory for facts, objects, and concepts as well as words and their meaning. Since it holds culturally shared information, the development of normative data adjusted to the cultural and linguistic reality of the target population is of particular importance. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Pyramids and Palm Trees Test, a commonly used test of semantic memory, in the French-Quebec population. The normative sample consisted of 214 healthy French-speaking adults and elderly persons from various regions of the province of Quebec. The effects of participants' age, gender, and education level on test performance were assessed. Results indicated that participants' level of education and age, but not sex, were found to be significantly associated with performance on this test. Normative data are presented as means and standard deviations. Overall, the present norms are consistent with those of previous studies with Spanish samples.

  18. Managing Legal Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…

  19. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  20. Student Affairs Researcher: Information Broker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Thomas D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the skills and research tools necessary for the student affairs researcher to become an agent for organizational learning within the student affairs division and the institution. Draws upon Peter Senge's theory of "The Learning Organization" and discusses the resulting implications for student affairs researchers. (GCP)

  1. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    PubMed

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances.

  2. USSR Report Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the after- math of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and the mobilization of labor and technology in the clean-up effort will be published...in the series USSR REPORT: POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS under the subtitle AFTERMATH OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT. This is a...EDITORIALIZES CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT Kiev PRAVDA UKRAINY in Russian 14 May 86 p 1 TRANSPORT WORKERS» EFFORTS AT CHERNOBYL DETAILED Moscow SOTSIALISnCHESKAYA

  3. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-29

    math of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and the mobilization of labor and technology in the clean-up effort will be published in the series...USSR REPORT: POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS under the subtitle AFTERMATH OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT. This is a represen- tative... CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT Kiev PRAVDA UKRAINY in Russian 14 May 86 p 1 TRANSPORT WORKERS’ EFFORTS AT CHERNOBYL DETAILED Moscow SOTSIALISTiaESKAYA INDUSTRIYA

  4. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    4 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS CEMA Secretary Descibes Priorities, Tasks (V. V. Sychev; EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 48, Nov 86...7 Improvement in CEMA Trade Situation Noted by UN (Moscow Domestic Service, 1 Dec 86) 13 CEMA Science, Technology Goals Outlined (Vladimir...Pasko; Moscow Domestic Service, 17 Dec 86) ... 15 Role of Soviet Republics Under CEMA Division of Labor CN. Stepanova; KOMMUNIST MOLDAVII, No 9, Sep

  5. USSR Report. International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Opens Soviet Envoy Addresses Forum 2 EAST-WEST RELATIONS History, Prospects for EC- CEMA Cooperation (Vladimir G. Baranovskiy; OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI...No 6, 1986) 4 SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS USSR Exports and Cooperation With CEMA Countries (B. A. Kheyfets; IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK...EAST-WEST RELATIONS HISTORY, PROSPECTS FOR EC- CEMA COOPERATION Moscow OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI in Russian No 6, 1986 pp 95-108 [Article by Vladimir

  6. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts...Pyongyang Domestic Service, 23 Dec 86) l Commentary on White Paper About Kumgangsan Dam (Cho Tu-ul; Pyongyang Domestic Service, 26 Dec 86) 3 Party...ruin. /8309 CSO: 4110/056 INTER-KOREAN AFFAIRS COMMENTARY ON WHITE PAPER ABOUT KUMGANGSAN DAM SK280105 Pyongyang Domestic Service in Korean 1150

  7. China Report, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    namely: No clear distinction was drawn between the functions of the government and those of the enterprises; barriers exist between different...enterprise functions in state-owned enterprises became more manifest, administrative control by state organs over economic affairs was strengthened...planned economy as incompatible with the commodity economy; seeing the functions of the socialist state in managing the economy as a monopoly in which

  8. Chief Student Affairs Officers' Interpretation and Implementation of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age and the Amethyst Initiative: A Discursive Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Rebecca Jane

    2012-01-01

    High-risk drinking is an endemic health and safety issue for college campuses in the United States (U.S.). While public health officials have recommended various models for campus alcohol prevention efforts, in 2008 a group of college presidents recommended a controversial strategy: reconsidering the U.S. minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). The…

  9. Normative data for elderly African Americans for the Stroop Color and Word Test.

    PubMed

    Moering, Robert G; Schinka, John A; Mortimer, James A; Graves, Amy Borenstein

    2004-01-01

    The Stroop Color and Word Test is a measure of executive function that is commonly used in neuropsychological evaluations, but for which there are currently no normative date for elderly African American individuals. The present investigation examined the influence of demographic characteristics on this measure in a community-dwelling sample of 236 elderly African American adults (60-84 years of age). Age, education, gender, and the education by gender interaction were found to affect performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test tasks. Based on these results, normative tables for Stroop Color and Word Test scores, stratified by age and with score adjustments for education and gender, are provided.

  10. Preschool Children with Gender Normative and Gender Non-Normative Peer Preferences: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Matthew D.; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A.; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53% boys; M age = 51 months; 66% Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer’s characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

  11. National Normative and Reliability Data for the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Paget, Kathleen D.

    1983-01-01

    To develop normative data for the revision of the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the scale was administered to 4,972 children, ages 6 to 19 years, representing all geographic regions of the United States. Reliability was satisfactory for all groups except Black females below age 12 years. (Author/BW)

  12. Brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia: normative data in an English-speaking ethnic Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Eng, Goi Khia; Lam, Max; Bong, Yioe Ling; Subramaniam, Mythily; Bautista, Dianne; Rapisarda, Attilio; Kraus, Michael; Lee, Jimmy; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Chong, Siow Ann; Keefe, Richard S E

    2013-12-01

    There is a dearth of non-Western normative data for neuropsychological batteries designed to measure cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we provide normative data for English-speaking ethnic Chinese on the widely used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia acquired from 595 healthy community participants between ages 14 and 55. Means and standard deviations of subtests and composite scores were stratified by age group and sex. We also explored linear regression approaches to generate continuous norms adjusted for age, sex, and education. Notable differences in subtest performances were found against a Western comparison sample. Normative data established in the current sample are essential for clinical and research purposes as it serves as a reference source of cognition for ethnic Chinese.

  13. Normative data on phases of the Valsalva maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denq, J. C.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    The phases of the Valsalva maneuver have well-known pathophysiology, and are used in the evaluation of adrenergic function. Because scant normative data is available, we have evaluated normative data for the Valsalva maneuver in control subjects. The patient, supine, performed the Valsalva maneuver maintaining an expiratory pressure of 40 mm Hg for 15 seconds. We reviewed 188 Valsalva maneuver recordings of normal control subjects, and recordings were excluded if two reproducible recordings were not obtained, or if expiratory pressure was <30 mm Hg or < 10 seconds. One hundred and three recordings were acceptable for analysis; 47 female and 56 male subjects, age in years (mean +/- SD) was 52.2+/-17.3 and 44.8+/-17.3, respectively. The association of expiratory pressure with age (P < 0.001) and gender ( P < 0.001) was complex, expressed as a parabola in both men and women, but resulted in phases I and III that were not significantly different. An increase in age resulted in a progressively more negative phase II_E (P < 0.05) and attenuation of phase II_L (P < 0.01). An increase in supine blood pressure resulted in a significantly more negative phase II_E (P < 0.001) and a lower phase IV. Phase IV is unaffected by age and gender.

  14. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and 24 brigades were destroyed and taken prisoner. The Wehrmacht lost 1,600,000 soldiers and officers. According to German data , irreplaceable...health, taking psychological data into acount, and their physical and general-education preparation. In so doing, how sincere the youth are in...Hospital for Political Affairs Lt-Col Aleksey Tel’nov bade them farewell heartily. The soldiers answered: "Thanks for the help and the care. Thanks, dear military doctors!..." 11409 CSO: 1801/207 END 58

  15. Public affairs committee actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  16. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  17. Supra-Earth affairs.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mazlan

    2011-02-13

    The United Nations briefly considered the issue of extra-terrestrial intelligence at the 32nd session of the General Assembly in 1977. As a result, the Office of Outer Space Affairs was tasked to prepare a document on issues related to 'messages to extra-terrestrial civilizations', but this area has not been followed through in more recent times. This discussion paper describes the United Nations' activities in the field of near-Earth objects in some detail, and suggests that this might be used as a model of how Member States could proceed with dealing with this issue in case the existence of extra-terrestrial life/intelligence is established.

  18. Preliminary Normative Data on the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task With Nonconcussed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Conder, Lauren H; Newton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Visual concentration impairment after neurologic injury is frequent, making its identification a critical component of neurocognitive concussion assessment. Visual target cancellation tests such as the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task (PSUSCT) have been widely used in assessing professional and collegiate athletes. To date, there are no normative studies using the PSUSCT with an adolescent population. Given that 38 million children and adolescents participate in sports and an estimated 5% to 10% are concussed annually, adolescent normative data are critically needed to evaluate concussions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to provide adolescent normative data on the PSUSCT. Participants included 40 healthy, nonconcussed high school students aged 14 to 19 years old (20 men, 20 women). Participants were administered Forms A and C of the PSUSCT within a 4-day period. Data analysis examined hits, omission errors, and commission errors, with descriptive statistics calculated for the total sample and for subgroups by gender and age. Study 1 provided normative adolescent data on Form A. Study 2 examined practice effects and established reliable change indexes (RCIs) by comparing results on Forms A and C. Neither Study 1 nor Study 2 demonstrated significant group differences for gender or age. In conclusion, this study presents adolescent normative data, apparent practice effects, and RCIs on the PSUSCT. These norms provide data needed to appropriately include the PSUSCT in baseline and postinjury concussion evaluation batteries with adolescent student-athletes. Findings should be replicated with a larger, more heterogeneous sample.

  19. Student Affairs Capitalism and Early-Career Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Helm, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study explores student affairs capitalism as the alteration of professional practice towards the financial interests of institutions. Student affairs capitalism has the potential to create dynamics in which the interests of students become secondary to the institution's economic needs. This study examined this phenomenon from the perspectives…

  20. Italian normative data for the Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (TERADIC).

    PubMed

    Trojano, Luigi; Siciliano, Mattia; Pedone, Roberto; Cristinzio, Chiara; Grossi, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (BVA, known in Italy as TeRaDiC) has been developed to analyse putative basic skills involved in drawing and to plan and monitor outcomes after rehabilitation of visuoconstructional disorders. It encompasses eight tasks assessing both simple "perceptual" abilities, such as line length and line orientation judgments and complex "representational" abilities, such as mental rotation. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for BVA collected in a wide sample of healthy Italian subjects. Three hundred seventeen healthy Italian subjects (173 women and 144 men) of different age classes (age range, 40-95 years) and education level (from primary to university), with a normal score on Mini Mental State Examination, completed BVA/TeRaDiC. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on most tests of the BVA/TeRaDiC; only line length judgment was not affected by educational level. Gender significantly affected line orientation judgment and mental rotation, with an advantage for males in both tests. From the derived linear equations, a correction grid for adjusting BVA/TeRaDiC raw scores was built. Using a non-parametric technique, inferential cut-off scores were determined and equivalent scores computed. The present study provided Italian normative data for the BVA/TeRaDiC useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  1. A Normative Model of Serum Inhibin B in Young Males

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Amy; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibin B has been identified as a potential marker of Sertoli cell function in males. The aim of this study is to produce a normative model of serum inhibin B in males from birth to seventeen years. We used a well-defined search strategy to identify studies containing data that can contribute to a larger approximation of the healthy population. We combined data from four published studies (n = 709) and derived an internally validated model with high goodness-of-fit and normally distributed residuals. Our results show that inhibin B increases following birth to a post-natal peak of 270 pg/mL (IQR 210–335 pg/mL) and then decreases during childhood followed by a rise at around 8 years, peaking at a mean 305 pg/mL (IQR 240–445 pg/mL) at around age 17. Following this peak there is a slow decline to the standard mature adult normal range of 170 pg/mL (IQR 125–215 pg/mL). This normative model suggests that 35% of the variation in Inhibin B levels in young males is due to age alone, provides an age-specific reference range for inhibin B in the young healthy male population, and will be a powerful tool in evaluating the potential of inhibin B as a marker of Sertoli cell function in pre-pubertal boys. PMID:27077369

  2. Normative Data on Anxiety Symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents: Differences in Sex, Age, and Residence and Comparison with an American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yen, Ju-Yu; Hsu, Fan-Ching; Yang, Pinchen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the differences in the levels of anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) between Taiwanese children and adolescents and the original American standardization sample across gender and age, and to examine differences in sex, age, and residential…

  3. Gender Diversity within the Student Affairs Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Marylu K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated issue of representation of women and men in student affairs profession. Preparation program data, professional association data, and perceptions of student affairs professionals demonstrated a clear shift toward greater proportions of women in student affairs. (Author/NB)

  4. Problematic Curriculum Development: Normative Inquiry in Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.

    1988-01-01

    Normative inquiry in curriculum (NIC) is concerned with a substantive, integrative approach to values so that the curriculum possesses integrity, consistency, and congruity. This article explores definitions and characteristics of NIC, analyzes the role of curricular influences and realities, provides suggestions for getting started, and answers…

  5. The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and…

  6. The Methodology of Normative Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christopher; Zeckhauser, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy analyses frequently clash. Their disagreements stem from many sources, including models, empirical estimates, and values such as who should have standing and how different criteria should be weighted. We provide a simple taxonomy of disagreement, identifying distinct categories within both the positive and values domains of normative policy…

  7. Transcending Normativity: Difference Issues in "College English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The author reads five volumes of "College English" with attention to the extent to which authors account for issues of systemic difference in their writing--both in their representations of themselves as authors and in their representations of others--as one means to explore how (indeed whether) we have begun to transcend normativity in our…

  8. Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

  9. Normativity in Fairy Tales: Scope, Range and Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohr, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    The article studies in three steps how the fairy tale articulates its normative content and what the educational consequence of this kind of communication is. First, the articulation of normativity in fictional literature in general is discussed. Second, the specific mode in which the fairy tale articulates its normativity is studied according to…

  10. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

  11. Northwest Territories Inuit, and Urban and Rural Alberta Normative Data: Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Normative data collected for the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test from children (ages 7-14) in urban and rural Alberta and for Inuit children in the Northwest Territories, Canada, were consistently below the Harris norms particularly for the Draw-a-Woman test. Alternate sets of Draw-a-Person norms are proposed for use with these groups. (Author/VW)

  12. Social Evaluation Fear in Childhood and Adolescence: Normative Developmental Course and Continuity of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.

    2007-01-01

    Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to two…

  13. Children's Reasoning by Mathematical Induction: Normative Facts, Not Just Causal Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    My argument for an empirical and normative model of children's development applicable to reasoning in mathematics is in three parts. Part I is a review of the evidence from a recent study of the development of young children's (aged 5-7 years) reasoning by mathematical induction. Part II outlines an interpretation in terms of an inclusive unit of…

  14. Child sexual behavior inventory: a comparison between Latino and normative samples of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; Wurtele, Sandy K

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative dearth of research examining normative sexual behavior in Latino preschool children, despite an increased presence of Latinos as a minority population in the United States. To meet this need, a sample of Latino mothers were asked to complete the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI; Friedrich et al., 1992 ) on their preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years old; n = 188). When their children's scores were compared to CSBI normative data, significant differences emerged. Compared to the normative sample, Latino boys and girls scored significantly higher on the sexual abuse specific items subscale, and Latino girls scored significantly higher on the developmentally related sexual behavior subscale. Possible cultural explanations for these elevations are explored.

  15. The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…

  16. The arbitrariness and normativity of social conventions.

    PubMed

    Al-Amoudi, Ismael; Latsis, John

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates a puzzling feature of social conventions: the fact that they are both arbitrary and normative. We examine how this tension is addressed in sociological accounts of conventional phenomena. Traditional approaches tend to generate either synchronic accounts that fail to consider the arbitrariness of conventions, or diachronic accounts that miss central aspects of their normativity. As a remedy, we propose a processual conception that considers conventions as both the outcome and material cause of much human activity. This conceptualization, which borrows from the économie des conventions as well as critical realism, provides a novel perspective on how conventions are nested and defined, and on how they are established, maintained and challenged.

  17. Human nature: how normative might it be?

    PubMed

    Bayertz, Kurt

    2003-04-01

    The question of the moral status of human nature is today being posed above all under the influence of medical and biotechnological aspects. These facilitate not only an increasing number of, but also increasingly far-reaching interventions and manipulations in humans, so that the perspective of a gradual "technologization" of his physical constitution can no longer be regarded as merely utopian. Some authors are convinced that this disturbing development can only be halted when an inherent value is (once again) ascribed to human nature. After a short description of this situation (I), the following paper first examines the difficulties that arise as regards an adequately precise descriptive definition of human nature (II) and, in a second step, the problems posed by the necessity to define the normative status of human nature (III). It hereby comes to the conclusion that a precise definition of "human nature" is not possible for fundamental reasons, and that only a weak normativity can be warranted.

  18. A normative analysis of nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    This study addresses the question of normative analysis of the value-based aspects of nursing. In our perspective, values in science may be distinguished into (i) epistemic when related to the goals of truth and objectivity and (ii) non-epistemic when related to social, cultural or political aspects. Furthermore, values can be called constitutive when necessary for a scientific enterprise, or contextual when contingently associated with science. Analysis of the roles of the various forms of values and models of knowledge translation provides the ground to understand the specific role of values in nursing. A conceptual framework has been built to classify some of the classical perspectives on nursing knowledge and to examine the relationships between values and different forms of knowledge in nursing. It follows that adopting a normative perspective in the analysis of nursing knowledge provides key elements to identify its proper dimension.

  19. Normative data for distal line bisection and baking tray task.

    PubMed

    Facchin, Alessio; Beschin, Nicoletta; Pisano, Alessia; Reverberi, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Line bisection is one of the tests used to diagnose unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Despite its wide application, no procedure or norms were available for the distal variant when the task was performed at distance with a laser pointer. Furthermore, the baking tray task was an ecological test aimed at diagnosing USN in a more natural context. The aim of this study was to collect normative values for these two tests in an Italian population. We recruited a sample of 191 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 20 to 89 years. They performed line bisection with a laser pointer on three different line lengths (1, 1.5, and 2 m) at a distance of 3 m. After this task, the subjects performed the baking tray task and a second repetition of line bisection to test the reliability of measurement. Multiple regression analysis revealed no significant effects of demographic variables on the performance of both tests. Normative cut-off values for the two tests were developed using non-parametric tolerance intervals. The results formed the basis for clinical use of these two tools for assessing lateralized performance of patients with brain injury and for diagnosing USN.

  20. Normative evidence accumulation in unpredictable environments

    PubMed Central

    Glaze, Christopher M; Kable, Joseph W; Gold, Joshua I

    2015-01-01

    In our dynamic world, decisions about noisy stimuli can require temporal accumulation of evidence to identify steady signals, differentiation to detect unpredictable changes in those signals, or both. Normative models can account for learning in these environments but have not yet been applied to faster decision processes. We present a novel, normative formulation of adaptive learning models that forms decisions by acting as a leaky accumulator with non-absorbing bounds. These dynamics, derived for both discrete and continuous cases, depend on the expected rate of change of the statistics of the evidence and balance signal identification and change detection. We found that, for two different tasks, human subjects learned these expectations, albeit imperfectly, then used them to make decisions in accordance with the normative model. The results represent a unified, empirically supported account of decision-making in unpredictable environments that provides new insights into the expectation-driven dynamics of the underlying neural signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08825.001 PMID:26322383

  1. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  2. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for Boston naming test and token test.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Gramunt-Fombuena, Nina; Aguilar, Miquel; Casas, Laura; Molinuevo, José Luis; Robles, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Dolores; Barquero, María Sagrario; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Molano, Ana; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    As part of the Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA project), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for the Boston naming test and Token test. The sample consists of 340 and 348 participants, respectively, who are cognitively normal, community-dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 94 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. Age and education affected the score of the both tests, but sex was found to be unrelated to naming and verbal comprehension efficiency. Our norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly Spaniards. The normative data presented here were obtained from the same study sample as all the other NEURONORMA norms and the same statistical procedures for data analyses were applied. These co-normed data allow clinicians to compare scores from one test with all tests.

  3. Semantic verbal fluency of animals: a normative and predictive study in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Benito-Cuadrado, M M; Esteba-Castillo, S; Böhm, P; Cejudo-Bolívar, J; Peña-Casanova, J

    2002-12-01

    Semantic verbal fluency is a very sensible but rather unspecific tool for the detection of neuropsychological deficits. This test is highly influenced by socio-cultural factors. Normative and predictive data for semantic verbal fluency of animals in a Spanish population are presented. The studied sample (n = 445) was stratified according to age and schooling. Statistical analysis reconfirmed a significant negative correlation (- 5.34) for age, and a significant positive correlation (5.34) for years of formal education. A predictive function for the production of names of animals during 1 min was established based on the subject's age and level of education: F(x) = 23.89 + age (- .144) + education (.39). The neuropsychological value and limitations of normative data and the predictive equation are discussed.

  4. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  5. Department of Veterans Affairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic ... Certificates Nationwide Gravesite Locator Get Started CONNECT Veterans Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255 (Press 1) Social ...

  6. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need in a Lebanese population.

    PubMed

    Omer, Yassir Talal; Bouserhal, Joseph; Hawas, Nuha; Abdel Moneim El Sayed, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the association between normative and perceived orthodontic treatment need in a Lebanese population and the effect of sociodemographic status on orthodontic treatment need. A prospective cross-sectional clinical study was designed using a sample of 150 subjects (81 males and 69 females) aged 11-18years seeking dental treatment at Beirut Arab University. Normative orthodontic treatment need was scored using the two components of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), the Dental Health Component (DHC) and the Aesthetic Component (AC). Perceived need for orthodontic treatment was evaluated by scoring the AC of the IOTN. A total of 31.3% of the sample were in great need of orthodontic treatment according to the DHC of the IOTN. On the other hand, only 9% of the sample perceived their need to be definite. A significant positive but weak correlation was found between the normative and perceived need for orthodontic treatment. There was also a significant association between age and normative treatment need.

  7. Russian normative data for 375 action pictures and verbs.

    PubMed

    Akinina, Yulia; Malyutina, Svetlana; Ivanova, Maria; Iskra, Ekaterina; Mannova, Elena; Dragoy, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The present article introduces a Russian-language database of 375 action pictures and associated verbs with normative data. The pictures were normed for name agreement, conceptual familiarity, and subjective visual complexity, and measures of age of acquisition, imageability, and image agreement were collected for the verbs. Values of objective visual complexity, as well as information about verb frequency, length, argument structure, instrumentality, and name relation, are also provided. Correlations between these parameters are presented, along with a comparative analysis of the Russian name agreement norms and those collected in other languages. The full set of pictorial stimuli and the obtained norms may be freely downloaded from http://neuroling.ru/en/db.htm for use in research and for clinical purposes.

  8. An updated Italian normative dataset for the Stroop color word test (SCWT).

    PubMed

    Brugnolo, A; De Carli, F; Accardo, J; Amore, M; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ferrara, M; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Girtler, N

    2016-03-01

    The Stroop color and word test (SCWT) is widely used to evaluate attention, information processing speed, selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. Normative values for the Italian population are available only for selected age groups, or for the short version of the test. The aim of this study was to provide updated normal values for the full version, balancing groups across gender, age decades, and education. Two kinds of indexes were derived from the performance of 192 normal subjects, divided by decade (from 20 to 90) and level of education (4 levels: 3-5; 6-8; 9-13; >13 years). They were (i) the correct answers achieved for each table in the first 30 s (word items, WI; color items, CI; color word items, CWI) and (ii) the total time required for reading the three tables (word time, WT; color time, CT; color word time, CWT). For each index, the regression model was evaluated using age, education, and gender as independent variables. The normative data were then computed following the equivalent scores method. In the regression model, age and education significantly influenced the performance in each of the 6 indexes, whereas gender had no significant effect. This study confirms the effect of age and education on the main indexes of the Stroop test and provides updated normative data for an Italian healthy population, well balanced across age, education, and gender. It will be useful to Italian researchers studying attentional functions in health and disease.

  9. Normative data for 8 neuropsychological tests in older blacks and whites from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Sharrett, Albert Richey; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Coresh, Josef; Coker, Laura; Wruck, Lisa; Selnes, Ola A; Deal, Jennifer; Knopman, David; Mosley, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurological disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education-specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61 to 82 years (mean 71 y) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education-specific mean and -1.5 SD scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equations to derive adjusted score cut-points. These robust normative data should enhance comparison across studies of cognitive aging, where these measures are widely used, and improve interpretation of performance on these tests for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment not only within the ARIC cohort, but also among older blacks and whites with similar demographics.

