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Sample records for affairs normative aging

  1. Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Turiano, Nicholas A.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality. PMID:23504043

  2. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

    2015-12-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. PMID:26436456

  3. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

    2009-01-01

    We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

  4. Use of the Adaptive LASSO Method to Identify PM2.5 Components Associated with Blood Pressure in Elderly Men: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingzhen; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but it is unclear whether specific PM2.5 components, particularly metals, may be responsible for cardiovascular effects. Objectives We aimed to determine which PM2.5 components are associated with blood pressure in a longitudinal cohort. Methods We fit linear mixed-effects models with the adaptive LASSO penalty to longitudinal data from 718 elderly men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study, 1999–2010. We controlled for PM2.5 mass, age, body mass index, use of antihypertensive medication (ACE inhibitors, non-ophthalmic beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and angiotensin receptor antagonists), smoking status, alcohol intake, years of education, temperature, and season as fixed effects in the models, and additionally applied the adaptive LASSO method to select PM2.5 components associated with blood pressure. Final models were identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Results For systolic blood pressure (SBP), nickel (Ni) and sodium (Na) were selected by the adaptive LASSO, whereas only Ni was selected for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). An interquartile range increase (2.5 ng/m3) in 7-day moving-average Ni was associated with 2.48-mmHg (95% CI: 1.45, 3.50 mmHg) increase in SBP and 2.22-mmHg (95% CI: 1.69, 2.75 mmHg) increase in DBP, respectively. Associations were comparable when the analysis was restricted to study visits with PM2.5 below the 75th percentile of the distribution (12 μg/m3). Conclusions Our study suggested that exposure to ambient Ni was associated with increased blood pressure independent of PM2.5 mass in our study population of elderly men. Further research is needed to confirm our findings, assess generalizability to other populations, and identify potential mechanisms for Ni effects. Citation Dai L, Koutrakis P, Coull BA, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz JD. 2016. Use of the adaptive LASSO method to

  5. Intakes of (n-3) fatty acids and fatty fish are not associated with cognitive performance and 6-year cognitive change in men participating in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    van de Rest, Ondine; Spiro, Avron; Krall-Kaye, Elizabeth; Geleijnse, Johanna M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-12-01

    High intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results are inconsistent and limited data exist regarding changes in multiple cognitive functions over a longer period of time. In this study, we assessed the association between fatty fish intake as well as (n-3) PUFA intake with cognitive performance and cognitive change over 6 y in 1025 elderly men. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Cognitive function was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests focusing on factors representing memory/language, speed, and visuospatial/attention. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated FFQ. We used general linear models to assess cross-sectional associations and mixed models to assess the associations over time. Models were adjusted for age, education, BMI, smoking, diabetes, and intake of alcohol, saturated fat, vitamin C, and vitamin E. The mean age of participating men was 68 y at baseline. Median fish consumption ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 servings/wk across quartiles. Cross-sectional analyses showed no association between fatty fish or (n-3) PUFA intake and cognitive performance. Longitudinal analyses, over 6 y of follow-up, also did not show any significant associations between fatty fish or (n-3) PUFA intake and cognitive change. In this population of elderly men, intake of neither fatty fish nor (n-3) PUFA was associated with cognitive performance. PMID:19828689

  6. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

    PubMed

    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people. PMID:26691788

  7. The Digital Age of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.; Junco, Reynol

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the student affairs profession in the digital age. The authors explore new challenges educators and professionals face as new areas are added and expanded, how social networks and digital technology tools continue to evolve, and what skills are needed to engage with students in person and online.

  8. Understanding inter-individual variability in purpose in life: Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of having a purpose in older adulthood; however, little is known about whether and how individuals vary on sense of purpose over time. The current study examined patterns of mean- and individual-level change in purpose among men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (n = 587; Mage = 74 years) across a three-year span. Findings demonstrate that while little mean-level change was present, there was inter-individual variability in change. Further research is needed to understand why these changes occur, as age, health status, and personality failed to predict individual fluctuations in purpose. PMID:26146887

  9. The natural, the normal and the normative: contested terrains in ageing and old age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Higgs, Paul F

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in health and longevity in countries such as the UK and USA have radically destabilised notions of ageing and old age. From the 19th century onwards the idea of a natural lifecourse following normatively understood stages ending in infirmity and death has been challenged by social and bio-medical developments. Breakthroughs in bio-gerontology and in bio-medicine have created the possibility of an increasingly differentiated idea of normal ageing. The potential to overcome or significantly reduce the age-associated effects of bodies growing older has led many social gerontologists to argue for a return to a more 'normatively' based conception of ageing and old age. This paper examines and outlines the tensions between these different discourses and points out that our understanding of the norm is also fast changing as it intersects with the somatic diversity inherent in contemporary consumer society. Drawing on the theoretical work of Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, this paper argues that the normalization of diversity leads to a reworking of the idea of normativity which in turn is reflected in profound transformations at the level of institutional arrangements and legal systems. Such changes not only lead to more discussion of what is legally and socially acceptable but also potentially lead to greater calls for regulation concerning outcomes. In this paper we argue that we need to distinguish between the newly reconfigured domains of the natural, the normal and the normative now being utilised in the understanding of ageing if we are to understand this important field of health. PMID:20728972

  10. Do Hassles and Uplifts Change with Age? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed three scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Growth based modelling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative non-linear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

  11. Do hassles and uplifts change with age? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.

    PubMed

    Aldwin, Carolyn M; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-03-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed 3 scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Group-based modeling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative nonlinear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

  12. Judi Dench's age-inappropriateness and the role of M: challenging normative temporality.

    PubMed

    Krainitzki, Eva

    2014-04-01

    This article approaches Judi Dench's role as M in the long-running James Bond series from a gender and ageing studies' perspective and explores this character's subversion of normative concepts of gender and temporality. Based on the assumption that cultural narratives shape our understanding of ageing, it examines how M disrupts prescribed age- and gender roles, presenting an alternative within films which otherwise perpetuate normative notions of a sexualised, youthful femininity. It focusses on Dench's return as M in Casino Royale (2006), as an instance of anachronism (Russo, 1999), subverting viewers' expectation of linear timelines and examines M's challenge of normative age-appropriateness in Skyfall (2012). Despite M's portrayal as a more vulnerable female character in the latter, this article presents her character as an alternative to traditional portrayals of older women on screen. PMID:24655671

  13. Lead Exposure, B Vitamins, and Plasma Homocysteine in Men 55 Years of Age and Older: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Linda Huiling; Hu, Howard; Weuve, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead (Pb) exposure may influence the plasma concentration of homocysteine, a one-carbon metabolite associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the associations between Pb and homocysteine over time, or the potential influence of dietary factors. Objectives: We examined the longitudinal association of recent and cumulative Pb exposure with homocysteine concentrations and the potential modifying effect of dietary nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism. Methods: In a subcohort of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study (1,056 men with 2,301 total observations between 1993 and 2011), we used mixed-effects models to estimate differences in repeated measures of total plasma homocysteine across concentrations of Pb in blood and tibia bone, assessing recent and cumulative Pb exposure, respectively. We also assessed effect modification by dietary intake and plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increment in blood Pb (3 μg/dL) was associated with a 6.3% higher homocysteine concentration (95% CI: 4.8, 7.8%). An IQR increment in tibia bone Pb (14 μg/g) was associated with a 3.7% higher homocysteine (95% CI: 1.6, 5.6%), which was attenuated to 1.5% (95% CI: –0.5, 3.6%) after adjusting for blood Pb. For comparison, a 5-year increase in time from baseline was associated with a 5.7% increase in homocysteine (95% CI: 4.3, 7.1%). The association between blood Pb and homocysteine was significantly stronger among participants with estimated dietary intakes of vitamin B6 and folate below (vs. above) the study population medians, which were similar to the U.S. recommended dietary allowance intakes. Conclusions: Pb exposure was positively associated with plasma homocysteine concentration. This association was stronger among men with below-median dietary intakes of vitamins B6 and folate. These findings suggest that increasing intake of folate and B6 might

  14. When Husbands Retire: Men View Their Wives' Satisfaction. Findings from the Normative Aging Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekerdt, David J.; And Others

    The marital relationship is a basic context of retirement, where spouses' separate perceptions of retirement, and of each other's views, are an essential part of the retirement experience. To explore this issue, 297 married men who had been retired for 6 years or less, all participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, reported…

  15. The Leicester cerebral haemodynamics database: normative values and the influence of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikil; Panerai, Ronney B; Haunton, Victoria; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saeed, Nazia P; Salinet, Angela; Brodie, Fiona; Syed, Nazia; D'Sa, Schnell; Robinson, Thompson G

    2016-09-01

    Normative values of physiological parameters hold significance in modern day clinical decision-making. Lack of such normative values has been a major hurdle in the translation of research into clinical practice. A large database containing uniform recordings was constructed to allow more robust estimates of normative ranges and also assess the influence of age and sex. Doppler recordings were performed on healthy volunteers in the same laboratory, using similar protocols and equipment. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart-rate, electrocardiogram, and end-tidal CO2 were measured continuously. Bilateral insonation of the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed using TCD following a 15 min stabilisation, and a 5 min baseline recording. Good quality Doppler recordings for both MCAs were obtained in 129 participants (57 female) with a median age of 57 years (range 20-82). Age was found to influence baseline haemodynamic and transfer function analysis parameters. Cerebral blood flow velocity and critical closing pressure were the only sex-related differences found, which was significantly higher in females than males. Normative values for cerebral haemodynamic parameters have been defined in a large, healthy population. Such age/sex-defined normal values can be used to reduce the burden of collecting additional control data in future studies, as well as to identify disease-associated changes. PMID:27511128

  16. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461

  17. Aging and generational effects on drinking behaviors in men: results from the normative aging study.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, R J; Bouchard, G R; LoCastro, J S; Laird, N M

    1985-01-01

    The effects of aging on alcohol consumption behaviors are unclear because of confounding with period and cohort effects. In 1973, 1,859 male participants in the Normative Aging Study, born between 1892 and 1945, described their drinking behaviors by responding to a mailed questionnaire. In 1982, 1,713 of the participants in this study responded to a similar questionnaire. We used multivariate techniques, adjusting regression coefficients for the correlations between repeated responses of the same individuals, to assess the effects of birth cohort and aging on mean alcohol consumption level, on the prevalence of problems with drinking, and on the prevalence of averaging three or more drinks per day. Older men drank significantly less than younger men at both times yet there was no tendency for men to decrease their consumption levels over time. Each successively older birth cohort had a prevalence of problems with drinking estimated to be 0.037 lower than the prevalence of the next youngest cohort (95 per cent confidence interval: 0.029-0.045), yet there was no decrease in drinking problems over nine years. Interpretation of these findings requires consideration of the changes in attitudes as well as the increases in per capita consumption occurring in the United States throughout the 1970s. Results suggest that aging is not as important a factor in changes in drinking behaviors as generational or attitudinal changes. PMID:4061714

  18. Dietary anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function: longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study123

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J; Cassidy, Aedín; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether habitual intake of dietary flavonoids, known for their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, affects longitudinal change in lung function. Objective: We investigated whether different flavonoid subclasses present in the habitual diet were associated with beneficial changes in lung function over time in the elderly. Design: This longitudinal analysis included 839 participants from the VA (Veterans Affairs) Normative Aging Study whose lung function [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] was measured at 2 and up to 5 visits between 1992 and 2008 (n = 2623 measurements). Yearly average intake of major flavonoid subclasses (anthocyanins, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) was calculated from food-frequency questionnaires at each visit. We estimated adjusted differences in annual change in lung function associated with each flavonoid subclass, categorized into quartiles, in linear mixed-effects regression models after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary confounders. Results: Strong inverse associations were found between anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function. Independent of dietary and nondietary risk factors, slower rates of FEV1 and FVC decline by 23.6 (95% CI: 16.6, 30.7) and 37.3 (95% CI: 27.8, 46.8) mL/y, respectively, were observed in participants in the fourth quartile of intake compared with participants in the first quartile (P-trend < 0.0001). The protective associations observed for anthocyanin intake were present in both current/former and never smokers. Compared with no or very low intakes, an intake of ≥2 servings of anthocyanin-rich blueberries/wk was associated with slower decline in FEV1 and FVC by 22.5 (95% CI: 10.8, 34.2) and 37.9 (95% CI: 22.1, 53.7) mL/y, respectively. To a lesser extent, higher flavan-3-ol intake was also associated with slower lung function decline. Conclusions: An attenuation of age-related lung function

  19. Normative values for mandibular mobility in Scandinavian individuals 4-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stoustrup, P; Kristensen, K D; Küseler, A; Herlin, T; Pedersen, T K

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of mandibular mobility is an important part of the clinical oro-facial examination of paediatric and adolescent patients. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to establish age-related normative values for mandibular mobility in a Scandinavian paediatric and adolescent cohort and to assess the validity of universal cut-off values for lower 'normal' mandibular ranges of motion. A total of 1114 Danish individuals between 4-17 years of age were included. Maximal mouth opening capacity and laterotrusion capacity were assessed, in each individual, according to a standardised measurement protocol. The mean maximal mouth opening capacity gradually increased from 38 mm (SD 6·1 mm) at age 4 to 54·5 mm (SD 6·8 mm) at age 17. No inter-gender difference in maximal mouth opening capacity was observed (P > 0·15). The mean maximal laterotrusion capacity gradually increased from 7·4 mm (SD. 1·1 mm) at age four to 10·1 mm (SD 1·9 mm) at age 17. A statistical significant inter-gender difference of 0·8 mm (SD 0·4 mm) was observed in relation to the total laterotrusion capacity; however, the clinical relevance of this significant difference is questionable. Normative values of mandibular function was established in individuals 4-17 years of age. Our findings oppose the use of a single universal cut-off value for 'normal' range of motion in paediatric and adolescent patients. Instead, we recommend to use the age-related normative values of mandibular range of motion as basis for the assessment of the development of oro-facial function. PMID:27145166

  20. Normative and standardized data for cognitive measures in the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Arango, Silvia; Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the cognitive instrument used in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) in Mexican individuals aged 60 and over and to provide normative values for the Cross Cultural Cognitive Examination test and its modified versions (CCCE). Materials and methods The CCCE was administered to 5 120 subjects as part of a population-based sample free of neurologic and psychiatric disease from the MHAS 2012 survey. Normative data were generated by age and education for each test in the cognitive instrument as well as for the total cognition score. Pearson correlations and analysis of variance were used to examine the relationship of scores to demographic variables. Results Results present standardized normed scores for eight cognitive domains: orientation, attention, verbal learning memory, verbal recall memory, visuospatial abilities, visual memory, executive function, and numeracy in three education groups within three age groups. Conclusion These highlight the need for population-based norms for the CCCE, which has been used in population-based studies. Demographic factors such as age and education must be considered when interpreting the cognitive measures. PMID:26172239

  1. Both Odor Identification and ApoE-ε4 Contribute to Normative Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ε4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features. PMID:21517181

  2. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region.

    PubMed

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M; Alencar, João C; Fichman, Helenice C; Marques, Priscila D N; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7-10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  3. A Validated Normative Model for Human Uterine Volume from Birth to Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ginbey, Eleanor; Chowdhury, Moti M.; Bath, Louise E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound and/or pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are safe, accurate and non-invasive means of determining the size and configuration of the internal female genitalia. The assessment of uterine size and volume is helpful in the assessment of many conditions including disorders of sex development, precocious or delayed puberty, infertility and menstrual disorders. Using our own data from the assessment of MRI scans in healthy young females and data extracted from four studies that assessed uterine volume using transabdominal ultrasound in healthy females we have derived and validated a normative model of uterine volume from birth to age 40 years. This shows that uterine volume increases across childhood, with a faster increase in adolescence reflecting the influence of puberty, followed by a slow but progressive rise during adult life. The model suggests that around 84% of the variation in uterine volumes in the healthy population up to age 40 is due to age alone. The derivation of a validated normative model for uterine volume from birth to age 40 years has important clinical applications by providing age-related reference values for uterine volume. PMID:27295032

  4. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  5. "Primary" rationing of health services in ageing societies--a normative analysis.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Friedrich; Schultheiss, Carlo

    2002-11-01

    While most of the debate on "rationing in health care" focusses on the distribution of scarce medical resources among competing needs, which we propose to call "secondary rationing," this paper is concerned with "primary rationing," i.e., the conscious decision by society to limit the amount of resources devoted to a collectively financed health care system. Based upon a number of transparent normative criteria, we analyze whether primary rationing should be performed and, if so, what type should be chosen (hard vs. soft, explicit vs. implicit). Finally we discuss whether age should be used as a criterion in any systematic attempt at primary rationing of health care. PMID:14625993

  6. Do hassles and uplifts trajectories predict mortality? Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether longitudinal patterns of hassles and uplifts trajectories predicted mortality, using a sample of 1315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study (mean age = 65.31, SD = 7.6). In prior work, we identified different trajectory classes of hassles and uplifts exposure and intensity scores over a period of 16 years. In this study, we used the probabilities of these exposure and intensity class memberships to examine their ability to predict mortality. Men with higher probabilities of high hassle intensity trajectory class and high uplift intensity class had higher mortality risks. In a model combining the probabilities of hassle and uplift intensities, the probability of high intensity hassle class membership significantly increased the risk of mortality. This suggests that appraisals of hassles intensity are better predictors of mortality than simple exposure measures, and that uplifts have no independent effects. PMID:26721518

  7. Untimed Design Fluency in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometrics and Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. Although normative data for older adults (OAs) are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed test, the Graphic Pattern Generation Test (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher-level executive abilities-for example, in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy OAs and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably and that this short form has high test-retest and interrater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared with OAs. A cutoff score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indexes, thereby underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD. PMID:25679880

  8. The Graphic Pattern Generation Test in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometric Properties and Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. While normative data for older adults are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed task, the Graphic Pattern Generation Task (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher level executive abilities, for example in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy older adults (OAs) and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably, and that this short form has high test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared to OAs. A cut-off score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indices, underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD. PMID:25679880

  9. Lead Exposure and Tremor among Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Hu, Howard; Louis, Elan D.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tremor is one of the most common neurological signs, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Case–control studies suggest an association between blood lead and essential tremor, and that this association is modified by polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) gene. Objective: We aimed to examine the relationship between lead and tremor, including modification by ALAD, in a prospective cohort study, using both blood lead and bone lead—a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure. Methods: We measured tibia (n = 670) and patella (n = 672) bone lead and blood lead (n = 807) among older men (age range, 50–98 years) in the VA Normative Aging Study cohort. A tremor score was created based on an approach using hand-drawing samples. ALAD genotype was dichotomized as ALAD-2 carriers or not. We used linear regression adjusted for age, education, smoking, and alcohol intake to estimate the associations between lead biomarkers and tremor score. Results: In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginal association between quintiles of all lead biomarkers and tremor scores (p-values < 0.13), which did not persist in adjusted models. Age was the strongest predictor of tremor. Among those younger than the median age (68.9 years), tremor increased significantly with blood lead (p = 0.03), but this pattern was not apparent for bone lead. We did not see modification by ALAD or an association between bone lead and change in tremor score over time. Conclusion: Our results do not strongly support an association between lead exposure and tremor, and suggest no association with cumulative lead biomarkers, although there is some suggestion that blood lead may be associated with tremor among the younger men in our cohort. Citation: Ji JS, Power MC, Sparrow D, Spiro A III, Hu H, Louis ED, Weisskopf MG. 2015. Lead exposure and tremor among older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:445–450; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408535

  10. Optimism and depression as predictors of physical and mental health functioning: the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Achat, H; Kawachi, I; Spiro, A; DeMolles, D A; Sparrow, D

    2000-01-01

    Dispositional optimism has been linked in previous studies to better health outcomes. We sought to examine the independent associations of dispositional optimism and depressive symptoms with physical and mental functioning in a cohort of healthy middle-aged and older men. The study was conducted among 659 subjects in the Veterans Administration (VA) Normative Aging Study. Dispositional optimism and depressive symptomatology were measured in 1991 and 1990, respectively, by the Life Orientation Test and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D). The dependent variables, functioning and well-being, were measured in 1992 by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate regression models, optimism was associated with higher levels of general health perceptions, vitality, and mental health, and lower levels of bodily pain, but not to physical functioning, social functioning, or role limitations due to physical or emotional problems. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced levels of functioning across all SF-36 domains. The findings for optimism and depression were statistically significant after mutual adjustment in multivariate regression models. Optimism and depression are independent predictors of functional status among aging men. PMID:10962705

  11. Blood Telomere Length Attrition and Cancer Development in the Normative Aging Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Joyce, Brian Thomas; Gao, Tao; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Yinan; Penedo, Frank J.; Liu, Siran; Zhang, Wei; Bergan, Raymond; Dai, Qi; Vokonas, Pantel; Hoxha, Mirjam; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated telomere shortening may cause cancer via chromosomal instability, making it a potentially useful biomarker. However, publications on blood telomere length (BTL) and cancer are inconsistent. We prospectively examined BTL measures over time and cancer incidence. Methods We included 792 Normative Aging Study participants with 1–4 BTL measurements from 1999 to 2012. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine BTL attrition by cancer status (relative to increasing age and decreasing years pre-diagnosis), Cox models for time-dependent associations, and logistic regression for cancer incidence stratified by years between BTL measurement and diagnosis. Findings Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases pre-diagnosis than in cancer-free participants (pdifference = 0.017); all participants had similar age-adjusted BTL 8–14 years pre-diagnosis, followed by decelerated attrition in cancer cases resulting in longer BTL three (p = 0.003) and four (p = 0.012) years pre-diagnosis. Longer time-dependent BTL was associated with prostate cancer (HR = 1.79, p = 0.03), and longer BTL measured ≤ 4 years pre-diagnosis with any (OR = 3.27, p < 0.001) and prostate cancers (OR = 6.87, p < 0.001). Interpretation Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases but their age-adjusted BTL attrition began decelerating as diagnosis approached. This may explain prior inconsistencies and help develop BTL as a cancer detection biomarker. PMID:26288820

  12. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  13. Normative Data of Thyroid Volume-Ultrasonographic Evaluation of 422 Subjects Aged 0-55 Years

    PubMed Central

    Aydıner, Ömer; Karakoç Aydıner, Elif; Akpınar, İhsan; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish local normative data of thyroid volume assessed by ultrasonography in subjects aged 0-55 years living in İstanbul, Turkey. Methods: Subjects without any known history of thyroid disease, of major surgery and/or chronic disease were enrolled in the study and evaluated by physical examination and thyroid ultrasonography. Thyroid gland and isthmus at usual location, each lateral lobe volume with three dimensions, ectopic thyroid tissue and echogenicity of the gland were assessed. Results: Initially, 494 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects showing heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma (n=21) and/or nodule (n=51) in ultrasonography were excluded. Final analysis covered 422 subjects (216 males, 206 females). Thyroid volume was found to significantly correlate with height, weight, age and body surface area (r=0.661, r=0.712, r=0.772 and r=0.779, respectively; p<0.0001 for all). These correlations were even stronger in subjects younger than 18 years (r=0.758, r=0.800, r=0.815 and r=0.802, respectively; p<0.0001 for all). Conclusion: The study provides updated reference norms for thyroid volume in Turkish subjects which can be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with thyroid diseases. PMID:26316430

  14. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study123

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katherine L; O'Neill, Marie S; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish may prevent sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Objective: We examined whether high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish would be associated with beneficial changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Design: HRV variables were measured among 586 older men with 928 total observations from November 2000 to June 2007 in the Normative Aging Study, a community-based longitudinal study of aging. Dietary intake was evaluated with a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and categorized into quartiles. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, intake of green leafy vegetables was positively associated with normalized high-frequency power and inversely associated with normalized low-frequency power (P for trend < 0.05). These significant associations were retained after further adjustment for healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and use of multivitamins. No significant association was seen between HRV measures and intakes of other fruit and vegetables, vitamin C, carotenoids, tuna and dark-meat fish, or n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids. An effect modification of intake of noncitrus fruit by obesity and of total vegetables and cruciferous vegetables by cigarette smoking was seen, which warrants further investigation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that higher intake of green leafy vegetables may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease through favorable changes in cardiac autonomic function. PMID:19158214

  15. Age and education corrected older adult normative data for a short form version of the Financial Capacity Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26168311

  16. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  17. Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study

    PubMed Central

    Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological aging; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation age (DNAm-age), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological age. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-age with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC exposure levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-age was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-age using linear mixed effects models adjusted for age, lifestyle/environmental factors, and aging-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-age. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-age in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-age were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-age and suggest that DNAm-age is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791

  18. Air Pollution and DNA Methylation: Interaction by Psychological Factors in the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Madrigano, Jaime; Baccarelli, Andrea; Mittleman, Murray A.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Cantone, Laura; Kubzansky, Laura; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a potential pathway linking air pollution to disease. Studies indicate that psychological functioning modifies the association between pollution and morbidity. The authors estimated the association of DNA methylation with ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and black carbon, using mixed models. DNA methylation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene, iNOS, and the glucocorticoid receptor gene, GCR, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing of 1,377 blood samples from 699 elderly male participants in the VA Normative Aging Study (1999–2009). The authors also investigated whether this association was modified by psychological factors including optimism or pessimism, anxiety, and depression. iNOS methylation was decreased after acute exposure to both black carbon and PM2.5. A 1-μg/m3 increase in exposure to black carbon in the 4 hours preceding the clinical examination was associated with a 0.9% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4) in iNOS, and a 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 0.6% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.03, 1.1) in iNOS. Participants with low optimism and high anxiety had associations that were 3–4 times larger than those with high optimism or low anxiety. GCR methylation was not associated with particulate air pollution exposure. PMID:22798479

  19. Breathing easy: a prospective study of optimism and pulmonary function in the normative aging study.

    PubMed

    Kubzansky, Laura D; Wright, Rosalind J; Cohen, Sheldon; Weiss, Scott; Rosner, Bernard; Sparrow, David

    2002-01-01

    Although there is good evidence that emotions are associated with chronic airways obstruction, evidence for the influence of psychological factors on the level and decline of pulmonary function is sparse. Optimism has been linked to enhanced well-being, whereas pessimism has been identified as a risk factor for poor physical health. This investigation examines prospectively the effects of optimism versus pessimism on pulmonary function. Data are from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, an ongoing cohort of older men. In 1986, 670 men completed the revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory from which we derived the bipolar Revised Optimism-Pessimism Scale. During an average of 8 years of follow-up, an average of 3 pulmonary function exams were obtained. Men with a more optimistic explanatory style had significantly higher levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (both p < .01). Interactions between time and optimism suggested that rate of decline in FEV1 over time was slower in men with a more optimistic explanatory style relative to men who were more pessimistic. These data are the first to link optimism with higher levels of pulmonary function and slower rate of pulmonary function decline in older men, a protective effect that is independent of smoking. PMID:12434946

  20. DNA methylation of oxidative stress genes and cancer risk in the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tao; Joyce, Brian Thomas; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Yinan; Dai, Qi; Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J; Tao, Meng-Hua; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea; Hou, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a primary mechanism of carcinogenesis, and methylation of genes related to it may play a role in cancer development. In this study, we examined the prospective association between blood DNA methylation of four oxidative stress genes and cancer incidence. Our study population included a total of 582 participants in the Normative Aging Study (NAS) who had blood drawn during 1-4 visits from 1999-2012 (mean follow up 9.0 years). Promoter DNA methylation of CRAT, iNOS, OGG1 and GCR in blood leukocytes was measured using pyrosequencing. We used Cox regression models to examine prospective associations between cancer incidence and both methylation at the baseline visit and methylation rate of changes over time. Baseline OGG1 methylation was associated with higher risk of all-cancer (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.15-1.78) and prostate cancer (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.03-2.25) incidence. Compared with participants remaining cancer-free, those who eventually developed cancer had significantly accelerated CRAT methylation (p = 0.04) and decelerated iNOS methylation (p<0.01) over time prior to cancer diagnosis. Accelerated CRAT methylation was associated with higher all-cancer incidence (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.06-14.30), whereas accelerated iNOS methylation was associated with lower all-cancer incidence (HR: 0.08, 95% CI 0.02-0.38). Our results suggest that methylation and its dynamic change over time in OS-related genes, including OGG1, CRAT and iNOS, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. These results can potentially facilitate the development of early detection biomarkers and new treatments for a variety of cancers. PMID:27186424

  1. Air pollution and gene-specific methylation in the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Lepeule, Johanna; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Coull, Brent A; Tarantini, Letizia; Vokonas, Pantel S; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which air pollution has multiple systemic effects in humans are not fully elucidated, but appear to include inflammation and thrombosis. This study examines whether concentrations of ozone and components of fine particle mass are associated with changes in methylation on tissue factor (F3), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). We investigated associations between air pollution exposure and gene-specific methylation in 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999–2009). We repeatedly measured methylation at multiple CpG sites within each gene’s promoter region and calculated the mean of the position-specific measurements. We examined intermediate-term associations between primary and secondary air pollutants and mean methylation and methylation at each position with distributed-lag models. Increase in air pollutants concentrations was significantly associated with F3, ICAM-1, and TLR-2 hypomethylation, and IFN-γ and IL-6 hypermethylation. An interquartile range increase in black carbon concentration averaged over the four weeks prior to assessment was associated with a 12% reduction in F3 methylation (95% CI: -17% to -6%). For some genes, the change in methylation was observed only at specific locations within the promoter region. DNA methylation may reflect biological impact of air pollution. We found some significant mediated effects of black carbon on fibrinogen through a decrease in F3 methylation, and of sulfate and ozone on ICAM-1 protein through a decrease in ICAM-1 methylation. PMID:24385016

  2. Pessimistic orientation in relation to telomere length in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ai; Schwartz, Joel; Peters, Junenette L.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Spiro, Avron; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests pessimistic orientation is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). However, this is the first study to look not only at effects of pessimistic orientation on average LTL at multiple time points, but also at effects on the rate of change in LTL over time. Methods Participants were older men from the VA Normative Aging Study (n=490). The Life Orientation Test (LOT) was used to measure optimistic and pessimistic orientations at study baseline, and relative LTL by telomere to single copy gene ratio (T:S ratio) was obtained repeatedly over the course of the study (1999-2008). A total of 1,010 observations were included in the analysis. Linear mixed effect models with a random subject intercept were used to estimate associations. Results Higher pessimistic orientation scores were associated with shorter average LTL (percent difference by 1-SD increase in pessimistic orientation (95% CI): -3.08 (-5.62, -0.46)), and the finding was maintained after adjusting for the higher likelihood that healthier individuals return for follow-up visits (-3.44 (-5.95,-0.86)). However, pessimistic orientation scores were not associated with rate of change in LTL over time. No associations were found between overall optimism and optimistic orientation subscale scores and LTL. Conclusion Higher pessimistic orientation scores were associated with shorter LTL in older men. While there was no evidence that pessimistic orientation was associated with rate of change in LTL over time, higher levels of pessimistic orientation were associated with shorter LTL at baseline and this association persisted over time. PMID:24636503

  3. Lead burden and psychiatric symptoms and the modifying influence of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism: the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Pradeep; Kelsey, Karl T; Schwartz, Joel D; Bellinger, David C; Weuve, Jennifer; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Smith, Thomas J; Nie, Huiling; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O

