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Sample records for affect aggregate turnover

  1. Stimulation of nitrogen turnover due to nutrients release from aggregates affected by freeze-thaw in wetland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Zou, Yuanchun; Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei

    2017-02-01

    The freeze-thaw phenomenon will occur more frequently in mid-high latitude ecosystems under climate change which has a remarkable effect on biogeochemical processes in wetland soils. Here, we used a wet sieving procedure and a barometric process separation (BaPS) technique to examine the responses of wetland soil aggregates and related carbon and nitrogen turnover affected by the freeze-thaw treatment. Wetland soil samples were divided into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group was incubated at temperatures fluctuating from 10 °C to -10 °C, whereas the control group was incubated at the constant temperature of 10 °C. A 24 h process was set as the total freeze-thaw cycle, and the experiment had 20 continuous freeze-thaw cycles. In our results, the freeze-thaw process caused great destruction to the >2 mm water-stable aggregates (WSA) fraction and increased the <0.053 mm WSA fraction. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was stimulated during the initial freeze-thaw cycles followed by a rapid decline, and then still increased during subsequent freeze-thaw cycles, which was mainly determined by the soil organic carbon (SOC). The NH4+ and NO3- content, respiration rate and gross nitrification rate were all significantly improved by the freeze-thaw effect. Because the amount of NH4+ and NO3- expressed prominent negative responses to the content of >2 mm WSA fraction and the gross nitrification rate can be stimulated at the initial freeze-thaw cycles, nutrients and substrates may play a leading role in the freeze-thaw treatment regardless of the minimal influences on microbial biomass pools.

  2. An Evolutionary Trade-Off between Protein Turnover Rate and Protein Aggregation Favors a Higher Aggregation Propensity in Fast Degrading Proteins

    PubMed Central

    De Baets, Greet; Reumers, Joke; Delgado Blanco, Javier; Dopazo, Joaquin; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed the existence of selective pressure against protein aggregation by the enrichment of aggregation-opposing ‘gatekeeper’ residues at strategic places along the sequence of proteins. Here we analyzed the relationship between protein lifetime and protein aggregation by combining experimentally determined turnover rates, expression data, structural data and chaperone interaction data on a set of more than 500 proteins. We find that selective pressure on protein sequences against aggregation is not homogeneous but that short-living proteins on average have a higher aggregation propensity and fewer chaperone interactions than long-living proteins. We also find that short-living proteins are more often associated to deposition diseases. These findings suggest that the efficient degradation of high-turnover proteins is sufficient to preclude aggregation, but also that factors that inhibit proteasomal activity, such as physiological ageing, will primarily affect the aggregation of short-living proteins. PMID:21731483

  3. The Dynamics and Turnover of Tau Aggregates in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing L.; Buist, Arjan; Soares, Alberto; Callaerts, Kathleen; Calafate, Sara; Stevenaert, Frederik; Daniels, Joshua P.; Zoll, Bryan E.; Crowe, Alex; Brunden, Kurt R.; Moechars, Diederik; Lee, Virginia M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous tau aggregates, the hallmark lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), play key roles in neurodegeneration. Activation of protein degradation systems has been proposed to be a potential strategy for removing pathological tau, but it remains unclear how effectively tau aggregates can be degraded by these systems. By applying our previously established cellular model system of AD-like tau aggregate induction using preformed tau fibrils, we demonstrate that tau aggregates induced in cells with regulated expression of full-length mutant tau can be gradually cleared when soluble tau expression is suppressed. This clearance is at least partially mediated by the autophagy-lysosome pathway, although both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome pathway are deficient in handling large tau aggregates. Importantly, residual tau aggregates left after the clearance phase leads to a rapid reinstatement of robust tau pathology once soluble tau expression is turned on again. Moreover, we succeeded in generating monoclonal cells persistently carrying tau aggregates without obvious cytotoxicity. Live imaging of GFP-tagged tau aggregates showed that tau inclusions are dynamic structures constantly undergoing “fission” and “fusion,” which facilitate stable propagation of tau pathology in dividing cells. These findings provide a greater understanding of cell-to-cell transmission of tau aggregates in dividing cells and possibly neurons. PMID:27129267