  10. A Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    V p g ~ e g - / 9 INI Yale ýSchool of Organization and M!a ia gem e r, S.1 W14 o E ci:1 A-e A NORMATIVE MODEL DF WORK TEAM EFFECTIVENESS J. Richard...research on grou Dperformance has pro.uced neither a set of empirical generalizat~cns sturdy enough to guide the design and management of work teams, nor...eto~ 0 I IIEVMT’S CATALOG NUMSE1 r ItIL -7. ied S...bij,., V Type OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERNED A Normstive Model of Work Team Effectiveness Interim 4

  11. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Gramunt-Fombuena, Nina; Quintana-Aparicio, María; Aguilar, Miquel; Badenes, Dolors; Cerulla, Noemí; Molinuevo, José Luis; Ruiz, Eva; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, Maria Sagrario; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish multicenter normative studies (NEURONORMA project), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for three semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruit and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical tasks (words beginning with P, M, and R), and three excluded letter fluency tasks (excluded A, E, and S). The sample consists of 346 participants who are cognitively normal, community dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 94 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. The current norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly Spanish people. These data may also be of considerable use for comparisons with other international normative studies. Finally, these norms should help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M. Teresa; García-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosúa, M. Rosa; Macizo, Pedro; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7–13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided. PMID:26500594

  13. Normative data for the segmental acquisition of contact heat evoked potentials in cervical dermatomes

    PubMed Central

    Jutzeler, Catherine R.; Rosner, Jan; Rinert, Janosch; Kramer, John L. K.; Curt, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) represent a neurophysiological approach to assess conduction in the spinothalamic tract. The aim of this study was to establish normative values of CHEPs acquired from cervical dermatomes (C4, C6, C8) and examine the potential confounds of age, sex, and height. 101 (49 male) healthy subjects of three different age groups (18–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years) were recruited. Normal (NB, 35–52 °C) followed by increased (IB, 42–52 °C) baseline stimulation protocols were employed to record CHEPs. Multi-variate linear models were used to investigate the effect of age, sex, and height on the CHEPs parameters (i.e., N2 latency, N2P2 amplitude, rating of perceived intensity). Compared to NB, IB stimulation reduced latency jitter within subjects, yielding larger N2P2 amplitudes, and decreased inter-subject N2 latency variability. Age was associated with reduced N2P2 amplitude and prolonged N2 latency. After controlling for height, male subjects had significantly longer N2 latencies than females during IB stimulation. The study provides normative CHEPs data in a large cohort of healthy subjects from segmentally examined cervical dermatomes. Age and sex were identified as important factors contributing to N2 latency and N2P2 amplitude. The normative data will improve the diagnosis of spinal cord pathologies. PMID:27708413

  14. Informational and Normative Influences in Conformity from a Neurocomputational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Toelch, Ulf; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    We consider two distinct influences that drive conformity behaviour. Whereas informational influences facilitate adaptive and accurate responses, normative influences bias decisions to enhance social acceptance. We explore these influences from a perspective of perceptual and value-based decision-making models and apply these models to classical works on conformity. We argue that an informational account predicts a surprising tendency to conform. Moreover, we detail how normative influences fit into this framework and interact with social influences. Finally, we explore potential neuronal substrates for informational and normative influences based on a consideration of the neurobiological literature, highlighting conceptual shortcomings particularly with regard to a failure to segregate informational and normative influences.

  15. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the possibility of intelligent life on the planets of the solar system are not finding confirmation. Attempts to detect extraterrestrial civilizations...debate a common factor is clearly visible: the search for the way to save mankind’s future and free the world from nuclear weapons. Our readers...evolution for intelligent life to develop on the planet; now, in our nuclear and space age, it runs the risk of instantaneous destruction. This cannot be

  16. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  17. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  18. Office Automation in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon L.; Hamrick, Florence A.

    1987-01-01

    Offers recommendations to assist in introducing or expanding computer assistance in student affairs. Describes need for automation and considers areas of choosing hardware and software, funding and competitive bidding, installation and training, and system management. Cites greater efficiency in handling tasks and data and increased levels of…

  19. Joint Doctrine for Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Authorities ( MACA ), DODD 5525.5, DOD Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Officials, and JP 3-07.7, Joint Doctrine for Civil Support. II-15 Civil Affairs...Joint Operation Planning and Execution System JP joint publication JTF joint task force LOAC law of armed conflict MACA military assistance to civil

  20. Recent Developments in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The rapid development and application to universities and colleges of the constitutional principles of the First Amendment are analyzed with special reference to Healy v. James and its present and possible future ramifications in the area of student affairs including use of university facilities, student conduct, and organizational activities. (JT)

  1. Sustainability, Student Affairs, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kathleen G.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are developing both the next generation of leaders as well as state-of-the-art technology that allow climate reduction aspirations and triple bottom-line outcomes to become realities. Divisions of student affairs play a crucial role in the sustainability movement in colleges and universities. The technology-savvy,…

  2. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  3. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  4. The Digital Identity of Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlquist, Josie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter highlights opportunities in the digital space for student affairs professionals. A blended approach, grounded in the new technology competency recently added in the ACPA and NASPA student affairs professional competencies, is proposed for student affairs professionals' digital identity development. It includes the awareness of one's…

  5. Normative data for evaluating mild traumatic brain injury with a handheld neurocognitive assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Andrea S; Bailey, Christopher M; Cowan, Charles; Cox-Fuenzalida, Eugenia; Dyche, Jeff; Gorgens, Kim A; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Young, Leanne

    2016-08-11

    The BrainScope Ahead 300 is designed for use by health care professionals to aid in the assessment of patients suspected of a mild traumatic brain injury. The purpose of the current study was to establish normative data for the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system and to evaluate the role of demographic factors on test performance. Healthy, community-dwelling adults between the ages of 18 and 80 recruited from five geographically distributed sites were administered Android versions of the ANAM Matching to Sample and Procedural Reaction Time tests that comprise the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system by trained personnel. Scores were correlated with age, education, and race. Age accounted for the majority of the variance in test scores with additional significant, but minor, contributions of education and race. Gender did not account for a significant proportion of the variance for either test. Based on these results, the normative data for 551 individuals are presented stratified by age. These are the first available normative data for these tests when administered using the Ahead 300 system and will assist health care professionals in determining the degree to which scores on the cognitive tests reflect impaired performance.

  6. Normative values for a video-force plate assessment of postural control in athletic children.

    PubMed

    Howell, David R; Meehan, William P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide normative data for young athletes during the three stances of the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS) using an objective video-force plate system. Postural control was measured in 398 athletes between 8 and 18 years of age during the three stances of the mBESS using a video-force plate rating system. Girls exhibited better postural control than boys during each stance of the mBESS. Age was not significantly associated with postural control. We provide normative data for a video-force plate assessment of postural stability in pediatric athletes during the three stances of the mBESS.

  7. Normative data for the Pyramids and Palm Trees Test in the elderly Italian population.

    PubMed

    Gamboz, Nadia; Coluccia, Emanuele; Iavarone, Alessandro; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2009-12-01

    The Pyramids and Palm Tree Test (PPT) is a semantic memory test that measures the capacity to access detailed semantic information about words and pictures, necessary for the identification of the analogies, which link conceptually two perceptually, and functionally distinct entities. The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of the PPT. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance in both the word and the picture versions of the PPT. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the PPT for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population.

  8. Normative Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in the Developing Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, M.M.; Berman, J.I.; Baumer, F.M.; Glass, H.C.; Jeng, S.; Jeremy, R.J.; Esch, M.; Biran, V.; Barkovich, A.J.; Studholme, C.; Xu, D.; Glenn, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous studies of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in fetuses are limited. Because of the need for normative data for comparison with young fetuses and preterm neonates with suspected brain abnormalities, we studied apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in a population of singleton, nonsedated, healthy fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS DWI was performed in 28 singleton nonsedated fetuses with normal or questionably abnormal results on sonography and normal fetal MR imaging results; 10 fetuses also had a second fetal MR imaging, which included DWI. ADC values in the periatrial white matter (WM), frontal WM, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and pons were plotted against gestational age and analyzed with linear regression. We compared mean ADC in different regions using the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test. We also compared rates of decline in ADC with increasing gestational age across different areas by using the t test with multiple comparisons correction. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed. RESULTS Median gestational age was 24.28 weeks (range, 21–33.43 weeks). Results of all fetal MR imaging examinations were normal, including 1 fetus with a normal variant of a cavum velum interpositum. ADC values were highest in the frontal and periatrial WM and lowest in the thalamus and pons. ADC declined with increasing gestational age in periatrial WM (P = .0003), thalamus (P < .0001), basal ganglia (P = .0035), cerebellum (P < .0001), and pons (P = .024). Frontal WM ADC did not significantly change with gestational age. ADC declined fastest in the cerebellum, followed by the thalamus. CONCLUSIONS Regional differences in nonsedated fetal ADC values and their evolution with gestational age likely reflect differences in brain maturation and are similar to published data in premature neonates. PMID:19556350

  9. Normative development of ventral striatal resting state connectivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Gee, Dylan G; Lumian, Daniel S; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2015-09-01

    Incentives play a crucial role in guiding behavior throughout our lives, but perhaps no more so than during the early years of life. The ventral striatum is a critical piece of an incentive-based learning circuit, sharing robust anatomical connections with subcortical (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and cortical structures (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insula) that collectively support incentive valuation and learning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a powerful method that provides insight into the development of the functional architecture of these connections involved in incentive-based learning. We employed a seed-based correlation approach to investigate ventral striatal rsFC in a cross-sectional sample of typically developing individuals between the ages of 4.5 and 23-years old (n=66). Ventral striatal rsFC with the mPFC showed regionally specific linear age-related changes in connectivity that were associated with age-related increases in circulating testosterone levels. Further, ventral striatal connectivity with the posterior hippocampus and posterior insula demonstrated quadratic age-related changes characterized by negative connectivity in adolescence. Finally, across this age range, the ventral striatum demonstrated positive coupling with the amygdala beginning during childhood and remaining consistently positive across age. In sum, our findings suggest that normative ventral striatal rsFC development is dynamic and characterized by early establishment of connectivity with medial prefrontal and limbic structures supporting incentive-based learning, as well as substantial functional reorganization with later developing regions during transitions into and out of adolescence.

  10. Implicit measures: A normative analysis and review.

    PubMed

    De Houwer, Jan; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan; Moors, Agnes

    2009-05-01

    Implicit measures can be defined as outcomes of measurement procedures that are caused in an automatic manner by psychological attributes. To establish that a measurement outcome is an implicit measure, one should examine (a) whether the outcome is causally produced by the psychological attribute it was designed to measure, (b) the nature of the processes by which the attribute causes the outcome, and (c) whether these processes operate automatically. This normative analysis provides a heuristic framework for organizing past and future research on implicit measures. The authors illustrate the heuristic function of their framework by using it to review past research on the 2 implicit measures that are currently most popular: effects in implicit association tests and affective priming tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    PubMed

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2014-11-08

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton.

  12. Tracing how normative messages may influence physical activity intention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normative messages have been shown to increase intention to do physical activity (PA). We traced how 'positive' and 'negative' normative messages influenced PA intention by comparing constructs of the model of goal-directed behaviour with descriptive norms (MGDB+DN) across control and treatment grou...

  13. A Proposal for More Sophisticated Normative Principles in Introductory Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introductory textbooks teach a simple normative story about the importance of maximizing economic surplus that supports common policy claims. There is little defense of the claim that maximizing surplus is normatively important, which is not obvious to non-economists. Difficulties with the claim that society should maximize surplus are generally…

  14. Enhancing Medical Decision-Making Evaluations: Introduction of Normative Data for the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Niccolai, Lindsay; Marson, Daniel; Triebel, Kristen L

    2016-04-01

    A number of measures have been developed to assess medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in adults. However, their clinical utility is limited by a lack of available normative data. In the current study, we introduce age-independent and age-adjusted normative data for a measure of MDC: the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument. The sample consisted of 308 cognitively normal, community-dwelling adults ranging in age from 19 to 86 years. For age-adjusted norms, individual raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped according to empirically supported age ranges. For age-independent norms, the same method was utilized but without age-corrections being applied or participants being grouped into age ranges. This study has the potential to enhance MDC evaluations by allowing clinicians to compare a patient's performance on the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument with that of adults regardless of age as well as to same age peers. Tables containing normative corrections are supplementary material available online at http://asm.sagepub.com/supplemental.

  15. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  16. Korean Affairs Report No. 308.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-14

    Dropouts Can Enter Underenrolled Departments Editorial on Education System Change. FOREIGN RELATIONS Daily Editorial on President Chon’s ’Vision...than 521,000 million won from "old politicians," "minister and vice-ministers of the government," "high-ranking officials" and big entrepreneurs to...revision of the controversial college gradua- tion system, while the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committees are for the recent defection of a Chinese

  17. Normative Data on the Sleep Habits of Australian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol; Blunden, Sarah; Matricciani, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: To provide normative sleep data on 9-18 year old Australians. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: 4032 Australians aged 9-18 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 48h use of time recall, comprising sleep data for one complete night. Sleep duration, bedtime and wake time were compared across age groups, between genders, and between school and non-school days using ANOVA. Sleep duration declined with age (P < 0.0001) at the rate of 12 min/ night per year of age on school days, and 4 min on non-school days. Girls slept slightly longer than boys (5 min/ night; P = 0.03). Non-school day sleep was 16 min longer than school day sleep (P < 0.0001), with the difference increasing with age. Bedtimes got later with age (P < 0.0001), however there were no differences in bedtimes between boys and girls. Bedtimes occurred 34 min later on non-school days (P < 0.0001). Wake times were very similar across age groups on school days, but increased at the rate of 10 min/ year of age on non-school days. Wake times were similar for boys and girls, and occurred on average 82 min later on non-school days (P < 0.0001). Overall, 17% of school days and 20% of non-school days failed to meet the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sleep duration guidelines. Conclusions: Normative sleep data will provide a valuable yardstick for health and education professionals when dealing with sleep-related issues. Citation: Olds T; Maher C; Blunden S; Matricciani L. Normative data on the sleep habits of Australian children and adolescents. SLEEP 2010;33(10):1381-1388. PMID:21061861

  18. Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners…

  19. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Makuch, Renee A.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and…

  20. The de morton mobility index: normative data for a clinically useful mobility instrument.

    PubMed

    Macri, E M; Lewis, J A; Khan, K M; Ashe, M C; de Morton, N A

    2012-01-01

    Determining mobility status is an important component of any health assessment for older adults. In order for a mobility measure to be relevant and meaningful, normative data are required for comparison to a healthy reference population. The DEMMI is the first mobility instrument to measure mobility across the spectrum from bed bound to functional levels of independent mobility. In this cross-sectional observational study, normative data were obtained for the DEMMI from a population of 183 healthy, community-dwelling adults age 60+ who resided in Vancouver, Canada and Melbourne, Australia. Older age categories had significantly lower DEMMI mobility mean scores (P < 0.05), as did individuals who walked with a mobility aid or lived in semi-independent living (assisted living or retirement village), whereas DEMMI scores did not differ by sex (P = 0.49) or reported falls history (P = 0.21). Normative data for the DEMMI mobility instrument provides vital reference scores to facilitate its use across the mobility spectrum in clinical, research, and policymaking settings.

  1. A normative study of the sport concussion assessment tool (SCAT2) in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Aliyah R; Bauer, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical practice parameters encourage systematic use of concussion surveillance/management tools that evaluate participating athletes at baseline and after concussion. Office-based tools (Sports Concussion Assessment Tool; SCAT2) require accurate baseline assessment to maximize utility but no normative data exist for children on the SCAT2, limiting identification of "normal" or "impaired" score ranges. The purpose of this study was to develop child and adolescent baseline norms for the SCAT2 to provide reference values for different age groups. A community-based approach was implemented to compile baseline performance data on the SCAT2 in 761 children aged 9 to 18 to create age- and sex-graded norms. Findings indicate a significant age effect on SCAT2 performance such that older adolescents and teenagers produced higher (better) total scores than younger children (ages 9 to 11) driven by age differences on individual components measuring cognition (SAC), postural stability (BESS), and symptom report. Females endorsed greater numbers of symptoms at baseline than males. Normative data tables are presented. Findings support the SCAT2 as a useful clinical tool for assessing baseline functioning in teenagers, but suggest clinical utility may be limited in children under age 11. Follow-up studies after incident concussion are needed to confirm this assumption.

  2. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E; Makuch, Renee A; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and (2) identifying predictors of positive normative outcomes and good objective QoL. Findings of an exploratory latent class analysis identified three groups of adults with ASD-Greater Dependence, Good Physical and Mental Health, and Greater Independence. Findings indicate that better daily living skills, better executive function, and more maternal warmth are associated with assignment to better outcome groups. Findings have implications for interventions designed to enhance achievement of normative outcomes and objective QoL.

  3. Normative study of the Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT).

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Kang, Y

    1999-08-01

    As a normative study of the Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT), the present study examined the K-CVLT performances of 357 neurologically intact Koreans (181 males and 176 females) who were selected by stratified sampling reflecting the recent Korean census data. The factor analysis of the K-CVLT showed that the K-CVLT was a valid and useful tool for qualitatively assessing a number of theoretically meaningful processes and strategies underlying verbal memory. Norms were developed on the 22 memory indices separately for gender and age groups. Implications for the K-CVLT's factor analytic results are discussed, and the K-CVLT's normative data is compared with that of the CVLT.

  4. The K-T cancellation test in the older adults: Normative data and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Huei; de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Jeandel, Claude; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Since cutoff scores are necessary for differentiating normal cognitive functioning from dementia, the main objective of this study was to establish normative data of the K-T test, a standardized cancellation test. The construct validity of K-T test was also investigated. In total, 2471 cognitively intact elderly subjects from the SU.VI.MAX 2 study were included in the present study. Younger subjects, women and subjects with higher education had a higher number of correct answers and fewer omission errors. Participants made few commission errors and only the educational level was found to have a significant effect. Normative data for correct responses and efficiency were stratified by age, education, and gender. Correlation analysis showed that the K-T test was significantly correlated to validated neuropsychological tests assessing executive functions. This study permits to strengthen the utility of the K-T test to detect impairment of the executive components involved in the task.

  5. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of deployed combat troops: an empirical investigation of normative performance.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C; Lowmaster, Sara E; Coldren, Rodney L; Kelly, Mark P; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of the PAI scales were generally quite similar in the Iraq and community samples, with modest differences emerging on only 3 subscales addressing antisocial behavior, issues with close relationships, and interpersonal vigilance. These results suggest that standard normative interpretation of PAI scales is appropriate even when the instrument is administered in a combat zone. In comparison with prior research, the results may suggest that documented mental health issues among combat veterans, when present, may be particularly likely to emerge postdeployment.

  6. Odorant Normative Data for Use in Olfactory Memory Experiments: Dimension Selection and Analysis of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Andrew G.; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane V.; Johnson, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed. PMID:27605921

  7. Patient satisfaction and normative decision theory.

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, P F

    1995-01-01

    This article explores the application of normative decision theory (NDT) to the challenge of facilitating and measuring patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is the appraisal, by an individual, of the extent to which the care provided has met that individual's expectations and preferences. Classic decision analysis provides a graphic and computational strategy to link patient preferences for outcomes to the treatment choices likely to produce the outcomes. Multiple criteria models enable the complex judgment task of measuring patient satisfaction to be decomposed into elemental factors that reflect patient preferences, thus facilitating evaluation of care in terms of factors relevant to the individual patient. Through the application of NDT models, it is possible to use patient preferences as a guide to the treatment planning and care monitoring process and to construct measures of patient satisfaction that are meaningful to the individual. Nursing informatics, with its foundations in both information management and decision sciences, provides the tools and data necessary to promote care provided in accord with patient preferences and to ensure appraisal of satisfaction that aptly captures the complex, multidimensional nature of patient preferences. PMID:7583649

  8. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  9. Development of normative neuropsychological performance in Thailand for the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Jodi; Valcour, Victor; Chalermchai, Thep; Paul, Robert; Rattanamanee, Somprartthana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Chairangsaris, Parnsiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Tipsuk, Somporn; Suttichom, Duanghathai; Fletcher, James; Shikuma, Cecilia; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-01-01

    International studies of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are needed to determine the viral and host factors associated with cognitive impairment particularly as more than 80% of HIV+ subjects reside in resource-limited settings. Recent diagnostic nomenclature of HAND requires comparison of cognitive performance specifically to local normative data. To evaluate this need for local norms, we compared normative data obtained locally in Thailand to Western norms. The current study examined cognitive performance in 477 seronegative Thai participants (male = 211, female = 266) who completed a battery of tests sensitive to cognitive changes in HIV. The cohort was divided into three age brackets (20-34; 35-49; 50-65 years) and four educational levels (no education or primary education, less than secondary certificate, high-school/associates degree, bachelor's degree or greater). The Thai cohort was compared (using analysis of covariance, ANCOVA) on a number of measures to a seronegative US cohort (n = 236; male = 198, female = 38) to examine cultural differences in performance. Normative data are provided with age and education stratification. The Thai and US groups performed significantly differently on all neuropsychological measures with the exception of verbal fluency. The Thai group performed better on measures of verbal learning (p < .001) and memory (p < .001) and measures of psychomotor speed (p < .001). Education was a more powerful predictor of performance in the Thai cohort than in the US group. These results highlight the continued need for the development of normative data within local populations. The use of Western norms as a comparison group could lead to inaccurate identification of HAND in culturally distinct groups.

  10. Range of Motion of the Upper Extremity in a Healthy Pediatric Population: Introduction to Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Da Paz, Stephanie Nunes; Stalder, Andreas; Berger, Steffen; Ziebarth, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Objective In the pediatric population traumatic injuries of the upper extremity are common. After therapy a decision has to be made if the mobility of the joint lies within a normal range. The purpose of this study was to give an introduction to normative data. We investigate if there is a significant difference in the range of motion (ROM) between male and female probands and furthermore, if an effect of the age can be detected. Methods We performed an institutional review board-approved study of healthy girls and boys aged between 2 and 16 years without any medical history of an upper extremity fracture. We investigated the active ROM of the elbow, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints. Furthermore, age, handedness, weight, and height were recorded. A total of 171 adolescents with a mean age of 10.6 years were included and separated into four cohorts by age: 2 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 13, and 14 to 16 years. Results We found significant differences between the genders in the age group from 11 to 13 years for the flexion of the elbow, the pronation, the flexion of the interphalangeal joint of the thumb, as well as the flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joints of digitus II to V. Furthermore, a significant difference in the same joints except from the elbow flexion could be demonstrated between the genders. Conclusion Our study contributes normative data for upper extremity ROM in the pediatric population and presents a gender-related difference in certain joints. Clinical Relevance Normative data for the ROM of upper extremity joints in children is helpful for the evaluation of pediatric orthopedic patients and provides the framework for therapeutic resolution. Since a great number of traumatic injuries in children affect the upper extremity, this information may help the physician to estimate the impact of the injury and decide on the therapeutic management.

  11. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  12. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  13. Normative beliefs about sharing housing with an older family member.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial vignette in which an older parent or stepparent was portrayed as needing help with housing. Respondents thought that parents should be helped more than stepparents, younger adults with greater resources were more obligated to help older parents and stepparents than were those with meager resources, and older parents and stepparents with greater need acuity were expected to be helped more than older parents and stepparents with less serious housing needs. Attitudes about co-residence were based on family obligation norms, beliefs about repaying older adults for past help, perceived relationship quality, other demands on the younger adult's resources, the older person's resources, and moral responsibilities to assist.

  14. The 37 item Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination: Normative Data in a Population-Based Cohort of Older Spanish Adults (NEDICES).

    PubMed

    Contador, I; Bermejo-Pareja, F; Fernández-Calvo, B; Boycheva, E; Tapias, E; Llamas, S; Benito-León, J

    2016-05-01

    The 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-37) is an extended version of the original test for individuals with low education, which was adapted for different cultures. Despite its favorable psychometric properties, there is a lack of normative data for this instrument. We provide normative data for the MMSE-37 stratified by age, sex, and education in a large population-based cohort of older Spanish adults. The sample consisted of 3,777 participants without dementia (age range: 65-97 years) from different socioeconomic areas of central Spain. Normative data are presented in percentile ranks and divided into nine overlapping age tables with different midpoints, using the overlapping cell procedure. A hierarchical regression was performed to evaluate the effects of sociodemographic variables on MMSE-37 performance. Results showed that age, sex, and education affect test score. The norms presented herein are important for the correct interpretation of MMSE-37 scores when assessing older adults in Spain.

  15. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for the visual object and space perception battery-abbreviated, and judgment of line orientation.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quintana-Aparicio, María; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Aguilar, Miquel; Molinuevo, José Luis; Serradell, Mónica; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Villanueva, Clara; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Aguilar, María Dolores; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    This study forms part of the Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA project). Normative data for people aged over 49 years are presented for selected tasks of the visual object and space perception battery (VOSP) and for the judgment of line orientation (JLO) test. Age-adjusted norms were derived from a sample of 341 participants who are cognitively normal and community-dwelling. Age- and education-adjusted norms are also provided. Years of education were modeled on age-scaled scores to derive regression equations that were applied for further demographic adjustments. The normative information provided here should prove useful for characterizing and interpreting individual test performances as well as comparing the scores from these tests with any other test using NEURONORMA norms.

  16. Evaluation of clinical ethics support services and its normativity.

    PubMed

    Schildmann, Jan; Molewijk, Bert; Benaroyo, Lazare; Forde, Reidun; Neitzke, Gerald

    2013-11-01

    Evaluation of clinical ethics support services (CESS) has attracted considerable interest in recent decades. However, few evaluation studies are explicit about normative presuppositions which underlie the goals and the research design of CESS evaluation. In this paper, we provide an account of normative premises of different approaches to CESS evaluation and argue that normativity should be a focus of considerations when designing and conducting evaluation research of CESS. In a first step, we present three different approaches to CESS evaluation from published literature. Next to a brief sketch of the well-established approaches of 'descriptive evaluation' and 'evaluation of outcomes', we will give a more detailed description of a third approach to evaluation-'reconstructing quality norms of CESS'-which is explicit about the normative presuppositions of its research (design). In the subsequent section, we will analyse the normative premises of each of the three approaches to CESS evaluation. We will conclude with a brief argument for more sensitivity towards the normativity of CESS and its evaluation research.