    2007-12-15

    The authors evaluated the association between lead burden and psychiatric symptoms and its potential modification by a delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism. Lead measurements in blood or bone and self-reported ratings on the Brief Symptom Inventory from 1991 to 2002 were available for 1,075 US men participating in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study. The authors estimated the prevalence odds ratio for the association between interquartile-range lead and abnormal symptom score, adjusting for potential confounders. An interquartile increment in tibia lead (14 microg/g) was associated with 21% higher odds of somatization (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.01, 1.46). An interquartile increment in patella lead (20 microg/g) corresponded to a 23% increase in the odds of global distress (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.02, 1.47). An interquartile increment in blood lead (2.8 microg/dl) was associated with 14% higher odds of hostility (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.02, 1.27). In all other analyses, lead was nonsignificantly associated with psychiatric symptoms. The adverse association of lead with abnormal mood scores was generally stronger among ALAD 1-1 carriers than 1-2/2-2 carriers, particularly regarding phobic anxiety symptoms (p(interaction) = 0.004). These results augment evidence of a deleterious association between lead and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:17823382

  4. Zinc supplementation sustained normative neurodevelopment in a randomized, controlled trial of Peruvian infants aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L; Caulfield, Laura E

    2014-08-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264. PMID:24850625

  5. Population normative data for the CERAD Word List and Victoria Stroop Test in younger- and middle-aged adults: Cross-sectional analyses from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hankee, Lisa D.; Preis, Sarah R.; Piers, Ryan J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Liu, Yulin; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide baseline normative data on tests of verbal memory and executive function for non-demented young to middle age adults. Methods The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word List task (CERAD-WL) and Victoria Stroop Test (VST) were administered to 3362 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) volunteer participants aged 24-78 years. Analyses of the effects of age, sex and education were conducted. Normative data on traditional measures and error responses are reported for each test. Results Traditional measures were significantly associated with both age and education in this younger-aged cohort. Error responses also evidenced significant age and education effects. Conclusion These data provide a normative comparison for assessment of verbal memory and executive functioning capabilities in young adults and may be utilized as a tool for preclinical studies of disease in younger aged adults. PMID:27410241

  6. Relationship of lead in drinking water to bone lead levels twenty years later in Boston men: the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Potula, V; Serrano, J; Sparrow, D; Hu, H

    1999-05-01

    Tap water in a city like Boston, which has old houses containing lead plumbing, is known to be a significant source of potential lead exposure. Bone lead levels integrate exposure over many years, and in vivo bone lead measurements have recently become possible with the advent of K x-ray fluorescence instruments. Thus we examined the relationship between first morning tap-water lead levels measured in homes in the 1970s and levels of lead in bone measured in the 1990s among middle-aged to elderly men who lived in those homes. We studied 129 participants in the Normative Aging Study who had lead measured in their homes' tap water in 1976 and 1977 by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. From 1991 to 1995, the same subjects had blood lead levels measured by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy and tibia and patella bone lead levels measured by K x-ray fluorescence. We ran multivariate linear regression models predicting bone lead levels that adjusted for factors which had previously been linked with this outcome in the Normative Aging Study (age, pack-years of smoking, and educational level). Among subjects who lived in houses with > or = 50 micrograms lead/liter of first morning tap water representing water that had been standing overnight in the plumbing in 1976 and 1977, those who reported medium or high levels of tap-water ingestion (> or = 1 glass/day) had progressively higher patella lead levels than did those with low levels of ingestion (< 1 glass/day). No such relationship was found among subjects who lived in houses with < 50 micrograms lead/liter of first morning tap water in 1976 and 1977. We conclude that ingestion of lead-contaminated tap water is an important predictor of elevated bone lead levels later in life. PMID:10337604

  7. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  8. Occupational Determinants of Cumulative Lead Exposure: Analysis of Bone Lead Among Men in the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, John S.; Schwartz, Joel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relation between occupation and cumulative lead exposure—assessed by measuring bone lead—in a community-dwelling population Method We measured bone lead concentration with K-shell X-Ray Fluorescence in 1,320 men in the Normative Aging Study. We categorized job titles into 14 broad US Census Bureau categories. We used ordinary least squares regression to estimate bone lead by job categories adjusted for other predictors. Results Service Workers, Construction and Extractive Craft Workers, and Installation, Maintenance and Repair Craft Workers had the highest bone lead concentrations. Including occupations significantly improved the overall model (p<0.001) and reduced by −15% to −81% the association between bone lead and education categories. Conclusion Occupation significantly predicts cumulative lead exposure in a community-dwelling population, and accounts for a large proportion of the association between education and bone lead. PMID:24709766

  9. A delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism may modify the relationship of low-level lead exposure to uricemia and renal function: the normative aging study.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Tsang; Kelsey, Karl; Schwartz, Joel; Sparrow, David; Weiss, Scott; Hu, Howard

    2003-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether a known delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) exon 4 polymorphism has a modifying effect on the association of blood or bone lead level with uricemia and indices of renal function among middle-aged and elderly men. We performed a cross-sectional study of subjects who participated between 1991 and 1995 in the Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Information on blood lead levels, bone lead levels (measured by K-shell X-ray fluorescence), serum uric acid, serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, and ALAD polymorphism status was available in 709 subjects. Regression models were constructed to examine the relationships of serum uric acid, serum creatinine, and estimated creatinine clearance to blood or bone lead level, stratified by genotype. We also adjusted for age, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and ingestion of analgesic medications (n = 638). Of the 709 subjects, 7 (1%) and 107 (15%) were homozygous and heterozygous for the variant (ALAD-2) allele, respectively. The mean (range) serum uric acid and creatinine levels were 6.5 (2.9-10.6) and 1.2 (0.6-2.5) mg/dL. No significant differences were found in serum uric acid, serum creatinine, or estimated creatinine clearance by ALAD genotype. However, after adjusting for other potential confounders, we found a significant linear relationship between serum uric acid and patella bone lead (p = 0.040) among the ALAD 1-2/2-2 genotype individuals above a threshold patellar lead level of 15 micro g/g. In contrast, among the wild-type (ALAD 1-1) individuals, there was a suggestion of a significant linear relationship of serum uric acid with patella bone lead (p = 0.141), but only after a threshold of 101 micro g/g. There was evidence of a significant (p = 0.025) interaction of tibia lead with genotype (ALAD 1-1 vs. ALAD 1-2/2-2) regarding serum creatinine as an outcome, but in the same linear regression model tibia lead alone

  10. Long-term Exposure to Black Carbon and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mittleman, Murray A.; Coull, Brent A.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Bots, Michiel L.; Schwartz, Joel; Sparrow, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that air pollution is associated with atherosclerosis and that traffic-related particles are a particularly important contributor to the association. Objectives: We investigated the association between long-term exposure to black carbon, a correlate of traffic particles, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) in elderly men residing in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area. Methods: We estimated 1-year average exposures to black carbon at the home addresses of Normative Aging Study participants before their first CIMT measurement. The association between estimated black carbon levels and CIMT was estimated using mixed effects models to account for repeated outcome measures. In secondary analyses, we examined whether living close to a major road or average daily traffic within 100 m of residence was associated with CIMT. Results: There were 380 participants (97% self-reported white race) with an initial visit between 2004 and 2008. Two or three follow-up CIMT measurements 1.5 years apart were available for 340 (89%) and 260 (68%) men, respectively. At first examination, the average ± SD age was 76 ± 6.4 years and the mean ± SD CIMT was 0.99 ± 0.18 mm. A one-interquartile range increase in 1-year average black carbon (0.26 µg/m3) was associated with a 1.1% higher CIMT (95% CI: 0.4, 1.7%) based on a fully adjusted model. Conclusions: Annual mean black carbon concentration based on spatially resolved exposure estimates was associated with CIMT in a population of elderly men. These findings support an association between long-term air pollution exposure and atherosclerosis. Citation: Wilker EH, Mittleman MA, Coull BA, Gryparis A, Bots ML, Schwartz J, Sparrow D. 2013. Long-term exposure to black carbon and carotid intima-media thickness: the Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1061–1067; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104845 [Online 2 July 2013] PMID:23820848

  11. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  12. Psychological factors and DNA methylation of genes related to immune/inflammatory system markers: the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Kubzansky, Laura D; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although psychological factors have been associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), the underlying pathways for these associations have yet to be elucidated. DNA methylation has been posited as a mechanism linking psychological factors to CHD risk. In a cohort of community-dwelling elderly men, we explored the associations between positive and negative psychological factors with DNA methylation in promoter regions of multiple genes involved in immune/inflammatory processes related to atherosclerosis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants Samples of 538 to 669 men participating in the Normative Aging Study cohort with psychological measures and DNA methylation measures, collected on 1–4 visits between 1999 and 2006 (mean age=72.7 years at first visit). Outcome measures We examined anxiety, depression, hostility and life satisfaction as predictors of leucocyte gene-specific DNA methylation. We estimated repeated measures linear mixed models, controlling for age, smoking, education, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes, % lymphocytes, % monocytes and plasma folate. Results Psychological distress measured by anxiety, depression and hostility was positively associated, and happiness and life satisfaction were inversely associated with average Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and coagulation factor III (F3) promoter methylation levels. There was some evidence that hostility was positively associated with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) promoter methylation, and that life satisfaction was inversely associated with TLR-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter methylation. We observed less consistent and significant associations between psychological factors and average methylation for promoters of the genes for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Conclusions These findings suggest that positive and negative

  13. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension: Further analyses of the normative aging study data

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.; Kim, Rokho; Korrick, S. |; Rotnitzky, A.

    1996-12-31

    In an earlier report based on participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, we found a significant association between the risk of hypertension and lead levels in tibia. To examine the possible confounding effects of education and occupation, we considered in this study five levels of education and three levels of occupation as independent variables in the statistical model. Of 1,171 active subjects seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 563 provided complete data for this analysis. In the initial logistic regression model, acre and body mass index, family history of hypertension, and dietary sodium intake, but neither cumulative smoking nor alcohol ingestion, conferred increased odds ratios for being hypertensive that were statistically significant. When the lead biomarkers were added separately to this initial logistic model, tibia lead and patella lead levels were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for hypertension. In the final backward elimination logistic regression model that included categorical variables for education and occupation, the only variables retained were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and tibia lead level. We conclude that education and occupation variables were not confounding the association between the lead biomarkers and hypertension that we reported previously. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Do Hassles Mediate between Life Events and Mortality in Older Men? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Choun, Soyoung; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether hassles mediated the effect of life events on mortality in a sample of 1,293 men (Mage = 65.58, SD = 7.01), participants in the VA Normative Aging Study. We utilized measures of stressful life event (SLE) and hassles from 1989 to 2004, and men were followed for mortality until 2010. For life events and hassles, previous research identified three and four patterns of change over time, respectively, generally indicating low, moderate, and high trajectories, with one moderate, non-linear pattern for hassles (shallow U curve). Controlling for demographics and health behaviors, we found that those with moderate SLE trajectories (38%) more likely to die than those with low SLE trajectories, HR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.16, 3.45]. Including the hassles classes showed that those with the moderate non-linear hassles trajectory were 63% more likely to die than those with low hassles trajectory, HR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.19, 2.23],, while those with consistently high hassles trajectory were over 3 times more likely to die, HR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.58, 6.89]. However, the HR for moderate SLE trajectory decreased only slightly to 1.38, 95% CI [1.13, 1.68], suggesting that the two types of stress have largely independent effects on mortality. Research is needed to determine the physiological and behavioral pathways through which SLE and hassles differentially affect mortality. PMID:24995936

  15. Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors From Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children’s covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems (EXT). Cheating behavior was measured using two resistance-to-temptation tasks and coded for extent of cheating, latency to cheat, and inappropriate positive affect. Mothers rated internalized conduct and three forms of self-regulation: inhibitory control, impulsivity, and affective distress. Mothers and teachers reported EXT concurrently (T1) and 4 years later, when children averaged 10 years of age (T2). Children categorized as severe cheaters manifested lower inhibitory control, greater impulsivity, and lower levels of internalized conduct at T1. Children in this group also manifested higher levels of EXT in home and school settings at T1 and more EXT in the school setting at T2, even after accounting for T1 ratings. PMID:21058125

  16. Assessment of cheating behavior in young school-age children: distinguishing normative behaviors from risk markers of externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Callender, Kevin A; Olson, Sheryl L; Kerr, David C R; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems (EXT). Cheating behavior was measured using two resistance-to-temptation tasks and coded for extent of cheating, latency to cheat, and inappropriate positive affect. Mothers rated internalized conduct and three forms of self-regulation: inhibitory control, impulsivity, and affective distress. Mothers and teachers reported EXT concurrently (T1) and 4 years later, when children averaged 10 years of age (T2). Children categorized as severe cheaters manifested lower inhibitory control, greater impulsivity, and lower levels of internalized conduct at T1. Children in this group also manifested higher levels of EXT in home and school settings at T1 and more EXT in the school setting at T2, even after accounting for T1 ratings. PMID:21058125

  17. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Sina; Vanstone, Catherine A.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2012-01-01

    For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD) and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation), weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada). Whole body (WB) as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4) and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc.) providing bone mineral content (BMC) for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0 ± 14.2 versus 227.0 ± 29.7 g), spine BMC by 130% (2.35 ± 0.42 versus 5.37 ± 1.02 g), and femur BMC by 190% (2.94 ± 0.54 versus 8.50 ± 1.84 g). Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266 ± 0.044 versus 0.304 ± 0.044 g/cm2) during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals. PMID:23091773

  18. Associations between Changes in City and Address Specific Temperature and QT Interval - The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J.; Kloog, Itai; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Background The underlying mechanisms of the association between ambient temperature and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well understood, particularly for daily temperature variability. We evaluated if daily mean temperature and standard deviation of temperature was associated with heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization in a prospective cohort of older men. Methods This longitudinal analysis included 487 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with up to three visits between 2000–2008 (n = 743). We analyzed associations between QTc and moving averages (1–7, 14, 21, and 28 days) of the 24-hour mean and standard deviation of temperature as measured from a local weather monitor, and the 24-hour mean temperature estimated from a spatiotemporal prediction model, in time-varying linear mixed-effect regression. Effect modification by season, diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, and age was also evaluated. Results Higher mean temperature as measured from the local monitor, and estimated from the prediction model, was associated with longer QTc at moving averages of 21 and 28 days. Increased 24-hr standard deviation of temperature was associated with longer QTc at moving averages from 4 and up to 28 days; a 1.9°C interquartile range increase in 4-day moving average standard deviation of temperature was associated with a 2.8 msec (95%CI: 0.4, 5.2) longer QTc. Associations between 24-hr standard deviation of temperature and QTc were stronger in colder months, and in participants with diabetes and coronary heart disease. Conclusion/Significance In this sample of older men, elevated mean temperature was associated with longer QTc, and increased variability of temperature was associated with longer QTc, particularly during colder months and among individuals with diabetes and coronary heart disease. These findings may offer insight of an important underlying mechanism of temperature

  19. Association between long-term exposure to traffic particles and blood pressure in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Joel; Alexeeff, Stacey E; Mordukhovich, Irina; Gryparis, Alexandros; Vokonas, Pantel; Suh, Helen; Coull, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular events, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The main objective was to assess the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure (BP). Methods The authors used longitudinal data from 853 elderly men participating in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, followed during 1996–2008. Long-term average exposures to traffic particles were created from daily predictions of black carbon (BC) exposure at the geocoded address of each subject, using a validated spatiotemporal model based on ambient monitoring at 82 Boston-area locations. The authors examined the association of these exposures with BP using a mixed model. The authors included the following covariates: age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, fasting glucose, creatinine clearance, use of cardiovascular medication, education, census-level poverty, day of week and season of clinical visit. Results The authors found significant positive associations between 1-year average BC exposure and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. An IQR increase in 1-year average BC exposure (0.32 µg/m3) was associated with a 2.64 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure (95% CI 1.47 to 3.80) and a 2.41 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (95% CI 1.77 to 3.05). Conclusions Long-term exposure to traffic particles is associated with increased BP, which may explain part of the association with myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths reported in cohort studies. PMID:22383587

  20. Ambient pollutants, polymorphisms associated with microRNA processing and adhesion molecules: the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    2.5 seven day moving averages are associated with higher sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels. SO4-2 seven day moving averages are associated with higher sICAM-1 and a suggestive association was observed with sVCAM-1 in aging men. SNPs in miRNA-processing genes may modify associations between ambient pollution and sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, which are correlates of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:21600003

  1. Google and the "Twisted Cyber Spy" Affair: US-Chinese Communication in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Stephen John

    2011-01-01

    The "twisted cyber spy" affair began in 2010, when Google was attacked by Chinese cyber-warriors charged with stealing Google's intellectual property, planting viruses in its computers, and hacking the accounts of Chinese human rights activists. In the ensuing international embroglio, the US mainstream press, corporate leaders, and White House…

  2. Impact of Rural Residence on Survival of Male Veterans Affairs Patients after Age 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Todd A.; Wallace, Amy E.; Weeks, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: More than 1 in 5 Veterans Affairs (VA) users lives in a rural setting. Rural veterans face different barriers to health care than their urban counterparts, but their risk of death relative to their urban counterparts is unknown. The objective of our study was to compare survival between rural and urban VA users. Methods: We linked the…

  3. Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors from Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems…

  4. Cumulative lead exposure is associated with reduced olfactory recognition performance in elderly men: the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Grashow, Rachel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Olfactory dysfunction has been identified as an early warning sign for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and more. A few occupational and environmental exposures have also been associated with reduced olfactory function, although the effects of long term environmental exposure to lead on olfactory dysfunction have not been explored. Here we performed olfactory recognition testing in elderly men in a community-dwelling cohort and examined the association with cumulative lead exposure, as assessed by lead in tibial and patellar bone. Methods Olfactory recognition was measured in 165 men from the Normative Aging Study (NAS) who had previously taken part in bone lead measurements using K-X-Ray fluorescence (KXRF). Olfactory recognition was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Associations between olfactory recognition, global cognition and cumulative lead exposure were estimated using linear regression, with additional adjustment for age, smoking, and functional polymorphism status for hemochromatosis (HFE), transferrin (TfC2), glutathione-s-transferase Pi1 (GSTP1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Sensitivity analyses explored olfactory recognition in men with high global cognitive function as measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE). Results The average age of the NAS participants at the time of olfactory recognition testing was 80.3 (standard deviation or SD = 5.7) years. Mean tibia lead was 16.3 (SD = 12.0) μg/g bone, mean patella lead was 22.4 (SD = 14.4) μg/g bone, and mean UPSIT score was 26.9 out of 40 (SD = 7.0). Consistent with previous findings, age at olfaction testing was negatively associated with UPSIT score. Tibia (but not patella) bone lead was negatively associated with olfaction recognition (per 15 μg/g tibia lead: β = −1.57; 95% CI: −2.93, −0.22; p = 0.02) in models adjusted for smoking and age. Additional adjustment for education did not

  5. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60–75: impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol, and video gaming

    PubMed Central

    Wilms, Inge L.; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60–75. The estimates were modeled from input from a whole-report assessment based on a theory of visual attention. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity, and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular. PMID:25339932

  6. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol, and video gaming.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modeled from input from a whole-report assessment based on a theory of visual attention. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity, and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular. PMID:25339932

  7. Measuring health-related quality of life in the population of Tetouan, Morocco, by the SF-36: normative data and the influence of gender and age.

    PubMed

    El Emrani, L; Senhaji, M; Bendriss, A

    2016-02-01

    Measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an essential complement to medical evaluation. However, few studies of this type have been conducted in Morocco. This study aims to develop normative data for the SF-36 and analyse the HRQOL according to gender and age in the population of Tetouan city, Morocco. The SF-36 was administered to a sample selected by quotas containing 385 subjects aged over 16 years living in Tetouan. Comparisons of means were done to determine the significance of differences. The study population perceived mental health to be worse than physical health. Men presented significantly higher mean scores than women for all domains of the SF-36. Perceived health, especially physical health, declines with age, and so participants over the age of 55years recorded a poor perception of their health in the majority of domains measured. The results highlight the vulnerability of the two groups: women and the elderly. PMID:27180741

  8. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Montagne, Barbara; Hendriks, Angelique W; Perrett, David I; de Haan, Edward H F

    2014-03-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception. PMID:23409767

  9. Information Age Commission Act of 1986. Report to Accompany S. 786. Committee on Governmental Affairs, from the Senate 99th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    Submitted to Congress by Senator William V. Roth, Jr., of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, this document reports favorably on Senate Bill 786 (the Information Age Commission Act of 1986), legislation designed to establish a commission to study the impact of computer and communications systems on American society. The report provides: (1) a…

  10. Normative shifts of cortical mechanisms of encoding contribute to adult age differences in visual-spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-06-01

    The capacity of visual-spatial working memory (WM) declines from early to late adulthood. Recent attempts at identifying neural correlates of WM capacity decline have focused on the maintenance phase of WM. Here, we investigate neural mechanisms during the encoding phase as another potential mechanism contributing to adult age differences in WM capacity. We used electroencephalography to track neural activity during encoding and maintenance on a millisecond timescale in 35 younger and 35 older adults performing a visual-spatial WM task. As predicted, we observed pronounced age differences in ERP indicators of WM encoding: Younger adults showed attentional selection during item encoding (N2pc component), but this selection mechanism was greatly attenuated in older adults. Conversely, older adults showed more pronounced signs of early perceptual stimulus processing (N1 component) than younger adults. The amplitude modulation of the N1 component predicted WM capacity in older adults, whereas the attentional amplitude modulation of the N2pc component predicted WM capacity in younger adults. Our findings suggest that adult age differences in mechanisms of WM encoding contribute to adult age differences in limits of visual-spatial WM capacity. PMID:23415947

  11. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory: normative data by sex and age from a Spanish normal randomized sample

    PubMed Central

    Labad, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes; Gaviria, Ana; Bayón, Carmen; Vilella, Elisabet; Cloninger, C. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The psychometric properties regarding sex and age for the revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and its derived short version, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-140), were evaluated with a randomized sample from the community. Methods. A randomized sample of 367 normal adult subjects from a Spanish municipality, who were representative of the general population based on sex and age, participated in the current study. Descriptive statistics and internal consistency according to α coefficient were obtained for all of the dimensions and facets. T-tests and univariate analyses of variance, followed by Bonferroni tests, were conducted to compare the distributions of the TCI-R dimension scores by age and sex. Results. On both the TCI-R and TCI-140, women had higher scores for Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness than men, whereas men had higher scores for Persistence. Age correlated negatively with Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness and positively with Harm Avoidance and Self-transcendence. Young subjects between 18 and 35 years had higher scores than older subjects in NS and RD. Subjects between 51 and 77 years scored higher in both HA and ST. The alphas for the dimensions were between 0.74 and 0.87 for the TCI-R and between 0.63 and 0.83 for the TCI-140. Conclusion. Results, which were obtained with a randomized sample, suggest that there are specific distributions of personality traits by sex and age. Overall, both the TCI-R and the abbreviated TCI-140 were reliable in the ‘good-to-excellent’ range. A strength of the current study is the representativeness of the sample. PMID:26713237

  12. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Renal Function in Older Men: The Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Bind, Marie-Abele C.; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unknown if ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with lower renal function, a cardiovascular risk factor. Objective: We investigated whether long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a cohort of older men living in the Boston Metropolitan area. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 669 participants from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study with up to four visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1,715 visits). Serum creatinine was measured at each visit, and eGFR was calculated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. One-year exposure to PM2.5 prior to each visit was assessed using a validated spatiotemporal model that utilized satellite remote-sensing aerosol optical depth data. eGFR was modeled in a time-varying linear mixed-effects regression model as a continuous function of 1-year PM2.5, adjusting for important covariates. Results: One-year PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower eGFRs; a 2.1-μg/m3 interquartile range higher 1-year PM2.5 was associated with a 1.87 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR [95% confidence interval (CI): –2.99, –0.76]. A 2.1 μg/m3-higher 1-year PM2.5 was also associated with an additional annual decrease in eGFR of 0.60 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year (95% CI: –0.79, –0.40). Conclusions: In this longitudinal sample of older men, the findings supported the hypothesis that long-term PM2.5 exposure negatively affects renal function and increases renal function decline. Citation: Mehta AJ, Zanobetti A, Bind MC, Kloog I, Koutrakis P, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz JD. 2016. Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and renal function in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1353–1360; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510269 PMID:26955062

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation and Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Three Study Populations: KORA F3, KORA F4, and the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Panni, Tommaso; Mehta, Amar J.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Just, Allan C.; Wolf, Kathrin; Wahl, Simone; Cyrys, Josef; Kunze, Sonja; Strauch, Konstantin; Waldenberger, Melanie; Peters, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and cancer and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. DNA methylation has been identified as a possible link but so far it has only been analyzed in candidate sites. Objectives: We studied the association between DNA methylation and short- and mid-term air pollution exposure using genome-wide data and identified potential biological pathways for additional investigation. Methods: We collected whole blood samples from three independent studies—KORA F3 (2004–2005) and F4 (2006–2008) in Germany, and the Normative Aging Study (1999–2007) in the United States—and measured genome-wide DNA methylation proportions with the Illumina 450k BeadChip. PM concentration was measured daily at fixed monitoring stations and three different trailing averages were considered and regressed against DNA methylation: 2-day, 7-day and 28-day. Meta-analysis was performed to pool the study-specific results. Results: Random-effect meta-analysis revealed 12 CpG (cytosine-guanine dinucleotide) sites as associated with PM concentration (1 for 2-day average, 1 for 7-day, and 10 for 28-day) at a genome-wide Bonferroni significance level (p ≤ 7.5E-8); 9 out of these 12 sites expressed increased methylation. Through estimation of I2 for homogeneity assessment across the studies, 4 of these sites (annotated in NSMAF, C1orf212, MSGN1, NXN) showed p > 0.05 and I2 < 0.5: the site from the 7-day average results and 3 for the 28-day average. Applying false discovery rate, p-value < 0.05 was observed in 8 and 1,819 additional CpGs at 7- and 28-day average PM2.5 exposure respectively. Conclusion: The PM-related CpG sites found in our study suggest novel plausible systemic pathways linking ambient PM exposure to adverse health effect through variations in DNA methylation. Citation: Panni T, Mehta AJ, Schwartz JD, Baccarelli AA, Just AC, Wolf K, Wahl S, Cyrys J, Kunze S, Strauch K

  14. Normativity, agency, and life.

    PubMed

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time. PMID:22326078

  15. Normative Integration, Alienation, and Conformity in Adolescent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ronald A.

    Data from 61 children's groups indicate that early adolescent (modal age 10 years) and late adolescent (modal age 15 years) children's groups are characterized by high levels of normative integration, or norm consensus. In contrast, groups passing through middle adolescence (modal age 11-14 years) are characterized by significantly lower levels of…

  16. Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

    This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

  17. Revising the BIS/BAS Scale to study development: Measurement invariance and normative effects of age and sex from childhood through adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccio, David; Luking, Katherine R; Anokhin, Andrey P; Gotlib, Ian H; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Olino, Thomas M; Peng, Chun-Zi; Hajcak, Greg; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    Carver and White's (1994) Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scales have been useful tools for studying individual differences in reward-punishment sensitivity; however, their factor structure and invariance across development have not been well tested. In the current study, we examined the factor structure of the BIS/BAS Scales across 5 age groups: 6- to 10-year-old children (N = 229), 11- to 13-year-old early adolescents (N = 311), 14- to 16-year-old late adolescents (N = 353), 18- to 22-year-old young adults (N = 844), and 30- to 45-year-old adults (N = 471). Given poor fit of the standard 4-factor model (BIS, Reward Responsivity, Drive, Fun Seeking) in the literature, we conducted exploratory factor analyses in half of the participants and identified problematic items across age groups. The 4-factor model showed poor fit in our sample, whereas removing the BAS Fun Seeking subscale and problematic items from the remaining subscales improved fit in confirmatory factor analyses conducted with the second half of the participants. The revised model showed strict invariance across age groups and by sex, indicating consistent factor structure, item loadings, thresholds, and unique or residual variances. Additionally, in our cross-sectional data, we observed nonlinear relations between age and subscale scores, where scores tended to be higher in young adulthood than in childhood and later adulthood. Furthermore, sex differences emerged across development; adolescent and adult females had higher BIS scores than males in this age range, whereas sex differences were not observed in childhood. These differences may help us to understand the rise in internalizing psychopathology in adolescence, particularly in females. Future developmental studies are warranted to examine the impact of rewording problematic items. PMID:26302106

  18. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmerus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother--child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment.…

  19. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  20. A Student Affairs Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    Considers the future of student affairs work in higher education. Begins in the year 2003 at meeting of International Association of Student Affairs and travels back in time through other annual meetings of the association. Compares this fictitious odyssey with Homer's "Odyssey" throughout the article. (NB)

  1. Normative Values for Corneal Nerve Morphology Assessed Using Corneal Confocal Microscopy: A Multinational Normative Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Ferdousi, Maryam; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Morris, Julie; Pritchard, Nicola; Zhivov, Andrey; Ziegler, Dan; Pacaud, Danièle; Romanchuk, Kenneth; Perkins, Bruce A.; Lovblom, Leif E.; Bril, Vera; Singleton, J. Robinson; Smith, Gordon; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Efron, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel diagnostic technique for the detection of nerve damage and repair in a range of peripheral neuropathies, in particular diabetic neuropathy. Normative reference values are required to enable clinical translation and wider use of this technique. We have therefore undertaken a multicenter collaboration to provide worldwide age-adjusted normative values of corneal nerve fiber parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,965 corneal nerve images from 343 healthy volunteers were pooled from six clinical academic centers. All subjects underwent examination with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph corneal confocal microscope. Images of the central corneal subbasal nerve plexus were acquired by each center using a standard protocol and analyzed by three trained examiners using manual tracing and semiautomated software (CCMetrics). Age trends were established using simple linear regression, and normative corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), corneal nerve fiber branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), and corneal nerve fiber tortuosity (CNFT) reference values were calculated using quantile regression analysis. RESULTS There was a significant linear age-dependent decrease in CNFD (−0.164 no./mm2 per year for men, P < 0.01, and −0.161 no./mm2 per year for women, P < 0.01). There was no change with age in CNBD (0.192 no./mm2 per year for men, P = 0.26, and −0.050 no./mm2 per year for women, P = 0.78). CNFL decreased in men (−0.045 mm/mm2 per year, P = 0.07) and women (−0.060 mm/mm2 per year, P = 0.02). CNFT increased with age in men (0.044 per year, P < 0.01) and women (0.046 per year, P < 0.01). Height, weight, and BMI did not influence the 5th percentile normative values for any corneal nerve parameter. CONCLUSIONS This study provides robust worldwide normative reference values for corneal nerve parameters to be used in research and clinical practice in the study of diabetic and other peripheral

  2. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmérus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother – child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety. PMID:16274437

  3. Physical discipline and children's adjustment: cultural normativeness as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Palmérus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother-child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety. PMID:16274437

  4. Toddlers View Artifact Function Normatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Krista; Terziyan, Treysi; Greene, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    When children use objects like adults, are they simply tracking regularities in others' object use, or are they demonstrating a normatively defined awareness that there are right and wrong ways to act? This study provides the first evidence for the latter possibility. Young 2- and 3-year-olds (n = 32) learned functions of 6 artifacts, both…

  5. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  6. [Spanish verbal fluency. Normative data in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Butman, J; Allegri, R F; Harris, P; Drake, M

    2000-01-01

    Letter and category fluency tasks are used to assess semantic knowledge, retrieval ability, and executive functioning. The original normative data have been obtained mainly from English speaking populations; there are few papers on norms in other languages. The purpose of this study was to collect normative scores in Argentina and to evaluate the effects of sex, age, education and cognitive status on the letter and category fluency tasks, in 266 healthy Spanish-speaking participants (16 to 86 years). Mean education span was 12.8 +/- 4 years. In each subject a neuropsychological battery (Minimental State Exam, Signoret Memory Battery, Boston Naming Test and Trail Making Test) was carried out as well as category fluency (naming animals in one minute) and letter fluency (words beginning with letter "p" in one minute). The sample was arranged into a group of subjects with less than 45 years and further groups up to 10 more years, until 75 years (or more) with three different levels of education. Significant effects were found for age, education, and Minimental State Exam on performance of both fluencies. Mean performance scores are presented for each group to be used in Argentina. PMID:11188892

  7. Normative Beliefs about Sharing Housing with an Older Family Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial…

  8. Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

  9. Public affairs plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the fiscal year (FY) 1996 UMTRA Project public affairs program and to identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It describes the roles of various agencies involved in the public affairs program and defines the functions of the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It replaces the FY 1995 Public Affairs Plan (DOE/AL/62350-154). The plan also describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about UMTRA Project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in UMTRA Project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Team; the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO); the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Public Affairs (OPA); the TAC; the UMTRA Project Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  10. Developmental changes in children's normative reasoning across learning contexts and collaborative roles.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Anne E; Young, Andrew G

    2016-08-01

    What influences children's normative judgments of conventional rules at different points in development? The current study explored the effects of two contextual factors on children's normative reasoning: the way in which the rules were learned and whether the rules apply to the self or others. Peer dyads practiced a novel collaborative board game comprising two complementary roles. Dyads were either taught both the prescriptive (i.e., what to do) and proscriptive (i.e., what not to do) forms of the rules, taught only the prescriptive form of the rules, or created the rules themselves. Children then judged whether third parties were violating or conforming to the rules governing their own roles and their partner's roles. Early school-aged children's (6- to 7-year-olds; N = 60) normative judgments were strongest when they had been taught the rules (with or without the proscriptive form), but were more flexible for rules they created themselves. Preschool-aged children's (4- to 5-year-olds; N = 60) normative judgments, however, were strongest when they were taught both the prescriptive and proscriptive forms of the rules. Additionally, preschoolers exhibited stronger normative judgments when the rules governed their own roles rather than their partner's roles, whereas school-aged children treated all rules as equally normative. These results demonstrate that children's normative reasoning is contingent on contextual factors of the learning environment and, moreover, highlight 2 specific areas in which children's inferences about the normativity of conventions strengthen over development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359156

  11. Designing normative open virtual enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Emilia; Giret, Adriana; Botti, Vicente

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest on developing virtual enterprises in order to deal with the globalisation of the economy, the rapid growth of information technologies and the increase of competitiveness. In this paper we deal with the development of normative open virtual enterprises (NOVEs). They are systems with a global objective that are composed of a set of heterogeneous entities and enterprises that exchange services following a specific normative context. In order to analyse and design systems of this kind the multi-agent paradigm seems suitable because it offers a specific solution for supporting the social and contractual relationships between enterprises and for formalising their business processes. This paper presents how the Regulated Open Multi-agent systems (ROMAS) methodology, an agent-oriented software methodology, can be used to analyse and design NOVEs. ROMAS offers a complete development process that allows identifying and formalising of the structure of NOVEs, their normative context and the interactions among their members. The use of ROMAS is exemplified by means of a case study that represents an automotive supply chain.