  17. A brief report on WAIS-R normative data collection in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Historically, neuropsychological measures such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have yielded unacceptably high rates of misdiagnosis of impairment among cognitively normal African Americans, primarily due to poor test specificity and inadequate representation of ethnic minorities in the normative sample. In this report, we briefly review these issues and describe efforts by investigators in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) to develop more appropriate norms for African American elders on the WAIS-R. During MOAANS data collection, the third edition of the WAIS (WAIS-III) was introduced with updated representation of ethnic minorities in the normative database. More recently, specific demographic corrections for African Americans have been derived for WAIS-III subtest scores and indices. As such, WAIS-R normative estimates are not presented here. Interested readers who wish to obtain a full set of MOAANS WAIS-R norms, however, are invited to contact the authors for these data.

  18. A Normative Study of Lexical Verbal Fluency in an Educationally-Diverse Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jo; Lee, Cheol Soon; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung; Lee, Kang Soo; Son, Sang Joon; Han, Changsu; Park, Moon Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Tae Hui; Park, Joon Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lexical fluency tests are frequently used to assess language and executive function in clinical practice. We investigated the influences of age, gender, and education on lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse, elderly Korean population and provided its' normative information. Methods We administered the lexical verbal fluency test (LVFT) to 1676 community-dwelling, cognitively normal subjects aged 60 years or over. Results In a stepwise linear regression analysis, education (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506) and age (B=-0.10, SE=0.01, standardized B=-0.15) had significant effects on LVFT scores (p<0.001), but gender did not (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506, p>0.05). Education explained 28.5% of the total variance in LVFT scores, which was much larger than the variance explained by age (5.42%). Accordingly, we presented normative data of the LVFT stratified by age (60-69, 70-74, 75-79, and ≥80 years) and education (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥13 years). Conclusion The LVFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24474982

  19. Category fluency test: normative data for English- and Spanish-speaking elderly.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, A; Loewenstein, D A; Barker, W W; Harwood, D G; Luis, C; Bravo, M; Hurwitz, D A; Aguero, H; Greenfield, L; Duara, R

    2000-11-01

    Category fluency tasks are an important component of neuropsychological assessment, especially when evaluating for dementia syndromes. The growth in the number of Spanish-speaking elderly in the United States has increased the need for appropriate neuropsychological measures and normative data for this population. This study provides norms for English and Spanish speakers, over the age of 50, on 3 frequently used measures of category fluency: animals, vegetables, and fruits. In addition, it examines the impact of age, education, gender, language, and depressed mood on total fluency scores and on scores on each of these fluency measures. A sample of 702 cognitively intact elderly, 424 English speakers, and 278 Spanish speakers, participated in the study. Normative data are provided stratified by language, age, education, and gender. Results evidence that regardless of the primary language of the examinee, age, education, and gender are the strongest predictors of total category fluency scores, with gender being the best predictor of performance after adjusting for age and education. English and Spanish speakers obtained similar scores on animal and fruit fluency, but English speakers generated more vegetable exemplars than Spanish speakers. Results also indicate that different fluency measures are affected by various factors to different degrees.

  20. Bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying: The role of empathy and normative beliefs about aggression.

    PubMed

    Machackova, Hana; Pfetsch, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Cyberbullying often takes place with the virtual presence or knowledge of bystanders. While we have some evidence about the determinants of bystanders' responses to offline bullying, we lack empirical studies concerning the variables that influence bystanders' responses to cyberbullying. The current study examines bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying incidents. Two types of responses were captured: support toward the victims and the reinforcement of bullies' actions. Using data from 321 German adolescents (ages 12-18; M = 14.99; 44% girls), the association between bystanders' responses and normative beliefs about verbal aggression and cyberaggression, and affective and cognitive empathy, were tested in a path model. Both types of normative beliefs positively predicted the reinforcement of bullies, and normative belief about verbal aggression also predicted support for the victims of offline bullying. Both types of empathy predicted support in offline bullying, but only affective empathy predicted support in cyberbullying. There was no link between affective or cognitive empathy to the reinforcement of bullies. Moreover, bystanders' tendencies to respond supportively to the victim or to reinforce the bully were rather consistent in both cyber- and offline bullying, but there was no link between support and reinforcement. The findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention and intervention efforts.

  1. Young Children Understand the Normative Implications of Future-Directed Speech Acts

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Karoline; Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode (“A, do X!”) or as a prediction (“the actor A will do X”). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation. PMID:24489815

  2. Normative biometry of the fetal brain using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Vatansever, Deniz; Davidson, Alice; Patkee, Prachi; Elkommos, Samia; Chew, Andrew; Martinez-Biarge, Miriam; Hagberg, Bibbi; Damodaram, Mellisa; Allsop, Joanna; Fox, Matt; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary A

    2016-11-24

    The fetal brain shows accelerated growth in the latter half of gestation, and these changes can be captured by 2D and 3D biometry measurements. The aim of this study was to quantify brain growth in normal fetuses using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to produce reference biometry data and a freely available centile calculator ( https://www.developingbrain.co.uk/fetalcentiles/ ). A total of 127 MRI examinations (1.5 T) of fetuses with a normal brain appearance (21-38 gestational weeks) were included in this study. 2D and 3D biometric parameters were measured from slice-to-volume reconstructed images, including 3D measurements of supratentorial brain tissue, lateral ventricles, cortex, cerebellum and extra-cerebral CSF and 2D measurements of brain biparietal diameter and fronto-occipital length, skull biparietal diameter and occipitofrontal diameter, head circumference, transverse cerebellar diameter, extra-cerebral CSF, ventricular atrial diameter, and vermis height, width, and area. Centiles were constructed for each measurement. All participants were invited for developmental follow-up. All 2D and 3D measurements, except for atrial diameter, showed a significant positive correlation with gestational age. There was a sex effect on left and total lateral ventricular volumes and the degree of ventricular asymmetry. The 5th, 50th, and 95th centiles and a centile calculator were produced. Developmental follow-up was available for 73.1% of cases [mean chronological age 27.4 (±10.2) months]. We present normative reference charts for fetal brain MRI biometry at 21-38 gestational weeks. Developing growth trajectories will aid in the better understanding of normal fetal brain growth and subsequently of deviations from typical development in high-risk pregnancies or following premature delivery.

  3. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    22201. JPRS-EEI-84-095 20 August 19 84 EAST EUROPE REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS INTERNATIONAL AFPAIRS CEMA Conference Expresses...Soviet Idea of Integration (V. Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 16 Jul 84) 1 CEMA Cooperation in Machine Construction Reviewed (AUSSENWIRTSCHAFT...Viktor Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 17 Jul 84) 69 - b - INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CEMA CONFERENCE EXPRESSES SOVIET IDEA OF INTEGRATION

  4. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS .one QOALST T^CTED a FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE REPRODUCED BY NATIONAL...REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS BULGARIA Foreign Trade Development in First Quarter of 1984 1 Minister Examines New Economic...Effect on Air Pollution 52 Electronic Industry Results Reviewed ’HOSPODARSKE NOVINY . 1 Tun 84) 5 8 Challenges of Environmental Protection

  5. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts…

  6. Does Student Affairs Have an Enduring Mission?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Student affairs is a relatively new profession and has changed in significant ways in response to new developments in higher education, innovations in practice, new conceptual paradigms, and changing economic and political conditions. As a result there is much debate about the core mission and purpose of student affairs and whether it is possible…

  7. Putting the Focus on Current Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Argues for increased attention to current events in social studies instruction. Suggests using mass media sources to supplement contemporary affairs teaching. Recommends that teachers create learning centers and display areas; encourage students to maintain current affairs folders, scrapbooks, journals, and learning logs; give current affairs…

  8. Challenges of Assessment in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how the climate of accountability in higher education is compelling student affairs organizations to develop comprehensive assessment programs, the challenges faced in creating those programs, and ways student affairs professionals can meet those challenges. For the purpose of this chapter, the author has defined assessment…

  9. Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This set of "Professional Competency Areas" is intended to define the broad professional knowledge, skills, and for some competencies, attitudes expected of student affairs professionals working in the U.S., regardless of their area of specialization or positional role within the field. All student affairs professionals should be able to…

  10. Professional Competencies for Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsch, Patty; Cortez, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the integration of the ACPA/NASPA Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners (ACPA/NASPA, 2010) on community college campuses. The competencies provide specific skill sets for a broad range of student affairs practice areas that should be met by professionals throughout their careers.…

  11. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved.

    PubMed

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-05-27

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30-39 (men) and 40-49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations' sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved.

  12. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved

    PubMed Central

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30–39 (men) and 40–49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations’ sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved. PMID:27230110

  13. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need of a Peruvian university population

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies on orthodontic treatment need in young adults have shown that up to 50% had malocclusions that needed orthodontic treatment. The aims of this study were to assess the normative and self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine if the treatment need levels were influenced by sex, age and socio-economic status (SES) in a sample of Peruvian young adults. Methods 281 first-year students (157 male and 124 female students) with a mean age of 18.1 +/- 1.6 years were randomly selected and evaluated through the Dental Health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component (AC) of the IOTN. Structured interview and clinical examination were used to assess the students. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results An intra-examiner reliability of 0.89 was obtained (weighted Kappa). The percentage of students according to SES was 51.2%, 40.6% and 8.2% corresponding to low, medium and high SES respectively. The percentage of students with DHC grades 4–5 was 29.9% whereas the percentage of students with AC grades 8–10 was 1.8%. There were no significant differences in the distribution of normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need based on sex, age and SES comparisons. Conclusion Normative orthodontic treatment need was not matched by a similar level of self-perceived treatment need in these young adults. Sex, age and SES were non-significant factors associated with levels of treatment need. PMID:16884542

  14. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the Spanish Language Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Casaletto, Kaitlin B.; Umlauf, Anya; Marquine, Maria; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Mungas, Daniel; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnicity in the United States, yet there are limited well-validated neuropsychological tools in Spanish, and an even greater paucity of normative standards representing this population. The Spanish NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neurocognitive screener; however, the original norms were developed combining Spanish- and English-versions of the battery. We developed normative standards for the Spanish NIHTB-CB, fully adjusting for demographic variables and based entirely on a Spanish-speaking sample. Methods A total of 408 Spanish-speaking neurologically healthy adults (ages 18–85 years) and 496 children (ages 3–7 years) completed the NIH Toolbox norming project. We developed three types of scores: uncorrected based on the entire Spanish-speaking cohort, age-corrected, and fully demographically corrected (age, education, sex) scores for each of the seven NIHTB-CB tests and three composites (Fluid, Crystallized, Total Composites). Corrected scores were developed using polynomial regression models. Demographic factors demonstrated medium-to-large effects on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores in a pattern that differed from that observed on the English NIHTB-CB. For example, in Spanish-speaking adults, education was more strongly associated with Fluid scores, but showed the strongest association with Crystallized scores among English-speaking adults. Results Demographic factors were no longer associated with fully corrected scores. The original norms were not successful in eliminating demographic effects, overestimating children’s performances, and underestimating adults’ performances on the Spanish NIHTB-CB. Conclusions The disparate pattern of demographic associations on the Spanish versus English NIHTB-CB supports the need for distinct normative standards developed separately for each population. Fully adjusted scores presented here will aid in more accurately characterizing acquired brain dysfunction

  15. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. International neurocognitive normative study: neurocognitive comparison data in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, S R; Marra, C M; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, T B; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S; Kumarasamy, N; la Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-08-01

    Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource-limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impedes research and clinical care. Here, we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At ten sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n = 240), India (n = 480), Malawi (n = 481), Peru (n = 239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n = 240), and Zimbabwe (n = 240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline and 770 at 6 months. Participants were enrolled in eight strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 and ≥10 years), and age (<35 and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the 6-month follow-up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p < 0.0001). There was variation between the age, gender, and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance, and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the necessary neurocognitive normative data needed to build infrastructure for future neurological and neurocognitive studies in diverse RLS. These normative data are a much-needed resource for both clinicians and researchers.

  17. Development of normative data of electro photonic imaging technique for healthy population in India: A normative study

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Kuldeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Thaiyar M; Nagendra, Hongasandra R; Ilavarasu, Judu V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electro photonic imaging (EPI) technique is growing as a novel technique of health assessment and is being utilized in the fields of alternative medicine, conventional practices, psycho-physiology, psychology, and consciousness studies. The existing EPI norms are based mostly on European (EU) population. In order to enhance the practice and research through EPI in India, there is a need for developing norms for the healthy Indian population. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the normative data of EPI for the healthy Indian population, to aid in the accuracy of EPI measurements and interpretations. Materials and Methods: A total of 1297 volunteers were assessed once, who represented different parts of India during December 2013 to December 2014. Among them, 880 volunteers were reported to be healthy (age mean ± standard deviation [SD], 33.55 ± 10.92), with 584 males (age mean ± SD, 33.54 ± 10.86) and 296 females (age mean ± SD, 33.56 ± 11.00). In this study activation coefficient (stress level), integral area (IA) (general health), and integral entropy (disorderliness in energy) parameters were analyzed. Results: As the data were not normally distributed, quartile based statistics was used for setting the norms. The 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated and they were further verified using a bootstrap procedure. Uniquely, the results showed a clear difference in IA parameters under both with filter (physiological) and without filter (psycho-physiological) conditions between the Indian and the EU population. Though other parameters were found almost similar to the EU population, inter quartile ranges were narrower in the Indian population as compared to the EU values. Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analyzes: That is, male versus female genders and age ranges 18–40 versus 40-60. Conclusion: As compared to EU population, Indian population had different range of Integral Area values and narrower range for values

  18. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for verbal span, visuospatial span, letter and number sequencing, trail making test, and symbol digit modalities test.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Quintana-Aparicio, María; Aguilar, Miquel; Badenes, Dolors; Molinuevo, José Luis; Torner, Laura; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Villanueva, Clara; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Sanz, Azucena; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    As part of the Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA project), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for the following instruments: verbal span (digits), visuospatial span (Corsi's test), letter-number sequencing (WAIS-III), trail making test, and symbol digit modalities test. The sample consists of 354 participants who are cognitively normal, community-dwelling, and age ranging from 50 to 90 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. The current norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly Spanish people. These data may be of considerable use for comparisons with other normative studies. Limitations of these normative data are mainly related to the techniques of recruitment and stratification employed.

  19. Psychometric Properties and Normative values of Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS).

    PubMed

    Güner, Olcay

    2016-10-13

    The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS) was developed to assess early maladaptive schemas in children between the ages of 10 and 16 in Turkey. The SQS consists of five questionnaires that represent five schema domains in Young's schema theory. Psychometric properties (n = 983) and normative values (n = 2250) of SQS were investigated in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 16. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Results revealed 15 schema factors under five schema domains, with good fit indexes. A total of 14 schema factors were in line with Young's early maladaptive schemas. In addition to these factors, one new schema emerged: self-disapproval. Reliability analyses showed that SQS has high internal consistency and consistency over a 1-month interval. Correlations of SQS with the Adjective Check List (ACL), the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Symptom Assessment (SA-45) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) were investigated to assess criterion validity, and the correlations revealed encouraging results. SQS significantly differentiated between children who have clinical diagnoses (n = 78) and children who have no diagnosis (n = 100). Finally, general normative values (n = 2,250) were determined for age groups, gender and age/gender groups. In conclusion, the early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire with standard scores.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Normative data and discriminant validity of Rey's Verbal Learning Test for the Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Tsakona, Ioanna; Malefaki, Sonia; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    The present study sought to establish normative and discriminant validity data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test [Rey, A. (1964). L 'examen clinique en psychologie [Clinical tests in psychology]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey auditory verbal learning test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] using newly adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. Applying the procedure suggested by Geffen et al. [Geffen, G., Moar, K. J., O'Hanlon, A. P., Clark, C. R., & Geffen, L. N. (1990). Performance measures of 16-86-year-old males and females on the auditory verbal learning test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 4, 45-63] we administered the test to 205 healthy participants, aged 18-78 years and two adult patient groups (long-term cannabis users and HIV symptomatic patients). Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the variables age, education and gender contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT. Performance decreased in an age-dependent manner from young adulthood. Women, young adults and higher educated participants outperformed men, older adults and less educated individuals. The test appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of long-term heavy cannabis users and HIV seropositive symptomatic patients and matched healthy controls, as both patient groups performed more poorly than their respective control group. Normative data stratified by age, gender and education for the Greek adult population is presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  1. Normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Siciliano, Mattia; Pedone, Roberto; Vitale, Carmine; Falco, Fabrizia; Bisogno, Rossella; Siano, Pietro; Barone, Paolo; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening battery, also including subtests to assess frontal functions such as set-shifting, abstraction and cognitive flexibility. MoCA seems to be useful to identify non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subcortical dementia; it has high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing MCI from mild Alzheimer's Disease. Previous studies revealed that certain items of MoCA may be culturally biased and highlighted the need for population-based norms for the MoCA. The aim of present study was to collect normative values in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Four hundred and fifteen Italian healthy subjects (252 women and 163 men) of different ages (age range 21-95 years) and educational level (from primary to university) underwent MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on MoCA. No significant effect of gender was found. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for MoCA raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off score, estimated using a non-parametric technique, is 15.5 and equivalent scores were computed. Correlation analysis showed a significant but weak correlation between MoCA adjusted scores with MMSE adjusted scores (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the MoCA in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  2. Normative feedback effects on learning a timing task.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of normative feedback on learning a sequential timing task. In addition to feedback about their performance per trial, two groups of participants received bogus normative feedback about a peer group's average block-to-block improvement after each block of 10 trials. Scores indicated either greater (better group) or less (worse group) than the average improvement, respectively. On the transfer test 1 day later which required producing novel absolute movement times, the better group demonstrated more effective learning than the worse group. These findings add to the mounting evidence that motivational factors affect motor skill learning.

  3. 2014 - 2015 Civil Affairs Issue Papers: The Future of Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-18

    the future of Civil Affairs includes some hopeful prospects thanks to practical steps recently taken.” All three panels agreed that in looking to...Guard and Reserve forces will continue into the future . This is at odds with the prior, strategic use of those forces, which historically expected...2014 - 2015 CIVIL AFFAIRS ISSUE PAPERS: THE FUTURE OF CIVIL AFFAIRS Edited by Christopher Holshek John C. Church, Jr.ISBN: 978-0-9861865-0-9 USAWC

  4. The APS in Public Affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2000-04-01

    Although the American Physical Society was created for the interchange of scientific ideas, the call to the founding meeting included the observation that the organization "could not fail to have an important influence in all matters affecting the interest of physicists". However for most of its history APS did not behave like "just another interest group in American society". Instead, at the beginning, it limited itself to such successful initiatives as the creation of the Bureau of Standards and such unsuccessful ones as adoption of the metric system. After World War II, speaking out on behalf of the freedom of science and scientists, such as Astin, Condon, and Oppenheimer, became important. In the 1970's, pushed by members, the Society became more "political", sponsoring sessions and studies on defense issues, taking a stand for the Equal Rights Amendment and creating the Panel on Public Affairs and the Forum on Physics and Society. Only in the last fifteen years has the APS unabashedly lobbied for the economic interests of physics and physicists. Adopting this new, if unavoidable role may have unintended consequences for the willingness and effectiveness of APS in speaking out on other public issues.

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report covers 1)Worldwide Topics 2)East-West Relations 3)Socialist Community, CEMA 4)General Economic Affairs 5)West Europe 6)East Europe 7)Latin America 8)China, East Asia and 9)Near East and South Asia.

  6. Public affairs events at Ocean Sciences Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-02-01

    AGU public affairs will be cohosting two special events at Ocean Sciences 2012 that offer scientists opportunities to expand their communication, policy, and media experience. Join the conversations that highlight two important topics to connect science to society.

  7. USSR Report, Economic Affairs, No. 1037.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The articles are PLANNING AND PLAN IMPLEMENTATION: Overall Approach to Solution of Planning, Incentive Problems Urged, and REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT : Union Republic Statistical Officials Quantify Progress.

  8. Professionalism, Scholarly Practice, and Professional Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Stan; Stimpson, Matthew T.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of recent literature on professionalism in student affairs. Attention is given to the nature of professionalism, a discussion of student affairs as a profession, the scholarly practice of student affairs, and professional development in student affairs. The authors note that an assumption of professionalism…

  9. Normative data for the Rey-Osterrieth and the Taylor complex figure tests in Quebec-French people.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Potvin, Olivier; Callahan, Brandy L; Belleville, Sylvie; Gagnon, Jean-François; Caza, Nicole; Ferland, Guylaine; Hudon, Carol; Macoir, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth (ROCF) and Taylor (TCF) complex figure tests are widely used to assess visuospatial and constructional abilities as well as visual/non-verbal memory. Normative data adjusted to the cultural and linguistic reality of older Quebec-French individuals is still nonexistent for these tests. In this article, we report the results of two studies that aimed to establish normative data for Quebec-French people (aged at least 50 years) for the copy, immediate recall, and delayed recall trials of the ROCF (Study 1) and the TCF (Study 2). For both studies, the impact of age, education, and sex on test performance was examined. Moreover, the impact of copy time on test performance, the impact of copy score on immediate and delayed recall score, and the impact of immediate recall score on delayed recall performance were examined. Based on regression models, equations to calculate Z scores for copy and recall scores are provided for both tests.

  10. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AFFAIRS Xu Dixin on Population Control, Free Economy (Xu Dixin; SHIJIE JINGJI DAOBAO, 26 Nov 84) »o 11 Procuratorial Organs Praised for...NATIONAL AFFAIRS PROCURATORIAL ORGANS PRAISED FOR CORRECTING INJUSTICES Beijing ZHONGGUO FAZHI BAO in Chinese 19 Oct 84 p 1 [Article by Xu Sen [1776...2773]: " Procuratorial Organs Nationwide Handled 6 Million Cases in 6 Years"] [Text] In the past 6 years, procuratorial organs at all levels dealt

  11. Restructuring Civil Affairs for Persistent Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    Simpson II U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas AY 2010...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Major Samuel K. Simpson II, United States Army 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...should increase and realign the force structure of the reserve and active components civil affairs; split the U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological

  12. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    180100 JPRS-EEl-84-053 8 May 1984 East Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS Wfaaöcai üaitoüteö ^^mAUTTmmmcfmiis 19980729 050...Virginia 22201. JPRS-EEI-84-053 8 May 1984 EAST EUROPE REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS CZECHOSLOVAKIA Brigade Khozraschet, Team Work...SVET HOSPODARSTVI, 22 Sep 83) 15 GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC March 1984 EINHEIT: Technology’s Role in SED Economic Strategy (EINHEIT, No

  13. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  14. Normative data of a brief neuropsychological battery for Spanish individuals older than 49

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, Montserrat; Espinosa, Ana; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Hernández, Isabel; Tárraga, Lluís; Becker, James T.; Boada, Mercè

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for standardized assessment of cognition in older patients that is relatively brief, easy to administer, and has normative data adjusted for age and educational attainment. We tested 332 literate, cognitively normal, Spanish persons older than 49 years from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades (Barcelona, Spain) with measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis, and executive functions. Several of the tests were affected by age, education, and/or gender, but the language of administration (i.e., Spanish or Catalan) did not affect the test scores. Standardized scores and percentile ranks were calculated for each age and/or education group for use by clinical neuropsychologists. PMID:22149440

  15. Normative Behavior of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artemyeva, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents, organizing their behavior in the space of school should take into account the system of rules existing in the institution. The development of normative behavior allows the teenager to understand their inner world and people around them. Failure to understand the regulatory requirements reduces the possibilities of social adaptation of…

  16. Normativity and Context in Young Children's Pretend Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Emily; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In two studies 3-year-olds' understanding of the context-specificity of normative rules was investigated through games of pretend play. In the first study, children protested against a character who joined a pretend game but treated the target object according to its real function. However, they did not protest when she performed the same action…

  17. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  18. Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    2012-01-01

    The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…

  19. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  20. An Investigation of the Normative Structure for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Selenia Renea

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to determine if a normative structure exists among a community college student body by extending the work of Caboni, Braxton, Deusterhous, Mundy, McClendon, and Lee (2005). The study also sought to determine if the level of espousal for the norms differed across student characteristics. This study analyzed data…

  1. Unreasonable reasons: normative judgements in the assessment of mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Banner, Natalie F

    2012-10-01

    The recent Mental Capacity Act (2005) sets out a test for assessing a person's capacity to make treatment choices. In some cases, particularly in psychiatry, it is unclear how the criteria ought to be interpreted and applied by clinicians. In this paper, I argue that this uncertainty arises because the concept of capacity employed in the Act, and the diagnostic tools developed to assist its assessment, overlook the inherent normativity of judgements made about whether a person is using or weighing information in the decision-making process. Patients may fail on this criterion to the extent that they do not appear to be handling the information given in an appropriate way, on account of a mental impairment disrupting the way the decision process ought to proceed. Using case law and clinical examples, I describe some of the normative dimensions along which judgements of incapacity can be made, namely epistemic, evaluative and affective dimensions. Such judgements are complex and the normative standards by which a clinician may determine capacity cannot be reduced to a set of criteria. Rather, in recognizing this normativity, clinicians may better understand how clinical judgements are structured and what kinds of assumption may inform their assessment.

  2. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  3. Research, Training, and Practice: The Normative Model and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertson, Carolyn M.

    Four specific purposes were addressed in this study: (1) to identify models of classroom management and instructional management used by effective and less effective teachers; (2) to compare and contrast these models; (3) to compare and contrast a normative model of classroom management used in management training workshops with the models…

  4. Diagnostic frameworks and nursing diagnoses: a normative stance.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic frameworks are essential to many scientific and technological activities and clinical practice. This study examines the main fundamental aspects of such frameworks. The three components required for all diagnoses are identified and examined, i.e. their normative dimension, temporal nature and structure, and teleological perspective. The normative dimension of a diagnosis is based on (1) epistemic values when associated with Hempel's inductive risk concerning the balance between false-positive and false-negative outcomes, leading to probabilistic judgements; and (2) non-epistemic values when related to ideas such as well-being, normality, illness, etc, as idealized norms or ideal points of reference. It should be noted that medical diagnoses match the three necessary components, while some essential diagnostic frameworks - the taxonomies of Gordon and NANDA - in nursing lack some components. The main lack is normative as the most popular frameworks in nursing diagnosis seem to be descriptions of observed reality rather than normative and value-based judgements in which both epistemic and non-epistemic values may coexist.