  12. Public affairs plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  13. The Schoen Affair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Eugenie Samuel

    2010-03-01

    The Schoen Affair was a series of groundbreaking fraudulent claims in the fields of organic, plastic and molecular electronics. The Affair was exposed in 2002 and perpetrated by Jan Hendrik Schoen, a researcher at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey. In this talk, I draw on interviews with 125 scientists, emails by Schoen and colleagues, reviews of the fraudulent papers, and analyses of the fake data to illuminate Schoen's motive and modus operandi. I focus particularly on how Schoen first began to fake data as a graduate student, and how he progressed to make fraudulent claims that appeared plausible to managers at Bell Labs and other colleagues. I also describe how his claims were handled by the journals, mostly with respect to the actions of editors and reviewers at the journals Nature and Science.

  14. Chief Student Affairs Officers' Interpretation and Implementation of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age and the Amethyst Initiative: A Discursive Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Rebecca Jane

    2012-01-01

    High-risk drinking is an endemic health and safety issue for college campuses in the United States (U.S.). While public health officials have recommended various models for campus alcohol prevention efforts, in 2008 a group of college presidents recommended a controversial strategy: reconsidering the U.S. minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). The…

  15. AIDS Education of School-Aged Youth. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    The focus of this hearing was two Government Accounting Office (GAO) evaluative reports on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) programs to educate school-aged youth about the dangers of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and ways to avoid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The GAO's first report is based on its national survey…

  16. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  17. Student Affairs Capitalism and Early-Career Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Helm, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study explores student affairs capitalism as the alteration of professional practice towards the financial interests of institutions. Student affairs capitalism has the potential to create dynamics in which the interests of students become secondary to the institution's economic needs. This study examined this phenomenon from the…

  18. Normative data on phases of the Valsalva maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denq, J. C.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    The phases of the Valsalva maneuver have well-known pathophysiology, and are used in the evaluation of adrenergic function. Because scant normative data is available, we have evaluated normative data for the Valsalva maneuver in control subjects. The patient, supine, performed the Valsalva maneuver maintaining an expiratory pressure of 40 mm Hg for 15 seconds. We reviewed 188 Valsalva maneuver recordings of normal control subjects, and recordings were excluded if two reproducible recordings were not obtained, or if expiratory pressure was <30 mm Hg or < 10 seconds. One hundred and three recordings were acceptable for analysis; 47 female and 56 male subjects, age in years (mean +/- SD) was 52.2+/-17.3 and 44.8+/-17.3, respectively. The association of expiratory pressure with age (P < 0.001) and gender ( P < 0.001) was complex, expressed as a parabola in both men and women, but resulted in phases I and III that were not significantly different. An increase in age resulted in a progressively more negative phase II_E (P < 0.05) and attenuation of phase II_L (P < 0.01). An increase in supine blood pressure resulted in a significantly more negative phase II_E (P < 0.001) and a lower phase IV. Phase IV is unaffected by age and gender.

  19. National Affairs: Facing a Perilous Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews economic, political, and social factors which will influence the United States in the 1980s. Topics include government role, government spending, living standards, international confrontations, terrorism, health care and delivery, and changing values. (DB)

  20. Preliminary Normative Data on the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task With Nonconcussed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Conder, Lauren H; Newton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Visual concentration impairment after neurologic injury is frequent, making its identification a critical component of neurocognitive concussion assessment. Visual target cancellation tests such as the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task (PSUSCT) have been widely used in assessing professional and collegiate athletes. To date, there are no normative studies using the PSUSCT with an adolescent population. Given that 38 million children and adolescents participate in sports and an estimated 5% to 10% are concussed annually, adolescent normative data are critically needed to evaluate concussions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to provide adolescent normative data on the PSUSCT. Participants included 40 healthy, nonconcussed high school students aged 14 to 19 years old (20 men, 20 women). Participants were administered Forms A and C of the PSUSCT within a 4-day period. Data analysis examined hits, omission errors, and commission errors, with descriptive statistics calculated for the total sample and for subgroups by gender and age. Study 1 provided normative adolescent data on Form A. Study 2 examined practice effects and established reliable change indexes (RCIs) by comparing results on Forms A and C. Neither Study 1 nor Study 2 demonstrated significant group differences for gender or age. In conclusion, this study presents adolescent normative data, apparent practice effects, and RCIs on the PSUSCT. These norms provide data needed to appropriately include the PSUSCT in baseline and postinjury concussion evaluation batteries with adolescent student-athletes. Findings should be replicated with a larger, more heterogeneous sample. PMID:25072106

  1. A Normative Model of Serum Inhibin B in Young Males

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Amy; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibin B has been identified as a potential marker of Sertoli cell function in males. The aim of this study is to produce a normative model of serum inhibin B in males from birth to seventeen years. We used a well-defined search strategy to identify studies containing data that can contribute to a larger approximation of the healthy population. We combined data from four published studies (n = 709) and derived an internally validated model with high goodness-of-fit and normally distributed residuals. Our results show that inhibin B increases following birth to a post-natal peak of 270 pg/mL (IQR 210–335 pg/mL) and then decreases during childhood followed by a rise at around 8 years, peaking at a mean 305 pg/mL (IQR 240–445 pg/mL) at around age 17. Following this peak there is a slow decline to the standard mature adult normal range of 170 pg/mL (IQR 125–215 pg/mL). This normative model suggests that 35% of the variation in Inhibin B levels in young males is due to age alone, provides an age-specific reference range for inhibin B in the young healthy male population, and will be a powerful tool in evaluating the potential of inhibin B as a marker of Sertoli cell function in pre-pubertal boys. PMID:27077369

  2. Normative Data on Anxiety Symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents: Differences in Sex, Age, and Residence and Comparison with an American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yen, Ju-Yu; Hsu, Fan-Ching; Yang, Pinchen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the differences in the levels of anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) between Taiwanese children and adolescents and the original American standardization sample across gender and age, and to examine differences in sex, age, and residential…

  3. Student Affairs and the Bicentennial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinniman, Andrew E.

    1974-01-01

    Student Affairs professionals have an active role to play in our nation's anniversary celebration, according to the author. In this article, he describes briefly some Bicentennial programs at different universities and colleges throughout the U.S. (Author/HMV)

  4. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content House Committee on Veterans Affairs Search form Search Main menu About Chair History and Jurisdiction History of the CHOB Internship Opportunities Membership Rules and Publications Hearings Archived ...

  5. Judicial Affairs and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavela, Gary

    1996-01-01

    American colleges and universities will play an increasingly important role in revitalizing a national sense of identity and community. Judicial affairs offices can contribute to that process by helping students define and protect values essential to community life. (Author)

  6. Malaysian English, Normativity and Workplace Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair-Venugopal, Shanta

    2003-01-01

    Examines the idea that in the context of the globalized workplace, widespread use of English will exert pressure toward global uniformity yet result in the emergence of a large number of local varieties of English and hybrids. Examines such contradictory sociolinguistic tensions between the phenomenon of homogeneity and normativity on one hand and…

  7. The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and…

  8. Problematic Curriculum Development: Normative Inquiry in Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.

    1988-01-01

    Normative inquiry in curriculum (NIC) is concerned with a substantive, integrative approach to values so that the curriculum possesses integrity, consistency, and congruity. This article explores definitions and characteristics of NIC, analyzes the role of curricular influences and realities, provides suggestions for getting started, and answers…

  9. Chance and Careers: Normative versus Contextual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabral, Albert C.; Salomone, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Stresses need for model of career decision making that recognizes both normative and chance influences. Discusses role of chance on adult development, ways in which people attempt to understand impact of chance events, and influence of personal characteristics on coping with chance. Summarizes meaning of chance, effects on client decision making,…

  10. Perceptions of normative social pressure and attitudes toward alcohol use: changes during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keefe, K

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in perceived normative social pressure and attitudes as well as the importance of these variables for adolescent alcohol use. Seventh, ninth and eleventh graders (N = 386) completed a questionnaire. A majority of adolescents reported that friends pressured them not to use alcohol. Ninth and eleventh graders, however, perceived their friends as pressuring less against their alcohol use than did seventh graders. While parental influence decreased with age, peer influence did not show a consistent age difference across two drinking measures. As expected, the importance of perceived benefits increased with age, while that of perceived costs of alcohol use decreased with age. The findings suggest that the perceived normative pressure varies with the age and the behavior of the adolescent. PMID:8189725

  11. Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

  12. Normative sexual behavior in children.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, W N; Grambsch, P; Broughton, D; Kuiper, J; Beilke, R L

    1991-09-01

    A large-scale, community-based survey was done to assess the frequency of a wide variety of sexual behaviors in normal preadolescent children and to measure the relationship of these behaviors to age, gender, and socioeconomic and family variables. A sample of 880 2- through 12-year-old children screened to exclude those with a history of sexual abuse were rated by their mothers using several questionnaire measures. The frequency of different behaviors varied widely, with more aggressive sexual behaviors and behaviors imitative of adults being rare. Older children (both boys and girls) were less sexual than younger children. Sexuality was found to be related to the level of general behavior problems, as measured by the Achenbach Internalizing and Externalizing T scores and to a measure of family nudity. It was not related to socioeconomic variables. PMID:1881723

  13. Normativity in Fairy Tales: Scope, Range and Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohr, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    The article studies in three steps how the fairy tale articulates its normative content and what the educational consequence of this kind of communication is. First, the articulation of normativity in fictional literature in general is discussed. Second, the specific mode in which the fairy tale articulates its normativity is studied according to…

  14. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

  15. Normative data for subcortical regional volumes over the lifetime of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Olivier; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Dieumegarde, Louis; Duchesne, Simon

    2016-08-15

    Normative data for volumetric estimates of brain structures are necessary to adequately assess brain volume alterations in individuals with suspected neurological or psychiatric conditions. Although many studies have described age and sex effects in healthy individuals for brain morphometry assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, proper normative values allowing to quantify potential brain abnormalities are needed. We developed norms for volumetric estimates of subcortical brain regions based on cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans from 2790 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting subcortical regional volumes of each hemisphere were produced including age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors. The mean explained variance by the models was 48%. For most regions, age, sex and eTIV predicted most of the explained variance while manufacturer, magnetic field strength and interactions predicted a limited amount. Estimates of the expected volumes of an individual based on its characteristics and the scanner characteristics can be obtained using derived formulas. For a new individual, significance test for volume abnormality, effect size and estimated percentage of the normative population with a smaller volume can be obtained. Normative values were validated in independent samples of healthy adults and in adults with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27165761

  16. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-01-01

    The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

  17. Normative Study of the Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment in Illiterate and Literate Elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, Seong-Jin; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Choi, Seong Hye; Han, Seol-Heui; Shim, Yong S.; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Jeong, Jee H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to provide normative data on the Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment (LICA) and to explore the effects of age, education/literacy, and gender on the performance of this test. Methods Eight hundred and eighty-eight healthy elderly subjects, including 164 healthy illiterate subjects, participated in this study. None of the participants had serious medical, psychiatric, or neurological disorders including dementia. Bivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of age, education/literacy, and sex on the score in each of the LICA cognitive tests. The normative scores for each age and education/literacy groups are presented. Results Bivariate linear regression analyses revealed that total score and all cognitive tests of the LICA were significantly influenced by both age and education/literacy. Younger and more-educated subjects outperformed older and illiterate or less-educated subjects, respectively, in all of the tests. The normative scores of LICA total score and subset score were presented according to age (60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-80, and ≥80 years) and educational levels (illiterate, and 0-3, 4-6, and ≥7 years of education). Conclusion These results on demographic variables suggest that age and education should be taken into account when attempting to accurately interpret the results of the LICA cognitive subtests. These normative data will be useful for clinical interpretations of the LICA neuropsychological battery in illiterate and literate elderly Koreans. Similar normative studies and validations of the LICA involving different ethnic groups will help to enhance the dementia diagnosis of illiterate people of different ethnicities. PMID:26207122

  18. Modified Taylor Complex Figure: normative data from 290 adults.

    PubMed

    Casarotti, Alessandra; Papagno, Costanza; Zarino, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Data for copying and delayed recall (after a 15-min delay) of the Modified Taylor Complex Figure (MTCF), an alternative form of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF), were collected from 290 healthy participants. Normative data are provided. Age and education were significantly correlated with MTCF scores and must be corrected for to interpret results accurately. More specifically, increasing age adversely affected performance, whereas a higher education resulted in a better performance. Twenty-five participants were tested with both complex figures (MTCF and ROCF) in two separate sessions to assess correlation, which proved to be high. The collected data allow using the MTCF as a valid alternative material for testing visual long-term memory avoiding implicit learning that can occur when the same version of the ROCF is used for repeated testing sessions. PMID:23647550

  19. The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…

  20. Normative data for distal line bisection and baking tray task.

    PubMed

    Facchin, Alessio; Beschin, Nicoletta; Pisano, Alessia; Reverberi, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Line bisection is one of the tests used to diagnose unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Despite its wide application, no procedure or norms were available for the distal variant when the task was performed at distance with a laser pointer. Furthermore, the baking tray task was an ecological test aimed at diagnosing USN in a more natural context. The aim of this study was to collect normative values for these two tests in an Italian population. We recruited a sample of 191 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 20 to 89 years. They performed line bisection with a laser pointer on three different line lengths (1, 1.5, and 2 m) at a distance of 3 m. After this task, the subjects performed the baking tray task and a second repetition of line bisection to test the reliability of measurement. Multiple regression analysis revealed no significant effects of demographic variables on the performance of both tests. Normative cut-off values for the two tests were developed using non-parametric tolerance intervals. The results formed the basis for clinical use of these two tools for assessing lateralized performance of patients with brain injury and for diagnosing USN. PMID:27259570

  1. Normative biometrics for fetal ocular growth using volumetric MRI reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Estroff, Judy A.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine normative ranges for fetal ocular biometrics between 19 and 38 weeks gestational age (GA) using volumetric MRI reconstruction. Method 3D images of 114 healthy fetuses between 19 and 38 weeks GA were created using super-resolution volume reconstructions from MRI slice acquisitions. These 3D images were semi-automatically segmented to measure fetal orbit volume, binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), and ocular diameter (OD). Results All biometry correlated with GA (Volume, CC = 0.9680; BOD, CC = 0.9552; OD, CC = 0.9445; and IOD, CC = 0.8429), and growth curves were plotted against linear and quadratic growth models. Regression analysis showed quadratic models to best fit BOD, IOD and OD, and a linear model to best fit volume. Conclusion Orbital volume had the greatest correlation with GA, though BOD and OD also showed strong correlation. The normative data found in this study may be helpful for the detection of congenital fetal anomalies with more consistent measurements than are currently available. PMID:25601041

  2. A normative analysis of nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    This study addresses the question of normative analysis of the value-based aspects of nursing. In our perspective, values in science may be distinguished into (i) epistemic when related to the goals of truth and objectivity and (ii) non-epistemic when related to social, cultural or political aspects. Furthermore, values can be called constitutive when necessary for a scientific enterprise, or contextual when contingently associated with science. Analysis of the roles of the various forms of values and models of knowledge translation provides the ground to understand the specific role of values in nursing. A conceptual framework has been built to classify some of the classical perspectives on nursing knowledge and to examine the relationships between values and different forms of knowledge in nursing. It follows that adopting a normative perspective in the analysis of nursing knowledge provides key elements to identify its proper dimension. PMID:26059480

  3. Normative evidence accumulation in unpredictable environments

    PubMed Central

    Glaze, Christopher M; Kable, Joseph W; Gold, Joshua I

    2015-01-01

    In our dynamic world, decisions about noisy stimuli can require temporal accumulation of evidence to identify steady signals, differentiation to detect unpredictable changes in those signals, or both. Normative models can account for learning in these environments but have not yet been applied to faster decision processes. We present a novel, normative formulation of adaptive learning models that forms decisions by acting as a leaky accumulator with non-absorbing bounds. These dynamics, derived for both discrete and continuous cases, depend on the expected rate of change of the statistics of the evidence and balance signal identification and change detection. We found that, for two different tasks, human subjects learned these expectations, albeit imperfectly, then used them to make decisions in accordance with the normative model. The results represent a unified, empirically supported account of decision-making in unpredictable environments that provides new insights into the expectation-driven dynamics of the underlying neural signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08825.001 PMID:26322383

  4. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  5. Organizational Vitality in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Stephen F.; O'Donnell, Jo Anne

    Institutional vitality, a broad measure of the quality of organizational life at colleges and universities, has not been systematically addressed in the literature. To identify management and personnel practices which contribute to institutional vitality within student affairs divisions, a two-stage methodology was employed. First, an…

  6. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  7. Online Education in Public Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Martha H.; Hammond, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study provides an overview of the current landscape of online education in the fields of Master of Public Administration and Master of Public Policy (MPA/MPP) utilizing a dataset compiled from content analysis of MPA/MPP programs' websites and survey of 96 National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration…

  8. Office Automation in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon L.; Hamrick, Florence A.

    1987-01-01

    Offers recommendations to assist in introducing or expanding computer assistance in student affairs. Describes need for automation and considers areas of choosing hardware and software, funding and competitive bidding, installation and training, and system management. Cites greater efficiency in handling tasks and data and increased levels of…

  9. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  10. Employment Practices in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, David A.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1981-01-01

    Investigated job search and hiring practices in student affairs work. Questionnaires sent to member institutions of the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators indicated the extensive use of newspapers to advertise positions. Institutions placed a high level of importance on effective resumes and reference letters. (RC)

  11. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  12. Sustainability, Student Affairs, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kathleen G.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are developing both the next generation of leaders as well as state-of-the-art technology that allow climate reduction aspirations and triple bottom-line outcomes to become realities. Divisions of student affairs play a crucial role in the sustainability movement in colleges and universities. The technology-savvy,…

  13. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  14. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  15. Global variation in grip strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis of normative data

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Richard M.; Syddall, Holly E.; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2016-01-01

    Background: weak grip strength is a key component of sarcopenia and is associated with subsequent disability and mortality. We have recently established life course normative data for grip strength in Great Britain, but it is unclear whether the cut points we derived for weak grip strength are suitable for use in other settings. Our objective was to investigate differences in grip strength by world region using our data as a reference standard. Methods: we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for reporting age- and gender-stratified normative data for grip strength. We extracted each item of normative data and converted it on to a Z-score scale relative to our British centiles. We performed meta-regression to pool the Z-scores and compare them by world region. Findings: our search returned 806 abstracts. Sixty papers met inclusion criteria and reported on 63 different samples. Seven UN regions were represented, although most samples (n = 44) were based in developed regions. We extracted 726 normative data items relating to 96,537 grip strength observations. Normative data from developed regions were broadly similar to our British centiles, with a pooled Z-score 0.12 SDs (95% CI: 0.07, 0.17) above the corresponding British centiles. By comparison, normative data from developing regions were clearly lower, with a pooled Z-score of −0.85 SDs (95% CI: −0.94, −0.76). Interpretation: our findings support the use of our British grip strength centiles and their associated cut points in consensus definitions for sarcopenia and frailty across developed regions, but highlight the need for different cut points in developing regions. PMID:26790455

  16. An updated Italian normative dataset for the Stroop color word test (SCWT).

    PubMed

    Brugnolo, A; De Carli, F; Accardo, J; Amore, M; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ferrara, M; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Girtler, N

    2016-03-01

    The Stroop color and word test (SCWT) is widely used to evaluate attention, information processing speed, selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. Normative values for the Italian population are available only for selected age groups, or for the short version of the test. The aim of this study was to provide updated normal values for the full version, balancing groups across gender, age decades, and education. Two kinds of indexes were derived from the performance of 192 normal subjects, divided by decade (from 20 to 90) and level of education (4 levels: 3-5; 6-8; 9-13; >13 years). They were (i) the correct answers achieved for each table in the first 30 s (word items, WI; color items, CI; color word items, CWI) and (ii) the total time required for reading the three tables (word time, WT; color time, CT; color word time, CWT). For each index, the regression model was evaluated using age, education, and gender as independent variables. The normative data were then computed following the equivalent scores method. In the regression model, age and education significantly influenced the performance in each of the 6 indexes, whereas gender had no significant effect. This study confirms the effect of age and education on the main indexes of the Stroop test and provides updated normative data for an Italian healthy population, well balanced across age, education, and gender. It will be useful to Italian researchers studying attentional functions in health and disease. PMID:26621362

  17. Normative Data for Eight Neuropsychological Tests in Older Blacks and Whites from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Coresh, Josef; Coker, Laura; Wruck, Lisa; Selnes, Ola A.; Deal, Jennifer; Knopman, David; Mosley 6, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurologic disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61–82 years (mean 71 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education specific mean and −1.5 standard deviation scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equations to derive adjusted score cut-points. These robust normative data should enhance comparison across studies of cognitive aging, where these measures are widely used, and improve interpretation of performance on these tests for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment not only within the ARIC cohort, but also among older blacks and whites with similar demographics. PMID:24759546

  18. Information Communication Technology (ICT) Shaping Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Elizabeth

    This paper opens with the following questions: "How prepared are you as a student affairs professional for information communication technology (ICT)? Do you understand such concepts as portals, e-business, Napster, computer use policies, and wireless communication? Will student affairs be shaped by ICT or will student affairs help shape ICT on…

  19. A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING WORLD AFFAIRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROGERS, WILLIAM C.

    WRITTEN IN EVERYDAY ENGLISH, THIS READING BOOK PRESENTS MANY FACTS AND IDEAS ABOUT WORLD AFFAIRS. CHAPTERS COVER INTERNATIONAL LIFE, POWER IN WORLD AFFAIRS, WAR AS INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT, THE MEANS AND VARIETIES OF ARMED CONFLICT, INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT SHORT OF WAR, THE ACCOMMODATION OF CONFLICT IN WORLD AFFAIRS, AND PEACE--WHAT IT IS AND HOW TO…

  20. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M. Teresa; García-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosúa, M. Rosa; Macizo, Pedro; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7–13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided. PMID:26500594

  1. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa; García-Madruga, Juan A; Elosúa, M Rosa; Macizo, Pedro; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7-13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided. PMID:26500594

  2. The Sources of Normativity: Young Children's Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the authors investigated 2- and 3-year-old children's awareness of the normative structure of conventional games. In the target conditions, an experimenter showed a child how to play a simple rule game. After the child and the experimenter had played for a while, a puppet came (controlled by a 2nd experimenter), asked to join in,…

  3. Normative productivity of the global vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Georgii A; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2008-01-01

    Background The biosphere models of terrestrial productivity are essential for projecting climate change and assessing mitigation and adaptation options. Many of them have been developed in connection to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) that backs the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In the end of 1990s, IGBP sponsored release of a data set summarizing the model outputs and setting certain norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity. Since a number of new models and new versions of old models were developed during the past decade, these normative data require updating. Results Here, we provide the series of updates that reflects evolution of biosphere models and demonstrates evolutional stability of the global and regional estimates of terrestrial productivity. Most of them fit well the long-living Miami model. At the same time we call attention to the emerging alternative: the global potential for net primary production of biomass may be as high as 70 PgC y-1, the productivity of larch forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of taiga zone, and the productivity of rain-green forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of tropical rainforest zone. Conclusion The departure from Miami model's worldview mentioned above cannot be simply ignored. It requires thorough examination using modern observational tools and techniques for model-data fusion. Stability of normative knowledge is not its ultimate goal – the norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity must be evidence-based. PMID:19108718

  4. Normative Velopharyngeal Data in Infants: Implications for Treatment of Cleft Palate.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Graham C; Perry, Jamie L; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-09-01

    Identifying normative data related to velopharyngeal muscles and structures may have clinical significance for infants born with cleft palate, especially as they relate to selection of surgical intervention and postsurgical outcomes. Previous studies suggest that patients whose anatomy postsurgically is dissimilar to that of their normative counterparts are at risk for hypernasal speech. However, studies have not documented what constitutes "normal" anatomy for the clinically relevant population-that is, the infant population. The purpose of this study is to examine a magnetic resonance imaging database (n = 29) related to normative velopharyngeal structures and provide a preliminary comparison to 2 selected patients with repaired cleft palate. Twenty-nine healthy infants between 9 and 23 months of age (mean = 15.2 months) with normal craniofacial and velopharyngeal anatomy were recruited to participate in this study. Normative data were compared to 2 infants with repaired cleft palate between 13 and 15 months of age (mean = 14 months). Quantitative craniometric and velopharyngeal measures from the sagittal and oblique coronal image planes were collected. Variables of interest included: levator muscle, velar, and craniometric measures. Females demonstrated significantly larger intravelar segments compared with males. White infants demonstrated significantly larger levator muscles compared to non-white infants. Infants with repaired cleft palate demonstrated increased overall levator muscle length and levator extravelar length compared with infants with normal velopharyngeal anatomy.Data from the present study provide a normative database for future investigators to utilize as a comparative tool when evaluating infants with normal and abnormal velopharyngeal anatomy. PMID:27607114

  5. Masculinity and perceived normative health behaviors as predictors of men's health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mahalik, James R; Burns, Shaun M; Syzdek, Matthew

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the unique contributions of masculinity and men's perceptions of the normativeness of men's and women's health behaviors in predicting men's self-reported health behaviors. One hundred and forty men aged 18-78 were recruited from 27 unmoderated and moderated Internet listservs of potential interest to men. They completed measures on-line assessing masculinity, their perceptions of normative health behaviors for men and women, and 8 health behaviors (i.e., alcohol abuse, seatbelt use, tobacco use, physical fighting, use of social support, exercise, dietary habits, and receipt of annual medical check-ups). Findings suggest that masculinity and the perceived normativeness of other men's health behaviors significantly predicted participants' own health behaviors beyond that accounted for by socio-demographic variables (e.g., education, income). Perceptions of the normativeness of women's health behaviors were unrelated to participants' health behaviors. The findings support previous research which has found that traditional masculine gender socialization and social norms models encourage men to put their health at risk, and suggest directions for health promotion efforts when working with men. PMID:17383784

  6. Certified normal: Alzheimer's disease biomarkers and normative estimates of cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Hassenstab, Jason; Chasse, Rachel; Grabow, Perri; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Fagan, Anne M; Xiong, Chengjie; Jasielec, Mateusz; Grant, Elizabeth; Morris, John C

    2016-07-01

    Normative samples drawn from older populations may unintentionally include individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, resulting in reduced means, increased variability, and overestimation of age effects on cognitive performance. A total of 264 cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) older adults were classified as biomarker negative ("Robust Normal," n = 177) or biomarker positive ("Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease" [PCAD], n = 87) based on amyloid imaging, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and hippocampal volumes. PCAD participants performed worse than robust normals on nearly all cognitive measures. Removing PCAD participants from the normative sample yielded higher means and less variability on episodic memory, visuospatial ability, and executive functioning measures. These results were more pronounced in participants aged 75 years and older. Notably, removing PCAD participants from the sample significantly reduced age effects across all cognitive domains. Applying norms from the robust normal sample to a separate cohort did not improve Clinical Dementia Rating classification when using standard deviation cutoff scores. Overall, removing individuals with biomarker evidence of preclinical AD improves normative sample quality and substantially reduces age effects on cognitive performance but provides no substantive benefit for diagnostic classifications. PMID:27255812

  7. Normative values for a video-force plate assessment of postural control in athletic children.

    PubMed

    Howell, David R; Meehan, William P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide normative data for young athletes during the three stances of the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS) using an objective video-force plate system. Postural control was measured in 398 athletes between 8 and 18 years of age during the three stances of the mBESS using a video-force plate rating system. Girls exhibited better postural control than boys during each stance of the mBESS. Age was not significantly associated with postural control. We provide normative data for a video-force plate assessment of postural stability in pediatric athletes during the three stances of the mBESS. PMID:26863482

  8. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  9. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  10. A normative database of lumbar spine ranges of motion.

    PubMed

    Troke, Michael; Moore, Ann P; Maillardet, Frederick J; Cheek, Elizabeth

    2005-08-01

    The overall aim of the work was to develop a comprehensive normative database of indices for ranges of motion in the lumbar spine, in an asymptomatic sample of the general population. This was a repeated measures prospective study utilizing a reliable and valid instrument, the modified CA6000 Spine Motion Analyzer (Orthopedic Systems Inc. Union City CA & Troke/University of Brighton). The portable equipment was used to collect data in a variety of community settings (e.g. schools, GP surgeries, offices, leisure centres, emergency services stations). A total of 405 asymptomatic subjects (196 female, 209 male) aged 16-90 yr from sedentary, mixed and physically demanding occupations participated in the study and data were collected in standing, at different times of the day, following a standardized methodology for lumbar spine motion in the sagittal, coronal and horizontal planes. Age-related centile graphs were derived separately for male and female subjects in flexion, extension, left and right lateral flexion and left and right axial rotation. All 12 graphs are presented as an appendix located on the Manual Therapy website. Overall, flexion (73-40 degrees) and lateral flexion (28-14 degrees, L&R) declined 45% and 48%, respectively, across the age range. Extension (29-6 degrees) declined the greatest at 79%. By contrast, no overall decline in axial rotational RoMs was recorded, and the median RoM remained at 7 degrees each way across the age spectrum examined. A comprehensive database of indices of lumbar spine ranges of motion has thus been developed which is gender specific, age related, drawn from a wide age range and presents data for all three planes of motion. It is considered that the new database has a number of potential clinical and research applications. PMID:16038855

  11. Normative development of ventral striatal resting state connectivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Gee, Dylan G; Lumian, Daniel S; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2015-09-01

    Incentives play a crucial role in guiding behavior throughout our lives, but perhaps no more so than during the early years of life. The ventral striatum is a critical piece of an incentive-based learning circuit, sharing robust anatomical connections with subcortical (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and cortical structures (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insula) that collectively support incentive valuation and learning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a powerful method that provides insight into the development of the functional architecture of these connections involved in incentive-based learning. We employed a seed-based correlation approach to investigate ventral striatal rsFC in a cross-sectional sample of typically developing individuals between the ages of 4.5 and 23-years old (n=66). Ventral striatal rsFC with the mPFC showed regionally specific linear age-related changes in connectivity that were associated with age-related increases in circulating testosterone levels. Further, ventral striatal connectivity with the posterior hippocampus and posterior insula demonstrated quadratic age-related changes characterized by negative connectivity in adolescence. Finally, across this age range, the ventral striatum demonstrated positive coupling with the amygdala beginning during childhood and remaining consistently positive across age. In sum, our findings suggest that normative ventral striatal rsFC development is dynamic and characterized by early establishment of connectivity with medial prefrontal and limbic structures supporting incentive-based learning, as well as substantial functional reorganization with later developing regions during transitions into and out of adolescence. PMID:26087377

  12. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    PubMed

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2014-11-01

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton. PMID:25381220

  13. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

  14. Enhancing Medical Decision-Making Evaluations: Introduction of Normative Data for the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Niccolai, Lindsay; Marson, Daniel; Triebel, Kristen L

    2016-04-01

    A number of measures have been developed to assess medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in adults. However, their clinical utility is limited by a lack of available normative data. In the current study, we introduce age-independent and age-adjusted normative data for a measure of MDC: the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument. The sample consisted of 308 cognitively normal, community-dwelling adults ranging in age from 19 to 86 years. For age-adjusted norms, individual raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped according to empirically supported age ranges. For age-independent norms, the same method was utilized but without age-corrections being applied or participants being grouped into age ranges. This study has the potential to enhance MDC evaluations by allowing clinicians to compare a patient's performance on the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument with that of adults regardless of age as well as to same age peers. Tables containing normative corrections are supplementary material available online at http://asm.sagepub.com/supplemental. PMID:26282778

  15. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  16. Evaluating short-term and working memory in older adults: French normative data.

    PubMed

    Fournet, Nathalie; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Vallet, Fanny; Beaudoin, Marine; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Paignon, Adeline; Dantzer, Cécile; Desrichard, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Short-term and working memory (WM) capacities are subject to change with ageing, both in normal older adults and in patients with degenerative or non-degenerative neurological disease. Few normative data are available for comparisons of short-term and WM capacities in the verbal, spatial and visual domains. To provide researchers and clinicians with a set of standardised tasks that assess short-term and WM using verbal and visuospatial materials, and to present normative data for that set of tasks. The present study compiled normative French data for three short-term memory tasks (verbal, visual and spatial simple span tasks) and two WM tasks (verbal and spatial complex span tasks) obtained from 445 healthy older adults aged between 55 and 85 years. Our data reveal main effects of age, education level and gender on older adults' short-term and WM performances. Equation-based normalisation can therefore be used to take these factors into account. The results provide a set of cut-off scores for five standardised tasks that can be used to determine the presence of short-term or WM impairment in older adults. PMID:22533476

  17. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  18. The cross-cultural utility of foreign- and locally-derived normative data for three WHO-endorsed neuropsychological tests for South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrett, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin G F; Tapert, Susan F; Carey, Paul D; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L; Stein, Dan J; Fein, George

    2014-06-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  19. Normative Data on the Sleep Habits of Australian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol; Blunden, Sarah; Matricciani, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: To provide normative sleep data on 9-18 year old Australians. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: 4032 Australians aged 9-18 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 48h use of time recall, comprising sleep data for one complete night. Sleep duration, bedtime and wake time were compared across age groups, between genders, and between school and non-school days using ANOVA. Sleep duration declined with age (P < 0.0001) at the rate of 12 min/ night per year of age on school days, and 4 min on non-school days. Girls slept slightly longer than boys (5 min/ night; P = 0.03). Non-school day sleep was 16 min longer than school day sleep (P < 0.0001), with the difference increasing with age. Bedtimes got later with age (P < 0.0001), however there were no differences in bedtimes between boys and girls. Bedtimes occurred 34 min later on non-school days (P < 0.0001). Wake times were very similar across age groups on school days, but increased at the rate of 10 min/ year of age on non-school days. Wake times were similar for boys and girls, and occurred on average 82 min later on non-school days (P < 0.0001). Overall, 17% of school days and 20% of non-school days failed to meet the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sleep duration guidelines. Conclusions: Normative sleep data will provide a valuable yardstick for health and education professionals when dealing with sleep-related issues. Citation: Olds T; Maher C; Blunden S; Matricciani L. Normative data on the sleep habits of Australian children and adolescents. SLEEP 2010;33(10):1381-1388. PMID:21061861

  20. Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test: an Italian normative study.

    PubMed

    Frasson, P; Ghiretti, R; Catricalà, E; Pomati, S; Marcone, A; Parisi, L; Rossini, P M; Cappa, S F; Mariani, C; Vanacore, N; Clerici, F

    2011-12-01

    The presence of episodic memory impairment is required for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia by all current diagnostic criteria. The new research criteria proposed by Dubois et al. (Lancet Neurol 6:734-746, 2007) require that the impairment should not improve significantly with cueing, recognition testing nor after the control of effective encoding. This is considered to be the core deficit of "prodromal Alzheimer's disease". The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is a memory test that allows in assessing these specific features of memory impairment. Here, we report normative data for an Italian version of the FCSRT. The test is based on the 12 pictorial stimuli, 6 belonging to the living domain, and 6 to the non-living domain. Six scores were derived from the performance of 227 healthy Italian adults, with age, sex and education homogenously distributed across subgroups: immediate free recall (IFR), immediate total recall (ITR), delayed-free recall (DFR), delayed total recall (DTR), Index of Sensitivity of Cueing (ISC), number of intrusions. In multiple regression analyses, age emerged as an influencing factor for both IFR and DFR, with older people obtaining lower scores. Education and gender appear to influence only IFR, with better performance by more educated subjects and females. Adjusted scores were used to determine inferential cutoff scores and to compute equivalent scores. PMID:21594655

  1. 76 FR 59741 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; National Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... through the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) that will be included in the second Biennial... statements in response to this notice to Paula Church Albertson, Office of Trade and Labor Affairs, ILAB,...

  2. Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

  3. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...: International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB), U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of Public Session Meeting...), the International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB) of the U.S. Department of Labor gives notice of the..., 2013, from 9:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. ILAB requests those interested in attending provide their...

  4. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Makuch, Renee A.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and…

  5. Reflections after the Diane affair.

    PubMed

    Kant, A; van Puijenbroek, E; van Hunsel, F

    2014-09-01

    The Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received 621 reports of possible adverse drugs reactions on Diane-35® . Of all reports, 388 were received after media attention. Of the 309 reports of thromboembolic adverse drugs reactions, 18 cases were fatal. In 31 cases the thromboembolic adverse drugs reaction was initially not recognized as such. The analysis and the turmoil of the 'Diane affair' gave rise to the following reflections: Reflection 1. Continuous awareness and attention of risk of medicines is needed, also for known risks, for timely recognition of adverse drugs reactions. Reflection 2. Reporting side effects should be part of the professional attitude. Reports play a pivotal role in the detection of new adverse drugs reactions and the conditions under which known adverse drugs reactions occur. Reflection 3. Improvement of adequate use of drugs. Pharmacovigilance not only has the aim to improve knowledge on risk of medicines, but also the aim of getting this knowledge into Health Care practice. PMID:24909698

  6. Normative data for multisite quantitative ultrasound: the Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Olszynski, Wojciech P; Brown, Jacques P; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Ioannidis, George; Davison, K Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Multisite quantitative ultrasound (mQUS) machines are attractive tools for assessing fragility fracture risk as they are often portable, comparatively inexpensive, require little training for their use, and emit no ionizing radiation. The primary objective of this investigation was to generate an mQUS normative database of speed of sound (SOS, in m/s) measures from a large sample of randomly selected community-based individuals. mQUS (BeamMed Omnisense MultiSite Quantitative Ultrasound 7000 S) measurements were obtained and assessed at the distal radius, tibia, and phalanx. All analyses were made separately for men and women and for each anatomical site. Scatterplots (SOS vs age) identified 30-39 yr of age as periods of both maximal SOS and of relative stability for all 3 sites over the age span investigated (30-96 yr of age; 2948 women and 1176 men) and, thus, was used as the "reference" population. For cross-sectional comparison of trends over aging, a number of age groupings were created: 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80+ yr. In general, there were decreases in SOS over increasing age groupings. The normative data generated can be used to compare a given patient's mQUS measurement with reference to a young, healthy population, assigning them a gender-appropriate T-score. PMID:24169082

  7. Assessing prosthodontic dental treatment needs in older adults in Thailand: normative vs. sociodental approaches.

    PubMed

    Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2003-01-01

    The authors compared the estimated prosthodontic treatment needs of edentulous older adults when using normative and sociodental approaches. This cross-sectional study involved a non-random sample of 158 edentulous adults, aged 60 to 74 years, who were living independently in metropolitan Chiang Mai, Thailand. Each subject was given an oral examination and was interviewed. The dental questionnaire and the clinical criteria were adapted from the National Diet and Nutritional Survey for People Aged 65 and Older and included the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances sociodental indicator. Of the 158 subjects, we found using a normative assessment that 79.7% had a treatment need for complete dentures; 60.5% of those adults had impact-related treatment needs. Estimated treatment need dropped by about 40% when subjects were assessed using the sociodental approach. We concluded that large reductions in normative need estimates for complete dentures were apparent using a sociodental approach to assess prosthodontic dental treatment needs of older people. PMID:14765891

  8. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E; Makuch, Renee A; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and (2) identifying predictors of positive normative outcomes and good objective QoL. Findings of an exploratory latent class analysis identified three groups of adults with ASD-Greater Dependence, Good Physical and Mental Health, and Greater Independence. Findings indicate that better daily living skills, better executive function, and more maternal warmth are associated with assignment to better outcome groups. Findings have implications for interventions designed to enhance achievement of normative outcomes and objective QoL. PMID:27207091

  9. Odorant Normative Data for Use in Olfactory Memory Experiments: Dimension Selection and Analysis of Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    Moss, Andrew G; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane V; Johnson, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed. PMID:27605921

  10. Odorant Normative Data for Use in Olfactory Memory Experiments: Dimension Selection and Analysis of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Andrew G.; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane V.; Johnson, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed. PMID:27605921

  11. A Framework for Understanding Student Affairs Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.

    1999-01-01

    Originally published in January 1984, describes a framework in which extant models and knowledge from selected disciplines applicable to student affairs work can be synthesized. Argues that a multiple perspectives framework is a logical extension of previous efforts to lend direction to the thinking about and practice of student affairs work.…

  12. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts to gain…

  13. A Legal Guide for Student Affairs Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplin, William A.; Lee, Barbara A.

    Today's college campuses offer student affairs divisions a multitude of challenges. Ways in which student affairs professionals can develop the capacities they need to successfully meet a myriad of legal concerns are covered in this text. The book is divided into 12 chapters and covers approximately 200 topics. It organizes and conceptualizes the…

  14. Does Student Affairs Have an Enduring Mission?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Student affairs is a relatively new profession and has changed in significant ways in response to new developments in higher education, innovations in practice, new conceptual paradigms, and changing economic and political conditions. As a result there is much debate about the core mission and purpose of student affairs and whether it is possible…

  15. Intellectual and Political Hygiene: The "Sokal Affair."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Jennifer Daryl; Semati, M. Mehdi

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes coverage of the "Sokal Affair", in which physicist Alan Sokal submitted a fraudulent article and then criticized the journal for publishing it. Examines the four currents that overdetermined the Sokal Affair: antliberalism, anti-intellectualism, debates among the left about what constitutes a legitimate left, and the often-perceived…

  16. Challenges of Assessment in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how the climate of accountability in higher education is compelling student affairs organizations to develop comprehensive assessment programs, the challenges faced in creating those programs, and ways student affairs professionals can meet those challenges. For the purpose of this chapter, the author has defined assessment…

  17. Professional Competencies for Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsch, Patty; Cortez, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the integration of the ACPA/NASPA Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners (ACPA/NASPA, 2010) on community college campuses. The competencies provide specific skill sets for a broad range of student affairs practice areas that should be met by professionals throughout their careers.…

  18. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  19. Normative consent and organ donation: a vindication.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ben

    2011-06-01

    In an earlier article, I argued that David Estlund's notion of 'normative consent' could provide justification for an opt-out system of organ donation that does not involve presumptions about the deceased donor's consent. Where it would be wrong of someone to refuse their consent, then the fact that they have not actually given it is irrelevant, though an explicit denial of consent (as in opting out) may still be binding. My argument has recently been criticised by Potts et al, who argue that such a policy would involve taking organs from people whose organs should not be taken and would be a recipe for totalitarianism. The present response seeks to rebut both the ethical and political objections. I argue that people can indeed be under a moral obligation to donate their organs, even if they are not technically dead at the time and their donation does not save anyone else's life. Moreover, I argue that an opt-out system-unlike mandatory donation-is not totalitarian because it preserves the right of individuals to act morally wrongly, by opting out when they have no good moral reason to do so. The policy I propose is neither immoral nor totalitarian. PMID:21429959

  20. Visual Evoked Potentials: Normative Values and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ruby; Singh, K.D.; Kumar, Avnish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual evoked potentials (VEP) are used to assess the visual pathways through the optic nerves and brain. A normal VEP response to a pattern-reversal stimulus is a positive mid occipital peak that occurs at a mean latency of 100 ms. VEP may be affected by variety of physiological factors including age, sex, visual acuity and pupillary size. Aims and Objectives The present study was performed on healthy medical students to determine the normative values and to investigate the effect of sex and anthropometric parameters on visual evoked potentials. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 100 healthy medical students of Government Medical College, Patiala in the age group of 17-20 years, in which there were 50 males and 50 females. The anthropometric parameters including age, height, weight, BMI, BSA and Head circumference were recorded in all the subjects. VEP was recorded with a PC based, 2 channel, RMS EMG EP mark II machine and standard silver-silver chloride disc electrodes. A VEP monitor displaying checker board was used to give the pattern reversal stimulus. The VEP parameters recorded were latencies to N70, P100 and N155 waves, and peak to peak amplitude of P100 wave. Results Our results showed that the latencies of N70, P100 and N155 waves were significantly longer in males as compared to females. The amplitude of P100 wave was higher in females in both left and right eye as compared to males. No significant correlation was found between VEP parameters and head circumference in both male and female subjects in our study. Conclusion Gender is an important variable affecting the VEP. The exact reason of gender difference is not clear, but it may be related to anatomical or endocrinal differences in the two sexes. PMID:26393122

  1. Preschoolers understand the normativity of cooperatively structured competition.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Hardecker, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Human institutional practices often involve competition within a cooperative structure of mutually accepted rules. In a competitive game, for instance, we not only expect adherence to the rules of the game but also expect an opponent who tries to win and, thus, follows a rational game-playing strategy. We had 3- and 5-year-olds (N=48) play for a prize against an opponent (a puppet) who played either rationally (trying to win) or irrationally (helping the children to win) while either following or breaking the rules of the game. Both age groups performed costly protest against an opponent who followed the rules but played irrationally by helping the children to win. When facing a rule-breaking opponent, 3-year-olds protested only the rule breaches of an irrational opponent but not irrational play. Five-year-olds also protested the rule breaches of a rational opponent, but in contrast to the 3-year-olds, they protested irrational behavior even in the context of rule breaches. Moreover, many children, in particular 3-year-olds, refrained from protesting. These findings suggest that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, fully understand the dual-level normative structure of cooperatively regulated competition. PMID:26615466

  2. Informational and Normative Influences in Conformity from a Neurocomputational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Toelch, Ulf; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    We consider two distinct influences that drive conformity behaviour. Whereas informational influences facilitate adaptive and accurate responses, normative influences bias decisions to enhance social acceptance. We explore these influences from a perspective of perceptual and value-based decision-making models and apply these models to classical works on conformity. We argue that an informational account predicts a surprising tendency to conform. Moreover, we detail how normative influences fit into this framework and interact with social influences. Finally, we explore potential neuronal substrates for informational and normative influences based on a consideration of the neurobiological literature, highlighting conceptual shortcomings particularly with regard to a failure to segregate informational and normative influences. PMID:26412096

  3. Bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying: The role of empathy and normative beliefs about aggression.

    PubMed

    Machackova, Hana; Pfetsch, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Cyberbullying often takes place with the virtual presence or knowledge of bystanders. While we have some evidence about the determinants of bystanders' responses to offline bullying, we lack empirical studies concerning the variables that influence bystanders' responses to cyberbullying. The current study examines bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying incidents. Two types of responses were captured: support toward the victims and the reinforcement of bullies' actions. Using data from 321 German adolescents (ages 12-18; M = 14.99; 44% girls), the association between bystanders' responses and normative beliefs about verbal aggression and cyberaggression, and affective and cognitive empathy, were tested in a path model. Both types of normative beliefs positively predicted the reinforcement of bullies, and normative belief about verbal aggression also predicted support for the victims of offline bullying. Both types of empathy predicted support in offline bullying, but only affective empathy predicted support in cyberbullying. There was no link between affective or cognitive empathy to the reinforcement of bullies. Moreover, bystanders' tendencies to respond supportively to the victim or to reinforce the bully were rather consistent in both cyber- and offline bullying, but there was no link between support and reinforcement. The findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26946454

  4. Special Education: Grant Programs Designed To Serve Children Ages 0-5. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring and the District of Columbia, U.S. Senate Committee on Government Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    This report of the General Accounting Office to a Congressional Committee examines possible overlapping functions of three federal special education grant programs mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The programs are: (1) Special Education Grants to States (School-age Grants); (2) Special Education Preschool Grants…

  5. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved

    PubMed Central

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30–39 (men) and 40–49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations’ sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved. PMID:27230110

  6. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved.

    PubMed

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30-39 (men) and 40-49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations' sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved. PMID:27230110

  7. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need of a Peruvian university population

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies on orthodontic treatment need in young adults have shown that up to 50% had malocclusions that needed orthodontic treatment. The aims of this study were to assess the normative and self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine if the treatment need levels were influenced by sex, age and socio-economic status (SES) in a sample of Peruvian young adults. Methods 281 first-year students (157 male and 124 female students) with a mean age of 18.1 +/- 1.6 years were randomly selected and evaluated through the Dental Health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component (AC) of the IOTN. Structured interview and clinical examination were used to assess the students. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results An intra-examiner reliability of 0.89 was obtained (weighted Kappa). The percentage of students according to SES was 51.2%, 40.6% and 8.2% corresponding to low, medium and high SES respectively. The percentage of students with DHC grades 4–5 was 29.9% whereas the percentage of students with AC grades 8–10 was 1.8%. There were no significant differences in the distribution of normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need based on sex, age and SES comparisons. Conclusion Normative orthodontic treatment need was not matched by a similar level of self-perceived treatment need in these young adults. Sex, age and SES were non-significant factors associated with levels of treatment need. PMID:16884542

  8. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the Spanish Language Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

    PubMed

    Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Umlauf, Anya; Marquine, Maria; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mungas, Daniel; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K

    2016-03-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnicity in the United States, yet there are limited well-validated neuropsychological tools in Spanish, and an even greater paucity of normative standards representing this population. The Spanish NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neurocognitive screener; however, the original norms were developed combining Spanish- and English-versions of the battery. We developed normative standards for the Spanish NIHTB-CB, fully adjusting for demographic variables and based entirely on a Spanish-speaking sample. A total of 408 Spanish-speaking neurologically healthy adults (ages 18-85 years) and 496 children (ages 3-7 years) completed the NIH Toolbox norming project. We developed three types of scores: uncorrected based on the entire Spanish-speaking cohort, age-corrected, and fully demographically corrected (age, education, sex) scores for each of the seven NIHTB-CB tests and three composites (Fluid, Crystallized, Total Composites). Corrected scores were developed using polynomial regression models. Demographic factors demonstrated medium-to-large effects on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores in a pattern that differed from that observed on the English NIHTB-CB. For example, in Spanish-speaking adults, education was more strongly associated with Fluid scores, but showed the strongest association with Crystallized scores among English-speaking adults. Demographic factors were no longer associated with fully corrected scores. The original norms were not successful in eliminating demographic effects, overestimating children's performances, and underestimating adults' performances on the Spanish NIHTB-CB. The disparate pattern of demographic associations on the Spanish versus English NIHTB-CB supports the need for distinct normative standards developed separately for each population. Fully adjusted scores presented here will aid in more accurately characterizing acquired brain dysfunction among U.S. Spanish-speakers. (JINS, 2016, 21

  9. Educationally Sound Due Process in Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Morte, Michael W.; Meadows, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    This article examines the concept of educationally sound due process in higher education academic affairs in the light of the existing case law and the responsibility of public school officials to provide an educationally sound school program. (Author/IRT)

  10. International neurocognitive normative study: neurocognitive comparison data in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, S R; Marra, C M; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, T B; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S; Kumarasamy, N; la Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-08-01

    Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource-limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impedes research and clinical care. Here, we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At ten sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n = 240), India (n = 480), Malawi (n = 481), Peru (n = 239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n = 240), and Zimbabwe (n = 240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline and 770 at 6 months. Participants were enrolled in eight strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 and ≥10 years), and age (<35 and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the 6-month follow-up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p < 0.0001). There was variation between the age, gender, and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance, and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the necessary neurocognitive normative data needed to build infrastructure for future neurological and neurocognitive studies in diverse RLS. These normative data are a much-needed resource for both clinicians and researchers. PMID:26733457

  11. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  12. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  13. Development of normative data of electro photonic imaging technique for healthy population in India: A normative study

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Kuldeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Thaiyar M; Nagendra, Hongasandra R; Ilavarasu, Judu V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electro photonic imaging (EPI) technique is growing as a novel technique of health assessment and is being utilized in the fields of alternative medicine, conventional practices, psycho-physiology, psychology, and consciousness studies. The existing EPI norms are based mostly on European (EU) population. In order to enhance the practice and research through EPI in India, there is a need for developing norms for the healthy Indian population. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the normative data of EPI for the healthy Indian population, to aid in the accuracy of EPI measurements and interpretations. Materials and Methods: A total of 1297 volunteers were assessed once, who represented different parts of India during December 2013 to December 2014. Among them, 880 volunteers were reported to be healthy (age mean ± standard deviation [SD], 33.55 ± 10.92), with 584 males (age mean ± SD, 33.54 ± 10.86) and 296 females (age mean ± SD, 33.56 ± 11.00). In this study activation coefficient (stress level), integral area (IA) (general health), and integral entropy (disorderliness in energy) parameters were analyzed. Results: As the data were not normally distributed, quartile based statistics was used for setting the norms. The 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated and they were further verified using a bootstrap procedure. Uniquely, the results showed a clear difference in IA parameters under both with filter (physiological) and without filter (psycho-physiological) conditions between the Indian and the EU population. Though other parameters were found almost similar to the EU population, inter quartile ranges were narrower in the Indian population as compared to the EU values. Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analyzes: That is, male versus female genders and age ranges 18–40 versus 40-60. Conclusion: As compared to EU population, Indian population had different range of Integral Area values and narrower range for values

  14. The Framingham Heart Study Clock Drawing Performance: Normative Data from the Offspring Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nyborn, Justin A.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Du, Yangchun; Kaplan, Edith; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Rinn, William E.; Denison, Helen S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2013-01-01

    Background/Study Context While the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a popular tool used to assess cognitive function, limited normative data on CDT performance exists. The objective of the current study was to provide normative data on an expanded version of previous CDT scoring protocols from a large community-based sample of middle to older adults (aged 43 to 91) from the Framingham Heart Study. Methods The CDT was administered to 1476 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants using a scoring protocol that assigned error scores to drawn features. Total error scores were computed, as well as for subscales pertaining to outline, numeral placement, time-setting, center, and “other.” Results Higher levels of education were significantly associated with fewer errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numerals (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Older age was significantly associated with more errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numeral (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Significant differences were also found between education groups on the Command condition for all but the oldest age group (75+). Conclusion Results provide normative data on CDT performance within a community-based cohort. Errors appear to be more prevalent in older compared with younger individuals, and may be less prevalent in individuals who completed at least some college compared with those who did not. Future studies are needed to determine whether this expanded scoring system allows detection of preclinical symptoms of future risk for dementia. PMID:23316738

  15. Professionalism, Scholarly Practice, and Professional Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Stan; Stimpson, Matthew T.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of recent literature on professionalism in student affairs. Attention is given to the nature of professionalism, a discussion of student affairs as a profession, the scholarly practice of student affairs, and professional development in student affairs. The authors note that an assumption of professionalism…

  16. Student Affairs as Formal Educators: When Rhetoric Meets Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkus, Annie J.

    2013-01-01

    The Student Affairs literature contains numerous approaches and strategies for bridging the gap between Student and Academic Affairs on college campuses. The use of student affairs professionals as instructors of credit-bearing courses is one example of such collaborative efforts. The student affairs literature identifies student affairs…

  17. 38 CFR 17.251 - The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Academic Affairs. 17.251 Section 17.251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.251 The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs. There is... Subcommittee on Academic Affairs, and the Subcommittee shall advise the Secretary, through the Under...

  18. 38 CFR 17.251 - The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Academic Affairs. 17.251 Section 17.251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.251 The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs. There is... Subcommittee on Academic Affairs, and the Subcommittee shall advise the Secretary, through the Under...

  19. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26896561

  20. A framework for profile similarity: integrating similarity, normativeness, and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Furr, R Michael

    2008-10-01

    Many questions in personality psychology lend themselves to the analysis of profile similarity. A profile approach to issues such as personality judgment, personality similarity, behavioral consistency, developmental stability, and person-environment fit is intuitively appealing. However, it entails conceptual and statistical challenges arising from the overlap among profile similarity and normativeness, which presents potential confounds and potential opportunities. This article describes the normativeness problem, articulating the need to evaluate profile similarity alongside normativeness and distinctiveness. It presents conceptual and psychometric foundations of a framework differentiating these elements for pairs of profiles. It derives two models from this framework, and it discusses the application of their components to a variety of research domains. Finally, it presents recommendations and implications regarding the use of these components and profile similarity more generally. This approach can reveal and manage potential confounds, and it can provide theoretical insights that might otherwise be overlooked. PMID:18705644

  1. King-Devick test normative reference values for professional male ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, M V; Holm, A; Peltonen, K; Luoto, T M; Iverson, G L; Hokkanen, L

    2015-06-01

    The King-Devick (K-D) test, a measure of processing speed, visual tracking, and saccadic eye movements, has shown promise as a supplemental screening test following concussion. However, limited normative data for this test have been published.The K-D test was administered to 185 professional ice hockey players as a preseason baseline test in seasons 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. Their average age was 23.8 years (median = 22.0 years, range = 16-40 years). The average K-D score was 40.0 s (SD = 6.1 s, range = 24.0-65.7 s). K-D test performance showed no association with age, education, or the number of self-reported previous concussions in this sample. The association between trials 1 and 2 of the K-D test was good (ICC = 0.92, Pearson = 0.93). Normative values of the K-D test for professional male ice hockey players are reported. K-D test performance did not vary by age, education, or concussion history in this study. PMID:25138698

  2. Emotion recognition from facial expressions: a normative study of the Ekman 60-Faces Test in the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Arpone, Marta; Realmuto, Sabrina; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    The Ekman 60-Faces (EK-60F) Test is a well-known neuropsychological tool assessing emotion recognition from facial expressions. It is the most employed task for research purposes in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD). Despite its remarkable usefulness in the social cognition research field, to date, there are still no normative data for the Italian population, thus limiting its application in a clinical context. In this study, we report procedures and normative data for the Italian version of the test. A hundred and thirty-two healthy Italian participants aged between 20 and 79 years with at least 5 years of education were recruited on a voluntary basis. They were administered the EK-60F Test from the Ekman and Friesen series of Pictures of Facial Affect after a preliminary semantic recognition test of the six basic emotions (i.e., anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise). Data were analyzed according to the Capitani procedure [1]. The regression analysis revealed significant effects of demographic variables, with younger, more educated, female subjects showing higher scores. Normative data were then applied to a sample of 15 bvFTD patients which showed global impaired performance in the task, consistently with the clinical condition. We provided EK-60F Test normative data for the Italian population allowing the investigation of global emotion recognition ability as well as selective impairment of basic emotions recognition, both for clinical and research purposes. PMID:24442557

  3. Normative arguments from experts and peers reduce delay discounting

    PubMed Central

    Senecal, Nicole; Wang, Teresa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kable, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    When making decisions that involve tradeoffs between the quality and timing of desirable outcomes, people consistently discount the value of future outcomes. A puzzling finding regarding such decisions is the extremely high rate at which people discount future monetary outcomes. Most economists would argue that decision-makers should only turn down rates of return that are lower than those available to them elsewhere. Yet the vast majority of studies find discount rates that are significantly higher than market interest rates (Frederick et al., 2002). Here we ask whether a lack of knowledge about the normative strategy can explain high discount rates. In an initial experiment, we find that nearly half of subjects do not spontaneously cite elements of the normative strategy when asked how people should make intertemporal monetary decisions. In two follow-up experiments, we find that after subjects read a “financial guide” detailing the normative strategy, discount rates declined by up to 85%, but were still higher than market interest rates. This decline persisted, though attenuated, for at least one month. In a final experiment, we find that peer-generated advice influences discount rates in a similar manner to “expert” advice, and that arguments focusing on normative considerations are at least as effective as others. These studies show that part of the explanation for high discount rates is a lack of knowledge regarding the normative strategy, and quantify how much discount rates are reduced in response to normative arguments. Given the high level of discounting that remains, however, there are other contributing factors to high discount rates that remain to be quantified. PMID:23596504

  4. Student Affairs and Academic Affairs Collaborations in the Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Needham Yancey; Mullendore, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between academic affairs and student affairs units in higher education settings has traditionally and historically been troubled by the divergent understandings of each other's institutional role and the systematic division of labor between the two. However, for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is a desire to…

  5. Academic Affairs and Student Affairs Partnerships Promoting Diversity Initiatives on Campus: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePeau, Lucy Anne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education research suggests student affairs and academic affairs partner to address challenges on campus, such as building inclusive environments for diverse students and staff, but evidence about "how" partnerships form is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory was to understand…

  6. The Gendered Nature of Student Affairs: Issues of Gender Equity in Student Affairs Professional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Evelyn LaVette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gendered nature of the student affairs profession by investigating how three student affairs professional associations, the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), ACPA: College Student Educators International, and the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I)…

  7. Preparing for Fiscal Leadership in Student Affairs: The Senior Student Affairs Officer Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Stephanie C.; Williams, Terry E.