  5. The Normative and Dynamic Dimensions of Children's Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the developmental concepts such as the normative and the dynamic dimensions that Katz talked about in her book (Engaging Children's Minds), and its' contribution towards the development of children. It points to the different varieties of behaviour that children engage in within their different cultures. It presented problems…

  6. Normative Expectations and Individual Decisions concerning Media Gratification Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Allen; Rosenfeld, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Results indicate that each of the nine media studied (newspapers, magazines, commercial and public television, books, radio, friends, recorded music, film) has a clear, socially defined image, suggesting a two-stage model of media channel utilization--normative expectations followed by individual decisions. (PD)

  7. Pricing: A Normative Strategy in the Delivery of Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephen T.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a normative strategy toward pricing human services, which will allow providers to develop pricing strategies within the context of organizational missions, goals, and values. Pricing is an effective tool for distributing resources and improving efficiency, and can be used as a tool for encouraging desired patterns of service utilization.…

  8. Normative Development of Physical Aggression from 8 to 26 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…

  9. Black Males' Structural Conditions, Achievement Patterns, Normative Needs, and "Opportunities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dena Phillips; Cunningham, Michael; Spencer, Margaret Beale

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relations between normative developmental transitions, contextual influences, and life-stage outcomes, such as academic achievement, for African American males. Data from a longitudinal study in a large southeastern U.S. city indicated that negative stereotyping and tracking from early experience in educational settings affected black…

  10. Normative values for the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; John, M T; Nilner, K; List, T

    2014-02-01

    This study reports the findings and challenges of the assessment of oro-facial aesthetics in the Swedish general population and the development of normative values for the self-reporting Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES). In a Swedish national sample of 1406 adult subjects (response rate: 47%), OES decile norms were established. The influence of sociodemographics (gender, age, and education), oral health status and general health status on OES scores was analysed. Mean ± standard deviation of OES scores was 50.3 ± 15.6 units (0, worst score; 70, best score); <1% of the subjects had the minimum score of 0, and 11% had the maximum score of 70 OES units. Orofacial Esthetic Scale score differences were (i) substantial (>5 OES units) for subjects with excellent/very good versus good to poor oral or general health status; ii) small (2 units), but statistically significant for gender (P = 0.01) and two age groups (P = 0.02), and (iii) absent for subjects with college versus no college education (P = 0.31) or with and without dentures (P = 0.90). To estimate normative values for a self-reporting health status, instrument is considered an important step in standardisation, and the developed norms provide a frame of reference in the general population to interpret the Orofacial Esthetic Scale scores.

  11. Centile curves and normative values for the twenty metre shuttle-run test in English schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin; Voss, Christine; Cohen, Daniel; Taylor, Matthew; Stasinopoulos, D M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide normative data for performance on the 20 m shuttle-run test of cardiorespiratory fitness in English schoolchildren. A total of 7366 10-16 year olds completed the 20 m shuttle-run test. We expressed performance as the number of shuttles completed, test score (shuttles and levels) and estimated peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). We calculated descriptive statistics for each age-sex group to construct percentile curves and tables. To assess the cardiorespiratory fitness of our sample, we calculated the number of participants who fell below proposed cut-offs for low cardiorespiratory fitness based on either completed shuttles or VdotO2peak. These cut-offs did not agree in terms of frequency of classification. The classification based on estimated VO2peak suggested low fitness was more prevalent in males and that the incidence of low fitness increased with age in both sexes. These are the first normative data for shuttle-run performance in English youth and can now be used to interpret data from this cardiorespiratory fitness test. The two cut-offs used for low fitness did not agree and future research should establish a cut-off for test performance which can predict present or future ill-health.

  12. The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2013-11-01

    Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at 6 months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories.

  13. The Gendered Nature of Student Affairs: Issues of Gender Equity in Student Affairs Professional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Evelyn LaVette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gendered nature of the student affairs profession by investigating how three student affairs professional associations, the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), ACPA: College Student Educators International, and the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I)…

  14. Putting Descartes before the Horse: Opportunities for Advancing the Student Affairs Link with Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarid, Lucas

    1999-01-01

    Article challenges the division between student and academic affairs and encourages a view of learning and reason in a more holistic and integrated fashion. Outlines the historical factors for the separation of student and academic affairs and offers the programs instituted at Bellarmine College as examples of effective collaboration between…

  15. Academic Affairs and Student Affairs Partnerships Promoting Diversity Initiatives on Campus: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePeau, Lucy Anne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education research suggests student affairs and academic affairs partner to address challenges on campus, such as building inclusive environments for diverse students and staff, but evidence about "how" partnerships form is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory was to understand…

  16. Preparing for Fiscal Leadership in Student Affairs: The Senior Student Affairs Officer Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Stephanie C.; Williams, Terry E.

    2010-01-01

    Success within today's challenging economic environment mandates that senior student affairs officers in higher education possess a sophisticated financial and budgetary skill set. Limited research addresses avenues through which professionals might best acquire the financial acumen needed. To address this gap, 19 senior student affairs officers…

  17. Student Affairs and Academic Affairs Collaborations in the Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Needham Yancey; Mullendore, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between academic affairs and student affairs units in higher education settings has traditionally and historically been troubled by the divergent understandings of each other's institutional role and the systematic division of labor between the two. However, for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is a desire to…

  18. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

  19. Normative data for three tests of visuocognitive function in primary school children: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cathy; Gilchrist, Iain D; Fraser, Sue; McCarthy, HM; Parker, Julie; Warnes, Penny; Young, Jill; Hyvarinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There is an increasing recognition that visuocognitive difficulties occur in children with neurodevelopmental problems. We obtained normative data for the performance of primary school children using three tests of visuocognitive function that are practicable in a clinical setting. Methods We tested 214 children aged between 4 and 11 years without known developmental problems, using tests to assess (1) orientation recognition and adaptive movement (postbox task), (2) object recognition (rectangles task) and (3) spatial integration (contours task). Results 96% could do the postbox task with ease—only 4% (all aged <9 years) exhibited minor difficulties. Errors in the rectangles task decreased with age: 33% of children aged 4–5 years had major difficulties but >99% of children aged ≥6 years had no, or minor, difficulties. Median scores for the contours task improved with age, and after age 8 years, 99% could see the contour using long-range spatial integration rather than density. Conclusions These different aspects of children’s visuocognitive performance were testable in a field setting. The data provide a benchmark by which to judge performance of children with neurodevelopmental problems and may be useful in assessment with a view to providing effective supportive strategies for children whose visuocognitive skills are lower than the expectation for their age. PMID:25712824

  20. The Token and Reporter's Tests--Using Two Scoring Conventions: A Normative Study with 286 Grade and Junior High Students and Use with 123 Language-Disordered Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Linda S.; Hall, Penelope K.

    1985-01-01

    Performance of 286 normal children (grades K-9) on the De Renzi and Faglioni form of the Token Test and the De Renzi and Ferrari Reporter's Test were analyzed. Two different scoring conventions were compared: number correct versus weighted scores. Normative data are presented by grade level and age. Specific administration and scoring procedures…

  1. Italian normative data for a stroke specific cognitive screening tool: the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS).

    PubMed

    Mancuso, M; Varalta, V; Sardella, L; Capitani, D; Zoccolotti, P; Antonucci, G

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive deficits occur in most stroke patients and cognitive impairment is an important predictor of adverse long term outcome. However, current screening measures, such as the Mini Mental State Examination or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, do not provide information tuned for evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment in the early phase after stroke. The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) represents an important new development in this regard. The OCS is now available for assessment of Italian individuals and the aim of this study is to standardize the OCS on a large sample of healthy Italian participants stratified for age, gender and education level. Results confirmed the influence of these factors in several of the OCS tasks. Age-, education- and gender-adjusted norms are provided for the ten sub-tests of the test. The availability of normative data represents an important prerequite for the reliable use of OCS with stroke patients.

  2. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

  3. Transitional Leadership: Perceptions of Interim Mid-Level Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, William A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been estimated that, due to increased turnover, an aging population, growing complexities and sizes of institutions, as well as the bureaucratization of searches, college and universities will see a continued increase in the utilization of interim leadership (Padilla, 2004). Student affairs divisions are not immune to this phenomenon and…

  4. Evaluations of and reasoning about normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup members: development of the black sheep effect.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Van de Vyver, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has demonstrated a "black sheep effect" (BSE) whereby, relative to evaluations of normative group members, ingroup deviants are derogated more than outgroup deviants. The developmental subjective group dynamics (DSGD) model holds that the BSE should develop during middle childhood when children apply wider social norms. Three hundred and thirty-eight children who were between 5 and 12 years old judged a normative (socially desirable) and a deviant (socially undesirable) member from an ingroup or an outgroup school. Results confirmed a developmental increase in the BSE, the first time this has been demonstrated. Children's own evaluations of group members were mediated by their expectations about ingroup peers' evaluations. In line with DSGD and social domain theories, with age, children's explanations of peer evaluations for ingroup deviance focused relatively more on loyalty. Practical and theoretical implications for peer inclusion and exclusion are discussed.

  5. Regression-Based Normative Formulae for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; Ramezani, Amir

    2015-11-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has become a popular cognitive screening instrument, particularly in elderly patients. Prior studies presented lookup tables for RBANS normative data based on age, gender, education, and race using a group of 718 community-dwelling older adults. However, regression-based normative formulae that simultaneously correct for all demographic variables may be more sensitive for detecting late life cognitive decline. Using data from the prior studies, linear regression was used to generate such formulae in the Indexes and subtests of the RBANS. Results indicated that ∼11% of the variance of Index scores was accounted for by these demographic variables, and 13% of variance in subtest scores. Although some differences were present between the lookup and regression-based norms, it is expected that these current results will present more accurate demographic corrections that allow clinicians and researchers to better interpret individual performances on the RBANS.

  6. Normative Reference Values for Handgrip Strength in Colombian Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Morales, Olimpo; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel H; Vivas, Andrés; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Morales, O, Peña-Ibagon, JC, Palacios-López, A, Prieto-Benavides, DH, Vivas, A, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Alonso-Martínez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Normative reference values for handgrip strength in Colombian schoolchildren: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 217-226, 2017-The primary aim of this study was to generate normative handgrip (HG) strength data for 10 to 17.9 year olds. The secondary aim was to determine the relative proportion of Colombian children and adolescents that fall into established Health Benefit Zones (HBZ). This cross-sectional study enrolled 7,268 schoolchildren (boys n = 3,129 and girls n = 4,139, age 12.7 [2.4] years). Handgrip was measured using a hand dynamometer with an adjustable grip. Five HBZs (Needs Improvement, Fair, Good, Very Good, and Excellent) have been established that correspond to combined HG. Centile smoothed curves, percentile, and tables for the third, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile were calculated using Cole's LMS method. Handgrip peaked in the sample at 22.2 (8.9) kg in boys and 18.5 (5.5) kg in girls. The increase in HG was greater for boys than for girls, but the peak HG was lower in girls than in boys. The HBZ data indicated that a higher overall percentage of boys than girls at each age group fell into the "Needs Improvement" zone, with differences particularly pronounced during adolescence. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific HG reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  7. The conceptual link between social desirability and cultural normativity.

    PubMed

    Bou Malham, Philippe; Saucier, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Psychologists have a recurrent concern that socially desirable responding (SDR) is a form of response distortion that compromises the validity of self-report measures, especially in high-stakes situations where participants are motivated to make a good impression. Psychologists have used various strategies to minimise SDR or its impact, for example, forced choice responding, ipsatization, and direct measures of social desirability. However, empirical evidence suggests that SDR is a robust phenomenon existing in many cultures and a substantive variable with meaningful associations with other psychological variables and outcomes. Here, we review evidence of the occurrence of SDR across cultures and tie SDR to the study of cultural normativity and cultural consonance in anthropology. We suggest that cultural normativity is an important component of SDR, which may partly explain the adaptiveness of SDR and its association with positive outcomes.

  8. Evaluating clinical significance: incorporating robust statistics with normative comparison tests.

    PubMed

    van Wieringen, Katrina; Cribbie, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a modified test of equivalence for conducting normative comparisons when distribution shapes are non-normal and variances are unequal. A Monte Carlo study was used to compare the empirical Type I error rates and power of the proposed Schuirmann-Yuen test of equivalence, which utilizes trimmed means, with that of the previously recommended Schuirmann and Schuirmann-Welch tests of equivalence when the assumptions of normality and variance homogeneity are satisfied, as well as when they are not satisfied. The empirical Type I error rates of the Schuirmann-Yuen were much closer to the nominal α level than those of the Schuirmann or Schuirmann-Welch tests, and the power of the Schuirmann-Yuen was substantially greater than that of the Schuirmann or Schuirmann-Welch tests when distributions were skewed or outliers were present. The Schuirmann-Yuen test is recommended for assessing clinical significance with normative comparisons.

  9. Normative orientations of university faculty and doctoral students.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M S

    2000-10-01

    Data from two national surveys of 4,000 faculty and doctoral students in chemistry, civil engineering, microbiology and sociology indicate that both faculty and students subscribe strongly to traditional norms but are more likely to see alternative counternorms enacted in their departments. They also show significant effects of departmental climate on normative orientations and suggest that many researchers express some degree of ambivalence about traditional norms.

  10. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Affairs Council of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Public Session Meeting AGENCY.... Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-5303, Washington, DC 20210; phone (202) 693-4811.... ADDRESSES: The LAC will meet at the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  11. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

  12. Normative identity construction among women diagnosed with a gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Peled, Einat; Ajzenstadt, Mimi

    2015-03-01

    Women with a gambling problem bear a negative social stigma. Based on the theory of symbolic interactionism, this study examined the construction of social identities by 17 Israeli women diagnosed with a gambling disorder. Interpretive interactionist analysis revealed how they construct their identity through correspondence with patterns of behavior that are perceived as normative, and identified 3 major themes: "I'm not actually a gambler" (the presentation of a multidimensional identity comprising other identities besides that of a gambler); "Staying normative during gambling"; and "I have changed" (reformed gamblers' presentation of themselves as having changed for the better). The findings underscore the complex dialogue behind the identity construction put forward by women with a gambling problem, their yearning to be perceived by society as normative women and to fit in despite their stigmatized behavior, and the tension they feel in society's relationship toward them. The findings also suggest that practitioners who work with women gamblers may want to pay attention to the power relations shaping identity construction in an interview setting, and look more closely at the women's awareness of the stigma they bear and the complex processes that make up their multidimensional identity.

  13. Revised NEO Personality Inventory normative data for police officer selection.

    PubMed

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T

    2013-11-01

    The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) has demonstrated utility in the personnel selection context. Its use in police officer selection has been relatively limited, in part, because there are no published normative data for the NEO PI-R for police officer applicants. The authors present normative data on NEO PI-R domain and facet scores for a large sample (N = 288) of police officer applicants in a large, urban, Midwestern police department who completed the NEO PI-R as part of a preemployment psychological evaluation. Applicants reported low levels of Neuroticism and high levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scores were strongly and consistently correlated with the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) research validity scale of the NEO PI-R. Extraversion and Agreeableness scores were moderately and less consistently correlated with PPM. These data may serve as a normative comparison group for professionals and researchers who use or may want to use the NEO PI-R in the police officer selection context.

  14. The geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas.

  15. Student Affairs and Services Stream: College Quarterly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddel, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "College Quarterly" recently introduced a stream for academic and scholar-practitioner dialogue concerning student affairs and services. To contribute to the growth and enhancement of the field, scholars and scholar-practitioners are invited to contribute original pieces that advance scholarship and/or practice around facilitating…

  16. Toward the Professionalization of Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, D. Stanley; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The field of student affairs is an emerging profession with its own distinct theory base and preparation criteria. Professional organizations need to collaborate on research and actions concerning professional issues. A workable code of ethics and a professional attitude by practitioners will insure progress toward professionalization. (RC)

  17. Becoming a Reflective Student Affairs Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with 12 student affairs administrators revealed that respondents were applied theorists and reflective practitioners; action phase of reflective process was integral to decision making; respondents believed their thinking patterns remained constant throughout life; formal education played minimal role in helping administrators become…

  18. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  19. Office of Indian Affairs 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    This report outlines the activities of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) for 1984 in accordance with its directive to investigate, study, consider and act upon the entire subject of Indian conditions and relations within the State of New Mexico, including but not restricted to, problems of health, economy, education, legislation, and…

  20. Education for America's Role in World Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, John, Ed.; Ryerson, Andre, Ed.

    This collection of essays by leading policy analysts and educators investigate the often contradictory claims of global, peace, multicultural and citizenship education and examines what U.S. students should know about world affairs in the post-cold war era. The essays suggest methods of change based on a strong academic core of history,…

  1. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  2. The Role of Congress in Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, William J.

    An examiniation of past and recent federal legislation affecting American Indians reveals the important role of Congress in developing policy for Indian affairs. The role of Congress inititally seemed directed toward providing a legal means of taking Indian land and other resources for the benefit of non-Indians. Subsequent policy has varied…

  3. The New Media in Public Affairs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eugene I.

    This paper on innovations in public affairs education begins by enumerating some of the newer available means of communication--slow-scan television, computers, tape recordings, games and models, telephone instruction, multiple channel FM radio, libraries of tapes and slides--and discusses proposals to interconnect educational television…

  4. Office of Indian Affairs 1985 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    The major goals of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) in 1985 were to enhance Indian education concerns, aid tribes in economic development, and effectuate a smooth working relationship between state, local, and tribal governments in the spirit of and through the use of the Joint Powers Act. Advancement is reflected in all these areas.…

  5. TQM: Finding a Place in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tyrone A.

    1996-01-01

    Critically examines Total Quality Management (TQM). Analyzes the concepts and practices of TQM and its failure to live up to expectations in higher education. Emphasizes the problems inherent with TQM initiatives in an educational environment and outlines ways that student affairs officials can proactively apply TQM to support universities'…

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    disease affecting our social organism. It was precisely authors writing on public affairs, scientists, journalists, teachers, and engineers who...tremor or jolt. Well-known scientists are working on the problem. Our generation has itself become the creator and chron - icler of the Davit

  7. Briefing Teams in World Affairs Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Joe P.

    1992-01-01

    In a college world affairs course, the teacher acted as foreign policy/national security advisor to the president and assigned students as staff members for different geographic regions. Students briefed him daily, first on current events, then on specific issues. Students enjoyed the challenging assignments, intensive questioning, and policy…

  8. Communication, Public Affairs Knowledge, and Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, K. E.; Rush, Ramona R.

    The impact of print and electronic media orientations upon the public affairs knowledge of older persons was investigated through interviews with 59 participants in a foster grandparents program, 68 participants in a retired senior volunteer program, and 23 members of a retired teachers association. Analysis of results indicated a clear pattern in…

  9. Student Employee Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athas, Christina; Oaks, D'Arcy John; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Employment within student affairs divisions offers environments in which students can apply the knowledge they have gained, as well as acquire new competencies, helping them to build solid foundations for their futures. Researchers used an online survey to assess the outcomes associated with part-time student employment within the student affairs…

  10. Public Affairs Manual. Revised 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This public affairs manual is designed for health, physical education, and recreation personnel. It begins with a position statement by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER). In section two, resources and procedures for crises action at the local and state level are discussed. Several organizational models…

  11. Bibliography of Serials on Caribbean Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Dennis; Milman, Claudio

    An alphabetical listing of serial titles that are relevant to Caribbean affairs and culture is provided. Annotations include the individual publication's scope of coverage as well as its frequency of appearance (monthly, quarterly, weekly, etc.) and postal address. The same type of information regarding newspapers published in the Caribbean area…

  12. 76 FR 2761 - Proposed Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause 852.... Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulation Clauses 852.237-7, Indemnification and Medical Liability Insurance. b. Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulation Clauses 852.237-71, Indemnification and Insurance....

  13. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  14. Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentz, Audrey L.; And Others

    This book describes significant issues and trends in the evolution of student affairs and reviews current methods and models of practice. The chapters are: (1) "The Philosophical Heritage of Student Affairs," by Stan Carpenter, reviewing the relationship between educational philosophy and student services; (2) "A History of Student Affairs," by…

  15. The Invisible Leaders: Student Affairs Mid-Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert B., Ed.

    This monograph, intended for a broad range of student affairs practitioners, provides eight papers on mid-level managers in higher education student affairs whose needs have perhaps been subsumed within other aspects of career tenure or career specialty. The following papers are included: "Defining Student Affairs Mid-management" by Robert B.…

  16. Demographically adjusted normative standards for new indices of performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Grant, Igor; Miller, S Walden; Taylor, Michael J; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Carey, Catherine L; Woods, Steven Paul; Norman, Marc A; Rippeth, Julie D; Martin, Eileen M; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-09-01

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) is a complex cognitive test sensitive to neuropsychological disorders. Its traditional Total Correct score seemingly reflects multiple cognitive abilities, including attention, working memory, and processing speed. Snyder, Aniskiewicz, and Snyder (1993) modified scoring guidelines for the PASAT to give credit only for "dyads." This method emphasizes working memory operations and has been found superior to Total Correct scores at detecting cognitive impairments in several investigations. To date, normative standards are not available for the "dyad" scoring method, thus limiting its utility in clinical and research settings. The current investigation provides demographically adjusted normative data based on a sample of 500 healthy adults of varied age, education, sex, and race (African American and Caucasian) for various indices of performance on the PASAT, including "Total Dyads" obtained across the four PASAT trials. In addition, we describe and present normative data on four other indices designed to quantify various aspects of performance on the PASAT: invalid responding, effects of varied information processing speed demands, and tendency to omit responses and to make arithmetic errors.

  17. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  18. Normative ethics does not need a foundation: it needs more science.

    PubMed

    Quintelier, Katinka; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Braeckman, Johan

    2011-03-01

    The impact of science on ethics forms since long the subject of intense debate. Although there is a growing consensus that science can describe morality and explain its evolutionary origins, there is less consensus about the ability of science to provide input to the normative domain of ethics. Whereas defenders of a scientific normative ethics appeal to naturalism, its critics either see the naturalistic fallacy committed or argue that the relevance of science to normative ethics remains undemonstrated. In this paper, we argue that current scientific normative ethicists commit no fallacy, that criticisms of scientific ethics contradict each other, and that scientific insights are relevant to normative inquiries by informing ethics about the options open to the ethical debate. Moreover, when conceiving normative ethics as being a nonfoundational ethics, science can be used to evaluate every possible norm. This stands in contrast to foundational ethics in which some norms remain beyond scientific inquiry. Finally, we state that a difference in conception of normative ethics underlies the disagreement between proponents and opponents of a scientific ethics. Our argument is based on and preceded by a reconsideration of the notions naturalistic fallacy and foundational ethics. This argument differs from previous work in scientific ethics: whereas before the philosophical project of naturalizing the normative has been stressed, here we focus on concrete consequences of biological findings for normative decisions or on the day-to-day normative relevance of these scientific insights.

  19. Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    PubMed

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms.

  20. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA): Normative data for old and very old Czech adults.

    PubMed

    Kopecek, Miloslav; Stepankova, Hana; Lukavsky, Jiri; Ripova, Daniela; Nikolai, Tomas; Bezdicek, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of our study was to present norms for old and very old Czech adults on the Czech version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and investigate the influence of social and demographic factors on MoCA performance. We analyzed 540 adults aged ≥ 60 years (5-year age categories; nationally representative sample in terms of sex and educational level), who met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal range in neuropsychological assessment. Using multiple regression model, we found that MoCA performance was affected by age and education (both p < .001) but not sex. The study provides normed percentile estimates for MoCA performance stratified by age (60-74 years; ≥ 75 years) and education lower versus higher. We also present percentile equivalents for the MoCA and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for use in clinical practice. We found age- and education-related effects on MoCA performance which support the use of culturally adapted normative data.

  1. Normative data for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Simon Lowes; Fang, Sam Hui; Lim, May-Li; Feng, Lei; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2014-08-01

    Asia will experience a surge in dementia prevalence within the next 20-40 years, but there is a dearth of well-normed neuropsychological tests that could assist with dementia diagnosis. Here, we report normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in Elderly ethnic Chinese Singaporeans aged 55-91 years of age. A total of 1,165 male and female community-dwelling, cognitively normal elderly Chinese persons in Singapore, with varying levels of education and range of languages, were tested with the RBANS version A. The effects of age, education, language and gender on RBANS performance were examined. Negative effects of increased age and positive effects of education on the RBANS subtests, Index and Total Scale scores were found suggesting differential associations between age-related cognitive decline and education that vary according to the specific cognitive ability measured. The findings indicate that unique cultural and educational profile of elderly Chinese should be considered when applying the RBANS in this population.

  2. Spanish multicenter normative studies (Neuronorma project): norms for the abbreviated Barcelona Test.

    PubMed

    Quintana, María; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Langohr, Klaus; Manero, Rosa M; Aguilar, Miguel; Badenes, Dolors; Molinuevo, José Luis; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Blesa, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    The abbreviated Barcelona Test (a-BT) is an instrument widely used in Spain and Latin American countries for general neuropsychological assessment. The purpose of the present study was to provide new norms for the a-BT as part of the Neuronorma project. The sample consisted of 346 healthy controls. Overlapping cell procedure and midpoint techniques were applied to develop the normative data. Age, education, and sex influences were studied. Results indicated that although age and education affected the score on this test, sex did not. Raw scores were transformed to age-adjusted scaled scores (SS(A)) based on percentile ranks. These SS(A) were also converted into age-education scaled scores using a linear regression model. Norms were presented on age-education scaled scores. Also, the a-BT cognitive profile was presented and should prove to be clinically useful for interpretation. These co-normed data will allow clinicians to compare scores from a-BT with all the tests included in the Neuronorma project.

  3. Normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall) in the elderly Quebec-French population.

    PubMed

    Dion, Mélissa; Potvin, Olivier; Belleville, Sylvie; Ferland, Guylaine; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis; Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Simard, Martine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Lecomte, Sarah; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Performance on verbal memory tests is generally associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and education level. Performance also varies between different cultural groups. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall; RL/RI-16), a French adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (Buschke, 1984; Grober, Buschke, Crystal, Bang, & Dresner, 1988). The sample consisted of 566 healthy French-speaking older adults (50-88 years old) from the province of Quebec, Canada. Normative data for the RL/RI-16 were derived from 80% of the total sample (normative sample) and cross-validated using the remaining participants (20%; validation sample). The effects of participants' age, sex, and education level were assessed on different indices of memory performance. Results indicated that these variables were independently associated with performance. Normative data are presented as regression equations with standard deviations (symmetric distributions) and percentiles (asymmetric distributions).

  4. Normative values of serum immunoglobulins by single radial immunodiffusion: a review.

    PubMed

    Maddison, S E; Reimer, C B

    1976-05-01

    Many previous studies of normative values in adults have suggested that race, age, sex, and environment all have significant effects on the mean values for IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE in various groups of individuals. Single radial immunodiffusion is the technique most widely used to quantitate immunoglobulins of the three major classes (IgG, IgM, and IgA) in sera. Measurements have been expressed in terms of mass concentration, as percentages of the mean normal adult value, and in arbitrary international units. To improve agreement among laboratories, the WHO has supported the distribution of an International Reference Preparation for the Human Immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, and IgM, and similar (separate) preparations for IgD and IgE.

  5. Normative study of the implicit causality of 100 interpersonal verbs in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Goikoetxea, Edurne; Pascual, Gema; Acha, Joana

    2008-08-01

    This study provides normative data on the implicit causality of interpersonal verbs in Spanish. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, ratings of the implicit causality of 100 verbs classified into four types (agent-patient, agent-evocator, stimulus-experiencer, and experiencer-stimulus) were examined. An offline task was used in which 105 adults and 163 children had to complete sentences containing one verb. Both age and gender effects in the causal biases were examined. In Experiment 2, reading times for sentences containing 60 verbs were analyzed. An online reading task was used in which 34 adults had to read sentences that were both congruent and incongruent with the implicit causality of the verb. The results support the effect of implicit causality in both adults and children, and they support the taxonomy used.

  6. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of Review for Submission 2011-01 AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  7. The environmental hypersensitivity symptom inventory: metric properties and normative data from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High concomitant intolerance attributed to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMF), and everyday sounds calls for a questionnaire instrument that can assess symptom prevalence in various environmental intolerances. The Environmental Hypersensitivity Symptom Inventory (EHSI) was therefore developed and metrically evaluated, and normative data were established. The EHSI consists of 34 symptom items, requires limited time to respond to, and provides a detailed and broad description of the individual’s symptomology. Methods Data from 3406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study were used. The participants constitute a random sample of inhabitants in the county of Västerbotten in Sweden, aged 18 to 79 years, stratified for age and gender. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified five significant factors: airway symptoms (9 items; Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 coefficient, KR-20, of internal consistency = 0.74), skin and eye symptoms (6 items; KR-20 = 0.60), cardiac, dizziness and nausea symptoms (4 items; KR-20 = 0.55), head-related and gastrointestinal symptoms (5 items; KR-20 = 0.55), and cognitive and affective symptoms (10 items; KR-20 = 0.80). The KR-20 was 0.85 for the entire 34-item EHSI. Symptom prevalence rates in percentage for having the specific symptoms every week over the preceding three months constitute normative data. Conclusions The EHSI can be recommended for assessment of symptom prevalence in various types of environmental hypersensitivity, and with the advantage of comparing prevalence rates with normality. PMID:23837629

  8. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of

  9. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    0 "N 084170 JPRS-CPS-85-002 8 January 1985 China Report POLITICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND MILITARY AFFAIRS 19990505 133 PKOWALITY *H«*ttSD...8217Star War.s’ Program (Zhuang Qubing; GUOJI WENTI YANJIU, No 4 , 13 Oct 84) 1 United States, USSR Compete for Dominance in Middle East (Wan Guang...Service, 8 Dec 84) 26 EASTERN EUROPE Ceausescu Greets PRC President Li Xiannian (AGERPRES, 4 Oct 84) 27 -a - [III - CC - 80

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    30 SOCIAL ISSUES Failure of Cooperative Agreement Leads to Hunger Strike [ S . Stepanov; KAZAKHSTANSKA YA PRA VDA, 24 Jan 89...72 JPRS-UPA-89-025 27 APRIL 1989 2 Political Affairs UzSSR: Informal Groups Accused of Exploiting Nationality Issues [ S . Usmanov; PRA VDA...of construction are also linked with the current year less than half of that sum was allocated for shortage of hoisting and earth -digging machinery

  11. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Discussed (Qu Xingxuan; SHANXI RIBAO, 15 Jun 83) 77 HEBEI RIBAO Comments on Promotion of Technical Cadres (Song Yufeng; HEBEI...yesterday’s Foreign Affairs Commission meeting that France’s objective in Chad is to promote negotiations, and that the Chadian problem should be solved...taking firm hold on reorganization of all tasks to eliminate the chaos of the ’Great Cultural Revolution1 in order to promote stability and unity

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rights as the right to join and organize political parties, to take part in political life , and to administer state affairs are singled out...status of workers. Along with the right to labor, it affirms such pivotal rights as the right to equal wages for an equal quantity and quality of work...play an important role in the country’s political life . And what is no less important— the increased pressure on Duarte from the left and the right

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-15

    1920 PRAVDA and other newspapers carried an article by I. Stalin, RSFSR People’s Commissar for Nationality Affairs, " Long Live Soviet Armenia...are declared annulled. Nagornyy Karabakh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan are recognized as a part of the Armenian Socialist Republic. " Long live the...and all the benefits of the Soviet system will be extended to all Armenia’s citizens in equal measure. " Long live the brotherhood of the Soviet

  14. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE - SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 .. (7 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from...of the agreement and thinks that the United States and Israel "expect the two parties to depart from the line which is antagonistic to their Middle...Regional Foreign Affairs Office and the Regional Tourism Corporation; and responsible persons of departments concerned in the region attended the banquet

  15. USSR Report, Military Affairs, No. 1775.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    possessed such qualities as revolutionary scope and practi- cality, a deep and lucid intellect, a strong feeling of friendship and comradeship...heroism of mass and prosaic work." (Question] One can often hear: "The soldier who does not dream of being a general is a poor soldier." Here you...Konstantin Petrovich, attained the greatest heights in soldierly affairs and became a marshal of a combat arm. One can say, your dream has come

  16. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    313202 JPRS-EEI-84-106 2 0 September 1984 East Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS mfmSöTicm sfÄTHrär Approved for public mlexxm...were developed. The chemical industry has successfully collaborated with the USSR in the area of polymer additives. Development of CD Antioxidant...production, of course, we need at the same time to build the food processing industry , production of chemicals for pest and disease control, we have to

  17. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    something at which to look closely, besides porno - graphy. For example, to notice and report in good time that video takes root more rapidly far away from...analyzed the state of affairs. In letters and during meetings with the deputies, the voters expressed concern that the number of teen -agers, who do not...are left to their own resources. Difficult teen -agers are not very eagerly accepted into the various circles and sports sections. The lists of bad

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-08

    nations and nationali- tion that had risen to defend the gains of Great October. ties , and for the pooling of efforts to deal with the In subsequent...and ecological-and proposes a comprehensive their native land. We should continue to develop stronger set of measures for resolving them. ties with ...increased. The actions of the staff members of the internal -affairs organs are falling with In the fight against crime among youths we need to seek

  19. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1995-12-06

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia.

  20. A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in

  1. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning.

    PubMed

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality.

  2. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed.

  3. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5–7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality. PMID:25071624

  4. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  5. International biomedical law in search for its normative status.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Atina

    2012-01-01

    The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner.

  6. Normative personality trait development in adulthood: A 6-year cohort-sequential growth model.

    PubMed

    Milojev, Petar; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated patterns of normative change in personality traits across the adult life span (19 through 74 years of age). We examined change in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and honesty-humility using data from the first 6 annual waves of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 10,416; 61.1% female, average age = 49.46). We present a cohort-sequential latent growth model assessing patterns of mean-level change due to both aging and cohort effects. Extraversion decreased as people aged, with the most pronounced declines occurring in young adulthood, and then again in old age. Agreeableness, indexed with a measure focusing on empathy, decreased in young adulthood and remained relatively unchanged thereafter. Conscientiousness increased among young adults then leveled off and remained fairly consistent for the rest of the adult life span. Neuroticism and openness to experience decreased as people aged. However, the models suggest that these latter effects may also be partially due to cohort differences, as older people showed lower levels of neuroticism and openness to experience more generally. Honesty-humility showed a pronounced and consistent increase across the adult life span. These analyses of large-scale longitudinal national probability panel data indicate that different dimensions of personality follow distinct developmental processes throughout adulthood. Our findings also highlight the importance of young adulthood (up to about the age of 30) in personality trait development, as well as continuing change throughout the adult life span. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Impaired or Not Impaired, That Is the Question: Navigating the Challenges Associated with Using Canadian Normative Data in a Comprehensive Test Battery That Contains American Tests.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Thérèse M; Stewart, Garth; Nelson, Monty; McInerney, Robert J; Brodie, Norman

    2016-08-01

    It has been well documented that IQ scores calculated using Canadian norms are generally 2-5 points lower than those calculated using American norms on the Wechsler IQ scales. However, recent findings have demonstrated that the difference may be significantly larger for individuals with certain demographic characteristics, and this has prompted discussion about the appropriateness of using the Canadian normative system with a clinical population in Canada. This study compared the interpretive effects of applying the American and Canadian normative systems in a clinical sample. We used a multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) to calculate differences between IQ and Index scores in a clinical sample, and mixed model ANOVAs to assess the pattern of differences across age and ability level. As expected, Full Scale IQ scores calculated using Canadian norms were systematically lower than those calculated using American norms, but differences were significantly larger for individuals classified as having extremely low or borderline intellectual functioning when compared with those who scored in the average range. Implications of clinically different conclusions for up to 52.8% of patients based on these discrepancies highlight a unique dilemma facing Canadian clinicians, and underscore the need for caution when choosing a normative system with which to interpret WAIS-IV results in the context of a neuropsychological test battery in Canada. Based on these findings, we offer guidelines for best practice for Canadian clinicians when interpreting data from neuropsychological test batteries that include different normative systems, and suggestions to assist with future test development.

  8. Bringing the Cognitive Estimation Task into the 21st Century: Normative Data on Two New Parallel Forms

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Sarah E.; Wagner, Gabriela Peretti; Murphy, Patrick; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used by clinicians and researchers to assess the ability to produce reasonable cognitive estimates. Although several studies have published normative data for versions of the CET, many of the items are now outdated and parallel forms of the test do not exist to allow cognitive estimation abilities to be assessed on more than one occasion. In the present study, we devised two new 9-item parallel forms of the CET. These versions were administered to 184 healthy male and female participants aged 18–79 years with 9–22 years of education. Increasing age and years of education were found to be associated with successful CET performance as well as gender, intellect, naming, arithmetic and semantic memory abilities. To validate that the parallel forms of the CET were sensitive to frontal lobe damage, both versions were administered to 24 patients with frontal lobe lesions and 48 age-, gender- and education-matched controls. The frontal patients’ error scores were significantly higher than the healthy controls on both versions of the task. This study provides normative data for parallel forms of the CET for adults which are also suitable for assessing frontal lobe dysfunction on more than one occasion without practice effects. PMID:24671170

  9. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  10. Emotion Regulation from Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood and Middle Adulthood: Age Differences, Gender Differences, and Emotion-Epecific Developmental Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing research on emotion regulation, the empirical evidence for normative age-related emotion regulation patterns is rather divergent. From a life-span perspective, normative age changes in emotion regulation may be more salient applying the same methodological approach on a broad age range examining both growth and decline during…

  11. Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais

    PubMed Central

    Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

  12. Normative data on 372 stimuli for descriptive naming.

    PubMed

    Hammeke, Thomas A; Kortenkamp, Sarah J; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2005-01-01

    Naming problems are common in patients with dominant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). Descriptive naming may be an especially useful procedure for the presurgical workup of candidates for ATL, given its sensitivity for detecting subtle naming problems in TLE and its localization to anterior temporal regions that are commonly targeted for resection in ATL. This study provides normative data pertaining to difficulty level (accuracy and reaction time) on 372 descriptive naming items in four conceptual categories: common non-living, common living, unique non-living, and unique living things. These data will be useful to investigators who wish to develop protocols for clinical assessment or stimuli for functional imaging paradigms aimed at assessing the function of the anterior temporal lobes.

  13. Filming the freak show. Non-normative bodies on screen.

    PubMed

    Brodesco, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on four films that display the exhibition for profit of non- normative bodies in a context that is variously called freak show, sideshow, monster show, odditorium. Freaks (Tod Browning, 1932), The Ape Woman (La donna scimmia, Marco Ferreri, 1964), Elephant Man (David Lynch, 1980) and Black Venus (Venus noire, Abdellatif Kechiche, 2010) are reflexive movies that tell stories of abnormal bodies and of people who buy a ticket to see them. They inquire the fictional nature of "freakness"--a cultural and historical artefact, a social construction, a frame of mind and a set of practices--and draw attention to the continuity between the world of the freak shows and the scientific and medical milieus. The article finally considers the new visibility of the corporeal freak in contemporary voyeuristic television programs.

  14. Optimal indolence: a normative microscopic approach to work and leisure

    PubMed Central

    Niyogi, Ritwik K.; Breton, Yannick-Andre; Solomon, Rebecca B.; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter; Dayan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Dividing limited time between work and leisure when both have their attractions is a common everyday decision. We provide a normative control-theoretic treatment of this decision that bridges economic and psychological accounts. We show how our framework applies to free-operant behavioural experiments in which subjects are required to work (depressing a lever) for sufficient total time (called the price) to receive a reward. When the microscopic benefit-of-leisure increases nonlinearly with duration, the model generates behaviour that qualitatively matches various microfeatures of subjects’ choices, including the distribution of leisure bout durations as a function of the pay-off. We relate our model to traditional accounts by deriving macroscopic, molar, quantities from microscopic choices. PMID:24284898

  15. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

  16. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressler, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to…

  17. Normative Feedback and Adolescent Readiness to Change: A Small Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas C.; Davis, Jordan P.; Ureche, Daniel J.; Tabb, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    For adolescents with substance use problems, it is unknown whether the provision of normative feedback is a necessary active ingredient in motivational interviewing (MI). This study investigated the impact of normative feedback on adolescents' readiness to change and perceptions of MI quality. Adolescents referred for substance use disorder (SUD)…

  18. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2003-01-01

    Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's…

  19. Developmental Changes in Children's Normative Reasoning across Learning Contexts and Collaborative Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Anne E.; Young, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    What influences children's normative judgments of conventional rules at different points in development? The current study explored the effects of two contextual factors on children's normative reasoning: the way in which the rules were learned and whether the rules apply to the self or others. Peer dyads practiced a novel collaborative board game…

  20. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrod, Michael R.

    A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

  1. What Community College Students Value: Delineating a Normative Structure for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Renea; Park, Toby J.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript delineates a normative structure for community college students, outlines how this structure varies by student characteristics, and compares this structure to that of a previously established normative structure identified at a 4-year institution. A total of 512 student survey responses on the College Student Behaviors Inventory…

  2. Early Understanding of Normativity and Freedom to Act in Turkish Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçgenç, Bahar; Hohenberger, Annette; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Two studies investigated young 2- and 3-year-old Turkish children's developing understanding of normativity and freedom to act in games. As expected, children, especially 3-year-olds, protested more when there was a norm violation than when there was none. Surprisingly, however, no decrease in normative protest was observed even when the actor…

  3. Beyond Evidence-Based Belief Formation: How Normative Ideas Have Constrained Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlsson, Stellan

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive sciences, including psychology and education, have their roots in antiquity. In the historically early disciplines like logic and philosophy, the purpose of inquiry was normative. Logic sought to formalize valid inferences, and the various branches of philosophy sought to identify true and certain knowledge. Normative principles are…

  4. Beyond Normativity in Sociocultural Reproduction and Sociocultural Transformation: Curriculum Work--Leadership within an Evolving Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylimaki, Rose M.; Fetman, Lisa J.; Matyjasik, Erin; Brunderman, Lynnette; Uljens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to examine the contributions, gaps, and normativity problems in mainstream sociocultural theories, curriculum theory, and educational leadership studies, considering reflective education theories that provide a less normative alternative. Framework: Our framework introduces reflective education for social…

  5. Predicting Behavior from Normative Influences: What Insights Can the Fishbein Model Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walster, Dian E.

    The Fishbein Model is an attitude behavior consistency model which is used in both laboratory and field settings for predicting and understanding attitudinal and normative influences on behavior. This paper examines controversy surrounding the Fishbein Model's normative component in the context of a study of library and information science (LIS)…

  6. Exploring the Practical Adequacy of the Normative Framework Guiding South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisikta, Heila; Schudel, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the practical adequacy of the recent defining of a normative framework for the South African National Curriculum Statement that focuses on the relationship between human rights, social justice and a healthy environment. This politically framed and socially critical normative framework has developed in response to…

  7. A Normative Approach to the Legitimacy of Muslim Schools in Multicultural Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Debate has grown about the legitimacy of Muslim faith schools within the British education system. At the same time, scepticism has developed towards multiculturalism as a normative approach for dealing with diversity. This article argues that it is worth retaining the normative impetus of multiculturalism by returning to its roots in political…

  8. [The normative concept of guilt in criminal law between freedom of will and neurobiological determinism].

    PubMed

    Czerner, Frank

    2006-01-01

    as a result of self-attribution, the intra- and inter-subjective experience of the freedom of will renders the mere "illusion of freedom" sufficient to assign to an individual the appropriate sense of responsibility, which is also accepted by him. The alternative of a law of measures independent of guilt and culpability must be rejected because it is incapable of instituting sufficient protection, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, against prognostically diffuse and utilitarian hypertrophied prophylactic efforts on the part of the state up to the point of a revolutionised anthropological design, as shown quite clearly by the repressive and restrictive tendencies apparent in criminal policy since 11 September 2001. Consequently, the classic principle of guilt as one of the humanitarian foundations of punishment imposed by the state needs to be protected and upheld in the face of rash and inadequately considered law amendment endeavours. With its principles having slowly grown over the ages under democratic consent, criminal law is capable of immunising itself against uncritically generalised restructuring attempts based on inductive false conclusions and the confusion of coincidence, correlation and causality, let alone against the neurobiological "occupation tendencies" of normative premises. Regardless of their undeniable fascination, future brain research activities and the respective findings in the neurobiology of thinking, decision-making and acting as an indispensable empirical and epistemological starting point must always be reviewed in terms of their factual and normative implementation powers in favour of or against the human freedom of will.

  9. Normative consent and presumed consent for organ donation: a critique.

    PubMed

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2010-08-01

    Ben Saunders claims that actual consent is not necessary for organ donation due to 'normative consent', a concept he borrows from David Estlund. Combining normative consent with Peter Singer's 'greater moral evil principle', Saunders argues that it is immoral for an individual to refuse consent to donate his or her organs. If a presumed consent policy were thus adopted, it would be morally legitimate to remove organs from individuals whose wishes concerning donation are not known. This paper disputes Saunders' arguments. First, if death caused by the absence of organ transplant is the operational premise, then, there is nothing of comparable moral precedence under which a person is not obligated to donate. Saunders' use of Singer's principle produces a duty to donate in almost all circumstances. However, this premise is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect between organ availability and death. Second, given growing moral and scientific agreement that the organ donors in heart-beating and non-heart-beating procurement protocols are not dead when their organs are surgically removed, it is not at all clear that people have a duty to consent to their lives being taken for their organs. Third, Saunders' claim that there can be good reasons for refusing consent clashes with his claim that there is a moral obligation for everyone to donate their organs. Saunders' argument is more consistent with a conclusion of 'mandatory consent'. Finally, it is argued that Saunders' policy, if put into place, would be totalitarian in scope and would therefore be inconsistent with the freedom required for a democratic society.

  10. Meaning and normativity in nurse-patient interaction.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2007-01-01

    It is a fundamental assumption in nursing theory that it is important for nurses to understand how patients think about themselves and the contexts they are in. According to modern theories of hermeneutics, a nurse and a patient must share the same concepts in order to communicate beliefs with the same content. But nurses and patients seldom understand medical concepts in exactly the same way, so how can this communicative aim be achieved in interaction involving medical concepts? The article uses a theory of concepts from recent cognitive science and philosophy of mind to argue that nurses and patients can share medical concepts despite the diversity of understanding. According to this theory, two persons who understand medical language in different ways will nevertheless possess the same medical concepts if they agree about the normative standards for the applications of the concepts. This entails that nurses and patients normally share medical concepts even though patients' conceptions of disease and illness are formed in idiosyncratic ways by their social and cultural contexts. Several practical implications of this argument are discussed and linked to case studies. One especially important point is that nurses should seek to make patients feel comfortable with deferring to a medical understanding. In many cases, an adequate understanding of patients presupposes that nurses manage to do this. Another implication is that deference-willingness to normative meaning is not equivalent to the actual application of concepts. Deference-willingness should rather be thought of as a pre-communicative attitude that it is possible for patients who are not fully able to communicate to possess. What is important is that nurses and patients have the intention of conforming to the same meaning.

  11. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    61 RENMIN RIBAO Roundup of Symposium on Dr Sun Yat-sen (Jiang Shaozhen; RENMIN RIBAO, 1 Feb 85) 62 Symposium on Confucius’ Educational...and the masses was zeroed in on implementing the party’s policies. When something cropped up, people used to ask: Is this in conformity with the...and patients. CSO: 4000/108 61 JPRS-CPS-85-019 1 March 1985 NATIONAL AFFAIRS RENMIN RIBAO ROUNDUP OF SYMPOSIUM ON DR SUN YAT-SEN HK070427

  12. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    creating a new capital with a population of 100,000. Covering the entire JPRS-UPA-89-041 27 June 1989 26 PARTY, STATE AFFAIRS Ararat Valley with asphalt ...wonder and veneration, the more and the longer I ponder them. These are the star- studded sky above my head and the moral imperative inside my soul...society to defend against them and to set up LTPs. Now patients have been allowed to get visits from relatives and to wear civilian clothes; they

  13. 76 FR 59741 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; National Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... statements in response to this notice to Paula Church Albertson, Office of Trade and Labor Affairs, ILAB, U.S...; fax (202) 693- 4784. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula Church Albertson, Designated Federal... be submitted to Paula Church Albertson at the address listed above. Submissions received by October...

  14. Student Affairs Case Management: Merging Social Work Theory with Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sharrika D.; Hazelwood, Sherry; Hayden, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Case management is a functional area in higher education and student affairs that emerged after the mass shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007. Although new to higher education, case management emerged from established social work practice. This article compares social work theory and case management standards with a new case management model for…

  15. Evaluation of potential kidney donors with the personality assessment inventory: normative data for a unique population.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Duane F; Locke, Dona E C; Osborne, David

    2010-09-01

    Many transplant centers require personality assessment and/or psychiatric clearance prior to allowing an individual to donate a kidney. This is a unique cohort for personality assessment, and there is no normative information available for this population on standardized self-report measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). We evaluated a prospective sample of 434 kidney donor candidates with development of normative T-scores relevant to this specific comparison group. Compared to the original normative group from the PAI manual, potential kidney donors are 5-7 T-score points above the mean on PIM, RXR, DOM, and WRM and 4-6 points below the mean on the majority of the remaining scales. Raw score/T score conversion tables are provided. The normative data provided here is meant to supplement the original normative information and aid psychologists in evaluation of this unique medical population.

  16. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations.

  17. Statistical Policy for an Aging America. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Government Processes of the Committee on Governmental Affairs and the Subcommittee on Aging of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    Testimony on the need for building an information base on the changing demographics of an aging society in order to make intelligent policy decisions is presented in this Senate committee hearing. Opening statements by Senators Charles Grassley and John Glenn are provided. Jacob A. Brody, dean of the School of Public Health, University of Illinois…

  18. Normative performance on the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) in a multi-ethnic bilingual cohort: a Project FRONTIER study.

    PubMed

    Menon, Chloe; Westervelt, Holly James; Jahn, Danielle R; Dressel, Jeffrey A; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2013-01-01

    The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) is a commonly used measure of olfactory functioning in elderly populations. Few studies have provided normative data for this measure, and minimal data are available regarding the impact of sociodemographic factors on test scores. This study presents normative data for the BSIT in a sample of English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites. A Rasch analysis was also conducted to identify the items that best discriminated between varying levels of olfactory functioning, as measured by the BSIT. The total sample included 302 older adults seen as part of an ongoing study of rural cognitive aging, Project FRONTIER. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that BSIT scores require adjustment by age and gender, but years of education, ethnicity, and language did not significantly influence BSIT performance. Four items best discriminated between varying levels of smell identification, accounting for 59.44% of total information provided by the measure. However, items did not represent a continuum of difficulty on the BSIT. The results of this study indicate that the BSIT appears to be well-suited for assessing odor identification deficits in older adults of diverse backgrounds, but that fine-tuning of this instrument may be recommended in light of its items' difficulty and discrimination parameters. Clinical and empirical implications are discussed.