    2010-01-01

    Success within today's challenging economic environment mandates that senior student affairs officers in higher education possess a sophisticated financial and budgetary skill set. Limited research addresses avenues through which professionals might best acquire the financial acumen needed. To address this gap, 19 senior student affairs officers…

  8. Putting Descartes before the Horse: Opportunities for Advancing the Student Affairs Link with Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarid, Lucas

    1999-01-01

    Article challenges the division between student and academic affairs and encourages a view of learning and reason in a more holistic and integrated fashion. Outlines the historical factors for the separation of student and academic affairs and offers the programs instituted at Bellarmine College as examples of effective collaboration between…

  9. Normative data for 144 compound remote associate problems.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Edward M; Jung-Beeman, Mark

    2003-11-01

    We have developed and tested 144 compound remote associate problems. Across eight experiments, 289 participants were given four time limits (2 sec, 7 sec, 15 sec, or 30 sec) for solving each problem. This paper provides a brief overview of the problems and normative data regarding the percentage of participants solving, and mean time-to-solution for, each problem at each time limit. These normative data can be used in selecting problems on the basis of difficulty or mean time necessary for reaching a solution. PMID:14748508

  10. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  11. Normative data of the Magical Ideation Scale from childhood to adulthood in an Italian cohort.

    PubMed

    Garzitto, Marco; Picardi, Angelo; Fornasari, Livia; Gigantesco, Antonella; Sala, Michela; Fagnani, Corrado; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Ciappolino, Valentina; Fabbro, Franco; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Brambilla, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of schizotypy allows to identify people at risk to develop psychosis. For this purpose, psychometric tools have been developed, such as the Magical Ideation Scale (MIS). This scale investigates attenuated forms of thought transmission experiences, thought withdrawal and aberrant beliefs, related to positive schizotypy. This study aims at providing an Italian version of the MIS and its normative data in the general population from childhood to adulthood, being the first study evaluating subjects under 17year-old. The Italian MIS version was translated by three independent operators and administered to 1378 non-clinical participants, stratified into four age groups (i.e., 8-13, 14-17, 18-24 and 25-34). The unidimensionality of the scale was supported, and its internal consistency was satisfactory (i.e., ordinal Cronbach's αs ranging from 0.86 to 0.90 in different age groups), as well as test-retest reliability (i.e., 1-month ICC of 0.82 in a retested sub-sample). Normative data for the age groups were provided. Specific gender and age-related differences in MIS score were found, i.e. females scored higher than males in the 25-34 age group, which in general, as a group, scored lower than all the other age groups. This study provided evidence of reliability for the Italian version of the MIS in childhood and adolescence, for the first time, as well as in adulthood, showing specific gender and age effects in the early adult cohort. PMID:27423348

  12. Normative data for a battery of free recall, cued recall and recognition tests in the elderly Italian population.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of a battery of free recall, cued recall, and recognition tests of memory. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the battery for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population. PMID:21918879

  13. Normative data for the Rey-Osterrieth and the Taylor complex figure tests in Quebec-French people.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Potvin, Olivier; Callahan, Brandy L; Belleville, Sylvie; Gagnon, Jean-François; Caza, Nicole; Ferland, Guylaine; Hudon, Carol; Macoir, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth (ROCF) and Taylor (TCF) complex figure tests are widely used to assess visuospatial and constructional abilities as well as visual/non-verbal memory. Normative data adjusted to the cultural and linguistic reality of older Quebec-French individuals is still nonexistent for these tests. In this article, we report the results of two studies that aimed to establish normative data for Quebec-French people (aged at least 50 years) for the copy, immediate recall, and delayed recall trials of the ROCF (Study 1) and the TCF (Study 2). For both studies, the impact of age, education, and sex on test performance was examined. Moreover, the impact of copy time on test performance, the impact of copy score on immediate and delayed recall score, and the impact of immediate recall score on delayed recall performance were examined. Based on regression models, equations to calculate Z scores for copy and recall scores are provided for both tests. PMID:25472685

  14. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  15. Normative data of a brief neuropsychological battery for Spanish individuals older than 49

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, Montserrat; Espinosa, Ana; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Hernández, Isabel; Tárraga, Lluís; Becker, James T.; Boada, Mercè

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for standardized assessment of cognition in older patients that is relatively brief, easy to administer, and has normative data adjusted for age and educational attainment. We tested 332 literate, cognitively normal, Spanish persons older than 49 years from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades (Barcelona, Spain) with measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis, and executive functions. Several of the tests were affected by age, education, and/or gender, but the language of administration (i.e., Spanish or Catalan) did not affect the test scores. Standardized scores and percentile ranks were calculated for each age and/or education group for use by clinical neuropsychologists. PMID:22149440

  16. Pricing: A Normative Strategy in the Delivery of Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephen T.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a normative strategy toward pricing human services, which will allow providers to develop pricing strategies within the context of organizational missions, goals, and values. Pricing is an effective tool for distributing resources and improving efficiency, and can be used as a tool for encouraging desired patterns of service utilization.…

  17. The Empirical Development of the Normative Message Processing Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aune, R. Kelly; Reynolds, Rodney A.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on five studies on the development, conceptual validation, and behavioral validation of the Normative Message Processing Scale (NMPS). Compares the conceptual and predictive validity of the NMPS to related trait information-processing instruments. Argues for the need to develop an instrument that distinguishes between the tendency to…

  18. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  19. Black Males' Structural Conditions, Achievement Patterns, Normative Needs, and "Opportunities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dena Phillips; Cunningham, Michael; Spencer, Margaret Beale

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relations between normative developmental transitions, contextual influences, and life-stage outcomes, such as academic achievement, for African American males. Data from a longitudinal study in a large southeastern U.S. city indicated that negative stereotyping and tracking from early experience in educational settings affected black…

  20. Toward a Practical and Normative Ethics for Librarianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Just about everything that librarians do as professionals carries ethical implications. Matters of intellectual freedom are most commonly recognized as loci for ethics-based decision making, but the totality of individual and collective conduct is in need of practical, normative ethical structure. What is argued for here is a framework founded on…

  1. The Determinants of Spouses' Normative Preferences for Family Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronkite, Ruth C.

    1977-01-01

    Both static and dynamic models are developed which hypothesize effects of background characteristics, socioeconomic factors and family life-cycle stages on three dimensions of normative preferences. The most striking result is the failure of the husband's preferences to dominate the wife's. (Author)

  2. Normativity and Context in Young Children's Pretend Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Emily; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In two studies 3-year-olds' understanding of the context-specificity of normative rules was investigated through games of pretend play. In the first study, children protested against a character who joined a pretend game but treated the target object according to its real function. However, they did not protest when she performed the same action…

  3. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  4. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  5. Normative Development of Physical Aggression from 8 to 26 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…

  6. Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    2012-01-01

    The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…

  7. Unreasonable reasons: normative judgements in the assessment of mental capacity

    PubMed Central

    Banner, Natalie F

    2012-01-01

    The recent Mental Capacity Act (2005) sets out a test for assessing a person's capacity to make treatment choices. In some cases, particularly in psychiatry, it is unclear how the criteria ought to be interpreted and applied by clinicians. In this paper, I argue that this uncertainty arises because the concept of capacity employed in the Act, and the diagnostic tools developed to assist its assessment, overlook the inherent normativity of judgements made about whether a person is using or weighing information in the decision-making process. Patients may fail on this criterion to the extent that they do not appear to be handling the information given in an appropriate way, on account of a mental impairment disrupting the way the decision process ought to proceed. Using case law and clinical examples, I describe some of the normative dimensions along which judgements of incapacity can be made, namely epistemic, evaluative and affective dimensions. Such judgements are complex and the normative standards by which a clinician may determine capacity cannot be reduced to a set of criteria. Rather, in recognizing this normativity, clinicians may better understand how clinical judgements are structured and what kinds of assumption may inform their assessment. PMID:22995005

  8. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  9. Normative values for the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; John, M T; Nilner, K; List, T

    2014-02-01

    This study reports the findings and challenges of the assessment of oro-facial aesthetics in the Swedish general population and the development of normative values for the self-reporting Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES). In a Swedish national sample of 1406 adult subjects (response rate: 47%), OES decile norms were established. The influence of sociodemographics (gender, age, and education), oral health status and general health status on OES scores was analysed. Mean ± standard deviation of OES scores was 50.3 ± 15.6 units (0, worst score; 70, best score); <1% of the subjects had the minimum score of 0, and 11% had the maximum score of 70 OES units. Orofacial Esthetic Scale score differences were (i) substantial (>5 OES units) for subjects with excellent/very good versus good to poor oral or general health status; ii) small (2 units), but statistically significant for gender (P = 0.01) and two age groups (P = 0.02), and (iii) absent for subjects with college versus no college education (P = 0.31) or with and without dentures (P = 0.90). To estimate normative values for a self-reporting health status, instrument is considered an important step in standardisation, and the developed norms provide a frame of reference in the general population to interpret the Orofacial Esthetic Scale scores. PMID:24372184

  10. Student Employee Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athas, Christina; Oaks, D'Arcy John; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Employment within student affairs divisions offers environments in which students can apply the knowledge they have gained, as well as acquire new competencies, helping them to build solid foundations for their futures. Researchers used an online survey to assess the outcomes associated with part-time student employment within the student affairs…

  11. Teaching the Iran-Contra Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masker, John Scott

    1996-01-01

    Describes a six-week study unit that requires students to examine specific aspects of the Iran-Contra affair in light of models such as presidential leadership style. The combination of a case study, student-centered cooperative learning, and writing across the curriculum proved popular with both the students and teacher. (MJP)

  12. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  13. Office of Indian Affairs 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    This report outlines the activities of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) for 1984 in accordance with its directive to investigate, study, consider and act upon the entire subject of Indian conditions and relations within the State of New Mexico, including but not restricted to, problems of health, economy, education, legislation, and…

  14. Office of Indian Affairs 1985 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Indian Affairs, Santa Fe.

    The major goals of the New Mexico Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) in 1985 were to enhance Indian education concerns, aid tribes in economic development, and effectuate a smooth working relationship between state, local, and tribal governments in the spirit of and through the use of the Joint Powers Act. Advancement is reflected in all these areas.…

  15. Orienting Mid-Level Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.; Bryan, Stephen P.; Faulkner, William O.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-level managers comprise a large proportion of student affairs organizations. They are often the most overlooked when it comes to professional orientation and institutional introduction when entering new positions. Accordingly, information is presented from the professional literature that speaks to the characteristics and unique needs of this…

  16. Education for America's Role in World Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, John, Ed.; Ryerson, Andre, Ed.

    This collection of essays by leading policy analysts and educators investigate the often contradictory claims of global, peace, multicultural and citizenship education and examines what U.S. students should know about world affairs in the post-cold war era. The essays suggest methods of change based on a strong academic core of history,…

  17. Public Affairs Manual. Revised 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This public affairs manual is designed for health, physical education, and recreation personnel. It begins with a position statement by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER). In section two, resources and procedures for crises action at the local and state level are discussed. Several organizational models…

  18. Student Affairs and Services Stream: College Quarterly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddel, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "College Quarterly" recently introduced a stream for academic and scholar-practitioner dialogue concerning student affairs and services. To contribute to the growth and enhancement of the field, scholars and scholar-practitioners are invited to contribute original pieces that advance scholarship and/or practice around facilitating…

  19. TQM: Finding a Place in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tyrone A.

    1996-01-01

    Critically examines Total Quality Management (TQM). Analyzes the concepts and practices of TQM and its failure to live up to expectations in higher education. Emphasizes the problems inherent with TQM initiatives in an educational environment and outlines ways that student affairs officials can proactively apply TQM to support universities'…

  20. Building American Competence in World Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Rose L.

    In order to build United States competence in world affairs a strengthening of foreign language and international studies programs is required. Few would argue that the United States should not possess an educational system which produces at least a minimal cadre of experts about other peoples and cultures. Our national security requires…

  1. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  2. Excellence in Community College Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Student success, accountability, and educational outcomes have been strongly emphasized in U.S. community colleges in recent years. For those individuals serving in community college student affairs, intentional commitment to standards and competencies in professional practice is essential in order to achieve institutional expectations and to meet…

  3. Rethinking the Introduction to Student Affairs Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Kathleen

    1993-01-01

    Discusses theoretical and philosophical foundations that can be used to structure Introduction to Student Affairs course within graduate program. Describes the model course as being divided into two segments: liberation theology and liberal arts. Sees liberal arts segment as being further subdivided into philosophy, history, psychology,…

  4. The Student Affairs Portfolio in Small Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heida, Debbie E.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of functional areas included in the portfolio of the small college dean. Four examples of organizational charts are offered, as well as factors that will influence the small college student affairs portfolio in the future. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. Normative data for three tests of visuocognitive function in primary school children: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cathy; Gilchrist, Iain D; Fraser, Sue; McCarthy, HM; Parker, Julie; Warnes, Penny; Young, Jill; Hyvarinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There is an increasing recognition that visuocognitive difficulties occur in children with neurodevelopmental problems. We obtained normative data for the performance of primary school children using three tests of visuocognitive function that are practicable in a clinical setting. Methods We tested 214 children aged between 4 and 11 years without known developmental problems, using tests to assess (1) orientation recognition and adaptive movement (postbox task), (2) object recognition (rectangles task) and (3) spatial integration (contours task). Results 96% could do the postbox task with ease—only 4% (all aged <9 years) exhibited minor difficulties. Errors in the rectangles task decreased with age: 33% of children aged 4–5 years had major difficulties but >99% of children aged ≥6 years had no, or minor, difficulties. Median scores for the contours task improved with age, and after age 8 years, 99% could see the contour using long-range spatial integration rather than density. Conclusions These different aspects of children’s visuocognitive performance were testable in a field setting. The data provide a benchmark by which to judge performance of children with neurodevelopmental problems and may be useful in assessment with a view to providing effective supportive strategies for children whose visuocognitive skills are lower than the expectation for their age. PMID:25712824

  6. Mid-Career Women Student Affairs Administrators with Young Children: Negotiating Life, Like Clockwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fochtman, Monica Marcelis

    2010-01-01

    In the existing student affairs literature about career development and work-life balance, women administrators of all professional levels and women with children of all ages have been studied together. As a result, little is known about the unique rewards and challenges that result from simultaneously negotiating the different stages of…

  7. Transitional Leadership: Perceptions of Interim Mid-Level Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, William A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been estimated that, due to increased turnover, an aging population, growing complexities and sizes of institutions, as well as the bureaucratization of searches, college and universities will see a continued increase in the utilization of interim leadership (Padilla, 2004). Student affairs divisions are not immune to this phenomenon and…

  8. The Composition of Normative Groups and Diagnostic Decision Making: Shooting Ourselves in the Foot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Elizabeth D.; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The normative group of a norm-referenced test is intended to provide a basis for interpreting test scores. However, the composition of the normative group may facilitate or impede different types of diagnostic interpretations. This article considers who should be included in a normative sample and how this decision must be made relative…

  9. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

  10. The Token and Reporter's Tests--Using Two Scoring Conventions: A Normative Study with 286 Grade and Junior High Students and Use with 123 Language-Disordered Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Linda S.; Hall, Penelope K.

    1985-01-01

    Performance of 286 normal children (grades K-9) on the De Renzi and Faglioni form of the Token Test and the De Renzi and Ferrari Reporter's Test were analyzed. Two different scoring conventions were compared: number correct versus weighted scores. Normative data are presented by grade level and age. Specific administration and scoring procedures…

  11. Cold intolerance of the hand measured by the CISS questionnaire in a normative study population.

    PubMed

    Ruijs, A C J; Jaquet, J-B; Daanen, H A M; Hovius, S E R

    2006-10-01

    Cold intolerance has been recognized as one of the most disabling sequelae of upper extremity trauma, especially when neurovascular structures are involved. In this study, we aimed to describe cold intolerance in a normative study population, validate the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS) questionnaire and define the threshold for abnormal cold intolerance. One hundred and eight volunteers participated in our study. In addition to the CISS score, information about age, gender and previous surgery or trauma to the upper extremity was obtained. There were no volunteers with previous peripheral nerve injury and subjects with a history of Raynaud's disease, upper extremity injury or surgery were excluded (n=40). The CISS scores of the study population (n=68) averaged 12.9 (SD 8.2). Age and gender were not correlated with CISS score. The upper 95% confidence interval of the CISS scores for healthy subjects is about 30. We suggest this value as a threshold for pathological cold intolerance. PMID:16808991

  12. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

  13. Regression-Based Normative Formulae for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; Ramezani, Amir

    2015-11-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has become a popular cognitive screening instrument, particularly in elderly patients. Prior studies presented lookup tables for RBANS normative data based on age, gender, education, and race using a group of 718 community-dwelling older adults. However, regression-based normative formulae that simultaneously correct for all demographic variables may be more sensitive for detecting late life cognitive decline. Using data from the prior studies, linear regression was used to generate such formulae in the Indexes and subtests of the RBANS. Results indicated that ∼11% of the variance of Index scores was accounted for by these demographic variables, and 13% of variance in subtest scores. Although some differences were present between the lookup and regression-based norms, it is expected that these current results will present more accurate demographic corrections that allow clinicians and researchers to better interpret individual performances on the RBANS. PMID:26289055

  14. Heart Rate Variability in Adolescents – Normative Data Stratified by Sex and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan; Rajendran, Rajathi

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the beat-to-beat fluctuations in the cardiac rhythm occurring due to modulation of the pacemaker (sinoatrial node) activity of the heart by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors are increasingly occurring at a younger age (children and adolescents) and recording of HRV in them will help us to identify cardiovascular autonomic derangement earlier. However, to be used clinically, normative data has to be established in this age group considering other major factors that can influence HRV such as sex, physical activity, and BMI. Materials and Methods Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology has provided the standards for measurement of heart rate variability and we have followed the same. In the present study, we have described the normative data for HRV in the adolescent in the age group of 12-17 years, stratified based on sex and physical activity. Results Data given below are expressed as median with interquartile range (Median (IQR)) in the following order: non-athlete girls, non athlete boys, athlete girls and athlete boys. Time domain indices - SDNN - 66.35 (40.78), 63.20 (36.20), 113.00 (31.40) and 94.20 (35.55); RMSSD – 69.00 (50.55), 58.70 (43.40), 94.90 (42.10) and 100.30 (47.50); NN50 - 137.50 (100.25), 116.00 (90.50), 137.00 (81.00) and 156.00 (81.50). The frequency domain indices – LF power 1015.00 (1098.75), 945.00 (831.00), 1465 (642.25), and 1211.00 (811.37); HF power – 1324.00 (1707.00), 988.00 (1426.50), 2409.00 (1387.50), and 2219.00 (1752.00); Total power – 3374.50 (3094.25), 2757.00 (2641.00), 5202.00 (2501.50) and 5273.00 (3507.50); LFnu – 45.44 (16.61), 47.63 (29.98), 38.59 (11.81) and 37.10 (11.21); HFnu – 54.56 (16.61), 52.37 (29.98), 61.41 (11.81) and 62.90 (11.21). Conclusion We have given sex and physical activity

  15. Taking fiction seriously: young children understand the normative structure of joint pretence games.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2008-07-01

    Joint pretence games are implicit rule-governed activities with a normative structure: Given shared fictional stipulations, some acts are appropriate moves, others are inappropriate (i.e., mistakes). The awareness of 2- and 3-year-old children of this normative structure was explored, as indicated by their ability to not only act according to the rules themselves but to spontaneously protest against 3rd party rule violations. After the child and a 2nd person had set up a pretence scenario, a 3rd character (a puppet controlled by another experimenter) joined the game and performed acts either appropriate or inappropriate to the scenario set-up. Children in both age groups protested specifically against inappropriate acts, indicating they were able to not only follow pretence stipulations and act in accordance with them but to understand their deontic implications. This effect was more pronounced in the 3-year-olds than in the 2-year-olds. The results are discussed in the broader context of the development of social understanding and cultural learning. PMID:18605846

  16. Normative influence and desired family size among young people in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Harbour, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    Research has identified the lack of acceptance of a two-child-family norm as the biggest obstacle to achieving replacement-level fertility in Egypt. This analysis examines norms about desired family size for 1,366 males and 1,367 females aged 15-24 in 2004 in rural Minya governorate. Two-level random-effects multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex and grouped by neighborhood, are used to assess normative influence at the household and neighborhood levels, controlling for individual- and household-level covariates. In the final model, young males in neighborhoods where more people desire a small family are 33 percent more likely to desire a small family than are young males in other neighborhoods. Young females in households with one or more adults preferring a small family are 78 percent more likely to desire a small family, and young females in households with one or more young people who prefer a small family are 37 percent more likely to desire a small family themselves, compared with those living with adults or with young people, respectively, who do not prefer a small family. Programs aiming to reduce fertility should be aware of gender differences in the sources of normative influence on desired family size. PMID:21834412

  17. Nudges and coercion: conceptual, empirical, and normative considerations.

    PubMed

    Cratsley, Kelso

    2015-01-01

    Given that the concept of coercion remains a central concern for bioethics, Quigley's (Monash Bioethics Rev 32:141-158, 2014) recent article provides a helpful analysis of its frequent misapplication in debates over the use of 'nudges'. In this commentary I present a generally sympathetic response to Quigley's argument while also raising several issues that are important for the larger debates about nudges and coercion. I focus on several closely related topics, including the definition of coercion, the role of empirical research, and the normative concerns at the core of these disputes. I suggest that while a degree of precision is certainly required when deploying the relevant concepts, perhaps informed by empirical data, we need to continue to push these debates towards more pressing normative considerations. PMID:26458368

  18. The normative authority of the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O; Sridhar, D; Hougendobler, D

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was born after the devastation of World War II, as a normative agency endowed with unprecedented constitutional powers. But even as it has achieved stunning successes, such as the eradication of smallpox, it has failed to live up to the exalted expectations of the postwar health and human rights movement - exemplified most recently by its inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic. Our aim is to offer innovative ideas for restoring the Organization to its leadership position by exercising its normative authority, even as it faces a crowded and often chaotic global health architecture. Before doing so, it will be helpful to summarize the main tensions the Organization faces in today's global health landscape. PMID:26100341

  19. The normative structure of mathematization in systematic biology.

    PubMed

    Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the mathematization of science should be understood as a normative activity of advocating for a particular methodology with its own criteria for evaluating good research. As a case study, we examine the mathematization of taxonomic classification in systematic biology. We show how mathematization is a normative activity by contrasting its distinctive features in numerical taxonomy in the 1960s with an earlier reform advocated by Ernst Mayr starting in the 1940s. Both Mayr and the numerical taxonomists sought to formalize the work of classification, but Mayr introduced a qualitative formalism based on human judgment for determining the taxonomic rank of populations, while the numerical taxonomists introduced a quantitative formalism based on automated procedures for computing classifications. The key contrast between Mayr and the numerical taxonomists is how they conceptualized the temporal structure of the workflow of classification, specifically where they allowed meta-level discourse about difficulties in producing the classification. PMID:24717645

  20. Cooling histories of Apollo 15 quartz-normative basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, T. L.; Walker, D.

    1977-01-01

    Controlled cooling rate studies of vitrophyre 15597 are used to calculate the physical properties of a quartz-normative magma as well as cooling histories of Apollo 15 quartz-normative basalts (QNB). Pyroxene phenocrysts of a QNB magma do not settle appreciably during the cooling of the flow unit; this behavior is consistent with the small degree of chemical differentiation that occurred between members of the suite. Two types of cooling histories for QNB are discerned. The vitrophyres experienced initial slow cooling followed by rapid cooling, and the coarse-grained microgabbros underwent slow nearly linear cooling histories. Textural evidence suggests that lunar vitrophyres crystallized near the top of the flow. It is suggested that the pattern of cooling may have been caused by the chilling of liquids that inherited early crystals in the interior of the flow.

  1. A theoretical sketch of medical professionalism as a normative complex.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Matthew C

    2008-05-01

    Validity arguments for assessment tools intended to measure medical professionalism suffer for lack of a clear theoretical statement of what professionalism is and how it should behave. Drawing on several decades of field research addressing deviance and informal social control among physicians, a theoretical sketch of professionalism is presented that can be used to predict how individual adjustment to professional norms should co-vary with other social and psychological phenomena. Physicians may understand and value professional norms but fail to enact them in practice because of conflicting normative demands. Physicians' social networks are predicted to act as conduits of social learning and social pressure, driving the resolution of normative conflicts in specific directions. A valid assessment of professionalism requires an adequate accounting of the social reaction to an individual's professional conduct, because the reaction and the conduct itself are inseparable. PMID:18274878

  2. Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentz, Audrey L.; And Others

    This book describes significant issues and trends in the evolution of student affairs and reviews current methods and models of practice. The chapters are: (1) "The Philosophical Heritage of Student Affairs," by Stan Carpenter, reviewing the relationship between educational philosophy and student services; (2) "A History of Student Affairs," by…

  3. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  4. 16 CFR 0.20 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of International Affairs. 0.20... ORGANIZATION § 0.20 Office of International Affairs. The Office of International Affairs (OIA) comprises international antitrust, international consumer protection, and international technical assistance. OIA...

  5. 16 CFR 0.20 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of International Affairs. 0.20... ORGANIZATION § 0.20 Office of International Affairs. The Office of International Affairs (OIA) comprises international antitrust, international consumer protection, and international technical assistance. OIA...

  6. 16 CFR 0.20 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of International Affairs. 0.20... ORGANIZATION § 0.20 Office of International Affairs. The Office of International Affairs (OIA) comprises international antitrust, international consumer protection, and international technical assistance. OIA...

  7. 16 CFR 0.20 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of International Affairs. 0.20... ORGANIZATION § 0.20 Office of International Affairs. The Office of International Affairs (OIA) comprises international antitrust, international consumer protection, and international technical assistance. OIA...

  8. 16 CFR 0.20 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of International Affairs. 0.20... ORGANIZATION § 0.20 Office of International Affairs. The Office of International Affairs (OIA) comprises international antitrust, international consumer protection, and international technical assistance. OIA...

  9. 75 FR 53007 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs; Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Veterans Business Affairs. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: Friday, September 24, 2010 from 9... the meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs. The Advisory Committee on...

  10. 76 FR 41553 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans... Committee on Veterans Business Affairs. The Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs serves as...

  11. 76 FR 25400 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans... Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs. The Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs...

  12. 77 FR 31420 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans... Committee on Veterans Business Affairs. The Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs serves as...

  13. 77 FR 17562 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs; Meeting AGENCY: Small Business Administration... announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans... Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs. The Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs...

  14. 77 FR 52379 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans... Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs. The Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs...

  15. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs. As prescribed in 904.7201, insert the following clause: Public Affairs (DEC 2000) (a) The Contractor...

  16. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs. As prescribed in 904.7201, insert the following clause: Public Affairs (DEC 2000) (a) The Contractor...

  17. Using empirical research to formulate normative ethical principles in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Mette; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-03-01

    Bioethical research has tended to focus on theoretical discussion of the principles on which the analysis of ethical issues in biomedicine should be based. But this discussion often seems remote from biomedical practice where researchers and physicians confront ethical problems. On the other hand, published empirical research on the ethical reasoning of health care professionals offer only descriptions of how physicians and nurses actually reason ethically. The question remains whether these descriptions have any normative implications for nurses and physicians? In this article, we illustrate an approach that integrates empirical research into the formulation of normative ethical principles using the moral-philosophical method of Wide Reflective Equilibrium (WRE). The research method discussed in this article was developed in connection with the project 'Bioethics in Theory and Practice'. The purpose of this project is to investigate ethical reasoning in biomedical practice in Denmark empirically. In this article, we take the research method as our point of departure, but we exclusively discuss the theoretical framework of the method, not its empirical results. We argue that the descriptive phenomenological hermeneutical method developed by Lindseth and Norberg (2004) and Pedersen (1999) can be combined with the theory of WRE to arrive at a decision procedure and thus a foundation for the formulation of normative ethical principles. This could provide health care professionals and biomedical researchers with normative principles about how to analyse, reason and act in ethically difficult situations in their practice. We also show how to use existing bioethical principles as inspiration for interpreting the empirical findings of qualitative studies. This may help researchers design their own empirical studies in the field of ethics. PMID:16955345

  18. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

  19. The geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas.

  20. Sex Differences in Neurophysiological Activation Patterns During Phonological Input Processing: An Influencing Factor for Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Annelies; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Santens, Patrick; De Letter, Miet

    2015-11-01

    In the context of neurophysiological normative data, it has been established that aging has a significant impact on neurophysiological correlates of auditory phonological input processes, such as phoneme discrimination (PD) and word recognition (WR). Besides age, sex is another demographic factor that influences several language processes. We aimed to disentangle whether sex has a similar effect on PD and WR. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 20 men and 24 women. During PD, three phonemic contrasts (place and manner of articulation and voicing) were compared using the attentive P300 and pre-attentive Mismatch Negativity. To investigate WR, real words were contrasted with pseudowords in a pre-attentive oddball task. Women demonstrated a larger sensitivity to spectrotemporal differences, as evidenced by larger P300 responses to the place of articulation (PoA) contrast and larger P300 and MMN responses than men in PoA-based PD. Men did not display such sensitivity. Attention played an important role, considering that women needed more attentional resources to differentiate between PoA and the other phonemic contrasts. During WR, pseudowords evoked larger amplitudes already 100 ms post-stimulus independent of sex. However, women had decreased P200 latencies, but longer N400 latencies in response to pseudowords, whereas men showed increased N400 latencies compared to women in response to real words. The current results demonstrate significant sex-related influences on phonological input processes. Therefore, existing neurophysiological normative data for age should be complemented for the factor sex. PMID:26014826

  1. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia. PMID:7474278

  2. Quality of Education and Memory Test Performance in Older Men: The New York University Paragraph Recall Test Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C.; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders. One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one’s literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Method Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Results Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. Discussion The current study provides evidence and support for normative data stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education. PMID:23906000

  3. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  4. Normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall) in the elderly Quebec-French population.

    PubMed

    Dion, Mélissa; Potvin, Olivier; Belleville, Sylvie; Ferland, Guylaine; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis; Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Simard, Martine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Lecomte, Sarah; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Performance on verbal memory tests is generally associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and education level. Performance also varies between different cultural groups. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall; RL/RI-16), a French adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (Buschke, 1984; Grober, Buschke, Crystal, Bang, & Dresner, 1988). The sample consisted of 566 healthy French-speaking older adults (50-88 years old) from the province of Quebec, Canada. Normative data for the RL/RI-16 were derived from 80% of the total sample (normative sample) and cross-validated using the remaining participants (20%; validation sample). The effects of participants' age, sex, and education level were assessed on different indices of memory performance. Results indicated that these variables were independently associated with performance. Normative data are presented as regression equations with standard deviations (symmetric distributions) and percentiles (asymmetric distributions). PMID:24815338

  5. Validation of a Korean MMPI-2 Hwa-Byung scale using a Korean normative sample.

    PubMed

    Ketterer, Holly; Han, Kyunghee; Weed, Nathan C

    2010-07-01

    The psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of Hwa-Byung (HB), a Korean culture bound syndrome, using an updated version of the Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, were examined in Korean normative sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both the first-order four-factor model and the single second-order factor model fit the data well, but the latter may be superior because of its parsimony. The HB scale correlated modestly with age, sex, SES, and problems with family and finance. However, it showed substantial correlations with spouse ratings items that were identified a priori as prospective HB correlates, indicating excellent concurrent validity. The limitations of the study and the need for future studies employing HB patients were discussed. PMID:20658881

  6. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Lambert, Matthew C; Watkins, Marley W; Power, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale-5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM-5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity-impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale-5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26011476

  7. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of

  8. Regulatory affairs administration as regulatory policy determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Forcier, J.R.