  19. Persian version of frontal assessment battery: Correlations with formal measures of executive functioning and providing normative data for Persian population

    PubMed Central

    Asaadi, Sina; Ashrafi, Farzad; Omidbeigi, Mahmoud; Nasiri, Zahra; Pakdaman, Hossein; Amini-Harandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly involves executive function (EF). The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is an efficient tool for the assessment of EFs. The aims of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of FAB and assess its correlation with formal measures of EFs to provide normative data for the Persian version of FAB in patients with PD. Methods: The study recruited 149 healthy participants and 49 patients with idiopathic PD. In PD patients, FAB results were compared to their performance on EF tests. Reliability analysis involved test-retest reliability and internal consistency, whereas validity analysis involved convergent validity approach. FAB scores compared in normal controls and in PD patients matched for age, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Results: In PD patients, FAB scores were significantly decreased compared to normal controls, and correlated with Stroop test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In healthy subjects, FAB scores varied according to the age, education, and MMSE. In the FAB subtest analysis, the performances of PD patients were worse than the healthy participants on similarities, fluency tasks, and Luria’s motor series. Conclusion: Persian version of FAB could be used as a reliable scale for the assessment of frontal lobe functions in Iranian patients with PD. Furthermore, normative data provided for the Persian version of this test improve the accuracy and confidence in the clinical application of the FAB. PMID:27141272

  20. Salary Predictors and Equity Issues for Student Affairs Administrators at Public and Private Institutions: From Dean to Director of Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David A.; Reason, Robert D.; Robinson, Daniel C.

    2003-01-01

    Regression analyses indicated that age of respondent and gender were the most consistent predictors of salary within many of the high-level student affairs positions at both public and private institutions. Degree was determined to be a significant predictor of salary, but in a negative direction. (Contains 25 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  1. Normative Data for an Instrumental Assessment of the Upper-Limb Functionality.

    PubMed

    Caimmi, Marco; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Malosio, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Upper-limb movement analysis is important to monitor objectively rehabilitation interventions, contributing to improving the overall treatments outcomes. Simple, fast, easy-to-use, and applicable methods are required to allow routinely functional evaluation of patients with different pathologies and clinical conditions. This paper describes the Reaching and Hand-to-Mouth Evaluation Method, a fast procedure to assess the upper-limb motor control and functional ability, providing a set of normative data from 42 healthy subjects of different ages, evaluated for both the dominant and the nondominant limb motor performance. Sixteen of them were reevaluated after two weeks to perform test-retest reliability analysis. Data were clustered into three subgroups of different ages to test the method sensitivity to motor control differences. Experimental data show notable test-retest reliability in all tasks. Data from older and younger subjects show significant differences in the measures related to the ability for coordination thus showing the high sensitivity of the method to motor control differences. The presented method, provided with control data from healthy subjects, appears to be a suitable and reliable tool for the upper-limb functional assessment in the clinical environment.

  2. Normative Data for an Instrumental Assessment of the Upper-Limb Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Caimmi, Marco; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Malosio, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Upper-limb movement analysis is important to monitor objectively rehabilitation interventions, contributing to improving the overall treatments outcomes. Simple, fast, easy-to-use, and applicable methods are required to allow routinely functional evaluation of patients with different pathologies and clinical conditions. This paper describes the Reaching and Hand-to-Mouth Evaluation Method, a fast procedure to assess the upper-limb motor control and functional ability, providing a set of normative data from 42 healthy subjects of different ages, evaluated for both the dominant and the nondominant limb motor performance. Sixteen of them were reevaluated after two weeks to perform test-retest reliability analysis. Data were clustered into three subgroups of different ages to test the method sensitivity to motor control differences. Experimental data show notable test-retest reliability in all tasks. Data from older and younger subjects show significant differences in the measures related to the ability for coordination thus showing the high sensitivity of the method to motor control differences. The presented method, provided with control data from healthy subjects, appears to be a suitable and reliable tool for the upper-limb functional assessment in the clinical environment. PMID:26539500

  3. Knowledge Of Memory Aging In Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Karri S.; Cherry, Katie E.; Su, L. Joseph; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2006-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood for research or educational purposes. Half of the questions pertain to normal memory aging and the other half cover pathological memory deficits due to non-normative factors, such as adult dementia. In this study, we compared memory…

  4. Understanding Entry-Level Student Affairs Practitioners' Perceptions of and Involvement in Professional Development in the Student Affairs Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate entry-level student affairs practitioners' perceptions of professional development and their involvement in individualized professional development opportunities within the student affairs field. The literature review explored the founding of student affairs, a historical review of student affairs,…

  5. An Assessment Model as Best Practice in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutt, Michael D.; Garrett, J. Matthew; Lynch, John W.; Dean, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    The phrase "best practice" is used often in student affairs, but the term lacks a common and accepted definition. This results in the implementation of programs and services that are neither grounded nor assessed. A model is proposed here that suggests a best practice process that integrates foundational student affairs documents and applies the…

  6. Student Affairs Progress toward Professionalism: Recommendations for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatakos, Louis C.

    1981-01-01

    Discussed changes in the field of student affairs suggesting that they have not been as directional or significant as they should have been. Due to increasing pressures of accountability and rising professional expectations, it is recommended that student affairs personnel accept and respond to the ever-present goal of professional recognition.…

  7. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  8. Factors That Influence Attrition of New Professionals in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Jenine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to identify factors that contribute to the attrition of new professionals in the field of student affairs. Student affairs professionals report low levels of commitment to the field and depart from the field at rates ranging from 32% to 61% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chrisholm, 1983; Rosen et al., 1980; Rosser…

  9. Enhancing the Professionalisation of Student Affairs through Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    The past decades have seen an increase in the attention and focus of student affairs work in Africa. As the profession works to strengthen its reputation and value within higher education through conferences, organisations and publications, student affairs professionals can also raise the stature of the profession through work on their individual…

  10. Student Affairs Research. A National Survey Report on University Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poduska, Paul R.

    The current status of student affairs research programs at universities throughout the U.S. is examined in a survey project. The need for the development of student affairs management systems is cited. The questionnaire used in the survey covered four broad areas: (1) background information on responding institutions; (2) information about the…

  11. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials... general public and for internal audiences, in support of EPA policies and programs. The Office provides... Assistant Administrator for External Affairs and the Agency's senior policy officials in guiding...

  12. Preserving the History of a Student Affairs Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    The following is a brief overview regarding: the history and development of Student Affairs as it pertains to (a) preserving the history of a professional association, (b) value and benefits of a professional Student Affairs association, (c) establishing and assessing goals and (d) organizational development/change within a professional…

  13. College Student Concerns: Perceptions of Student Affairs Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase awareness of the perceptions of student affairs professionals regarding the most frequent and challenging concerns facing college students today. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the country were surveyed about their perceptions…

  14. Good Practice in Student Affairs: Principles To Foster Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    This book, based on the conclusions of a study of practices in college student affairs, presents nine papers which identify the best practices in student affairs, review research used to define the best practices, and give examples of how to use these practices in the field. The book is based on a 1996 meeting of an interdisciplinary study group…

  15. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed by a Director who reports to the Assistant... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials, on public affairs aspects of the Agency's activities and programs. The Office of Public...

  16. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed by a Director who reports to the Assistant... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials, on public affairs aspects of the Agency's activities and programs. The Office of Public...

  17. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed by a Director who reports to the Assistant... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials, on public affairs aspects of the Agency's activities and programs. The Office of Public...

  18. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed by a Director who reports to the Assistant... Administrator for External Affairs, to the Adminstrator, Deputy Administrator, and Senior Management Officials, on public affairs aspects of the Agency's activities and programs. The Office of Public...

  19. Responsible Student Affairs Practice: Merging Student Development and Quality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitner, Phillip A.; And Others

    The merging of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Involvement Theory into a managerial philosophy can assist student affairs professionals with an approach for conducting work that improves student affairs practice. When merged or integrated, accountability can easily be obtained because the base philosophies of qualitative research, TQM, and…

  20. The Role of Public Affairs in Special Operations and Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    QUESTIONNAIRE .......................................................................... 110 C. SOF STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE ...Special Operations Task Force LFA Lead Federal Agency PA Public Affairs PAO Public Affairs Officer vii PDD Presidential Decision Directive PMIO Post...53 TABLES Table Page 1. SOF Student Questionnaire Answers................................................................ 83 2. SOF Student

  1. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on July 15, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  2. Regional Affairs Strategist: Deliberate Development for Senior Officers?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    Columbia School of International and Public Affairs, http://sipa.columbia.edu/ about_sipa/index.html. Conway, John L., “The View from the Tower of Babel ...academic_affairs/dli_catalog/mission.htm 20 John L. Conway, “The View from the Tower of Babel ,” Air and Space Power Journal, Summer, 2005 21 Interagency

  3. Student Affairs Preparation Programs: Should They Be Accredited?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbers, Larry H.; Kruempel, Beverly J.

    1992-01-01

    Examined attitudes among leaders in the field about student affairs preparation programs and their accreditation. Findings from 257 administrators revealed significant differences among chief student affairs officers (CSAOs), deans of education, and program chairs in their attitudes toward preparation programs at their institutions. CSAOs were…

  4. A Case Study of Student Affairs in Professional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overly, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of conducting this study is to explore how student affairs professionals in professional schools acquire the knowledge and skill set to be effective in such positions. The need for such research arose after a review of the literature revealed inattention to the practice of student affairs in professional schools. Qualitative…

  5. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Fiona J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Students in the field, as well as experienced practitioners and administrators, will herein find an up-to-date and in-depth study of the major student affairs functions of a comprehensive campus program. Within its covers, the graduate student will find chapters describing everything the person new to student affairs needs to know about the major…

  6. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75 Section 952.204-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs....

  7. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75 Section 952.204-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs....

  8. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75 Section 952.204-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs....

  9. Why Do They Leave? Departure from the Student Affairs Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Tara E.

    2013-01-01

    Departure among student affairs administrators in higher education has been an issue for decades (Evans, 1988; Lorden, 1998; Tull, 2006). Rates of departure from student affairs within the first five years of experience are estimated at 50% to 60% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chisholm, 1983; Lorden, 1998; Tull, 2006). However, there is very little…

  10. Continuing Education Director's Guide to Informal Education for Public Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Special Continuing Education.

    This guide for the director of continuing education focuses upon stimulating participation in civic and public affairs education. Suggestions are given as to: (1) how to write publicity releases concerning public affairs programs; (2) which audio-visual aids should be used in a given situation; (3) how field trips can be used most effectively; (4)…

  11. Helping Competencies of Student Affairs Professionals: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather student affairs professionals' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed to effectively help students. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the United States were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the helping skills they use…

  12. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  13. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  14. Perceptions of Assessment Competency among New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jaimie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Due to the declining state of the current economy, a greater demand is being placed on student affairs professionals to provide evidence of the success of their programs, their impact on student learning and development and overall contributions to the undergraduate learning experience. It is a growing imperative that student affairs professionals…

  15. The Organizational Realities of Student Affairs: A Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Jeremiah B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the organizational functions of student-affairs at Indiana University and to understand the nature of the conflict between student-affairs and the larger organization. This study utilized the case-study research design. Much of the data collected and analyzed during this case study were of a historical…

  16. Getting on the same page: The effect of normative feedback interventions on structured interview ratings.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Christopher J; Campion, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    This study explores normative feedback as a way to reduce rating errors and increase the reliability and validity of structured interview ratings. Based in control theory and social comparison theory, we propose a model of normative feedback interventions (NFIs) in the context of structured interviews and test our model using data from over 20,000 interviews conducted by more than 100 interviewers over a period of more than 4 years. Results indicate that lenient and severe interviewers reduced discrepancies between their ratings and the overall normative mean rating after receipt of normative feedback, though changes were greater for lenient interviewers. When various waves of feedback were presented in later NFIs, the combined normative mean rating over multiple time periods was more predictive of subsequent rating changes than the normative mean rating from the most recent time period. Mean within-interviewer rating variance, along with interrater agreement and interrater reliability, increased after the initial NFI, but results from later NFIs were more complex and revealed that feedback interventions may lose effectiveness over time. A second study using simulated data indicated that leniency and severity errors did not impact rating validity, but did affect which applicants were hired. We conclude that giving normative feedback to interviewers will aid in minimizing interviewer rating differences and enhance the reliability of structured interview ratings. We suggest that interviewer feedback might be considered as a potential new component of interview structure, though future research is needed before a definitive conclusion can be drawn. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. “Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined

    PubMed Central

    Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

  18. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  19. The Deontic Transaction Model in Multi-Agent Normative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Yonghua; Esterline, Albert

    1998-01-01

    In the area of multi-agent systems, much research is devoted to the coordination of the agents. There exist several issues, two of which are summarized. The first is that, although agents are said to be autonomous, they always react in a predictable way to each message, and they cannot decide to violate the conventions that are hard-wired into the protocol. In fact, there might be circumstances in which the agent violates a convention in order to realize a private goal that it considers to be more important. Another issue is that, if the protocols that agents use to react to the environment are fixed, they have no way to respond to changes. However, an important characteristic of agents is that they eon react to a changing environment. Although transaction models ([BOH92], [GR93]) evolved from the database domain, they establish a general execution paradigm that ideally covers all the subsystems invoked in a sequence of transactions. So transaction models apply to multi-agent systems. Recently, some research has been devoted to overcoming the limitations of the traditional transaction models which are suitable for conventional systems and focus on system integrity, e,g., [SJ97]. Here we solve above issues by turning to a deontic concept: obligation. In multi-agent systems, agents interact with each other according to norms, We use deontic logic ([And58], [Aqv84], [B C96], [JS94], [MW93]) to model norms. Here the norms prescribe how the agents ought to behave, but-- and this is essential-- they do not exclude the possibility of "bad" behavior (i.e., the actual behavior may deviate from the ideal), and so they also prescribe what should be done in circumstances of norm violation. Thus, we propose a new approach --- a deontic transaction model for multi-agent normative systems. Our approach improves the protocol of "abort/commit" of traditional transaction models to a protocol of "abort/exception/commit". In multi-agent normative systems, we can see the violation of a

  20. MMPI-2 Symptom Validity (FBS) Scale: psychometric characteristics and limitations in a Veterans Affairs neuropsychological setting.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Odland, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Symptom Validity (Fake Bad Scale [FBS]) Scale is widely used to assist in determining noncredible symptom reporting, despite a paucity of detailed research regarding its itemmetric characteristics. Originally designed for use in civil litigation, the FBS is often used in a variety of clinical settings. The present study explored its fundamental psychometric characteristics in a sample of 303 patients who were consecutively referred for a comprehensive examination in a Veterans Affairs (VA) neuropsychology clinic. FBS internal consistency (reliability) was .77. Its underlying factor structure consisted of three unitary dimensions (Tiredness/Distractibility, Stomach/Head Discomfort, and Claimed Virtue of Self/Others) accounting for 28.5% of the total variance. The FBS's internal structure showed factoral discordance, as Claimed Virtue was negatively related to most of the FBS and to its somatic complaint components. Scores on this 12-item FBS component reflected a denial of socially undesirable attitudes and behaviors (Antisocial Practices Scale) that is commonly expressed by the 1,138 males in the MMPI-2 normative sample. These 12 items significantly reduced FBS reliability, introducing systematic error variance. In this VA neuropsychological referral setting, scores on the FBS have ambiguous meaning because of its structural discordance.

  1. The developmental test of visual perception-2 normative study on the visual-perceptual function for children in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Phoebe P P; Poon, Magdelene Y C; Leung, Macy; Wong, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    This research study intended to investigate the visualperceptual performance of children in Hong Kong by comparing them to the accepted norms on the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2nd edition. The research examined whether there was significant difference in child's gender, age, and grade. The normative study recruited two hundred and eight-nine children between the ages of 6 and 7 in normal primary schools in Hong Kong. Results indicated that there was a ceiling effect in eye-hand coordination, position in space and spatial relations subtests. Grade differences were found to be significant in all subtests except eye-hand coordination and visual-motor speed. On the other hand, there were no statistical difference in the test scores between boys and girls except on copying and figure-ground subtests. It is concluded that there is a strong need to ensure that norms for visual-perceptual tests are appropriate for the specific cultural groups being assessed.

  2. Serious physical violence among Arab-Palestinian adolescents: The role of exposure to neighborhood violence, perceived ethnic discrimination, normative beliefs, and, parental communication.

    PubMed

    Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a social-ecological perspective to exploring perpetration of serious physical violence against others among Arab-Palestinian adolescents. A total of 3178 adolescents (aged 13-18) completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaire, which included selected items from several instruments that measured variables relating to the constructs examined in the study. We explored the association of individual characteristics (age, gender, normative beliefs about violence, and perceived ethnic discrimination), familial characteristics (parent-adolescent communication and socioeconomic status), and contextual characteristics (exposure to community violence in the neighborhood) with perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A moderation-mediation model was tested, and 28.4% of the adolescents reported that they had perpetrated serious physical violence against others at least once during the month preceding the study. The findings also show that exposure of youth to violence in their neighborhood correlated significantly and positively with their perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A similar trend was revealed with respect to personal perceptions of ethnic discrimination. These correlations were mediated by the adolescents' normative beliefs about violence. Furthermore, the correlation of direct exposure to violence in the neighborhood and normative beliefs about violence with perpetration of serious physical violence against others was stronger among adolescents who have poor communication with their parents than among those who have strong parental communication.

  3. Constructing Language Normativity through the Animation of Stance in Spanish Language Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Deckert, Sharon K.; Goble, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of language normativity as medical providers interact with patients and animate stance within Spanish language medical consultations. The context of the study is a clinic in which providers use Spanish to communicate with monolingual Spanish-speaking patients. This clinic is in the United States, an English-speaking macro-societal context. Findings indicate that providers who are second language users of Spanish animate stance and interact with patients in ways that English is constructed as normative and Spanish as marked. Implications include the need to consider how the construction of language normativity within medical consultations affects health outcomes. PMID:24156518

  4. Redefining Student Affairs through Digital Technology: A Ten-Year Historiography of Digital Technology Use by Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    The student affairs profession is at a crossroads (Torres & Walbert, 2010) given digital technology's growth and the academy's administrative expansion (Bowen, 2013). Student affairs administrators must simultaneously respond to digital technology's implications in students' lives (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) and to new state and federal…

  5. The Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS): normative values from 268 healthy Italian individuals.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Battini, Valeria; Chiorri, Carlo; Siciliano, Mattia; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Vitale, Carmine; Barone, Paolo

    2017-02-21

    The Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) is a cognitive screening battery that includes subtests to assess cortical and subcortical functions. It is a valid screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is recommended for diagnosing PD-MCI-Level I. Until now, no study has provided population-based norms for the Italian population. The aim of the present study was to collect normative values in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and sixty-eight (125 men) participants of different ages (age range 30-79 years) and educational levels (from primary school to university) underwent the PD-CRS. Regression-based norming was used to explore the influence of demographic variables (age, education level, and gender) on PD-CRS total score, frontal-subcortical and instrumental-cortical sub-scores, and score achieved on each task of the PD-CRS. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly predicted the total score, the two sub-scores and the score on each task of the PD-CRS. No significant effect of gender was found. From the derived linear equations, a correction grid for raw scores was developed. Inferential cut-off scores, estimated using a non-parametric technique, were 71.25 for PD-CRS total score and 46.25 and 20.17 for frontal-subcortical and instrumental-cortical sub-score, respectively. Since the use of adjusted scores is more informative when they are standardized, we have converted adjusted scores into equivalent scores. The present study provides normative data for the PD-CRS, being useful and recommended by Movement Disorders Society task force to identify PD-MCI-Level I, at several stages of the disease.

  6. Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Stier, Marco

    2013-09-09

    The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is-due to scientific progress-currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions.

  7. The natural defense system and the normative self model.

    PubMed

    Kourilsky, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infectious agents are not the only agressors, and the immune system is not the sole defender of the organism. In an enlarged perspective, the 'normative self model' postulates that a 'natural defense system' protects man and other complex organisms against the environmental and internal hazards of life, including infections and cancers. It involves multiple error detection and correction mechanisms that confer robustness to the body at all levels of its organization. According to the model, the self relies on a set of physiological norms, and NONself (meaning : Non Obedient to the Norms of the self) is anything 'off-norms'. The natural defense system comprises a set of 'civil defenses' (to which all cells in organs and tissues contribute), and a 'professional army ', made of a smaller set of mobile cells. Mobile and non mobile cells differ in their tuning abilities. Tuning extends the recognition capabilities of NONself by the mobile cells, which increase their defensive function. To prevent them to drift, which would compromise self/NONself discrimination, the more plastic mobile cells need to periodically refer to the more stable non mobile cells to keep within physiological standards.

  8. The cultural and philosophical foundations of normative medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Hill, T P

    1994-11-01

    Thirty years ago, the idea that culture and philosophy could provide a foundation for normative medical ethics was more easily entertained than it is today when the very notion of a norm, whether culturally, philosophically or ethically derived, is in itself a problem. In large measure this comes from our contemporary embrace of cultural and philosophical pluralism and an increasing tendency to exchange the difficult belief in abstract and universally applicable norms for the more accessible notion that ethical values are cultural and relative derivatives. Despite this, in the face of the unprecedented ethical dilemmas presented by modern medicine, we have attempted to apply traditional ethical norms and analysis to modern medicine to establish a consensus for its right practice. Unfortunately, the attempt has not been successful, so that wherever we turn we find that ethical problems in medicine remain intractable and unresolved. That, in turn, has prompted a certain scepticism about the efficacy of ethics in medicine. In order to understand why we have reached this impasse, it is essential to realize that we have seriously underestimated the way science and technology have informed and, as a consequence, transformed the practice of medicine. Contributing to this, our tendency to think of technology simply as a way of doing things has blinded us to the fact that it is more fundamentally a way of thinking, knowing and valuing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Normative longitudinal maternal sleep: the first four postpartum months

    PubMed Central

    MONTGOMERY-DOWNS, Hawley E.; INSANA, Salvatore P.; CLEGG-KRAYNOK, Megan M.; MANCINI, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the normative course of maternal sleep during the first four months postpartum. Study Design Sleep was objectively measured using continuous wrist actigraphy. This was a longitudinal, field-based assessment of nocturnal sleep during postpartum weeks two through 16. Fifty mothers participated during postpartum weeks two through 13; 24 participated during postpartum weeks nine through 16. Results Maternal nocturnal sleep time was 7.2 (SD±.95) hours and did not change significantly across postpartum weeks two through 16. Maternal sleep efficiency did improve across weeks two (79.7% [SD±5.5]) through 16 (90.2% [SD±3.5]) as a function of decreased sleep fragmentation across weeks two (21.7 [SD±5.2]) through 16 (12.8 [SD±3.3]). Conclusion Though postpartum mothers’ total sleep time was higher than expected during the initial postpartum months, this sleep was highly fragmented (similar to fragmenting sleep disorders) and inefficient. This profile of disturbed sleep should be considered in intervention designs and family leave policies. PMID:20719289

  10. The normativity of clinical health care: perspectives on moral realism.

    PubMed

    Nortvedt, Per

    2012-06-01

    The paper argues that a particular version of moral realism constitutes an important basis for ethics in medicine and health care. Moral realism is the position that moral value is a part of the fabric of relational and interpersonal reality. But even though moral values are subject to human interpretations, they are not themselves the sole product of these interpretations. Moral values are not invented but discovered by the subject. Moral realism argues that values are open to perception and experience and that moral subjectivity must be portrayed in how moral values are discovered and perceived by the human subject. Moral values may exist independent of the particular subject's interpretative evaluations as a part of reality. This epistemological point about normativity is particularly significant in medical care and in health care. The clinician perceives moral value in the clinical encounter in a way that is important for competent clinical understanding. Clinical understanding in medical care and health care bears on the encounter with moral values in the direct and embodied relations to patients, with their experiences of illness and their vulnerabilities. Good clinical care is then partly conditioned upon adequate understanding of such moral realities.

  11. The natural defense system and the normative self model

    PubMed Central

    Kourilsky, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infectious agents are not the only agressors, and the immune system is not the sole defender of the organism. In an enlarged perspective, the ‘normative self model’ postulates that a ‘natural defense system’ protects man and other complex organisms against the environmental and internal hazards of life, including infections and cancers. It involves multiple error detection and correction mechanisms that confer robustness to the body at all levels of its organization. According to the model, the self relies on a set of physiological norms, and NONself (meaning : Non Obedient to the Norms of the self) is anything ‘off-norms’. The natural defense system comprises a set of ‘civil defenses’ (to which all cells in organs and tissues contribute), and a ‘professional army ‘, made of a smaller set of mobile cells. Mobile and non mobile cells differ in their tuning abilities. Tuning extends the recognition capabilities of NONself by the mobile cells, which increase their defensive function. To prevent them to drift, which would compromise self/NONself discrimination, the more plastic mobile cells need to periodically refer to the more stable non mobile cells to keep within physiological standards. PMID:27303629

  12. A normative approach to the definition of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Parker, A W; Walsh, J M; Coon, M

    1976-01-01

    Primary care is the subject of many pronouncements and many recommendations for change in the literature on health care organization and delivery. Heretofore, there has been no attempt to assess the degree of agreement on the meaning of the term. This paper reports on a normative process used to construct 92 statements about important elements of primary care, and to rank these statements according to their relative degrees of importance in primary care. Three panels--nationally recognized "experts" on primary care, consumers, and public health nurses and social workers--participated in the development as well as the ranking of the statements. The rankings of the national experts are discussed in detail, and brief comparisons are made with the rankings of the consumer and public health worker panels. Experts gave a high ranking to the statements concerned directly with medical services and their linkages. All gave attention to equality and patient dignity. Consumers stressed the need to improve access to primary care services. Public health workers emphasized improvement in both access and the quality of the relationship between patients and providers. The overall findings suggest that increasing the base of participation in primary care planning may bring greater attention to patient defined needs, and that broadening of medical care objectives from medical care to a more inclusive health care is not imminent.

  13. Normative collective behavior in the Station building fire.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, B E; Torres, Manuel R; Gill, Kimberly B; Hotchkiss, H Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This article offers a test of the normative explanation of collective behavior by examining the fire at the Station nightclub in Rhode Island that killed 100 and injured nearly 200 persons.Methods. Information on all persons at the club comes from content analysis of documents from the Rhode Island Police Department, the Rhode Island Office of the Attorney General, and The Providence Journal. We use negative binomial regression to test hypotheses about the effects of group-level predictors of the counts of dead and injured in 179 groups at the nightclub.Results. Results indicate that group-level factors such as distance of group members at the start of the fire, the number of intimate relations among them, the extent to which they had visited the nightclub prior to the incident, and the average length of the evacuation route they used predict counts of injured and dead. The research also looks at what behavioral differences exist between survivors and victims, ascertains the existence of role extension among employees of the nightclub, and provides support for the affirmation that dangerous contexts negate the protective influence of intimate relations in groups.Conclusion. We argue for the abandonment of current emphasis on irrationality and herd-like imitative behavior in studies of evacuation from structural fires in buildings and for the inclusion of group-level processes in social psychological explanations of these incidents.

  14. Physical fitness normative values for 6-18-year-old Greek boys and girls, using the empirical distribution and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method.

    PubMed

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Psarra, Glykeria; Daskalakis, Stelios; Kavouras, Stavros A; Geladas, Nickos; Tokmakidis, Savas; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the this study was to establish age- and gender-specific physical fitness normative values and to compare percentiles and Z scores values in a large, nationwide sample of Greek children aged 6-18 years. From March 2014 to May 2014, a total of 424,328 boys and girls aged 6-18 years who attended school in Greece were enrolled. The studied sample was representative, in terms of age-sex distribution and geographical region. Physical fitness tests (i.e. 20 m shuttle run test (SRT), standing long jump, sit and reach, sit-ups, and 10 × 5 m SRT) were performed and used to calculate normative values, using the percentiles of the empirical distributions and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method. Normative values were presented as tabulated percentiles for five health-related fitness tests based on a large data set comprising 424,328 test performances. Boys typically scored higher than girls on cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and speed/agility, but lower on flexibility (all p values <0.001). Older boys and girls had better performances than younger ones (p < 0.001). Physical fitness tests' performances tended to peak at around the age of 15 years in both sexes. The presented population-based data are the most up-to-date sex- and age-values for the health-related fitness of children and adolescents in Greece and can be used as standard values for fitness screening and surveillance systems and for comparisons among the same health-related fitness scores of children from other countries similar to Greece. Schools need to make efforts to improve the fitness level of the schoolchildren through the physical education curriculum to prevent cardiovascular risk.

  15. Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Fukuda, David H

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been documented in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) for mean parameters of performance between male and female judo athletes matched by age and competitive level. Therefore, it is debatable whether previously established norms for the SJFT prepared for men, should be adopted for use in women. The goal of this investigation was to prepare standards to allow coaches and researchers to control and evaluate training effects in female judoka. Systematic review was used to compile previously published scientific studies containing information on female judo athletes who were tested using the SJFT. The results were derived using meta-analysis and included data obtained from 11 relevant studies published between January 1997 and December 2013. Combined mean and SDs were computed based on studies containing 161 individual results from the SJFT. A 5° scale was adopted as follows: Excellent = highest 5%, Good = next highest 15%, Regular = middle 60%, Poor = next lowest 15%, and Very poor = lowest 5%. The results of the current investigation provide normative data for the SJFT for junior and senior female judoka. Classification for each of the parameters of the SJFT, including number of throws completed during the test, heart rate (HR) measured immediately after the effort, HR after a 1-minute recovery period and SJFT index, were established. This normative data can be used in the design of training programs for female judoka, as well as evaluation after training, and in preparation for competition.

  16. Effect of normative masculinity on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of sexual functioning.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael J; Marks, Anthony D G; Lykins, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and distressing condition, which may be exacerbated by the sufferer's perceptions of masculinity and normative sexual behavior. This study sought to investigate the effect of social context on males' beliefs regarding sexual behavior. The research examined the effect of male role modeling and masculine cues on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and self-perceptions of sexual functioning. A sample of 140 male participants, with a mean age of 29 years, was exposed to pictorial and verbal cues that presented different versions of male behavior across three conditions. Results indicated that males exposed to models and cues of traditional masculinity showed significantly increased levels of dysfunctional sexual beliefs and traditional sexual attitudes relative to males exposed to models of modern masculinity. Results also indicated that males exposed to traditional masculine stimuli reported lower levels of sexual inhibition due to fear of performance failure than males exposed to models of modern masculinity. The potential role of social context is discussed in the development and maintenance of male sexual dysfunction and its implications for treatment.

  17. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed.

  18. From moral to legal judgment: the influence of normative context in lawyers and other academics.

    PubMed

    Schleim, Stephan; Spranger, Tade M; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Various kinds of normative judgments are an integral part of everyday life. We extended the scrutiny of social cognitive neuroscience into the domain of legal decisions, investigating two groups, lawyers and other academics, during moral and legal decision-making. While we found activation of brain areas comprising the so-called 'moral brain' in both conditions, there was stronger activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus particularly when subjects made legal decisions, suggesting that these were made in respect to more explicit rules and demanded more complex semantic processing. Comparing both groups, our data show that behaviorally lawyers conceived themselves as emotionally less involved during normative decision-making in general. A group × condition interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex suggests a modulation of normative decision-making by attention based on subjects' normative expertise.

  19. Argument-based medical ethics: a formal tool for critically appraising the normative medical ethics literature.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A

    2004-10-01

    Although there are critical appraisal tools for other genres of the medical literature, there currently is no formal tool for physicians to use in their critical appraisal of the normative medical ethics literature. We present a formal assessment tool for the critical appraisal of the normative medical ethics literature that incorporates the intellectual standards of argument-based medical ethics and evidence-based medicine. We draw on the intellectual standards of argument-based ethics, ethical analysis and argument, and the literature on evidence-based medicine. The tool involves 4 questions about normative medical ethics papers: (1) Does the article address a focused ethics question? (2) Are the arguments that support the results of the article valid? (3) What are the results? (4) Will the results help me in clinical practice? Obstetrician-gynecologists can use this tool to appraise the normative literature of ethics in obstetrics and gynecology formally.

  20. Dual Character Concepts in Social Cognition: Commitments and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation.

    PubMed

    Del Pinal, Guillermo; Reuter, Kevin

    2016-11-17

    The concepts expressed by social role terms such as artist and scientist are unique in that they seem to allow two independent criteria for categorization, one of which is inherently normative (Knobe, Prasada, & Newman, 2013). This study presents and tests an account of the content and structure of the normative dimension of these "dual character concepts." Experiment 1 suggests that the normative dimension of a social role concept represents the commitment to fulfill the idealized basic function associated with the role. Background information can affect which basic function is associated with each social role. However, Experiment 2 indicates that the normative dimension always represents the relevant commitment as an end in itself. We argue that social role concepts represent the commitments to basic functions because that information is crucial to predict the future social roles and role-dependent behavior of others.

  1. Intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence: toward a better understanding of brand choice decisions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich R; Kahle, Lynn R

    2008-08-01

    The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. On the basis of a consumer sample, the authors found that individual values and social identity complexity affect consumer susceptibility to normative influence with downstream effects on (a) which brand benefits consumers desire in wine and (b) choice. Individuals higher on internal values and with more complex social identities were less susceptible to normative influence and placed less emphasis on social brand benefits. Separate examinations of consumption scenarios with and without salient reference groups showed that reference group salience interacts with personal values and social identity complexity in affecting consumer susceptibility to normative influence, which in turn affects which brand benefits consumers desire and consequently choice.

  2. Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying.

  3. Individual Differences in the Relationship between Attitudinal and Normative Determinants of Behavioral Intent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gregory J.

    1987-01-01

    Confirms the general hypothesis that: persons with relatively undifferentiated political construct systems exhibit substantial collinearity between attitudinal and normative components of the Fishbein-Ajzen behavioral-inventions model. (NKA)

  4. The Influence of Social Adjustment on Normative and Risky Health Behaviors in Emerging Adults With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Devine, Katie A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Klages, Kimberly; Potthoff, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the rates of normative and risky health behaviors and the influence of prior and current social adjustment on health risk behaviors in emerging adults with spina bifida (SB). Method These data are part of a larger longitudinal study of youth with SB; at ages 18–19, 50 emerging adults with SB and 60 typically developing (TD) youth participated. Social adjustment was measured at ages 12/13, 14/15, 16/17, and 18/19. Substance use and sexual activity were self-reported by emerging adults. Results The SB group reported similar frequencies (i.e., number of days in the previous month) of cigarette and marijuana use. Fewer individuals with SB reported initiation of both alcohol use (i.e., ever used) and sexual activity (i.e., ever had sex) compared to TD peers. The SB group also reported less frequent alcohol use and fewer sexual partners. Better social adjustment during early adolescence (ages 12/13) predicted more frequent alcohol use and a greater number of sexual partners for all youth. Social adjustment also mediated the effect of group status on health risk behaviors. Conclusions Emerging adults with SB lag behind TD peers in terms of normative initiation of alcohol use and sexual activity. However, this population participates in some risky health behaviors at similar rates compared to their TD peers (e.g., smoking). Youths’ health risk behaviors may be influenced by their level of social adjustment. A challenge for future interventions for this population will be finding methods of improving social functioning without increasing the rate of health risk behavior. PMID:24490647

  5. Challenging normative orthodoxies in depression: Huxley's Utopia or Dante's Inferno?

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, John R; Lakeman, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Although there appears to be a widespread consensus that depression is a ubiquitous human experience, definitions of depression, its prevalence, and how mental health services respond to it have changed significantly over time, particularly during recent decades. Epistemological limitations notwithstanding, it is now estimated that approximately 121 million people experience depression. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that the last two decades have seen the widespread acceptance of depression as a chemical imbalance and a massive corresponding increase in the prescription of antidepressants, most notably of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, questions have been raised about the effectiveness and iatrogenic side effects of antidepressants; related questions have also been asked about whose interests are served by the marketing and sales of these drugs. Accordingly, this article attempts to problematize the normative orthodoxy concerning depression and creates a "space" in which an alternative can be articulated and enacted. In so doing, the article finds that the search for a world where the automatic response to depression is a pharmacological intervention not only ignores the use of alternative efficacious treatment options but may also inhibit the persons' chance to explore the meaning of their experience and thus prevent people from individual growth and personal development. Interestingly, in worlds analogous to this pharmacologically induced depression-free state, such as utopias like that in Huxley's Brave New World, no "properly conditioned citizen" is depressed or suicidal. Yet, in the same Brave New World, no one is free to suffer, to be different, or crucially, to be independent.

  6. The Sense of Confidence during Probabilistic Learning: A Normative Account.

    PubMed

    Meyniel, Florent; Schlunegger, Daniel; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-06-01

    Learning in a stochastic environment consists of estimating a model from a limited amount of noisy data, and is therefore inherently uncertain. However, many classical models reduce the learning process to the updating of parameter estimates and neglect the fact that learning is also frequently accompanied by a variable "feeling of knowing" or confidence. The characteristics and the origin of these subjective confidence estimates thus remain largely unknown. Here we investigate whether, during learning, humans not only infer a model of their environment, but also derive an accurate sense of confidence from their inferences. In our experiment, humans estimated the transition probabilities between two visual or auditory stimuli in a changing environment, and reported their mean estimate and their confidence in this report. To formalize the link between both kinds of estimate and assess their accuracy in comparison to a normative reference, we derive the optimal inference strategy for our task. Our results indicate that subjects accurately track the likelihood that their inferences are correct. Learning and estimating confidence in what has been learned appear to be two intimately related abilities, suggesting that they arise from a single inference process. We show that human performance matches several properties of the optimal probabilistic inference. In particular, subjective confidence is impacted by environmental uncertainty, both at the first level (uncertainty in stimulus occurrence given the inferred stochastic characteristics) and at the second level (uncertainty due to unexpected changes in these stochastic characteristics). Confidence also increases appropriately with the number of observations within stable periods. Our results support the idea that humans possess a quantitative sense of confidence in their inferences about abstract non-sensory parameters of the environment. This ability cannot be reduced to simple heuristics, it seems instead a core

  7. Public Affairs: Maintaining Credibility While Evolving with Strategic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    Department, 2004), 17. 22 Pamela Keeton and Mark McCann, “Information Operations, STRATCOM, and Public Affairs,” Military Review 85, Iss. 6 (November...Public Affairs Doctrine,” 92. 29 Scanlon, “Military Public Affairs Doctrine,” 95. 30 Keeton and McCann, “Information Operations,” 83-84. 31 Andrew...United States,” Joint Force Quarterly 39, (4th Quarter 2005): 108-114. Keeton , Pamela and Mark McCann. “Information Operations, STRATCOM, and

  8. Normative Perceptions of Non-medical Stimulant Use: Associations with Actual Use and Hazardous Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Jason R.; Geisner, Irene Markman; Gasser, Melissa L.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10% of US college students are engaged in non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and that use is linked to concerning health, educational, and societal consequences. Few studies have assessed normative perceptions surrounding NMUPS. Accordingly, we examined self-reported use and normative perceptions for NMUPS and demographic factors that may be associated with them. We also investigated whether higher normative perceptions for NMUPS were related to the most commonly used and abused substance among college students (alcohol). METHOD 1106 undergraduates participated in an online survey of normative perceptions of NMUPS and students’ own drinking and stimulant use habits. RESULTS Students overestimated NMUPS by other students and those normative estimates were associated with higher NMUPS. Living in a fraternity or sorority was related to higher NMUPS and perceived norms. Finally, higher normative perceptions of NMUPS were associated with higher hazardous drinking. CONCLUSION The large discrepancy between actual use (generally low) and students’ perceptions (generally high), and the relationship of these perceptions to both one’s own use of NMUPS and alcohol suggests that interventions aimed at correcting norms may be useful. PMID:25462654

  9. Knowing versus liking: Separating normative knowledge from social desirability in first impressions of personality.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine H; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    There are strong differences between individuals in the tendency to view the personality of others as similar to the average person. That is, some people tend to form more normatively accurate impressions than do others. However, the process behind the formation of normatively accurate first impressions is not yet fully understood. Given that the average individual's personality is highly socially desirable (Borkenau & Zaltauskas, 2009; Wood, Gosling & Potter, 2007), individuals may achieve high normative accuracy by viewing others as similar to the average person or by viewing them in an overly socially desirable manner. The average self-reported personality profile and social desirability, despite being strongly correlated, independently and strongly predict first impressions. Further, some individuals have a more accurate understanding of the average individual's personality than do others. Perceivers with more accurate knowledge about the average individual's personality rated the personality of specific others more normatively accurately (more similar to the average person), suggesting that individual differences in normative judgments include a component of accurate knowledge regarding the average personality. In contrast, perceivers who explicitly evaluated others more positively formed more socially desirable impressions, but not more normatively accurate impressions.

  10. Normative life events and PTSD in children: how easy stress can affect children's brain.

    PubMed

    Kousha, Maryam; Mehdizadeh Tehrani, Shervin

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children) semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth.

  11. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the VA Normative Aging Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotenoids) found in fruit and vegetables, and omega-3 fatty acids from fish, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids reduced effects of particles less than 2.5 µm in aerodyn...

  12. [Brief Neuropsychological Battery for multiple sclerosis. Normative data stratified by age and educational level].

    PubMed

    Duque, P; Oltra-Cucarella, J; Fernandez, O; Sepulcre, J; Grupo de Estudio de la Bateria Neuropsicologica Breve En la Esclerosis Multiple, Grupo de Estudio de la Bateria Neuropsicologica Breve En la Esclerosis Multiple

    2017-02-01

    Introduccion. La interpretacion del rendimiento en los tests cognitivos utilizados en la evaluacion neuropsicologica de pacientes con esclerosis multiple difiere en funcion del nivel educativo del evaluado. Objetivos. Aportar datos normativos de la bateria neuropsicologica breve (BNB) en la esclerosis multiple, estratificados por edad y nivel educativo, y demostrar la utilidad de la bateria para discriminar entre sujetos sanos y pacientes con esclerosis multiple. Sujetos y metodos. Se utilizaron los datos de 701 controles sanos de la muestra de baremacion original de la BNB en la esclerosis multiple, y se estratificaron por edad y nivel educativo mediante analisis de regresion de puntuaciones escalares. Se comparo el rendimiento del grupo control con un grupo de 112 pacientes con esclerosis multiple. Resultados. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en las variables de la BNB, en especial en tareas de velocidad de procesamiento, memoria de trabajo y memoria verbal. La edad y el sexo no mostraron efectos relevantes. Conclusiones. Los datos indican que la BNB en la esclerosis multiple es una herramienta sensible para identificar alteraciones cognitivas en la esclerosis multiple, con especial enfasis en las tareas de memoria de trabajo.

  13. A Normative Data Study of Isometric Neck Strength in Healthy, Adult, Males Ages 18-35

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    while the subjects wore a helmet dynamometer and night vision goggles on their head. Results showed that when the load on the head and neck was increased...USAF Executive Officpr, Civilian Institution Programs 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) DTIC ELECTE 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 93 16...submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at the University of Kentucky Accession For NTIS GiRA&I DTIC TAB

  14. A cross-cultural study with culture fair normative indications on WAIS-III Digit Symbol-Incidental Learning.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Donnelly, Martin J R; Reid, Iain; Radloff, Sarah E

    2004-10-01

    The WAIS-III Digit Symbol-Incidental Learning optional procedure, including Pairing and Free Recall, was administered to a southern African sample (N=68, age range 19-30), which was stratified for ethnicity in association with language of origin (white English first language versus black African first language), educational level (Grade 12 and Graduate), and quality of education (advantaged and disadvantaged). ('African language' is the term used to denote the indigenous languages of black populations in southern Africa). Results yielded no significant differences for ethnicity/language of origin, level or quality of education, indicating that Digit Symbol-Incidental Learning may be a relatively culture independent task with utility as a neuropsychological screening instrument. Broad normative guidelines are provided for diagnostic purposes, and comparisons are made with available norms.

  15. Obsessions and compulsions: normative data on the Padua Inventory from an Italian non-clinical adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F; Gragnani, A; Orazi, F; Pietrangeli, M G

    1999-10-01

    In the present study the structure of obsessive-compulsive phenomena in non-clinical adolescents was investigated by 'The Padua Inventory' (PI). The PI is a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms which is used in clinical and research settings. The use of PI in adolescents has been limited by the lack of normative data. Consequently, adolescent validation has both theoretical and practical implications. PI was administered to 566 normal Italian high school subjects, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years. The mean total score of PI and the mean score of 'mental activities', 'becoming contaminated' and 'urges and worries' sub-scales points to significant differences between males and females. Females reported more obsessions and cleaning rituals than males. Males show more urges and fears than females. Moreover, our data underline that younger subjects get higher mean scores than older subjects in all scales.

  16. Information Operations and Public Affairs: A Union of Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    information operations at the strategic and operational levels of war, they should consider the public context of the debate. Further, they should take...interpret the guidance and therefore organize differently. The conviction that public affairs and information operations are oil and water and do not...doctrine and the variations in information operations and public affairs doctrine at all levels . The Air Force has the most collaborative and coordinated

  17. Status of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization. Hearing Before the United States Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, 95th Congress, 2nd Session on Oversight on the Status of the Reorganization of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The objective of the August 16, 1978, United States Senate hearing was to determine reorganization plans for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs, two Deputy Secretaries, and Mr. Charles Trimble of the United Effort Trust testified before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. The…

  18. Social theory and current affairs: a framework for intellectual engagement.

    PubMed

    Stones, Rob

    2014-06-01

    The paper aims to facilitate more adequate critical engagement with current affairs events by journalists, and with current affairs texts by audiences. It draws on social theory to provide the intellectual resources to enable this. The academic ambition is for the framework to be adopted and developed by social thinkers in producing exemplary critical readings of news and current affairs texts. To this end it is offered as a research paradigm. The paper situates its argument in relation to the wider literature in media and cultural studies, acknowledging the subtle skills required to appreciate the relative autonomy of texts. However, it draws attention to the lack of an adequate perspective with which to assess the frames, representations, and judgments within news and current affairs texts. To address this lacuna it proposes the conception of a social-theoretical frame, based on a number of meta-theoretical approaches, designed to provide audiences with a systematic means of addressing the status and adequacy of individual texts. Social theoretical frames can reveal the shortcomings of media framing of the contextual fields within which news and current affairs events take place. Two illustrative case studies are used to indicate the value and potential of the approach: the analysis of a short newspaper report of the return of protesters to Cairo's Tahrir Square in 2011, and a critique of four current affairs reports from various genres on the political turmoil in Thailand leading up to the clashes of May 2010.

  19. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Handgrip among Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Karsai, István; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age- and sex-related variation in handgrip strength and to determine reference values for the Hungarian population. Method: A sample of 1,086 Hungary youth (aged 11-18 years old; 654 boys and 432 girls) completed a handgrip strength assessment using a handheld dynamometer. Quantile regression was…

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    3 National Security in the Nuclear Age [V. Serebryannikov; KOMMUNIST VOORUZHENNYKH SIL No 9, May 88] 5 MILITARY SCIENCE Military Aspect of...words. This is the main order issued by the party conference. 07045 National Security in the Nuclear Age 18010259 Moscow KOMMUNIST VOORUZHENNYKH SIL...Nuclear Age "] [Text] Ensuring national security has always been con- sidered the holy of holies of every state. The armed forces and weapons

  1. Normative data for functional assessment of cancer therapy--general scale and its use for the interpretation of quality of life scores in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Holzner, Bernhard; Kemmler, Georg; Cella, David; De Paoli, Christina; Meraner, Verena; Kopp, Martin; Greil, Richard; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to derive population-based reference values for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale-General (FACT-G) and to investigate the impact of sociodemographic variables (e.g. age, sex, health status) on these quality of life (QOL) scores, and to compare the normative QOL scores with those of various groups of cancer survivors. A random sample of 2 000 members of the Austrian public were sent questionnaires containing the FACT-G and questions relating to demographic data and health status. A total of 968 questionnaires were returned giving an overall response rate of 50.6% (females 48.3%, age 49.3 +/- 16.8). Subjects with higher education reported higher QOL values; divorced and widowed persons had significantly lower QOL scores. Higher age was also associated with lower QOL scores. After bone marrow transplantation, patients generally showed lower QOL scores than the age- and sex-matched population-based sample, whilst in breast cancer survivors there was reduced QOL regarding social well-being. Survivors of Hodgkin's disease were found to have higher functional and social well-being scores than those of the general population sample. Sociodemographic variables should always be taken into consideration when interpreting QOL scores. Furthermore, unless patient data are compared with normative values, phenomena such as adaptation and response shift might be missed or misinterpreted.

  2. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (copy and memory), and free and cued selective reminding test.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Gramunt-Fombuena, Nina; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Aguilar, Miquel; Badenes, Dolors; Molinuevo, José Luis; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, Maria Sagrario; Payno, María; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF) and the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) are frequently used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuospatial memory, and the FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. As part of the Spanish Normative Studies (NEURONORMA), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for the ROCF (copy and memory) and for the FCSRT. The sample consists of 332 and 340 participants, respectively, who are cognitively normal, community dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 94 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. Although age and education affected the score of the ROCF and FCSRT, sex was found to be unrelated in this normal sample. The normative data presented here were obtained from the same study sample as all other NEURONORMA norms and the same statistical procedures were applied. These co-normed data will allow clinicians to compare scores from one test with all the tests included in the project.

  3. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation.

  4. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with Reintegration Problems: Differences by Veterans Affairs Healthcare User Status.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Orazem, Robert J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Gravely, Amy; Frazier, Patricia; Carlson, Kathleen F; Schnurr, Paula P; Oleson, Heather

    2015-07-01

    We studied 1,292 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who participated in a clinical trial of expressive writing to estimate the prevalence of perceived reintegration difficulty and compare Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare users to nonusers in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. About half of participants perceived reintegration difficulty. VA users and nonusers differed in age and military background. Levels of mental and physical problems were higher in VA users. In multivariate analysis, military service variables and probable traumatic brain injury independently predicted VA use. Findings demonstrate the importance of research comparing VA users to nonusers to understand veteran healthcare needs.

  5. Psychometric Properties and Normative Data of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire in a Psychiatric Outpatient Sample.

    PubMed

    Martínez Ortega, Yolanda; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Valero, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ; Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993 ) was designed for the assessment of personality. The goal of this work was to determine the psychometric properties of the ZKPQ, as well as to establish normative data by gender and age in an outpatient sample attending primary mental health care services. We administered the questionnaire to 314 participants (34.7% males) 18 to 81 years old. The most prevalent primary diagnoses were mood (37.9%) and adjustment disorders (35.0%). Concerning the psychometric properties of the ZKPQ, the pattern of internal consistencies was similar to that previously found among general population, student, or clinical samples. Regarding gender differences, a general pattern was found, with women scoring higher on neuroticism and sociability, and lower on aggression-hostility. As for age, in general, scores declined with age. Norm-based decision making has the potential for significant and long-lasting consequences, and the quality of decisions based on score comparisons can be improved when scores are compared to norms fitted to the group of reference. The availability of the ZKPQ norms by gender and age in mental health care will benefit the accuracy of assessment and therapeutic decision making, providing more effective treatment planning overall.