    1984-05-10

    It is the thesis of this article that the processing of a utility company's regulation-related work, the supporting tasks and the manner in which they are completed, can and does have a significant impact on the final results or work product of the regulatory affairs function, including even, potentially, the action of the regulatory agency. The article is therefore full of practical pointers on how the interface with the regulatory authority can best be organized, managed, and carried through to the attainment of optimum results for the utility. 2 references.

  9. Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Liss, Per-Erik; Westerlind, Björn; Berterö, Carina

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes: interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse's interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics influence the nurse's practical performance and could be supporting documents for nurses as professionals. PMID:21733960

  10. "You should (not) do that": An Evaluative Model of Normative Appeals (EMNA).

    PubMed

    Oceja, Luis; Villegas, Marisol; Beramendi, Maite; Salgado, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Normative appeals refer to those messages that indicate that one should (or should not) engage in a certain action in a given situation. According to the psychosocial research, the decision to fulfill a normative appeal depends on both the extent to which it has captured our attention and the evaluation of what we may gain or lose by doing so. However, according to the Evaluative Model of Normative Appeals (EMNA), between these two processes we carry out an evaluation (normative appraisal) that strongly influences the decision that is ultimately made. Specifically, this normative appraisal, which is done in accordance with the dimensions of formality and protection, transforms the appeal into a particular normative representation (i.e., custom, coercive law, prescription, or legitimate law) that, in turn, influences the willingness toward compliance or violation. The results of three studies support these basic premises of EMNA. PMID:26513513

  11. How your executive functioning impacts me: Findings from a normative sample of older couples.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jenna; Rehman, Uzma S; McAuley, Tara; Schryer, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Although executive functioning (EF) has implications for one's emotional functioning and interpersonal behavior, and EF skills become more variable as we age, little research has investigated whether normative age-related changes in EF impact social-emotional outcomes in close others. The current study used a dyadic approach to examine the impact of individual differences in core aspects of EF on indices of well-being in 91 married or cohabiting couples aged 55 years and older. Participants in each dyad completed EF tasks of inhibition, working memory, and task switching, control tasks of language and short-term memory (STM) in which EF demands were comparatively minimal, and self-report measures of depression and quality of life. Dyadic analyses showed that individuals with lower levels of EF self-reported more depressive symptoms, though there was no significant association between an individual's EF and their partner's self-reported mood. Conversely, individuals with lower levels of EF had partners who endorsed a lower quality of life, though there was no significant association between an individual's EF and their own quality of life ratings. Control tasks did not predict either aspect of well-being in either member of the dyad. Taken together, these findings highlight EF-and not simply cognition in general-as a potential determinant of well-being in oneself and one's partner among aging couples. PMID:26280385

  12. Student Affairs Case Management: Merging Social Work Theory with Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sharrika D.; Hazelwood, Sherry; Hayden, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Case management is a functional area in higher education and student affairs that emerged after the mass shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007. Although new to higher education, case management emerged from established social work practice. This article compares social work theory and case management standards with a new case management model for…

  13. Designing Student Affairs Organizational Structures: Perceptions of Senior Student Affairs Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; Banning, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Student affairs organizations have become complex entities and serve as a critical link to student success and the quality of the overall educational experience in collegiate institutions. Over time, new programs and services have been added to the array of existing programs and services with little attention focused on how these organizations…

  14. Building a Better Bridge: Creating Effective Partnerships between Academic Affairs and Student Affairs. Invited Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James; Murphy, Sheila

    A new model among student affairs professionals, faculty, and academic administrators is emerging at colleges and universities across the country. This "partnership model" or "partnership movement" is characterized by collaborations and connections. These partnerships can serve as a transformational tool to enhance the quality of the students'…

  15. A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in

  16. International biomedical law in search for its normative status.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Atina

    2012-01-01

    The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner. PMID:23115826

  17. The mind as skills and dispositions: on normativity and mediation.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-03-01

    On the occasion of the critique of Alfredo Gaete and Carlos Cornejo, this article explains and extends the hybrid theory of the mind that I recently presented in this journal. Taking inspiration from Rom Harré's program for a hybrid psychology, the theory is supposed to be integrative and aims to broaden Harré's hybrid psychology by including not just the brain, but also the body, social practices, and technological artifacts as mediators of the mind. The mind is understood not as a substance of any kind, but as a set of skills and dispositions to act, think, and feel. This implies a normative view of the mind, according to which psychological phenomena do not simply happen, but are done, and can consequently be done more or less well. I provide arguments in favor of grounding psychology in normativity rather than conscious experience, and I explain why the emphasis on mediators does not represent a threat to the ontological primacy of the person in psychology. PMID:21858422

  18. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5–7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality. PMID:25071624

  19. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed. PMID:12693194

  20. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices.

    PubMed

    Elias, John Z; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  1. [Memorandum IV: Theoretical and Normative Grounding of Health Services Research].

    PubMed

    Baumann, W; Farin, E; Menzel-Begemann, A; Meyer, T

    2016-05-01

    With Memoranda and other initiatives, the German Network for Health Service Research [Deutsches Netzwerk Versorgungsforschung e.V. (DNVF)] is fostering the methodological quality of care research studies for years. Compared to the standards of empirical research, questions concerning the role and function of theories, theoretical approaches and scientific principles have not been taken up on its own. Therefore, the DNVF e.V. has set up a working group in 2013, which was commissioned to prepare a memorandum on "theories in health care research". This now presented memorandum will primarily challenge scholars in health care services research to pay more attention to questions concerning the theoretical arsenal and the background assumptions in the research process. The foundation in the philosophy of science, the reference to normative principles and the theory-bases of the research process are addressed. Moreover, the memorandum will call on to advance the theorizing in health services research and to strengthen not empirical approaches, research on basic principles or studies with regard to normative sciences and to incorporate these relevant disciplines in health services research. Research structures and funding of health services research needs more open space for theoretical reflection and for self-observation of their own, multidisciplinary research processes. PMID:27248164

  2. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  3. Well-managed companies public affairs is participative

    SciTech Connect

    Darcy, G.R.

    1984-03-29

    The working relationship between government and business has often been adversarial, especially during periods of major business reform movements. A positive approach to public affairs by business leaders, emphasizing cooperation with all levels of government, is suggested in this article as one means of improving the business regulatory environment. The author describes a progressive public affairs program with a broad socioeconomic focus undertaken by one utility. Developed over more than a decade, the program incorporates public affairs as part of every manager's responsibilities. Highlighted are the structure of the present public affairs department and the scope of its activities.

  4. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (−1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (−1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (−1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (−1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups. PMID:23113042

  5. Bringing the cognitive estimation task into the 21st century: normative data on two new parallel forms.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Wagner, Gabriela Peretti; Murphy, Patrick; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used by clinicians and researchers to assess the ability to produce reasonable cognitive estimates. Although several studies have published normative data for versions of the CET, many of the items are now outdated and parallel forms of the test do not exist to allow cognitive estimation abilities to be assessed on more than one occasion. In the present study, we devised two new 9-item parallel forms of the CET. These versions were administered to 184 healthy male and female participants aged 18-79 years with 9-22 years of education. Increasing age and years of education were found to be associated with successful CET performance as well as gender, intellect, naming, arithmetic and semantic memory abilities. To validate that the parallel forms of the CET were sensitive to frontal lobe damage, both versions were administered to 24 patients with frontal lobe lesions and 48 age-, gender- and education-matched controls. The frontal patients' error scores were significantly higher than the healthy controls on both versions of the task. This study provides normative data for parallel forms of the CET for adults which are also suitable for assessing frontal lobe dysfunction on more than one occasion without practice effects. PMID:24671170

  6. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:26563847

  7. Impaired or Not Impaired, That Is the Question: Navigating the Challenges Associated with Using Canadian Normative Data in a Comprehensive Test Battery That Contains American Tests.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Thérèse M; Stewart, Garth; Nelson, Monty; McInerney, Robert J; Brodie, Norman

    2016-08-01

    It has been well documented that IQ scores calculated using Canadian norms are generally 2-5 points lower than those calculated using American norms on the Wechsler IQ scales. However, recent findings have demonstrated that the difference may be significantly larger for individuals with certain demographic characteristics, and this has prompted discussion about the appropriateness of using the Canadian normative system with a clinical population in Canada. This study compared the interpretive effects of applying the American and Canadian normative systems in a clinical sample. We used a multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) to calculate differences between IQ and Index scores in a clinical sample, and mixed model ANOVAs to assess the pattern of differences across age and ability level. As expected, Full Scale IQ scores calculated using Canadian norms were systematically lower than those calculated using American norms, but differences were significantly larger for individuals classified as having extremely low or borderline intellectual functioning when compared with those who scored in the average range. Implications of clinically different conclusions for up to 52.8% of patients based on these discrepancies highlight a unique dilemma facing Canadian clinicians, and underscore the need for caution when choosing a normative system with which to interpret WAIS-IV results in the context of a neuropsychological test battery in Canada. Based on these findings, we offer guidelines for best practice for Canadian clinicians when interpreting data from neuropsychological test batteries that include different normative systems, and suggestions to assist with future test development. PMID:27246955

  8. The 37 item Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination: Normative Data in a Population-Based Cohort of Older Spanish Adults (NEDICES).

    PubMed

    Contador, I; Bermejo-Pareja, F; Fernández-Calvo, B; Boycheva, E; Tapias, E; Llamas, S; Benito-León, J

    2016-05-01

    The 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-37) is an extended version of the original test for individuals with low education, which was adapted for different cultures. Despite its favorable psychometric properties, there is a lack of normative data for this instrument. We provide normative data for the MMSE-37 stratified by age, sex, and education in a large population-based cohort of older Spanish adults. The sample consisted of 3,777 participants without dementia (age range: 65-97 years) from different socioeconomic areas of central Spain. Normative data are presented in percentile ranks and divided into nine overlapping age tables with different midpoints, using the overlapping cell procedure. A hierarchical regression was performed to evaluate the effects of sociodemographic variables on MMSE-37 performance. Results showed that age, sex, and education affect test score. The norms presented herein are important for the correct interpretation of MMSE-37 scores when assessing older adults in Spain. PMID:26860862

  9. Emotion Regulation from Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood and Middle Adulthood: Age Differences, Gender Differences, and Emotion-Epecific Developmental Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing research on emotion regulation, the empirical evidence for normative age-related emotion regulation patterns is rather divergent. From a life-span perspective, normative age changes in emotion regulation may be more salient applying the same methodological approach on a broad age range examining both growth and decline during…

  10. Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais

    PubMed Central

    Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

  11. The subjective postural vertical in standing: reliability and normative data for healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jeannine; Kreuzpointner, Monica-Antoanela; Krewer, Carmen; Bardins, Stanislav; Schepermann, Andreas; Koenig, Eberhard; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Impaired verticality perception can cause falls, or even the inability to stand, due to lateropulsion or retropulsion. The internal estimate of verticality can be assessed through the subjective visual, haptic, or postural vertical (SPV). The SPV reflects impaired upright body orientation, but has primarily been assessed in sitting position. The internal representations of body orientation might be different between sitting and standing, mainly because of differences in somatosensory input for the estimation of SPV. To test the SPV during standing, we set up a paradigm using a device that allows movement in three dimensions (the Spacecurl). This study focused on the test-retest and interrater reliabilities of SPV measurements (n = 25) and provides normative values for the age range 20-79 years (n = 60; 10 healthy subjects per decade). The test-retest and interrater reliabilities for SPV measurements in standing subjects were good. The normality values ranged from -1.7° to 2.3° in the sagittal plane, and from -1.6° to 1.2° in the frontal plane. Minor alterations occurred with aging: SPV shifted backward with increasing age, and the variability of verticality estimates increased. Assessment of SPV in standing can be done with reliable results. SPV should next be used to test patients with an impaired sense of verticality, to determine its diagnostic value in comparison to established tools. PMID:25522832

  12. Filming the freak show. Non-normative bodies on screen.

    PubMed

    Brodesco, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on four films that display the exhibition for profit of non- normative bodies in a context that is variously called freak show, sideshow, monster show, odditorium. Freaks (Tod Browning, 1932), The Ape Woman (La donna scimmia, Marco Ferreri, 1964), Elephant Man (David Lynch, 1980) and Black Venus (Venus noire, Abdellatif Kechiche, 2010) are reflexive movies that tell stories of abnormal bodies and of people who buy a ticket to see them. They inquire the fictional nature of "freakness"--a cultural and historical artefact, a social construction, a frame of mind and a set of practices--and draw attention to the continuity between the world of the freak shows and the scientific and medical milieus. The article finally considers the new visibility of the corporeal freak in contemporary voyeuristic television programs. PMID:25702390

  13. Laudan's normative naturalism: a useful philosophy of science for psychology.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, E J; Proctor, R W

    2000-01-01

    Logical positivism, widely regarded as the received epistemology of psychology in the first half of the 20th century, was supplanted in the 1960s by various postpositivistic, relativistic philosophies of science, most notably that of Kuhn. Recently, Laudan, a major figure in the philosophy of science, developed a novel approach called normative naturalism that provides an alternative to positivism and relativism. His central thesis is that the two are not always on opposite ends of a continuum but rather have many assumptions in common. This article brings Laudan's important views to the attention of psychologists and describes some of the unique implications of these views for the conduct of research and theory in psychology. These implications, which follow from a number of closely reasoned pragmatic arguments, include more realistic and appropriate evaluation of theory and methodology than has been suggested by logical positivism or relativism. PMID:10997236

  14. Applications of dynamic crystallization studies - Lunar olivine-normative basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianco, A. S.; Taylor, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic crystallization studies were performed on two synthetic glasses similar in composition to the mare olivine-normative basalt samples 12009 and 15555. The effects of viscosity (primarily a function of FeO) and the initial temperature of cooling on mineral chemistry, texture, and temperature of appearance of phases were investigated. Olivine compositions seem to indicate that, for the two types of melt cooled at the same rate, there are no significant differences in the degree of undercooling at which olivine nucleates, but it is found that olivine-nucleated densities differ. The cooling rate of 15555 is estimated. Since the temperature at which cooling is initiated affects texture, mineral chemistry, and temperature of appearance of phases so greatly, caution is recommended in the application of experimental data to natural rock systems.

  15. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    PubMed

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

  16. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrod, Michael R.

    A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

  17. A Normative Approach to the Legitimacy of Muslim Schools in Multicultural Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Debate has grown about the legitimacy of Muslim faith schools within the British education system. At the same time, scepticism has developed towards multiculturalism as a normative approach for dealing with diversity. This article argues that it is worth retaining the normative impetus of multiculturalism by returning to its roots in political…

  18. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

  19. [Normative-legal support for implementation of national strategy of glaucoma control in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Vitovs'ka, O P; Tymchenko, O I

    2009-01-01

    The review of normative legal database for implementation of national strategy of glaucoma control has demonstrated that there are all terms and conditions for implementation of national strategy on the national level. There is no necessity to change present normative legal database in the field of public health for the purpose of strategy implementation. PMID:20455458

  20. Predicting Behavior from Normative Influences: What Insights Can the Fishbein Model Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walster, Dian E.

    The Fishbein Model is an attitude behavior consistency model which is used in both laboratory and field settings for predicting and understanding attitudinal and normative influences on behavior. This paper examines controversy surrounding the Fishbein Model's normative component in the context of a study of library and information science (LIS)…

  1. Early Understanding of Normativity and Freedom to Act in Turkish Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçgenç, Bahar; Hohenberger, Annette; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Two studies investigated young 2- and 3-year-old Turkish children's developing understanding of normativity and freedom to act in games. As expected, children, especially 3-year-olds, protested more when there was a norm violation than when there was none. Surprisingly, however, no decrease in normative protest was observed even when the…

  2. The Combined Influence of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment on Employee Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Mark John

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 288 hospital nurses, commitment profiles were compared to turnover intentions, job search behavior, work withdrawal (absenteeism and lateness) and job stress. Five empirically-derived commitment profiles emerged: highly committed, affective-normative dominant, continuance-normative dominant, continuance dominant, and uncommitted.…

  3. What Community College Students Value: Delineating a Normative Structure for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Renea; Park, Toby J.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript delineates a normative structure for community college students, outlines how this structure varies by student characteristics, and compares this structure to that of a previously established normative structure identified at a 4-year institution. A total of 512 student survey responses on the College Student Behaviors Inventory…

  4. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2003-01-01

    Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's…

  5. Beyond Evidence-Based Belief Formation: How Normative Ideas Have Constrained Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlsson, Stellan

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive sciences, including psychology and education, have their roots in antiquity. In the historically early disciplines like logic and philosophy, the purpose of inquiry was normative. Logic sought to formalize valid inferences, and the various branches of philosophy sought to identify true and certain knowledge. Normative principles are…

  6. Exploring the Practical Adequacy of the Normative Framework Guiding South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisikta, Heila; Schudel, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the practical adequacy of the recent defining of a normative framework for the South African National Curriculum Statement that focuses on the relationship between human rights, social justice and a healthy environment. This politically framed and socially critical normative framework has developed in response to…

  7. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressler, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

  8. Normative Feedback and Adolescent Readiness to Change: A Small Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas C.; Davis, Jordan P.; Ureche, Daniel J.; Tabb, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    For adolescents with substance use problems, it is unknown whether the provision of normative feedback is a necessary active ingredient in motivational interviewing (MI). This study investigated the impact of normative feedback on adolescents' readiness to change and perceptions of MI quality. Adolescents referred for substance use disorder (SUD)…

  9. [The normative concept of guilt in criminal law between freedom of will and neurobiological determinism].

    PubMed

    Czerner, Frank

    2006-01-01

    as a result of self-attribution, the intra- and inter-subjective experience of the freedom of will renders the mere "illusion of freedom" sufficient to assign to an individual the appropriate sense of responsibility, which is also accepted by him. The alternative of a law of measures independent of guilt and culpability must be rejected because it is incapable of instituting sufficient protection, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, against prognostically diffuse and utilitarian hypertrophied prophylactic efforts on the part of the state up to the point of a revolutionised anthropological design, as shown quite clearly by the repressive and restrictive tendencies apparent in criminal policy since 11 September 2001. Consequently, the classic principle of guilt as one of the humanitarian foundations of punishment imposed by the state needs to be protected and upheld in the face of rash and inadequately considered law amendment endeavours. With its principles having slowly grown over the ages under democratic consent, criminal law is capable of immunising itself against uncritically generalised restructuring attempts based on inductive false conclusions and the confusion of coincidence, correlation and causality, let alone against the neurobiological "occupation tendencies" of normative premises. Regardless of their undeniable fascination, future brain research activities and the respective findings in the neurobiology of thinking, decision-making and acting as an indispensable empirical and epistemological starting point must always be reviewed in terms of their factual and normative implementation powers in favour of or against the human freedom of will. PMID:17217181

  10. Appreciative Inquiry and Student Affairs: A Positive Approach to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehner, Rachelle; Hight, Donna L.

    2006-01-01

    Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is an organization development (OD) philosophy that utilizes and builds on past successes, using these as positive momentum for future change. AI provides student affairs with an alternative and generative approach to improving their organizations' processes and culture. As student affairs professionals look to the future…

  11. Factors That Influence Attrition of New Professionals in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Jenine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to identify factors that contribute to the attrition of new professionals in the field of student affairs. Student affairs professionals report low levels of commitment to the field and depart from the field at rates ranging from 32% to 61% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chrisholm, 1983; Rosen et al., 1980; Rosser…

  12. The Student Affairs Committee. Effective Committees. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Responsibilities of the college or university governing board's student affairs committee include representing students' interests in all policy decisions, ensuring provision of adequate financial resources to support a comprehensive student affairs program, ensuring that board policies keep pace with students' diverse and changing needs, and…

  13. Leadership Development in Student Affairs Graduate Preparatory Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Kelly Anne

    2010-01-01

    As colleges and universities increase in complexity, so do the leadership demands of student affairs professionals. Today, entry-level professionals are expected to be competent leaders. As a result, student affairs graduate preparatory programs (SAGPPs) have an obligation to foster the leadership development of their enrolled students. This…

  14. Overview of Student Affairs Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Emily J.; Noldon, Denise F.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research in student affairs research, noting that many student affairs professionals question the value of more traditional quantitative approaches to research, though they typically have very good people skills that they have applied to being good qualitative researchers.…

  15. Preserving the History of a Student Affairs Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    The following is a brief overview regarding: the history and development of Student Affairs as it pertains to (a) preserving the history of a professional association, (b) value and benefits of a professional Student Affairs association, (c) establishing and assessing goals and (d) organizational development/change within a professional…

  16. Efficacy of Orientation for New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Laura A.; Saunders, Sue A.; Thompson, George F.; Cooper, Dianne L.

    2011-01-01

    New staff orientation is a strategy that can positively affect job satisfaction and productivity, especially for those beginning careers in student affairs. In this study, new student affairs professionals were surveyed to determine their perceptions about the content and efficacy of their orientation experiences. Despite literature encouraging…

  17. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on July 15, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  18. 78 FR 51266 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on September 9, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  19. Academic Affairs Committee. AGB Standing Committee Series [No. 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chait, Richard P.; Taylor, Barbara E.

    1983-01-01

    The responsibilities and functioning of an academic affairs committee of a college governing board are described. It is noted that the responsibilities of the academic affairs committee involve monitoring the relationship between mission and strategy in the academic realm. The following responsibilities of the committee are discussed: the…

  20. Decision to Enter the Profession of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Deborah J.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider factors that graduate students in master's degree programs in student affairs identify as influential to their decisions to enter the student affairs profession. A total of 300 master's students from 24 randomly selected graduate programs participated in the study. Relatively few differences were found…

  1. A Case Study of Student Affairs in Professional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overly, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of conducting this study is to explore how student affairs professionals in professional schools acquire the knowledge and skill set to be effective in such positions. The need for such research arose after a review of the literature revealed inattention to the practice of student affairs in professional schools. Qualitative…

  2. Perceptions of Assessment Competency among New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jaimie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Due to the declining state of the current economy, a greater demand is being placed on student affairs professionals to provide evidence of the success of their programs, their impact on student learning and development and overall contributions to the undergraduate learning experience. It is a growing imperative that student affairs professionals…

  3. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Fiona J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Students in the field, as well as experienced practitioners and administrators, will herein find an up-to-date and in-depth study of the major student affairs functions of a comprehensive campus program. Within its covers, the graduate student will find chapters describing everything the person new to student affairs needs to know about the major…

  4. Improving Leadership in Student Affairs Administration: A Case Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    The case approach to improving leadership in student affairs is offered as a key component of the process of learning how to become an effective leader. The 18 cases on diverse issues offered in this book are intended to provide learning opportunities for those who aspire to become student affairs leaders. The book contains an introduction about…

  5. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of External Affairs. 1.37 Section 1.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.37 Office of External Affairs. (a) Office of Federal Activities. The Office of Federal Activities is headed...

  6. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  7. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  8. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  9. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  10. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is... activities relating to the Commission's international cooperation programs and develops initiatives...

  11. 75 FR 6227 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans... announces the meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs. The Advisory Committee...

  12. 75 FR 22434 - Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans... announces the meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans Business Affairs. The Advisory Committee...

  13. Doctoral Programs for Student Affairs Professionals: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomes, Michael D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Conducted assessment of current status of doctoral education opportunities for student affairs professionals, drawn from data from the Doctoral Programs for Student Affairs Practitioners Questionnaire completed by 36 program directors, the Student Characteristics Questionnaire completed by 48 respondents, and a survey of 775 doctoral students.…

  14. Underlying Paradigms in Student Affairs Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guido, Florence M.; Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2010-01-01

    Student affairs professionals benefit from understanding paradigms, worldviews, and ways of being among diverse faculty, staff, and students. It is challenging to understand core differences of paradigms, design student affairs practice and research in congruence with or across specific philosophies, and work effectively with individuals operating…

  15. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75 Section 952.204-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs....

  16. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75 Section 952.204-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs....

  17. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  18. Why Do They Leave? Departure from the Student Affairs Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Tara E.

    2013-01-01

    Departure among student affairs administrators in higher education has been an issue for decades (Evans, 1988; Lorden, 1998; Tull, 2006). Rates of departure from student affairs within the first five years of experience are estimated at 50% to 60% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chisholm, 1983; Lorden, 1998; Tull, 2006). However, there is very little…

  19. Attrition of Student Affairs Professionals: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nancy J.

    1988-01-01

    Found in a review of the literature on attrition from the student affairs department that student affairs professionals know little about the extent and causes of the attrition problem. Suggests environmental redesign and personal and professional strategies for addressing this issue. (Author/ABL)

  20. The Organizational Realities of Student Affairs: A Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Jeremiah B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the organizational functions of student-affairs at Indiana University and to understand the nature of the conflict between student-affairs and the larger organization. This study utilized the case-study research design. Much of the data collected and analyzed during this case study were of a historical…

  1. Helping Competencies of Student Affairs Professionals: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather student affairs professionals' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed to effectively help students. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the United States were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the helping skills they use…

  2. College Student Concerns: Perceptions of Student Affairs Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase awareness of the perceptions of student affairs professionals regarding the most frequent and challenging concerns facing college students today. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the country were surveyed about their perceptions…

  3. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  4. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  5. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  6. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  7. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  8. 10 CFR 1.28 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Public Affairs. 1.28 Section 1.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.28 Office of Public Affairs. The Office of Public Affairs— (a) Develops policies, programs, and...

  9. 10 CFR 1.28 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Public Affairs. 1.28 Section 1.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.28 Office of Public Affairs. The Office of Public Affairs— (a) Develops policies, programs, and...

  10. 10 CFR 1.28 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Public Affairs. 1.28 Section 1.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.28 Office of Public Affairs. The Office of Public Affairs— (a) Develops policies, programs, and...

  11. 10 CFR 1.27 - Office of Congressional Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Congressional Affairs. 1.27 Section 1.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.27 Office of Congressional Affairs. The Office of Congressional Affairs— (a) Advises...

  12. 10 CFR 1.27 - Office of Congressional Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Congressional Affairs. 1.27 Section 1.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.27 Office of Congressional Affairs. The Office of Congressional Affairs— (a) Advises...

  13. 10 CFR 1.27 - Office of Congressional Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Congressional Affairs. 1.27 Section 1.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.27 Office of Congressional Affairs. The Office of Congressional Affairs— (a) Advises...

  14. 10 CFR 1.28 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Public Affairs. 1.28 Section 1.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.28 Office of Public Affairs. The Office of Public Affairs— (a) Develops policies, programs, and...

  15. 10 CFR 1.28 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Public Affairs. 1.28 Section 1.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.28 Office of Public Affairs. The Office of Public Affairs— (a) Develops policies, programs, and...

  16. 10 CFR 1.27 - Office of Congressional Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Congressional Affairs. 1.27 Section 1.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.27 Office of Congressional Affairs. The Office of Congressional Affairs— (a) Advises...

  17. 10 CFR 1.27 - Office of Congressional Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Congressional Affairs. 1.27 Section 1.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Commission Staff § 1.27 Office of Congressional Affairs. The Office of Congressional Affairs— (a) Advises...

  18. Contract and Tort Based Ethics in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Will

    1996-01-01

    Argues that contract law and tort law are appropriate means for providing enforceable professional ethics in student affairs and that incorporating student affairs ethical codes into contracts with students creates enforceable ethical codes. Believes that providing such codes strengthens risk management programs, as well as encouraging…

  19. Normative consent and presumed consent for organ donation: a critique.

    PubMed

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2010-08-01

    Ben Saunders claims that actual consent is not necessary for organ donation due to 'normative consent', a concept he borrows from David Estlund. Combining normative consent with Peter Singer's 'greater moral evil principle', Saunders argues that it is immoral for an individual to refuse consent to donate his or her organs. If a presumed consent policy were thus adopted, it would be morally legitimate to remove organs from individuals whose wishes concerning donation are not known. This paper disputes Saunders' arguments. First, if death caused by the absence of organ transplant is the operational premise, then, there is nothing of comparable moral precedence under which a person is not obligated to donate. Saunders' use of Singer's principle produces a duty to donate in almost all circumstances. However, this premise is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect between organ availability and death. Second, given growing moral and scientific agreement that the organ donors in heart-beating and non-heart-beating procurement protocols are not dead when their organs are surgically removed, it is not at all clear that people have a duty to consent to their lives being taken for their organs. Third, Saunders' claim that there can be good reasons for refusing consent clashes with his claim that there is a moral obligation for everyone to donate their organs. Saunders' argument is more consistent with a conclusion of 'mandatory consent'. Finally, it is argued that Saunders' policy, if put into place, would be totalitarian in scope and would therefore be inconsistent with the freedom required for a democratic society. PMID:20663768

  20. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 45 - State Directors of Veterans Affairs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box 1509, Montgomery, AL 36192-3701. Alaska Director, Division of Veterans Affairs... Memorial Bldg, suite E-970, Atlanta, GA 30334. Guam Office of Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box 3279, Agana, Guam... Veterans Affairs Officer, Office of Veterans Affairs, American Samoa Government, P.O. Box 2586, Pago...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 45 - State Directors of Veterans Affairs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box 1509, Montgomery, AL 36192-3701. Alaska Director, Division of Veterans Affairs... Memorial Bldg, suite E-970, Atlanta, GA 30334. Guam Office of Veterans Affairs, P.O. Box 3279, Agana, Guam... Veterans Affairs Officer, Office of Veterans Affairs, American Samoa Government, P.O. Box 2586, Pago...

  2. Have infant gross motor abilities changed in 20 years? A re-evaluation of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale normative values

    PubMed Central

    Darrah, Johanna; Bartlett, Doreen; Maguire, Thomas O; Avison, William R; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the original normative data of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=2202) collected 20 years ago with a contemporary sample of Canadian infants. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study of 650 Canadian infants (338 males, 312 females; mean age 30.9wks [SD 15.5], range 2wks–18mo) assessed once on the AIMS. Assessments were stratified by age, and infants proportionally represented the ethnic diversity of Canada. Logistic regression was used to place AIMS items on an age scale representing the age at which 50% of the infants passed an item on the contemporary data set and the original data set. Forty-three items met the criterion for stable regression results in both data sets. Results The correlation coefficient between the age locations of items on the original and contemporary data sets was 0.99. The mean age difference between item locations was 0.7 weeks. Age values from the original data set when converted to the contemporary scale differed by less than 1 week. Interpretation The sequence and age at emergence of AIMS items has remained similar over 20 years and current normative values remain valid. Concern that the ‘back to sleep’ campaign has influenced the age at emergence of gross motor abilities is not supported. PMID:24684556

  3. Normative Data of the EORTC QLQ-C30 For the German Population: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Annika; Schubert, Daniel; Katalinic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to generate up-to-date normative data for health-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the “European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30)” in a random sample of the population in Northern Germany. Methods We conducted a population-based survey of a random sample of 10,000 persons aged 16 years or older. The postal questionnaire included questions regarding lifetime prevalence of common diseases and quality of life. EORTC QLQ-C30 scales were scored according to standard procedures. The results were stratified for age and sex. Results The questionnaire was completed by 4,684 (47%) of 9,928 eligible persons. Mean age of the participants was 51.7 years (standard deviation: 18.5) and 57% were females. Missing values for the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales and items were sparse (minimum: 0.2%, maximum: 1.5%). Self-reported health related QoL varied by age and sex. Generally, men reported better functioning and fewer symptoms than women. In both sexes function declined and symptoms increased with increasing age. Symptoms most frequently reported were fatigue, pain and insomnia. Compared to the German reference data published in 2001 our participants scored more than 10 points higher on the latter three scales/items. The most frequently reported diseases were hypertension (36%), hyperlipidemia (26%) and arthritis (30%). Lifetime prevalence of depression was 16% in women and 11% in men. Conclusion Our study participants are representative for the German general population with regard to age, sex and education. Of special interest is the high proportion of participants reporting depression which is also mirrored by high fatigue, pain and insomnia scores. The normative data provided should be used as comparison health-related QoL data when evaluating the QoL in German cancer patients. PMID:24058523

  4. MMPI-2 Symptom Validity (FBS) Scale: psychometric characteristics and limitations in a Veterans Affairs neuropsychological setting.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Odland, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Symptom Validity (Fake Bad Scale [FBS]) Scale is widely used to assist in determining noncredible symptom reporting, despite a paucity of detailed research regarding its itemmetric characteristics. Originally designed for use in civil litigation, the FBS is often used in a variety of clinical settings. The present study explored its fundamental psychometric characteristics in a sample of 303 patients who were consecutively referred for a comprehensive examination in a Veterans Affairs (VA) neuropsychology clinic. FBS internal consistency (reliability) was .77. Its underlying factor structure consisted of three unitary dimensions (Tiredness/Distractibility, Stomach/Head Discomfort, and Claimed Virtue of Self/Others) accounting for 28.5% of the total variance. The FBS's internal structure showed factoral discordance, as Claimed Virtue was negatively related to most of the FBS and to its somatic complaint components. Scores on this 12-item FBS component reflected a denial of socially undesirable attitudes and behaviors (Antisocial Practices Scale) that is commonly expressed by the 1,138 males in the MMPI-2 normative sample. These 12 items significantly reduced FBS reliability, introducing systematic error variance. In this VA neuropsychological referral setting, scores on the FBS have ambiguous meaning because of its structural discordance. PMID:24826489

  5. Persian version of frontal assessment battery: Correlations with formal measures of executive functioning and providing normative data for Persian population

    PubMed Central

    Asaadi, Sina; Ashrafi, Farzad; Omidbeigi, Mahmoud; Nasiri, Zahra; Pakdaman, Hossein; Amini-Harandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly involves executive function (EF). The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is an efficient tool for the assessment of EFs. The aims of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of FAB and assess its correlation with formal measures of EFs to provide normative data for the Persian version of FAB in patients with PD. Methods: The study recruited 149 healthy participants and 49 patients with idiopathic PD. In PD patients, FAB results were compared to their performance on EF tests. Reliability analysis involved test-retest reliability and internal consistency, whereas validity analysis involved convergent validity approach. FAB scores compared in normal controls and in PD patients matched for age, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Results: In PD patients, FAB scores were significantly decreased compared to normal controls, and correlated with Stroop test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In healthy subjects, FAB scores varied according to the age, education, and MMSE. In the FAB subtest analysis, the performances of PD patients were worse than the healthy participants on similarities, fluency tasks, and Luria’s motor series. Conclusion: Persian version of FAB could be used as a reliable scale for the assessment of frontal lobe functions in Iranian patients with PD. Furthermore, normative data provided for the Persian version of this test improve the accuracy and confidence in the clinical application of the FAB. PMID:27141272

  6. A comparison of normative data for the Trail Making Test from several countries: equivalence of norms and considerations for interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Alberto L; Marcopulos, Bernice A

    2008-06-01

    The Trail Making Test may not be equivalent across cultures, i.e., differences in the scores across different cultures may not reveal real differences in the ability of the subjects on the construct being measured. In order to assess this hypothesis, normative samples from ten different countries were compared. Age decade subgroups across samples were ranked based on mean time taken to complete each part of the task. Large Z scores differences were found between these samples when comparing the first with the second, and the last in the rank. These differences were significant even when age and education were comparable across samples. Following Van de Vijver & Tanzer (1997), several possible sources of bias were identified. Incomparability of samples and administration differences were the most likely factors accounting for differences. Because of the lack of validity studies in the countries considered, no firm conclusions could be obtained regarding construct bias. Although the TMT may be measuring visual scanning, psychomotor speed and mental flexibility, normative data from different countries and cultures are not equivalent which might lead to serious diagnostic errors. PMID:18419589

  7. Grip Strength across the Life Course: Normative Data from Twelve British Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Richard M.; Syddall, Holly E.; Cooper, Rachel; Benzeval, Michaela; Deary, Ian J.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Der, Geoff; Gale, Catharine R.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Robinson, Sian M.; Starr, John M.; Steptoe, Andrew; Tilling, Kate; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol. Methods We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing). Results Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males’ peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position. Conclusion This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty. PMID:25474696

  8. Values Education in College and Universities: An Overview of Collaborative Projects between Student Affairs and Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Joan Tedrow

    This paper provides an overview of current student development programs that include values education and that represent collaborative work between student affairs and academic affairs divisions. It examines a variety of programs, including freshman seminars designed to promote retention, interdisciplinary courses and seminars at all levels, and…

  9. Redefining Student Affairs through Digital Technology: A Ten-Year Historiography of Digital Technology Use by Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    The student affairs profession is at a crossroads (Torres & Walbert, 2010) given digital technology's growth and the academy's administrative expansion (Bowen, 2013). Student affairs administrators must simultaneously respond to digital technology's implications in students' lives (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) and to new state and federal…

  10. Normative Data for an Instrumental Assessment of the Upper-Limb Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Caimmi, Marco; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Malosio, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Upper-limb movement analysis is important to monitor objectively rehabilitation interventions, contributing to improving the overall treatments outcomes. Simple, fast, easy-to-use, and applicable methods are required to allow routinely functional evaluation of patients with different pathologies and clinical conditions. This paper describes the Reaching and Hand-to-Mouth Evaluation Method, a fast procedure to assess the upper-limb motor control and functional ability, providing a set of normative data from 42 healthy subjects of different ages, evaluated for both the dominant and the nondominant limb motor performance. Sixteen of them were reevaluated after two weeks to perform test-retest reliability analysis. Data were clustered into three subgroups of different ages to test the method sensitivity to motor control differences. Experimental data show notable test-retest reliability in all tasks. Data from older and younger subjects show significant differences in the measures related to the ability for coordination thus showing the high sensitivity of the method to motor control differences. The presented method, provided with control data from healthy subjects, appears to be a suitable and reliable tool for the upper-limb functional assessment in the clinical environment. PMID:26539500

  11. Normative Data for an Instrumental Assessment of the Upper-Limb Functionality.

    PubMed

    Caimmi, Marco; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Malosio, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Upper-limb movement analysis is important to monitor objectively rehabilitation interventions, contributing to improving the overall treatments outcomes. Simple, fast, easy-to-use, and applicable methods are required to allow routinely functional evaluation of patients with different pathologies and clinical conditions. This paper describes the Reaching and Hand-to-Mouth Evaluation Method, a fast procedure to assess the upper-limb motor control and functional ability, providing a set of normative data from 42 healthy subjects of different ages, evaluated for both the dominant and the nondominant limb motor performance. Sixteen of them were reevaluated after two weeks to perform test-retest reliability analysis. Data were clustered into three subgroups of different ages to test the method sensitivity to motor control differences. Experimental data show notable test-retest reliability in all tasks. Data from older and younger subjects show significant differences in the measures related to the ability for coordination thus showing the high sensitivity of the method to motor control differences. The presented method, provided with control data from healthy subjects, appears to be a suitable and reliable tool for the upper-limb functional assessment in the clinical environment. PMID:26539500

  12. Knowledge Of Memory Aging In Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Karri S.; Cherry, Katie E.; Su, L. Joseph; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2006-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood for research or educational purposes. Half of the questions pertain to normal memory aging and the other half cover pathological memory deficits due to non-normative factors, such as adult dementia. In this study, we compared memory…

  13. Making the Oxford Hip and Knee Scores meaningful at the patient level through normative scoring and registry data

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. F.; Giesinger, J. M.; Patton, J. T.; MacDonald, D. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.; Howie, C. R.; Giesinger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS, OKS) have been demonstrated to vary according to age and gender, making it difficult to compare results in cohorts with different demographics. The aim of this paper was to calculate reference values for different patient groups and highlight the concept of normative reference data to contextualise an individual’s outcome. Methods We accessed prospectively collected OHS and OKS data for patients undergoing lower limb joint arthroplasty at a single orthopaedic teaching hospital during a five-year period. T-scores were calculated based on the OHS and OKS distributions. Results Data were obtained from 3203 total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients and 2742 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The mean age of the patient was 68.0 years (sd 11.3, 58.4% women) in the THA group and in 70.2 (sd 9.4; 57.5% women) in the TKA group. T-scores were calculated for age and gender subgroups by operation. Different T-score thresholds are seen at different time points pre and post surgery. Values are further stratified by operation (THA/TKA) age and gender. Conclusions Normative data interpretation requires a fundamental shift in the thinking as to the use of the Oxford Scores. Instead of reporting actual score points, the patient is rated by their relative position within the group of all patients undergoing the same procedure. It is proposed that this form of transformation is beneficial (a) for more appropriately comparing different patient cohorts and (b) informing an individual patient how they are progressing compared with others of their age and gender. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:137–144 PMID:26311163

  14. Normative static grip strength of population of Turkey, effects of various factors and a comparison with international norms.

    PubMed

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Normative data are of importance in ergonomics and clinical settings. Applying normative data internationally is questionable. To this end, this study aimed to establish gender- and age-specific reference values for static (isometric) hand grip strength of normal population of Turkey with special regard to occupational demand, and compare them with the international norms. The secondary aims were to investigate the effects of gender, age-group, weight-group, job-group, hand and several anthropometric variables on static grip strength. A sample of 211 (128 male and 83 female) volunteers aged between 18 and 69 with various occupations participated in the study. Grip strength data were collected using a Jamar dynamometer with standard testing position, protocol and instructions. The mean and std deviation of maximum voluntary static grip strength values (in N) for dominant and non-dominant hands respectively were 455.2 ± 73.6 and 441.5 ± 72.6 for males, and 258 ± 46.1 and 246.2 ± 49.1 for females. The mean female strength was about 57% of the mean male strength value for both dominant and non-dominant hands. There was a curvilinear relationship of grip strength to age, significant differences between genders, hands, and some age-groups, and a correlation to height, body-mass, BMI and hand dimensions depending on the gender. The comparisons with the norms of other world populations indicate that there are cross-national grip strength variations among some nations but not all. PMID:26360189

  15. Getting on the same page: The effect of normative feedback interventions on structured interview ratings.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Christopher J; Campion, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    This study explores normative feedback as a way to reduce rating errors and increase the reliability and validity of structured interview ratings. Based in control theory and social comparison theory, we propose a model of normative feedback interventions (NFIs) in the context of structured interviews and test our model using data from over 20,000 interviews conducted by more than 100 interviewers over a period of more than 4 years. Results indicate that lenient and severe interviewers reduced discrepancies between their ratings and the overall normative mean rating after receipt of normative feedback, though changes were greater for lenient interviewers. When various waves of feedback were presented in later NFIs, the combined normative mean rating over multiple time periods was more predictive of subsequent rating changes than the normative mean rating from the most recent time period. Mean within-interviewer rating variance, along with interrater agreement and interrater reliability, increased after the initial NFI, but results from later NFIs were more complex and revealed that feedback interventions may lose effectiveness over time. A second study using simulated data indicated that leniency and severity errors did not impact rating validity, but did affect which applicants were hired. We conclude that giving normative feedback to interviewers will aid in minimizing interviewer rating differences and enhance the reliability of structured interview ratings. We suggest that interviewer feedback might be considered as a potential new component of interview structure, though future research is needed before a definitive conclusion can be drawn. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26867105

  16. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  17. “Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined

    PubMed Central

    Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

  18. The Deontic Transaction Model in Multi-Agent Normative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Yonghua; Esterline, Albert

    1998-01-01

    In the area of multi-agent systems, much research is devoted to the coordination of the agents. There exist several issues, two of which are summarized. The first is that, although agents are said to be autonomous, they always react in a predictable way to each message, and they cannot decide to violate the conventions that are hard-wired into the protocol. In fact, there might be circumstances in which the agent violates a convention in order to realize a private goal that it considers to be more important. Another issue is that, if the protocols that agents use to react to the environment are fixed, they have no way to respond to changes. However, an important characteristic of agents is that they eon react to a changing environment. Although transaction models ([BOH92], [GR93]) evolved from the database domain, they establish a general execution paradigm that ideally covers all the subsystems invoked in a sequence of transactions. So transaction models apply to multi-agent systems. Recently, some research has been devoted to overcoming the limitations of the traditional transaction models which are suitable for conventional systems and focus on system integrity, e,g., [SJ97]. Here we solve above issues by turning to a deontic concept: obligation. In multi-agent systems, agents interact with each other according to norms, We use deontic logic ([And58], [Aqv84], [B C96], [JS94], [MW93]) to model norms. Here the norms prescribe how the agents ought to behave, but-- and this is essential-- they do not exclude the possibility of "bad" behavior (i.e., the actual behavior may deviate from the ideal), and so they also prescribe what should be done in circumstances of norm violation. Thus, we propose a new approach --- a deontic transaction model for multi-agent normative systems. Our approach improves the protocol of "abort/commit" of traditional transaction models to a protocol of "abort/exception/commit". In multi-agent normative systems, we can see the violation of a

  19. Constructing Language Normativity through the Animation of Stance in Spanish Language Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Deckert, Sharon K.; Goble, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of language normativity as medical providers interact with patients and animate stance within Spanish language medical consultations. The context of the study is a clinic in which providers use Spanish to communicate with monolingual Spanish-speaking patients. This clinic is in the United States, an English-speaking macro-societal context. Findings indicate that providers who are second language users of Spanish animate stance and interact with patients in ways that English is constructed as normative and Spanish as marked. Implications include the need to consider how the construction of language normativity within medical consultations affects health outcomes. PMID:24156518

  20. The natural defense system and the normative self model.

    PubMed

    Kourilsky, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infectious agents are not the only agressors, and the immune system is not the sole defender of the organism. In an enlarged perspective, the 'normative self model' postulates that a 'natural defense system' protects man and other complex organisms against the environmental and internal hazards of life, including infections and cancers. It involves multiple error detection and correction mechanisms that confer robustness to the body at all levels of its organization. According to the model, the self relies on a set of physiological norms, and NONself (meaning : Non Obedient to the Norms of the self) is anything 'off-norms'. The natural defense system comprises a set of 'civil defenses' (to which all cells in organs and tissues contribute), and a 'professional army ', made of a smaller set of mobile cells. Mobile and non mobile cells differ in their tuning abilities. Tuning extends the recognition capabilities of NONself by the mobile cells, which increase their defensive function. To prevent them to drift, which would compromise self/NONself discrimination, the more plastic mobile cells need to periodically refer to the more stable non mobile cells to keep within physiological standards. PMID:27303629

  1. Dual character concepts and the normative dimension of conceptual representation.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E

    2013-05-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of 'dual character concepts.' Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts have two different criteria for category membership. The results show that when an object possesses the appropriate concrete features, but does not fulfill the appropriate abstract value, it is judged to be a category member in one sense but not in another. Finally, Experiment 5 uses the theory developed here to construct artificial dual character concepts and examines whether participants react to these artificial concepts in the same way as naturally occurring dual character concepts. The present studies serve to define the nature of dual character concepts and distinguish them from other types of concepts (e.g., natural kind concepts), which share some, but not all of the properties of dual character concepts. More broadly, these phenomena suggest a normative dimension in everyday conceptual representation. PMID:23454798

  2. The natural defense system and the normative self model

    PubMed Central

    Kourilsky, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infectious agents are not the only agressors, and the immune system is not the sole defender of the organism. In an enlarged perspective, the ‘normative self model’ postulates that a ‘natural defense system’ protects man and other complex organisms against the environmental and internal hazards of life, including infections and cancers. It involves multiple error detection and correction mechanisms that confer robustness to the body at all levels of its organization. According to the model, the self relies on a set of physiological norms, and NONself (meaning : Non Obedient to the Norms of the self) is anything ‘off-norms’. The natural defense system comprises a set of ‘civil defenses’ (to which all cells in organs and tissues contribute), and a ‘professional army ‘, made of a smaller set of mobile cells. Mobile and non mobile cells differ in their tuning abilities. Tuning extends the recognition capabilities of NONself by the mobile cells, which increase their defensive function. To prevent them to drift, which would compromise self/NONself discrimination, the more plastic mobile cells need to periodically refer to the more stable non mobile cells to keep within physiological standards. PMID:27303629

  3. Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

  4. Physical fitness normative values for 6-18-year-old Greek boys and girls, using the empirical distribution and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method.

    PubMed

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Psarra, Glykeria; Daskalakis, Stelios; Kavouras, Stavros A; Geladas, Nickos; Tokmakidis, Savas; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the this study was to establish age- and gender-specific physical fitness normative values and to compare percentiles and Z scores values in a large, nationwide sample of Greek children aged 6-18 years. From March 2014 to May 2014, a total of 424,328 boys and girls aged 6-18 years who attended school in Greece were enrolled. The studied sample was representative, in terms of age-sex distribution and geographical region. Physical fitness tests (i.e. 20 m shuttle run test (SRT), standing long jump, sit and reach, sit-ups, and 10 × 5 m SRT) were performed and used to calculate normative values, using the percentiles of the empirical distributions and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method. Normative values were presented as tabulated percentiles for five health-related fitness tests based on a large data set comprising 424,328 test performances. Boys typically scored higher than girls on cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and speed/agility, but lower on flexibility (all p values <0.001). Older boys and girls had better performances than younger ones (p < 0.001). Physical fitness tests' performances tended to peak at around the age of 15 years in both sexes. The presented population-based data are the most up-to-date sex- and age-values for the health-related fitness of children and adolescents in Greece and can be used as standard values for fitness screening and surveillance systems and for comparisons among the same health-related fitness scores of children from other countries similar to Greece. Schools need to make efforts to improve the fitness level of the schoolchildren through the physical education curriculum to prevent cardiovascular risk. PMID:26402318

  5. 49 CFR 1.46 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Affairs prepares news releases and supporting media materials, and maintains a new media presence. The Office also provides information to the Secretary on opinions and reactions of the public and news...

  6. E-Portfolios: A Collaboration between Student Affairs and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Glenn; Rayman, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes how a commitment to instructional design principles has prompted the evolution of collaborative interaction between student affairs professionals and academic faculty. Central to this collaboration are the opportunities that e-portfolios have made available.

  7. Student Affairs' Leadership Role in the Reform of Undergraduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that potentially dramatic undergraduate educational reform lies in aggressive leadership provided by student affairs professionals and university presidents in quality of life issues outside classroom. (Author/CM)

  8. 49 CFR 1.46 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Affairs prepares news releases and supporting media materials, and maintains a new media presence. The Office also provides information to the Secretary on opinions and reactions of the public and news...

  9. 49 CFR 1.46 - Office of Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Affairs prepares news releases and supporting media materials, and maintains a new media presence. The Office also provides information to the Secretary on opinions and reactions of the public and news...

  10. The Lysenko Affair Revisited: Teaching the Social Responsibility of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatsepin, Veniamin I.; Cross, Roger T.

    1998-01-01

    Cites the Lysenko affair as a good illustration of the relationship between theory, ethics, and politics. Provides the historical background of the scientist Lysenko and information on the political system of his time. (DDR)

  11. Professional Associates: Journeys of Colleagues in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albin, Judith A.; Dungy, Gwendolyn Jordan

    2005-01-01

    This chapter reflects on the simultaneous journeys of two women, one a lesbian and one an ally. One woman is a midlevel manager in student affairs while the other is the executive director of a national association.

  12. Total and Regional Brain Volumes in a Population-Based Normative Sample from 4 to 18 Years: The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5–18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents. PMID:21613470

  13. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents. PMID:21613470

  14. A normative study of the color trails test in the Greek population.

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulos, Kostas; Issidorides, Marietta; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The Color Trails Test (CTT) is a neuropsychological test that measures perceptual tracking and sustained and divided attention. Recently, its use has been increased in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, brain injury, and subclinical infarction. The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the CTT in the Greek population. A total of 321 native Greek speakers with various professional backgrounds took part in the study. Exclusion criteria involved the existence of neurological and psychiatric diseases, history of alcohol and/or drug dependence, traumatic brain injury, and a Mini-Mental State Examination score below 27. Our results showed that age and education are important factors to consider for the interpretation of scores in all CTT variables. Older participants took more time and exhibited more errors, more near-misses, and more prompts compared with younger participants. Also, more-educated participants took less time, made fewer errors, had fewer near-misses, and rewired fewer prompts compared with less educated participants. CTT is a promising tool for the measurement of attention in the Greek population. Further research is needed to use this test in Greek patients with various neurological diseases. PMID:23373684

  15. Normative sciatic nerve excursion during a modified straight leg raise test.

    PubMed

    Ridehalgh, Colette; Moore, Ann; Hough, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Minimal data exists on how much sciatic nerve motion occurs during straight leg raise (SLR). The purpose of this study was to report preliminary normative ranges of sciatic nerve excursion using real time ultrasound during a modified SLR. The sciatic nerve was scanned in the posterior thigh in sixteen asymptomatic participants (age range 19-68 years). Nerve excursion was measured in transverse and longitudinal planes during knee extension from 90° to 0°, with the hip flexed to 30° and 60°. The ultrasound data was analysed off-line using cross correlation software. Results demonstrated that most nerves moved superficially during knee extension, a large proportion (10/16) moved laterally. Longitudinal excursion ranged from 6.4 to 14.7 mm (mean (SD) 9.92 mm (2.2)) in 30° hip flexion, and 5.1-20.2 mm (mean (SD) 12.4 mm (4.4)) in 60° hip flexion. Mean nerve excursion was significantly greater in 60° hip flexion (p = 0.02). There is a large between-subject variation in sciatic nerve excursion during this modified SLR in asymptomatic subjects. Mean nerve excursion was found to be higher with the hip pre-positioned in greater flexion, suggesting that pre-loading may not consistently reduce excursion. PMID:24034944

  16. Social theory and current affairs: a framework for intellectual engagement.

    PubMed

    Stones, Rob

    2014-06-01

    The paper aims to facilitate more adequate critical engagement with current affairs events by journalists, and with current affairs texts by audiences. It draws on social theory to provide the intellectual resources to enable this. The academic ambition is for the framework to be adopted and developed by social thinkers in producing exemplary critical readings of news and current affairs texts. To this end it is offered as a research paradigm. The paper situates its argument in relation to the wider literature in media and cultural studies, acknowledging the subtle skills required to appreciate the relative autonomy of texts. However, it draws attention to the lack of an adequate perspective with which to assess the frames, representations, and judgments within news and current affairs texts. To address this lacuna it proposes the conception of a social-theoretical frame, based on a number of meta-theoretical approaches, designed to provide audiences with a systematic means of addressing the status and adequacy of individual texts. Social theoretical frames can reveal the shortcomings of media framing of the contextual fields within which news and current affairs events take place. Two illustrative case studies are used to indicate the value and potential of the approach: the analysis of a short newspaper report of the return of protesters to Cairo's Tahrir Square in 2011, and a critique of four current affairs reports from various genres on the political turmoil in Thailand leading up to the clashes of May 2010. PMID:24766395

  17. Psychic and Somatic Symptoms of Depression among Young Adults, Institutionalized Aged and Noninstitutionalized Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemore, Robert; Eames, Nancy

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that the institutional nature of old-age homes increases depression in the elderly. Results provided no support that the aged are more depressed. Somatic complaints can be indicators of depression in the elderly if normative differences between young and old are taken into account. (Author)

  18. Long-Distance Caregiving -- A Family Affair

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the aging family member. Talk about caregiving responsibilities First, try to define the caregiving responsibilities. You ... suited to your skills or interests. Splitting caregiving responsibilities—consider your strengths When thinking about who should ...

  19. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed. PMID:11795070

  20. Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying. PMID:21156699

  1. Intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence: toward a better understanding of brand choice decisions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich R; Kahle, Lynn R

    2008-08-01

    The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. On the basis of a consumer sample, the authors found that individual values and social identity complexity affect consumer susceptibility to normative influence with downstream effects on (a) which brand benefits consumers desire in wine and (b) choice. Individuals higher on internal values and with more complex social identities were less susceptible to normative influence and placed less emphasis on social brand benefits. Separate examinations of consumption scenarios with and without salient reference groups showed that reference group salience interacts with personal values and social identity complexity in affecting consumer susceptibility to normative influence, which in turn affects which brand benefits consumers desire and consequently choice. PMID:18807420

  2. From moral to legal judgment: the influence of normative context in lawyers and other academics

    PubMed Central

    Spranger, Tade M.; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Various kinds of normative judgments are an integral part of everyday life. We extended the scrutiny of social cognitive neuroscience into the domain of legal decisions, investigating two groups, lawyers and other academics, during moral and legal decision-making. While we found activation of brain areas comprising the so-called ‘moral brain’ in both conditions, there was stronger activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus particularly when subjects made legal decisions, suggesting that these were made in respect to more explicit rules and demanded more complex semantic processing. Comparing both groups, our data show that behaviorally lawyers conceived themselves as emotionally less involved during normative decision-making in general. A group × condition interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex suggests a modulation of normative decision-making by attention based on subjects’ normative expertise. PMID:20194515

  3. The Sense of Confidence during Probabilistic Learning: A Normative Account

    PubMed Central

    Meyniel, Florent; Schlunegger, Daniel; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Learning in a stochastic environment consists of estimating a model from a limited amount of noisy data, and is therefore inherently uncertain. However, many classical models reduce the learning process to the updating of parameter estimates and neglect the fact that learning is also frequently accompanied by a variable “feeling of knowing” or confidence. The characteristics and the origin of these subjective confidence estimates thus remain largely unknown. Here we investigate whether, during learning, humans not only infer a model of their environment, but also derive an accurate sense of confidence from their inferences. In our experiment, humans estimated the transition probabilities between two visual or auditory stimuli in a changing environment, and reported their mean estimate and their confidence in this report. To formalize the link between both kinds of estimate and assess their accuracy in comparison to a normative reference, we derive the optimal inference strategy for our task. Our results indicate that subjects accurately track the likelihood that their inferences are correct. Learning and estimating confidence in what has been learned appear to be two intimately related abilities, suggesting that they arise from a single inference process. We show that human performance matches several properties of the optimal probabilistic inference. In particular, subjective confidence is impacted by environmental uncertainty, both at the first level (uncertainty in stimulus occurrence given the inferred stochastic characteristics) and at the second level (uncertainty due to unexpected changes in these stochastic characteristics). Confidence also increases appropriately with the number of observations within stable periods. Our results support the idea that humans possess a quantitative sense of confidence in their inferences about abstract non-sensory parameters of the environment. This ability cannot be reduced to simple heuristics, it seems instead a core

  4. Semantic similarity: normative ratings for 185 Spanish noun triplets.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Cornelia D; Ferré, Pilar; Demestre, Josep; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    The present study introduces the first Spanish database with normative ratings of semantic similarity for 185 word triplets. Each word triplet is constituted by a target word (e.g., guisante [pea]) and two semantically related and nonassociatively related words: a word highly related in meaning to the target (e.g., judía [bean]), and a word less related in meaning to the target (e.g., patata [potato]). The degree of meaning similarity was assessed by 332 participants by using a semantic similarity rating task on a 9-point scale. Pairs having a value of semantic similarity ranging from 5 to 9 were classified as being more semantically related, whereas those with values ranging from 2 to 4.99 were considered as being less semantically related. The relative distance between the two pairs for the same target ranged from 0.48 to 5.07 points. Mean comparisons revealed that participants rated the more similar words as being significantly more similar in meaning to the target word than were the less similar words. In addition to the semantic similarity norms, values of concreteness and familiarity of each word in a triplet are provided. The present database can be a very useful tool for scientists interested in designing experiments to examine the role of semantics in language processing. Since the variable of semantic similarity includes a wide range of values, it can be used as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable. The full database is available in the supplementary materials. PMID:24984982

  5. Normative Perceptions of Non-medical Stimulant Use: Associations with Actual Use and Hazardous Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Jason R.; Geisner, Irene Markman; Gasser, Melissa L.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10% of US college students are engaged in non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and that use is linked to concerning health, educational, and societal consequences. Few studies have assessed normative perceptions surrounding NMUPS. Accordingly, we examined self-reported use and normative perceptions for NMUPS and demographic factors that may be associated with them. We also investigated whether higher normative perceptions for NMUPS were related to the most commonly used and abused substance among college students (alcohol). METHOD 1106 undergraduates participated in an online survey of normative perceptions of NMUPS and students’ own drinking and stimulant use habits. RESULTS Students overestimated NMUPS by other students and those normative estimates were associated with higher NMUPS. Living in a fraternity or sorority was related to higher NMUPS and perceived norms. Finally, higher normative perceptions of NMUPS were associated with higher hazardous drinking. CONCLUSION The large discrepancy between actual use (generally low) and students’ perceptions (generally high), and the relationship of these perceptions to both one’s own use of NMUPS and alcohol suggests that interventions aimed at correcting norms may be useful. PMID:25462654

  6. Status of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization. Hearing Before the United States Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, 95th Congress, 2nd Session on Oversight on the Status of the Reorganization of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The objective of the August 16, 1978, United States Senate hearing was to determine reorganization plans for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs, two Deputy Secretaries, and Mr. Charles Trimble of the United Effort Trust testified before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. The…

  7. Normative life events and PTSD in children: how easy stress can affect children's brain.

    PubMed

    Kousha, Maryam; Mehdizadeh Tehrani, Shervin

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children) semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth. PMID:23456584

  8. Fatigue in the general Korean population: application and normative data of the Brief Fatigue Inventory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Ho; Lee, Myung Kyung; Chun, Han Na; Lee, Young Mi; Park, Sang Min; Mendoza, Tito R; Wang, Xin Shelley; Cleeland, Charles S

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide normative data for the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) in the general Korean population so that the results for the general population could be compared with those for patients. We constructed a questionnaire that included the BFI and items on demographic characteristics and conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey in 1,000 individuals. We used multivariate logistic analysis to investigate factors associated with "usual" and "worst" fatigue. The internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha=0.96) and construct validity was confirmed by factor analysis. All patients had a mean+/-SD BFI score of 4.33+/-2.48 for "worst" fatigue and of 4.07+/-2.27 for "usual" fatigue, and the global BFI score was 3.44+/-2.05. The prevalence of each moderate-to-severe fatigue type was similar in severity of fatigue, with 55.2% in "usual" fatigue, and 57.3% in "worst" fatigue. Among the types of fatigue, the prevalence of severe fatigue was lowest for "usual" fatigue (16.5%). In multivariate analyses, the group aged 40-59 years had greater levels of "usual" and "worst" fatigue compared with the group aged 20-29 years. Poor general health and the presence of comorbidities were also associated with increased "usual" and "worst" fatigue. Regular physical activity was associated with reduced levels of "worst" fatigue. The normal values of BFI with proper psychometric properties may help us to better understand the correlates of fatigue in the general population and patients. Our findings indicate that comorbidities should be considered when comparing fatigue data from the general population with data from patients. PMID:18411013

  9. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the VA Normative Aging Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotenoids) found in fruit and vegetables, and omega-3 fatty acids from fish, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids reduced effects of particles less than 2.5 µm in aerodyn...

  10. CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES IN THE NORMATIVE AGING STUDY: EXPLORING THE PATHWAYS OF PARTICLE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NAS cohort has informed us about toxicity of PM2.5, BC, O3 and SO42- on autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, and ...