  6. Psychometric validation and normative data of a second Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test in children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng; Guo, Wei-Yuan; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2012-01-01

    The Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) is a measure of visuosynthetic ability. Previously, the psychometric properties of the HVOT have been evaluated for Chinese-speaking children aged 5-11 years. This study reports development and further evidence of reliability and validity for a second version involving an extended age range of healthy children and children with developmental disabilities (DD) from 5 to 14 years of age. Rasch analysis revealed that after deletion of 6 items, a 24-item version conformed to a unidimensional scale. The test showed satisfactory internal consistency; 3-week test-retest coefficients all exceeded .85 for three DD subsamples. The second version was able to successfully differentiate between the three DD subgroups (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and mental retardation) and the healthy control group, with correct classification rates ranging from 86.6% to 94.1%. Its construct validity was supported by expected correlations. Accordingly, age-based normative data were established as a basis for interpretation of performance. In sum, the second Chinese version of the HVOT has good psychometric properties and norms that are suited for use in clinical practice.

  7. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics.

  8. The normativity of life scripts and its relation with life story events across cultures and subcultures.

    PubMed

    Hatiboğlu, Neşe; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the normativity of individual life scripts and their relation to actual life story memories across countries (Turkey and Germany) and subcultures (urban vs. rural, of migrant vs. of indigenous descent). Young adults from provincial Karabük and metropolitan Istanbul (Turkey), second generation Turkish migrants and Germans from Frankfurt a.M. (Germany) provided both their individual versions of the life script and seven most important personal memories. We expected the agreement on the life script, that is, its normativity, and correspondingly its guiding influence on the selection of life story memories to correlate positively with a collectivistic, negatively an individualistic cultural orientation, that is, to be highest in provincial Karabük, less in Istanbul, still less in Turkish migrants in Germany, and finally lowest in native Germans. The study confirmed expectations for the normativity of life scripts, but not for the normativity of most important memories. We conclude that the normativity of life scripts is influenced both by the individualist vs. collectivist orientation.

  9. The Geography of Normative Climates: An Application to Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Thrash, Courtney R; Warner, Tara D

    2016-08-01

    The existing research on risk factors for adolescent substance use highlights the importance of peers' direct influence on risky behaviors, yet two key limitations persist. First, there is considerably less attention to the ways in which peers shape overall (e.g., school-level) normative climates of attitudes and expectations about substance use, and, second, the role of the broader geographic contexts in which these climates are embedded is essentially neglected. In light of shifting trends in geographic differences in adolescent substance use, the current study uses data from the 2007 Nebraska Risk and Protective Factor Student Survey (n = 26,647; 80 % non-Hispanic White; 51 % female) to (a) explore whether geographic context shapes the character (permissiveness) and consistency (homogeneity) of normative climates and (b) examine the consequences (effects) of such climates on adolescent substance use risk across the rural-urban continuum. Normative climates are a consistent predictor of substance use, yet the geographic context in which schools are located matters for both the nature and influence of these climates, and the patterns differ between normative climates about alcohol and marijuana. These findings illustrate that school normative climates do indeed matter for substance use behavior, and the ways in which they do depend on their broader, geographic context. Thus, future research on youth's substance use should be attuned to these more nuanced distinctions.

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on personality profile stability: unraveling the normativeness problem.

    PubMed

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M

    2012-08-01

    The present study is the first to disentangle the genetic and environmental influences on personality profile stability. Spanning a period of 10 years, we analyzed the etiology of 3 aspects of profile stability (overall profile stability, distinctive profile stability, and profile normativeness) using self- and peer reports from 539 identical and 280 fraternal twins reared together. This 3-wave multirater twin design allowed us to estimate the genetic and environmental effects on latent true scores of the 3 aspects of profile stability while controlling for method effects and random error. Consistent biometric results were only found for profile normativeness, whereas overall and distinctive profile stability scores turned out to be biased. Over time, we found personality profile normativeness to be relatively stable. This stability was due to both stable genetic and nonshared environmental effects, whereas innovative variance was completely explained by nonshared environmental effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between the different aspects of profile stability, since overall and distinctive stability scores are likely biased due to the normativeness problem. Yet indicating a person's similarity to the average person, the normativeness of a personality profile itself has a psychological meaning beyond socially desirable responding.

  11. The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test: Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Tulsky, David S.; Gershon, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed. While initial validation work provides preliminary support for this test in both children and adults, more work is needed to ensure dependability and generalizability. Thus, this replication study examines descriptive data (including age effects), test–retest reliability, and construct validity in n = 4,859 participants ages 3–85 years (matched to 2010 census data). Although the Pattern Comparison was not appropriate for all 3 and 4 years old, by ages 5 and 6, more meaningful scores were apparent. There was evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. There was also a moderate practice effect (i.e., increase of 5.5 points) over a 1-week time frame. Pattern Comparison exhibits a number of strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages 5–85), it is short and easy to administer, and there is support for construct validity. PMID:26025230

  12. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for the Stroop color-word interference test and the Tower of London-Drexel.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Gramunt-Fombuena, Nina; Quintana, María; Aguilar, Miquel; Molinuevo, José Luis; Serradell, Mónica; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Payno, Maria; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    As part of the NEURONORMA project, we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for the Stroop color-word interference test (SCWT)-Golden version and the Tower of London-Drexel University version (TOL(DX)). The sample consists of 344 and 347 participants, respectively, who are cognitively normal, community dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. Demographic variables, age, and education significantly affect scores of the SWCT and TOL(DX), sex, however, was found to be unrelated to performance in this sample. The normative data presented here were obtained from the same study sample as all the other NEURONORMA tests. In addition, the same statistical procedures for data analyses were applied. These co-normed data allow clinicians to compare scores from one test with all tests.

  13. THE NINE TEST SCREENING BATTERY - NORMATIVE VALUES ON A GROUP OF RECREATIONAL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Heijne, Annette; Batt, Mark E.; Frohm, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of risk factors predispose athletes to injury, such as impaired neuromuscular control, insufficient core stability, and muscular imbalances. The goal of assessing functional movement patterns is to detect imbalances and correct them with prevention strategies and thereby decrease injuries, and improve performance and quality of life. Purpose The purpose of this study was to generate normative values for the ‘Nine Test Screening Battery’ (9TSB) in a group of recreational athletes. A secondary aim was to study gender differences and differences between subjects with (more than six weeks before test occasion) and without previous injury (regardless of injury location). A third aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the 9TSB. Methods Eighty healthy recreational athletes, (40 men and 40 women) aged 22-58, were included. The subjects were tested according to strict criteria during nine functional movement exercises that comprise the 9TSB; each graded using a ordinal scale of 0-3, at one occasion. The maximum possible score is 27 points. Results The median score for the whole group was 18 (Range 12 - 24). A normal distribution of the test scores, with no floor-ceiling effects was found. There was no significant gender difference (p = 0.16) or difference between the group that reported previous injuries (regardless of injury location) and the group that did not (p = 0.65). The internal consistency was 0.41 with Cronbach's alpha. Conclusion A normal distribution of test results with no floor-ceiling effect was found. History of previous injury (more than six weeks before testing) or gender did not affect the results. In order to determine and cut scores for what is considered optimal or dysfunctional movement patterns, further cohort studies are required. PMID:27904795

  14. Volumetric Parcellation Methodology of the Human Hypothalamus in Neuroimaging: Normative Data and Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Nikos; Swaab, Dick F.; van der Kouwe, Andre; Abbs, Brandon; Boriel, Denise; Handa, Robert; Tobet, Stuart; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence regarding the importance of the hypothalamus for understanding sex differences in relation to neurological, psychiatric, endocrine and sleep disorders. Although different in histology, physiology, connections and function, multiple hypothalamic nuclei subserve non-voluntary functions and are nodal points for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis of the organism. Thus, given the critical importance of hypothalamic nuclei and their key multiple roles in regulating basic functions, it is important to develop the ability to conduct in vivo human studies of anatomic structure, volume, connectivity, and function of hypothalamic regions represented at the level of its nuclei. The goals of the present study were to develop a novel method of semi-automated volumetric parcellation for the human hypothalamus that could be used to investigate clinical conditions using MRI and to demonstrate its applicability. The proposed new method subdivides the hypothalamus into five parcels based on visible anatomic landmarks associated with specific nuclear groupings and was confirmed using two ex vivo hypothalami that were imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner and processed histologically. Imaging results were compared with histology from the same brain. Further, the method was applied to 44 healthy adults (26 men; 18 women, comparable on age, handedness, ethnicity, SES) to derive normative volumes and assess sex differences in hypothalamic regions using 1.5 Tesla MRI. Men compared to women had a significantly larger total hypothalamus, relative to cerebrum size, similar for both hemispheres, a difference that was primarily driven by the tuberal region, with the sex effect size being largest in the superior tuberal region and, to a lesser extent, inferior tuberal region. Given the critical role of hypothalamic nuclei in multiple chronic diseases and the importance of sex differences, we argue that the use of the novel methodology presented here will allow for

  15. Task-dependent recruitment of intrinsic brain networks reflects normative variance in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Kilts, Clinton D; James, George Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging has great potential to inform clinical decisions, whether by identifying neural biomarkers of illness progression and severity, predicting therapeutic response, or selecting suitable patients for surgical interventions. Yet a persisting barrier to functional neuroimaging's clinical translation is our incomplete understanding of how normative variance in cognition, personality, and behavior shape the brain's structural and functional organization. We propose that modeling individual differences in these brain–behavior relationships is crucial for improving the accuracy of neuroimaging biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Methods We addressed this goal by initiating the Cognitive Connectome Project, which bridges neuropsychology and neuroimaging by pairing nine cognitive domains typically assessed by clinically validated neuropsychological measures with those tapped by canonical neuroimaging tasks (motor, visuospatial perception, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision making, working memory, and executive function). To date, we have recruited a diverse sample of 53 participants (mean [SD], age = 32 [9.7] years, 31 females). Results As a proof of concept, we first demonstrate that our neuroimaging task battery can replicate previous findings that task performance recruits intrinsic brain networks identified during wakeful rest. We then expand upon these previous findings by showing that the extent to which these networks are recruited by task reflects individual differences in cognitive ability. Specifically, performance on the Judgment of Line Orientation task (a clinically validated measure of visuospatial perception) administered outside of the MRI scanner predicts the magnitude of task-induced activity of the dorsal visual network when performing a direct replication of this task within the MRI scanner. Other networks (such as default mode and right frontoparietal) showed task

  16. The development of the N1 and N2 components in auditory oddball paradigms: a systematic review with narrative analysis and suggested normative values.

    PubMed

    Tomé, David; Barbosa, Fernando; Nowak, Kamila; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2015-03-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) are widely used in diverse fields of today's neuroscience, concerning auditory processing, speech perception, language acquisition, neurodevelopment, attention and cognition in normal aging, gender, developmental, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. However, its transposition to clinical practice has remained minimal. Mainly due to scarce literature on normative data across age, wide spectrum of results, variety of auditory stimuli used and to different neuropsychological meanings of AERPs components between authors. One of the most prominent AERP components studied in last decades was N1, which reflects auditory detection and discrimination. Subsequently, N2 indicates attention allocation and phonological analysis. The simultaneous analysis of N1 and N2 elicited by feasible novelty experimental paradigms, such as auditory oddball, seems an objective method to assess central auditory processing. The aim of this systematic review was to bring forward normative values for auditory oddball N1 and N2 components across age. EBSCO, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar were systematically searched for studies that elicited N1 and/or N2 by auditory oddball paradigm. A total of 2,764 papers were initially identified in the database, of which 19 resulted from hand search and additional references, between 1988 and 2013, last 25 years. A final total of 68 studies met the eligibility criteria with a total of 2,406 participants from control groups for N1 (age range 6.6-85 years; mean 34.42) and 1,507 for N2 (age range 9-85 years; mean 36.13). Polynomial regression analysis revealed that N1 latency decreases with aging at Fz and Cz, N1 amplitude at Cz decreases from childhood to adolescence and stabilizes after 30-40 years and at Fz the decrement finishes by 60 years and highly increases after this age. Regarding N2, latency did not covary with age but amplitude showed a significant decrement for both Cz and Fz. Results

  17. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Claims based on attained age. In claims for pension where the age of the veteran or surviving spouse is material, the statements of age will be accepted where they are in agreement with other statements in...

  18. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Claims based on attained age. In claims for pension where the age of the veteran or surviving spouse is material, the statements of age will be accepted where they are in agreement with other statements in...

  19. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Claims based on attained age. In claims for pension where the age of the veteran or surviving spouse is material, the statements of age will be accepted where they are in agreement with other statements in...

  20. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Claims based on attained age. In claims for pension where the age of the veteran or surviving spouse is material, the statements of age will be accepted where they are in agreement with other statements in...

  1. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Claims based on attained age. In claims for pension where the age of the veteran or surviving spouse is material, the statements of age will be accepted where they are in agreement with other statements in...

  2. Tensions in agnotology: Normativity in the studies of commercially driven ignorance.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Manuela Fernandez

    2015-04-01

    As scientific research moves increasingly to the private sector, the social organization of science undergoes important transformations. Focusing on the production of ignorance, agnotology has been a fruitful approach to understanding the social and epistemic consequences of the recent commercialization of scientific research. Despite their important contributions, scholars working on agnotology seem to hold implicit normative commitments that are in tension with their descriptive accounts of ignorance-constructive practices. The main aim of this article is to uncover these commitments and to expose the emerging tensions. Thus, this article begins an exploration into normative aspects of the studies of ignorance. In particular, it shows that agnotology still needs the support of a well-articulated normative approach capable of identifying and evaluating the epistemic and social concerns raised by the private funding and performance of science.

  3. Development of a normative framework for disaster relief: learning from colonial famine histories in India.

    PubMed

    Akerkar, Supriya

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary academic debates on the history of the colonial Famine Codes in India--also considered to be the first coded and institutionalised normative frameworks for natural disaster response on the continent--generally are based on one of two perspectives. The first focuses on their economic rationale, whereas the second underlines that they constitute an anti-famine contract between the colonial masters and the people of India. This paper demonstrates that both of these viewpoints are limited in scope and that they simplify the nature of governance instituted through famine response practices in Colonial India. It links this reality to current disaster response policies and practices in India and shows that the discussion on the development of normative frameworks underlying disaster response is far from over. The paper goes on to evaluate the development of normative frameworks for disaster response and recovery, which remain embroiled in the politics of governmentality that underlies their development.

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts from regolith breccia 15498 - New diversity in Apollo 15 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of mare basalt clasts from Apollo 15 shows a greater diversity than previously recognized and provides new constraints on the petrogenesis of these basalts. The quartz-normative basalts (QNB) from 15498 are divided into four groups based on chemical variations: primitive, intermediate/1, intermediate/2, and evolved. The olivine-normative basalts (ONB) are divided into three groups: low-SiO2, high-SiO2, and olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Least-squares mixing calculations show that the high SiO2 ONBs may be parental to the QNB suite. Variations within the low-SiO2 ONBs are explained by olivine factionation. It is suggested that the presence of these basalt types may result from the position of breccia 15498 near the edge of the mare plain where normal ONBs are scarce, and from its presumed origin as ejecta from Dune Crater.

  5. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2005-01-01

    Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for

  6. [Trends in population aging].

    PubMed

    Valkovics, E

    1990-11-01

    The age structure of the world population between 1950 and 1985 is analyzed according to changes in fertility, mortality, and international migration in developing and developed countries. "Relying on the results of the medium scenario of the population forecasts prepared by the U.N. Division of International Economic and Social Affairs, the author demonstrates that aging of the world population will become a global phenomenon, characteristic of every region and county of the world, between 1985 and 2025." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  7. Age-Relevance of Person Characteristics: Persons' Beliefs about Developmental Change across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Daniel; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Studer, Joseph; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated normative beliefs about personality development. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated the age-relevance of 835 French adjectives by specifying person characteristics as typical for any age decade from 0 to 99 years. With this paradigm, the authors determined age-relevance (How typical is a characteristic for a…

  8. Expository Language Skills of Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerveld, Marleen F.; Moran, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated the expository language skills of young school-age children with the ultimate aim of obtaining normative data for clinical practice. Specifically, this study examined (a) the level of expository language performance of 6- and 7-year-old children with typical development and (b) age-related differences between…

  9. [Normative aspects of somatosensory evoked P300 components].

    PubMed

    Louzã Neto, M R; Maurer, K; Neuhauser, B

    1989-06-01

    Using a somatosensory version of the oddball-paradigma the influence of age and gender on the P300-component and the comparison of the potential after stimulation of the right and left median nerve was studied in 30 healthy right handed volunteers (age: 20-35 years). Latency, amplitude, area and duration of the P300-potential were analysed. No relationship between age, gender and the P300-parameters were observed. The amplitude and the area of the potential obtained from the F3 electrode were greater after stimulation of the right median nerve compared to the potential after stimulation of the left median nerve. All other results were not significantly different. Strong positive correlations between the results after stimulation of the right and left median nerve were observed. These results showed that by a young group of volunteers age and gender did not influence the P300-component. Although the P300-Parameters had a between-subject variability, their mean remained constant over the study, their correlation coefficients were strong positive and the side of stimulation did not influence them (except for the electrode F3).

  10. Elbow Radiographic Anatomy: Measurement Techniques and Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Charles A.; Patterson, J. Megan M.; Sutter, Melanie; Krauss, Melissa; Steffen, Jennifer A.; Galatz, Leesa

    2011-01-01

    Background An increase in elbow pathology in adolescents has paralleled an increase in sports participation. Evaluation and classification of these injuries is challenging because of limited information regarding normal anatomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal radiographic anatomy in adolescents to establish parameters for diagnosing abnormal development. Established and new measurements were evaluated for reliability and variance based on age and sex. Methods Three orthopaedic surgeons independently and in a standardized fashion evaluated the normal anteroposterior and lateral elbow radiographs of 178 adolescent and young adult subjects. Fourteen measurements were performed including radial neck- shaft angle, articular surface angle, articular surface morphologic assessment (subjective and objective evaluation of the patterns of ridges and sulci), among others. We performed a statistical analysis by age and sex for each measure and assessed for inter and intra-observer reliability. Results The distal humerus articular surface was relatively flat in adolescence and became more contoured with age as objectively demonstrated by increasing depth of the trochlear and trochleocapitellar sulci, and decreasing trochlear notch angle. Overall measurements were similar between males and females, with an increased carrying angle in females. There were several statistically significant differences based on age and sex but these were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. Inter and intra-observer reliability were variable; some commonly utilized tools had poor reliability. Conclusions Most commonly utilized radiographic measures were consistent between sexes, across the adolescent age group, and between adolescents and young adults. Several commonly used assessment tools show poor reliability. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Anatomic Study, Imaging PMID:22329911

  11. Development of Proprioceptive Acuity in Typically Developing Children: Normative Data on Forearm Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Holst-Wolf, Jessica M.; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5–17 years old; M/F = 127/181) and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18–25 years old; M/F = 12/14) using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE), calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation of the differences between the match and reference arm angular positions (SDPdiff) indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured by PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90° target: −2.85° in early childhood; −2.28° in adolescence; and 1.30° in adults). Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90° target: 9.66° in early childhood; 5.30° in late adolescence; and 3.97° in adults). The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed

  12. Development of Proprioceptive Acuity in Typically Developing Children: Normative Data on Forearm Position Sense.

    PubMed

    Holst-Wolf, Jessica M; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5-17 years old; M/F = 127/181) and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18-25 years old; M/F = 12/14) using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE), calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation of the differences between the match and reference arm angular positions (SDPdiff) indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured by PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90° target: -2.85° in early childhood; -2.28° in adolescence; and 1.30° in adults). Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90° target: 9.66° in early childhood; 5.30° in late adolescence; and 3.97° in adults). The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed

  13. Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

  14. Addiction and "Generation Me:" Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rebecca R.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Exline, Julie J.; Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were…

  15. Selection Strategies as Normative and Descriptive Models: Comments on Johnson's "The Validation of Concept-Learning Strategies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Patrick R.

    1978-01-01

    In positively assessing Johnson (1978) (AA 529 124), this research proposes that the basic purpose of normative models of selection strategies is the development of continuous quantitative measures of problem-solving efficiency, while descriptive models determine degree of correspondence between formal normative models and actual behavior.…

  16. Normative Beliefs, Discursive Claims, and Implementation of Reform-Based Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Riley Lloyd, Mary E.; Howell, Malia R.; Peters, John

    2016-01-01

    Reform-based science instruction is guided by teachers' normative beliefs. Discursive claims are how teachers say they teach science. Previous research has studied the change in teachers' beliefs and how beliefs influence intended practice and action in the classroom. Few studies have connected what teachers believe, how they say they teach, and…

  17. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  18. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

  19. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

  20. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations with Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292…

  1. Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical…

  2. The Effects of Parental Influences on College Student Normative Perceptions of Peer Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowry Dobran, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    There has been speculation as to how college students develop normative descriptive and injunctive perceptions of college student alcohol use. One possible explanation is that parents may be "carriers" of the skewed social norm, passing on their misperceptions of alcohol use to their children (Perkins, 2002). The influence of parents was…

  3. Koppitz errors on the Bender-Gestalt for adult retardates: normative data.

    PubMed

    Andert, J N; Dinning, W D; Hustak, T L

    1976-04-01

    Normative data on the Koppitz developmental scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt test were derived from a sample which included 510 protocols of adult resident retardates. Percentile norms are presented on Koppitz error scores for three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two AAMD ranges of retardation based on Stanford-Binet IQs.

  4. Young children use pedagogical cues to modulate the strength of normative inferences.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lucas P; Schmidt, Marco F H; Bürgel, Jessica; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Young children understand pedagogical demonstrations as conveying generic, kind-relevant information. But, in some contexts, they also see almost any confident, intentional action on a novel artefact as normative and thus generic, regardless of whether this action was pedagogically demonstrated for them. Thus, although pedagogy may not be necessary for inferences to the generic, it may nevertheless be sufficient to produce inductive inferences on which the child relies more strongly. This study addresses this tension by bridging the literature on normative reasoning with that on social learning and inductive inference. Three-year-old children learned about a novel artefact from either a pedagogical or non-pedagogical demonstration, and then, a series of new actors acted on that artefact in novel ways. Although children protested normatively in both conditions (e.g., 'No, not like that'), they persisted longer in enforcing the learned norms in the face of repeated non-conformity by the new actors. This finding suggests that not all generic, normative inferences are created equal, but rather they depend - at least for their strength - on the nature of the acquisition process.

  5. Away with Linguists! Normativity, Inequality and Metascientific Reflexivity in Sociolinguistic Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Jürgen; Meeuwis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that in spite of the descriptive and well-intentioned ambitions of much sociolinguistic-ethnographic research, members of studied groups often continue to interpret such research as a largely vertically organized socio-political activity that communicates a prescriptive social and linguistic normativity the researcher…

  6. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

    2012-01-01

    With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

  7. Democracy and Free Speech: A Normative Theory of Society and Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, John L.

    Noting that the nature and value of free speech depends on the norms and goals of a society and on that society's appropriate form of government, this paper presents a normative theory of democracy and from that theory formulates a theory of free speech. The first section defines a number of terms used in the paper and clarifies several of the…

  8. To Be or Not to Be an Entrepreneur: Applying a Normative Model to Career Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Gerard A.; Zimmerman, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting the need for a better and broader understanding of the factors influencing the choices to enter into or exit an entrepreneurial career, this article applies a structured, normative model of career management to the career decision-making of entrepreneurs. The application of a structured model can assist career counselors, college career…

  9. Efficacy of Web-Based Personalized Normative Feedback: A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Jensen, Megan M.; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Web-based brief alcohol interventions have the potential to reach a large number of individuals at low cost; however, few controlled evaluations have been conducted to date. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gender-specific versus gender-nonspecific personalized normative feedback (PNF) with single versus…

  10. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives: Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with…

  11. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

  12. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  13. Normative Assumptions in Educational Policy Research: The Case of Jencks's Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Lawrence B.

    1977-01-01

    Jencks's argument is fundamentally misdirected because he is unaware of the normative implications of both the position he is attacking and the position he is advocating. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104; $15.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

  14. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

  15. Affective and Normative Commitment to Organization, Supervisor, and Coworkers: Do Collectivist Values Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasti, S. Arzu; Can, Ozge

    2008-01-01

    Employees' commitment to their organization is increasingly recognized as comprising of different bases (affect-, obligation-, or cost-based) and different foci (e.g., supervisor, coworkers). Two studies investigated affective and normative commitment to the organization, supervisor and coworkers in the Turkish context. The results of Study 1…

  16. The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

  17. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2013-01-01

    Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

  18. Connectivity for Whom and for What? A Normative Dimension of Education Hub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2016-01-01

    This argument in this study is that the descriptive dimension of the concept of education hub, which focuses on the importance of connectivity in enhancing the competiveness of a place, is inadequate in addressing the educational values in globalising higher education. Therefore, it attempts to initiate a normative dimension of education hub…

  19. The French "Chroniques de Langage" between Prescriptivism, Normative Discourse and Anti-Prescriptivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osthus, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    France has a long tradition of linguistic prescriptivism, linked to a casuistic metalinguistic literature going back to Vaugelas, Gilles Ménage, and others. This type of normative discourse has survived into the twenty-first century, but is affected by changes in the media. Since the emergence of mass media in the late nineteenth century, national…

  20. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…