  11. A laser-ablation ICP-MS study of Apollo 15 low-titanium olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnare, Darren W.; Day, James M. D.; Norman, Marc D.; Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2008-05-01

    Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have traditionally been subdivided into olivine- and quartz-normative basalt types, based on their different SiO2, FeO, and TiO2 whole-rock compositions. Previous studies have reconciled this compositional diversity by considering the olivine- and quartz-normative basalts as originating from different lunar mantle source regions. To provide new information on the compositions of Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalt parental magmas, we report a study of major and trace-element compositions of whole rocks, pyroxenes, and other phases in the olivine-normative basalts 15016 and 15555 and quartz-normative basalts 15475 and 15499. Results show similar rare-earth-element patterns in pyroxenes from all four basalts. The estimated equilibrium parental-melt compositions from the trace-element compositions of pyroxenes are similar for 15016, 15555 and 15499. Additionally, an independent set of trace-element distribution coefficients has been determined from measured pyroxene and mesostasis compositions in sample 15499. These data suggest that fractional crystallization may be a viable alternative to compositional differences in the mantle source to explain the ∼25% difference in whole-rock TiO2, and corresponding differences in SiO2 and FeO between the Apollo 15 olivine- and quartz-normative basalts. In this model, the older (∼3.35 Ga) quartz-normative basalts, with lower TiO2 experienced olivine, chromite, and Cr-ulvöspinel fractionation at 'crustal levels' in magma chambers or dikes, followed by limited near-surface mineral fractionation, within the lava flows. In contrast, the younger (∼3.25 Ga) olivine-normative basalts experienced only limited magmatic differentiation at 'crustal-levels', but extensive near-surface mineral fractionation to produce their evolved mineral compositions. A two-stage mineral-fractionation model is consistent with textural and mineralogical observations, as well as the mineral trace-element constraints developed by

  12. A novel task assessing intention and emotion attribution: Italian standardization and normative data of the Story-based Empathy Task.

    PubMed

    Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Realmuto, Sabrina; Lettieri, Giada; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F

    2015-10-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM), the process by which an individual imputes mental states to himself and others, is presently considered as a multidimensional cognitive domain, with two main facets (i.e., cognitive and affective ToM) accounting, respectively, for the ability to understand others' intention (intention attribution-IA) and emotions (emotion attribution-EA). Despite the large amount of literature investigating the behavioural and neural bases of mentalizing abilities in neurological conditions, there is still a lack of validated neuropsychological tools specifically designed to assess such skills. Here, we report the normative data of the Story-Based Empathy Task (SET), a non-verbal test developed for the assessment of intention and emotion attribution in the neurodegenerative conditions characterized by the impairment of social-emotional abilities. It is an easy-to-administer task including 18 stimuli, sub-grouped into two experimental conditions assessing, respectively, the ability to infer others' intentions (SET-IA) and emotions (SET-EA), compared to a control condition of causal inference (SET-CI). Normative data were collected in 136 Italian subjects pooled across subgroups homogenous for age (range 20-79 years), sex, and education (at least 5 years). The results show a detrimental effect of age and a beneficial effect of education on both the global score and each subscale, for which we provide correction grids. This new task could be a useful tool to investigate both affective and cognitive aspects of ToM in the course of disorders of socio-emotional behaviour, such as the fronto-temporal dementia spectrum. PMID:26072203

  13. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Handgrip among Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Karsai, István; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age- and sex-related variation in handgrip strength and to determine reference values for the Hungarian population. Method: A sample of 1,086 Hungary youth (aged 11-18 years old; 654 boys and 432 girls) completed a handgrip strength assessment using a handheld dynamometer. Quantile regression was…

  14. Disability and Psychosocial Development in Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivnick, Helen Q.

    1985-01-01

    Explores the impact of disability on psychosocial development in old age and vice versa. Considers both the ways that physiological disabilities influence normative psychosocial development in the final stage of the life cycle and the kinds of influence psychosocial factors may have on the older person's experience of disability. (Author/BL)

  15. Museum security and the Thomas Crown Affair.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, I've daydreamed about stealing a Vermeer, a Picasso, or Rembrandt. It tickles me, as much as watching the reboot of The Thomas Crown Affair. Why is it, do you suppose, so much fun to think about stealing a world renowned piece off the wall of a major metropolitan museum? Is it the romantic thoughts of getting away with it, walking past infrared detectors, and pressure sensors ala Indiana Jones with the sack of sand to remove the idol without triggering the security system? Is it the idea of snatching items with such fantastic prices, where the romance of possessing an item of such value is less intoxicating than selling it to a private collector for it to never be seen again? I suspect others share my daydreams as they watch theater or hear of a brazen daylight heist at museums around the world, or from private collections. Though when reality sets in, the mind of the security professional kicks in. How could one do it, why would one do it, what should you do once it's done? The main issue a thief confronts when acquiring unique goods is how to process or fence them. They become very difficult to sell because they are one-of-a-kind, easy to identify, and could lead to the people involved with the theft. The whole issue of museum security takes up an ironic twist when one considers the secretive British street artist 'Banksy'. Banksy has made a name for himself by brazenly putting up interesting pieces of art in broad daylight (though many critics don't consider his work to be art) on building walls, rooftops, or even museums. I bring him up for a interesting take on what may become a trend in museum security. In March of 2005, Banksy snuck a piece of his called 'Vandalized Oil Painting' into the Brooklyn Museum's Great Historical Painting Wing, plus 3 other pieces into major museums in New York. Within several days, 2 paintings had been torn down, but 2 stayed up much longer. In his home country of the UK, a unauthorized piece he created and placed

  16. The Geography of Normative Climates: An Application to Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Thrash, Courtney R; Warner, Tara D

    2016-08-01

    The existing research on risk factors for adolescent substance use highlights the importance of peers' direct influence on risky behaviors, yet two key limitations persist. First, there is considerably less attention to the ways in which peers shape overall (e.g., school-level) normative climates of attitudes and expectations about substance use, and, second, the role of the broader geographic contexts in which these climates are embedded is essentially neglected. In light of shifting trends in geographic differences in adolescent substance use, the current study uses data from the 2007 Nebraska Risk and Protective Factor Student Survey (n = 26,647; 80 % non-Hispanic White; 51 % female) to (a) explore whether geographic context shapes the character (permissiveness) and consistency (homogeneity) of normative climates and (b) examine the consequences (effects) of such climates on adolescent substance use risk across the rural-urban continuum. Normative climates are a consistent predictor of substance use, yet the geographic context in which schools are located matters for both the nature and influence of these climates, and the patterns differ between normative climates about alcohol and marijuana. These findings illustrate that school normative climates do indeed matter for substance use behavior, and the ways in which they do depend on their broader, geographic context. Thus, future research on youth's substance use should be attuned to these more nuanced distinctions. PMID:26899428

  17. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics. PMID:23632008

  18. The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test: Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Tulsky, David S.; Gershon, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed. While initial validation work provides preliminary support for this test in both children and adults, more work is needed to ensure dependability and generalizability. Thus, this replication study examines descriptive data (including age effects), test–retest reliability, and construct validity in n = 4,859 participants ages 3–85 years (matched to 2010 census data). Although the Pattern Comparison was not appropriate for all 3 and 4 years old, by ages 5 and 6, more meaningful scores were apparent. There was evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. There was also a moderate practice effect (i.e., increase of 5.5 points) over a 1-week time frame. Pattern Comparison exhibits a number of strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages 5–85), it is short and easy to administer, and there is support for construct validity. PMID:26025230

  19. The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test: Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Tulsky, David S; Gershon, Richard C

    2015-08-01

    The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed. While initial validation work provides preliminary support for this test in both children and adults, more work is needed to ensure dependability and generalizability. Thus, this replication study examines descriptive data (including age effects), test-retest reliability, and construct validity in n = 4,859 participants ages 3-85 years (matched to 2010 census data). Although the Pattern Comparison was not appropriate for all 3 and 4 years old, by ages 5 and 6, more meaningful scores were apparent. There was evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. There was also a moderate practice effect (i.e., increase of 5.5 points) over a 1-week time frame. Pattern Comparison exhibits a number of strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages 5-85), it is short and easy to administer, and there is support for construct validity. PMID:26025230

  20. Task-dependent recruitment of intrinsic brain networks reflects normative variance in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Kilts, Clinton D; James, George Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging has great potential to inform clinical decisions, whether by identifying neural biomarkers of illness progression and severity, predicting therapeutic response, or selecting suitable patients for surgical interventions. Yet a persisting barrier to functional neuroimaging's clinical translation is our incomplete understanding of how normative variance in cognition, personality, and behavior shape the brain's structural and functional organization. We propose that modeling individual differences in these brain–behavior relationships is crucial for improving the accuracy of neuroimaging biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Methods We addressed this goal by initiating the Cognitive Connectome Project, which bridges neuropsychology and neuroimaging by pairing nine cognitive domains typically assessed by clinically validated neuropsychological measures with those tapped by canonical neuroimaging tasks (motor, visuospatial perception, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision making, working memory, and executive function). To date, we have recruited a diverse sample of 53 participants (mean [SD], age = 32 [9.7] years, 31 females). Results As a proof of concept, we first demonstrate that our neuroimaging task battery can replicate previous findings that task performance recruits intrinsic brain networks identified during wakeful rest. We then expand upon these previous findings by showing that the extent to which these networks are recruited by task reflects individual differences in cognitive ability. Specifically, performance on the Judgment of Line Orientation task (a clinically validated measure of visuospatial perception) administered outside of the MRI scanner predicts the magnitude of task-induced activity of the dorsal visual network when performing a direct replication of this task within the MRI scanner. Other networks (such as default mode and right frontoparietal) showed task

  1. Volumetric Parcellation Methodology of the Human Hypothalamus in Neuroimaging: Normative Data and Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Nikos; Swaab, Dick F.; van der Kouwe, Andre; Abbs, Brandon; Boriel, Denise; Handa, Robert; Tobet, Stuart; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence regarding the importance of the hypothalamus for understanding sex differences in relation to neurological, psychiatric, endocrine and sleep disorders. Although different in histology, physiology, connections and function, multiple hypothalamic nuclei subserve non-voluntary functions and are nodal points for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis of the organism. Thus, given the critical importance of hypothalamic nuclei and their key multiple roles in regulating basic functions, it is important to develop the ability to conduct in vivo human studies of anatomic structure, volume, connectivity, and function of hypothalamic regions represented at the level of its nuclei. The goals of the present study were to develop a novel method of semi-automated volumetric parcellation for the human hypothalamus that could be used to investigate clinical conditions using MRI and to demonstrate its applicability. The proposed new method subdivides the hypothalamus into five parcels based on visible anatomic landmarks associated with specific nuclear groupings and was confirmed using two ex vivo hypothalami that were imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner and processed histologically. Imaging results were compared with histology from the same brain. Further, the method was applied to 44 healthy adults (26 men; 18 women, comparable on age, handedness, ethnicity, SES) to derive normative volumes and assess sex differences in hypothalamic regions using 1.5 Tesla MRI. Men compared to women had a significantly larger total hypothalamus, relative to cerebrum size, similar for both hemispheres, a difference that was primarily driven by the tuberal region, with the sex effect size being largest in the superior tuberal region and, to a lesser extent, inferior tuberal region. Given the critical role of hypothalamic nuclei in multiple chronic diseases and the importance of sex differences, we argue that the use of the novel methodology presented here will allow for

  2. The development of the N1 and N2 components in auditory oddball paradigms: a systematic review with narrative analysis and suggested normative values.

    PubMed

    Tomé, David; Barbosa, Fernando; Nowak, Kamila; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2015-03-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) are widely used in diverse fields of today's neuroscience, concerning auditory processing, speech perception, language acquisition, neurodevelopment, attention and cognition in normal aging, gender, developmental, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. However, its transposition to clinical practice has remained minimal. Mainly due to scarce literature on normative data across age, wide spectrum of results, variety of auditory stimuli used and to different neuropsychological meanings of AERPs components between authors. One of the most prominent AERP components studied in last decades was N1, which reflects auditory detection and discrimination. Subsequently, N2 indicates attention allocation and phonological analysis. The simultaneous analysis of N1 and N2 elicited by feasible novelty experimental paradigms, such as auditory oddball, seems an objective method to assess central auditory processing. The aim of this systematic review was to bring forward normative values for auditory oddball N1 and N2 components across age. EBSCO, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar were systematically searched for studies that elicited N1 and/or N2 by auditory oddball paradigm. A total of 2,764 papers were initially identified in the database, of which 19 resulted from hand search and additional references, between 1988 and 2013, last 25 years. A final total of 68 studies met the eligibility criteria with a total of 2,406 participants from control groups for N1 (age range 6.6-85 years; mean 34.42) and 1,507 for N2 (age range 9-85 years; mean 36.13). Polynomial regression analysis revealed that N1 latency decreases with aging at Fz and Cz, N1 amplitude at Cz decreases from childhood to adolescence and stabilizes after 30-40 years and at Fz the decrement finishes by 60 years and highly increases after this age. Regarding N2, latency did not covary with age but amplitude showed a significant decrement for both Cz and Fz. Results

  3. Brief Motivational Interviewing and Normative Feedback for Adolescents: Change Language and Alcohol Use Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jordan P; Houck, Jon M; Rowell, Lauren N; Benson, Jennifer G; Smith, Douglas C

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of adolescent change language on substance use treatment outcomes and even fewer have examined how adolescents respond to normative feedback. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence normative feedback has on adolescent change language and subsequent alcohol and cannabis use 3months later. We examined how percent change talk (PCT) was associated with subsequent alcohol and drug use outcomes. Adolescents (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive brief motivational interviewing (MI) or MI plus normative feedback (NF). Audio recordings were coded with high interrater reliability. Adolescents with high PCT who received MI+NF had significantly fewer days of alcohol and binge drinking at follow up. There were no differences between groups on cannabis use or treatment engagement. Findings indicate that NF may be useful for adolescents with higher amount of change talk during sessions and may be detrimental for individuals with higher sustain talk. PMID:26710670

  4. Development of a normative framework for disaster relief: learning from colonial famine histories in India.

    PubMed

    Akerkar, Supriya

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary academic debates on the history of the colonial Famine Codes in India--also considered to be the first coded and institutionalised normative frameworks for natural disaster response on the continent--generally are based on one of two perspectives. The first focuses on their economic rationale, whereas the second underlines that they constitute an anti-famine contract between the colonial masters and the people of India. This paper demonstrates that both of these viewpoints are limited in scope and that they simplify the nature of governance instituted through famine response practices in Colonial India. It links this reality to current disaster response policies and practices in India and shows that the discussion on the development of normative frameworks underlying disaster response is far from over. The paper goes on to evaluate the development of normative frameworks for disaster response and recovery, which remain embroiled in the politics of governmentality that underlies their development. PMID:26395110

  5. Petrology and geochemistry of olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts from regolith breccia 15498 - New diversity in Apollo 15 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of mare basalt clasts from Apollo 15 shows a greater diversity than previously recognized and provides new constraints on the petrogenesis of these basalts. The quartz-normative basalts (QNB) from 15498 are divided into four groups based on chemical variations: primitive, intermediate/1, intermediate/2, and evolved. The olivine-normative basalts (ONB) are divided into three groups: low-SiO2, high-SiO2, and olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Least-squares mixing calculations show that the high SiO2 ONBs may be parental to the QNB suite. Variations within the low-SiO2 ONBs are explained by olivine factionation. It is suggested that the presence of these basalt types may result from the position of breccia 15498 near the edge of the mare plain where normal ONBs are scarce, and from its presumed origin as ejecta from Dune Crater.

  6. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2005-01-01

    Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for

  7. The role and activities of the ISCT Regulatory Affairs Committee.

    PubMed

    Kelley, L

    2003-01-01

    The following article is written as part of a series of reviews addressing regulatory issues relevant to the field of cellular therapy. The first in the series describes the activities and mission of the Legal and Regulatory Affairs Committee of ISCT. PMID:12944232

  8. The Orientation and Development of the Public Affair Management Specialty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chenghui; Fu, Yongxian; Chen, Rongxiang; Hu, Xueqi

    2010-01-01

    Though the specialty of the public affair management has been developed for ten years, but it is still facing the actuality that the orientation and development are difficult. Only by confirming the cultivation target and the development orientation, the development of the specialty could find the development approach and method. According to the…

  9. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1981 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Designed to provide insight into the proceedings, transactions, and findings of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, this 1980-81 annual report reflects the commission's efforts to act in a liaison capacity between tribes and state government to provide tribes with technical assistance. The report describes 18 projects completed during the…

  10. Positive Psychology and Student Affairs Practice: A Framework of Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    With its focus on building human strengths, scholarship from the field of positive psychology can be an asset in actualizing student affairs' human development and learning goals. This article synthesizes findings from positive psychology, illustrating specific ways in which practitioners can benefit from this emerging area of scholarship. The…

  11. Professional Development within the Division of Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Charles W. L.

    This paper reviews the foundations, trends, and issues in the professional development of student personnel workers and the potential impact of that development on the Division of Student Affairs. The history of professional development arising from the application of management techniques to school systems, and for faculty and administrator…

  12. Reduction of Racial Prejudice in Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi-Pearson, Catherine; Castillo, Linda; Maples, Mary Finn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gender, race, intergroup contact, and diversity training on racial prejudice of student affairs professionals. Diversity training and race of participants were statistically significant contributors to change in racial prejudice. Findings suggest that racial prejudice decreases as diversity training increases.…

  13. Decisions of Student Affairs Administrators: Ethical or Legal Basis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Margery A.

    In higher education, trends in student affairs administration have gone from an "obedience" stage through a "due process" stage and back to a contractual "law and order" stage. Today, being an agent of the institution means paying attention to legal implications because of the threat of lawsuits. The Ethics section from a Council for Advancement…

  14. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtless, Gary, Ed.; Pack, Janet Rothenberg, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, the "Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs" is an annual series that serves as a forum for cutting-edge, accessible research on urban policy. The editors seek to integrate broader research into the policy discussion by bringing urban studies scholars together with economists and…

  15. The Lived Transitions of Senior Student Affairs Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; King, Margaret; Forrest, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study of student affairs leaders who have left senior roles used an interpretive qualitative approach to explore these lived transitional experiences. The context of the departure, its immediate impact, the ensuing emotions, the change navigation process, and the envisioned future appear to shape the departing leaders' perceptions of the…

  16. Civic Education: Lessons from the Iran-Contra Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    1988-01-01

    This article suggests several lessons, exercises, and class projects that utilize the Iran-Contra affair as a theme. Designed to aid the development of abilities necessary for civic virtue, the activities focus on fact gathering, validating claims, reflecting on the source of opinions, and learning to ask questions. (IAH)

  17. How Do Science and Technology Affect International Affairs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Science and technology influence international affairs by many different mechanisms. Both create new issues, risks and uncertainties. Advances in science alert the international community to new issues and risks. New technological capabilities transform war, diplomacy, commerce, intelligence, and investment. This paper identifies six basic…

  18. Leadership Competency Preferences of Student Affairs Administrators: Does Generation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katherine, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the leadership competencies and characteristics that are "preferred" by student affairs administrators, and to compare these preferences across generations to determine if there were any differences. The term "preferred" was used to indicate that the study asked respondents to assign a value or a level of…

  19. Portland Area Office Bureau of Indian Affairs: 1980 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Portland, OR.

    In 1980 the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Portland Area Office served 43,500 Indians of 33 federally recognized tribes, bands, and groups living on or near 4 million acres of reservation land in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. Highlights of the fiscal 1980 BIA/tribal partnership included the joint review of overall Office operations and…

  20. "Indian Education in the Bureau of Indian Affairs."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, James E.

    The role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in American Indian education is discussed in this speech. At the present time, this role is limited to federally recognized Indians living on reservations or Indian trust land; for other Indian students, the BIA's role is that of an advocate, helping Indian people get what they want and need in regard…

  1. Directory of Urban Affairs Information and Research Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Eric V. A., Comp.

    This directory of urban affairs information and research centers seeks to bring to the attention of urban researchers those organizations, agencies, and institutions which are actively involved in the eradication of current urban ills. Although most of the urban interest groups listed are research oriented, a great many are directly involved in…

  2. Making a Difference: Profiles of Successful Student Affairs Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    In the author's extensive research about leadership theories, higher education issues, and student outcomes, the success of several student affairs leaders became apparent. They all had worked at their institutions for an extended period of time and no precise leadership theory could describe their activities. A series of questions were identified…

  3. Faculty and Student Affairs Collaboration in the Corporate University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty, student affairs professionals, and most importantly, students, are paying the price as institutions of higher education increasingly operate in a top-down manner with an over-emphasis on the bottom line. The corporatization of higher education creates lopsided reward (and punishment) systems for faculty, unreasonably stressful…

  4. Staff Reactions to Interim Leadership in a Student Affairs Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robin D.

    2011-01-01

    Interim leadership appointments in higher education are a common strategy used to fill leadership gaps in executive positions. Because student affairs executives are particularly vulnerable to high turnover rates, interim appointments are becoming more widespread. Even with the prevalence of this trend, little attention has been given to the…

  5. Photocopy of postcard from Fitzsimons Army Medical Center public affairs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of postcard from Fitzsimons Army Medical Center public affairs office, building 120, showing building 215 in the 1940's before the top of the smokestack blew off. Photograph shows north side and corner of west side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Power House, Northwest Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. Burnout: Treatment and Prevention Strategies for College Student Affairs Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Presents possible prevention and treatment strategies for combating burnout among college student affairs professionals. Includes definition of burnout, review of symptoms of burnout, discussion of causes of burnout, and suggestions for treatment and prevention of burnout. Interventions discussed include personal counseling, using stress…

  7. Predictors of Professional Identity Development for Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Edward C.; Foubert, John D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether professional involvement, supervision style, and mentoring predicted the professional identity of graduate students and new professionals in student affairs. Results of the study show that all three independent variables predicted the professional identity development of graduate students. Supervision style of a…

  8. Development of the Student Affairs Officers Work Environment Perception Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure Student Affairs Officers' (SAO) perceptions of the work environment. A review of the literature identified five major categories and 25 elements having an impact on SAOs' perceptions of the work environment. The test instrument (questionnaire) was developed…

  9. Strategic Leadership in Academic Affairs: Clarifying the Board's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    This book is designed to reduce the ambiguities that accompany a governing board's policy responsibilities for academic affairs. Boards have legitimate concerns about academic program quality and faculty work, and trustees expect to participate in the difficult decisions regarding these matters. Chapter 1, The Culture of Academic Decision Making,…

  10. A Directory of Games Relating to International Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadsklev, Ronald, Comp.

    Twenty-two games related to international affairs are described. The information given for each game includes: description, suggested grade levels for use, number of participants, playing time, cost, publication date, and publication source. Such topics as international conflict, cultural differences, past and present foreign policy, and…

  11. Plants and Human Affairs: Educational Enhancement Via a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crovello, Theodore J.; Smith, W. Nelson

    To enhance both teaching and learning in an advanced undergraduate elective course on the interrelationships of plants and human affairs, the computer was used for information retrieval, multiple choice course review, and the running of three simulation models--plant related systems (e.g., the rise in world coffee prices after the 1975 freeze in…

  12. Who Knows? Selected Information Resources on International Social Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feulner, John A., Comp.

    These two annotated listings cite organizations, groups, and programs that provide information on international social affairs. The entries were selected from the data base of the National Referral Center of the Library of Congress. Listings are organized under the following headings: volunteer agencies; food; law; health; population; rural…

  13. Mentor Relationships for Entry-Level Men in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Daniel W.; Taub, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the experiences of entry-level men in student affairs, with particular focus on the function of mentors and role models. Through semistructured interviews and a focus group, 22 participants shared their thoughts and experiences regarding mentorship. Results indicated mentorship to be instrumental in recruitment and…

  14. Issues and Trends in the College Student Affairs Journal: Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Frances

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, Pearson and Bowman examined the issues and trends in the "College Student Affairs Journal" over its first 20 years, from 1979 to 1999. This manuscript expands that analysis to examine trends from 2000 to 2007, paying particular attention to changes that occurred as the journal transformed from a regional to a national journal and how the…

  15. Suggested Performance Competencies for Chief Student Affairs Officers in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    As an informational aid for Florida community college administrators, this manual outlines a set of performance competencies for chief student affairs officers (CSAO's). A professional mission statement for CSAO's is presented first, followed by a brief discussion of the use of the manual in writing job descriptions, selecting candidates for CSAO…

  16. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs Annual Report, 1989-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    This annual report describes the activities of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs for 1989-90. Objectives and accomplishments are outlined for each of several major goals: (1) studying the financial impact made by Indians on Arizona's economy; (2) creating awareness of major issues affecting state and tribal governments, particularly health…

  17. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1974-75 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    The Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1974-75 Annual Report is issued to inform the Governor, State Legislature, and tribal governments of the proceedings, transactions, findings, and recommendations made by the commission. Included are: (1) a list of commission members, (2) a map showing the Indian reservations in Arizona, (3) a table listing…

  18. Leadership Styles of Female Senior Student Affairs Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Orinthia T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-reported leadership styles of female Senior Student Affairs Officers at public and private 4-year institutions. This study sought to determine if (a) there is a dominant leadership frame usage among female SSAO's, (b) determine if leadership style varies significantly among females with less than 5…

  19. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    This annual report describes the goals and activities of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs for fiscal year 1990-91. The commission is made up of seven tribal representatives, two non-Indians, and six ex-officio members from state government. In October 1990, the commission held a 2-day Indian Town Hall in Phoenix (Arizona) on the future of…

  20. 7 CFR 2.85 - Director, Office of Intergovernmental Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Director, Office of Intergovernmental Affairs. 2.85 Section 2.85 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations §...

  1. Student Affairs and Information Technology: Collaborating in the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatis, Peter Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Student affairs and information technology have opportunities to partner in order to increase student satisfaction and retention rates and to assist institutions to comply with federal educational regulations. This chapter contains four examples of emerging best practices and future initiatives including: (a) the admissions pipeline, (b)…

  2. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1983 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Intended to provide insight into the proceedings, transactions, and findings of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, the 1983 annual report reflects the Commission's continued efforts to improve communications and understanding, and especially to strengthen working relationships between Arizona tribes and state government. The report…

  3. Political Corruption and the Media: The Tangentopoli Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglioli, Pier Paolo

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of the media in the social construction of the Tangentopoli affair. Originally perceived as a minor scandal involving kickbacks on a cleaning contract, Tangentopoli became a rallying cry for reform, and seriously affected the 1994 Italian elections. Includes graphical analysis of media coverage. (MJP)

  4. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1972-73 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    The Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs (ACIA) 1972-73 Annual Report studies conditions among American Indians residing in Arizona. The commission also has the responsibility for improving communications, understanding, and working relationships between all concerned. Another goal is to promote understanding and fellowship in the areas of Indian…

  5. Developing Recognition Programs for Units within Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Cynthia M.

    2001-01-01

    According to many psychologists, the connections between motivation and rewards and recognition are crucial to employee satisfaction. A plan for developing a multi-layered recognition program within a division of student affairs is described. These recognitions programs are designed taking into account the differences in perceptions of awards by…

  6. The Role & Contribution of Student Affairs in Involving Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D., Ed.; Schuh, John H., Ed.

    This book describes how student affairs organizations, programs, services, and personnel assist an institution in attaining its educational purposes by promoting student involvement in out-of-class learning opportunities. "Student Involvement: The Key to Promoting Student Learning and Growth" (John Schuh) discusses the challenges facing higher…

  7. The Proliferation of Legalized Gambling: Implications for Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Robert L.; Piper, Terry D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the problems facing college administrators from the spread of legalized gambling, with its resulting increase in the incidence of gambling problems. As many students arrive at college with gambling experience and continue as active gamblers while on campus, student affairs officers should be informed about these problems. (JPS)

  8. Career Perspectives in Student Affairs. Monograph Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Alan F., Ed.; Woodard, Dudley, Ed.

    A discussion among student personnel administrators of how they had come to careers in student affairs, of the complexities of making choices for personal and professional development, and of advice they wished they had received from, or would like to give to, others in the field led to the development of this monograph. Articles include: (1)…

  9. Staffing the Student Affairs Division: Theory, Practices, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, D. Stanley; Torres, Vasti; Winston, Roger B., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The staffing process in student affairs is one of the most important leadership and management functions that administrators are called upon to perform. How well the interrelated functions of recruitment, selection, orientation, supervision, performance appraisal, professional development, and departure by staff are handled determines the…

  10. How Student Affairs Professionals Learn to Advocate: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined how student affairs professionals learn advocacy skills and what they learn in their education on this topic. Findings based on 22 interviews show participants felt underprepared by their graduate programs for the myriad challenges involved with advocating for students. Findings indicate participants found…

  11. Understanding Anticipatory Socialization for New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Kara M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipatory socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals. The focus was to gain a deeper understanding of how new professionals experience their anticipatory socialization, specifically the job search and pre-entry communication with their new organizations. The theory that emerged…

  12. Emotional Processes Following Disclosure of an Extramarital Affair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Michael M.; Russell, Candyce S.; Higgins-Kessler, Mindi; Miller, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In-depth interviews with individuals who had experienced marital infidelity revealed a three-stage process following disclosure of an affair. The process starts with an "emotional roller coaster" and moves through a "moratorium" before efforts at trust building are recognized. Implications for the literature on forgiveness and the process of…

  13. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use in Headquarters and at the Regions, Labs and Field Offices. It maintains clearance systems and... Offices of EPA, as well as at laboratories and other field offices. The Office of Public Affairs is... with Agency Regional and field officials, other Government agencies, and public and private...

  14. Cultural Affairs: A Vital Phase of Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Leroy Howard

    This paper looks at community services in the junior college, particularly cultural affairs. The nature of the community must be defined before an effective program can be organized. The college can then determine the area of services to be offered. Cultural programs are considered to be those offering lectures, films, exhibits, theater, and so…

  15. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1979-1980 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Designed to provide insight into the proceedings, transactions, and findings of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, this 1979-80 annual report reflects the Commission's efforts to act in a liaison capacity between tribes and state government and to provide tribes with technical assistance. The report describes 17 projects completed during…

  16. Self-Authorship in Student Affairs: A Developmental Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Rebecca; Chunoo, Vivechkanand S.; Cox, Bradley E.

    2016-01-01

    The emerging millennial generation of young professionals in student affairs, often accused of being shielded from many of life's developmentally stimulating challenges, may not be sufficiently self-authored to effectively facilitate epistemological, intrapersonal, and interpersonal development among their students. Contrary to expectations,…

  17. An Assessment of the Intercultural Competence of Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin-Craft, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The educational benefits of a diverse student body are clear. However, in order to reap the benefits associated with a diverse student body, campus leaders must create a campus environment that is welcoming and affirming, and fosters cross-cultural interactions. Student affairs professionals are uniquely positioned within the university to be…

  18. Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs Annual Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Illinois Univ., Macomb. Illinois Inst. for Rural Affairs.

    The Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs (IIRA) started at Western Illinois University in 1989. An outgrowth of the population declines and economic stagnation during the early 1980s, it provides a comprehensive program of applied research, technical assistance, policy evaluation, and educational outreach to community leaders and residents in…

  19. Taking the Global Leap: Student Affairs Professionals and Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazon, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    Student affairs professionals can play a more prominent role in campus internationalization efforts. Unfortunately, they do not often view themselves as having the necessary knowledge, understanding, and tools to engage with international education matters, much less facilitate internationalization experiences on behalf of students. By rethinking…

  20. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Designed to provide insight into the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs' proceedings, transactions, and findings, the 1984 annual report describes the year's efforts to improve communications, understanding, and working relationships between all concerned. After reviewing Commission meeting attendance and the attendance of related meetings, the…