  4. Anaerobic Nitrogen Turnover by Sinking Diatom Aggregates at Varying Ambient Oxygen Levels

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Peter; Kamp, Anja; Thamdrup, Bo; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    In the world’s oceans, even relatively low oxygen levels inhibit anaerobic nitrogen cycling by free-living microbes. Sinking organic aggregates, however, might provide oxygen-depleted microbial hotspots in otherwise oxygenated surface waters. Here, we show that sinking diatom aggregates can host anaerobic nitrogen cycling at ambient oxygen levels well above the hypoxic threshold. Aggregates were produced from the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the natural microbial community of seawater. Microsensor profiling through the center of sinking aggregates revealed internal anoxia at ambient 40% air saturation (∼100 μmol O2 L-1) and below. Accordingly, anaerobic nitrate turnover inside the aggregates was evident within this range of ambient oxygen levels. In incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate, individual Skeletonema aggregates produced NO2- (up to 10.7 nmol N h-1 per aggregate), N2 (up to 7.1 nmol N h-1), NH4+ (up to 2.0 nmol N h-1), and N2O (up to 0.2 nmol N h-1). Intriguingly, nitrate stored inside the diatom cells served as an additional, internal nitrate source for dinitrogen production, which may partially uncouple anaerobic nitrate turnover by diatom aggregates from direct ambient nitrate supply. Sinking diatom aggregates can contribute directly to fixed-nitrogen loss in low-oxygen environments in the ocean and vastly expand the ocean volume in which anaerobic nitrogen turnover is possible, despite relatively high ambient oxygen levels. Depending on the extent of intracellular nitrate consumption during the sinking process, diatom aggregates may also be involved in the long-distance export of nitrate to the deep ocean. PMID:26903977

  5. Interactions between extracellular polymeric substances and clay minerals affect soil aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Cordula; Rehschuh, Stephanie; Kemi Olagoke, Folasade; Redmile Gordon, Marc; Kalbiltz, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    Soil aggregation is crucial for carbon (C) sequestration and microbial processes have been recognised as important control of aggregate turnover (formation, stability, and destruction). However, how microorganisms contribute to these processes is still a matter of debate. An enthralling mechanism determining aggregate turnover and therefore C sequestration may be the excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as microbial glue, but effects of EPS on aggregation is largely unknown. Moreover, interdependencies between important aggregation factors like the amount of fine-sized particles (clay content), the decomposability of organic matter and the microbial community (size and composition, as well as the excretion of EPS) are still poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the complex interactions between these factors and their role in aggregate turnover. It was hypothesized that an increase in microbial activity, induced by the input of organic substrates, will stimulate EPS production and therefore the formation and stability of aggregates. To test this hypothesis, an incubation experiment has been conducted across a gradient of clay content (montmorillonite) and substrate decomposability (starch and glucose) as main drivers of the microbial activity. A combination of aggregate separation and stability tests were applied. This results will be examined with respect to the obtained microbial parameters (amount and composition of EPS, CO2 emission, microbial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid), to disentangle the mechanisms and factors controlling aggregate turnover affected by soil microorganisms. This study is expected to provide insights on the role of EPS in the stability of aggregates. Thus, the results of this study will provide an improved understanding of the underlying processes of aggregate turnover in soils, which is necessary to implement strategies for enhanced C sequestration in agricultural soils.

  6. Ovine colostrum nanopeptide affects amyloid beta aggregation.

    PubMed

    Janusz, Maria; Woszczyna, Mirosław; Lisowski, Marek; Kubis, Adriana; Macała, Józefa; Gotszalk, Teodor; Lisowski, Józef

    2009-01-05

    A colostral proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) consisting of over 30 peptides shows beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients when administered in the form of sublinqual tablets called Colostrinin. The aim of the present studies was to investigate whether nanopeptide fragment of PRP (NP) - one of the PRP complex components can affect aggregation of amyloid beta (Abeta1-42). The effect of NP on Abeta aggregation was studied using Thioflavin T (ThT) binding, atomic force microscopy, and analyzing circular dichroism spectra. Results presented suggest that NP can directly interact with amyloid beta, inhibit its aggregation and disrupt existing aggregates acting as a beta sheet breaker and reduce toxicity induced by aggregated forms of Abeta.

  7. Investigating the adequacy of the Competence-Turnover Intention Model: how does nursing competence affect nurses' turnover intention?

    PubMed

    Takase, Miyuki; Teraoka, Sachiko; Kousuke, Yabase

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the adequacy of the Competence-Turnover Intention Model, which was developed to identify how nursing competence could affect nurses' turnover intention (nurses' intention to voluntarily leave an organisation). Recent studies have suggested that the level of nursing competence is negatively related to nurses' intention to leave their jobs, suggesting that a lack of competence threatens both the quality and quantity of the nursing workforce. However, the mechanism of how nursing competence affects nurses' turnover intention has not been explored previously. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Surveys were distributed to 1337 Japanese registered nurses/midwives in October, 2013. The adequacy of the model was analysed using structural equation modelling. In total, 766 questionnaires were returned, with a return rate of 57%. The model fitted well with the data. The results showed that the level of nursing competence was related positively to the quantity of organisational rewards they felt they had received, and negatively related to the level of exhaustion they experienced. Moreover, the perceived organisational rewards and exhaustion were correlated with nurses' turnover intention through affective commitment. The Competence-Turnover Intention Model is useful for explaining how nursing competence impacts on their turnover intention. Clinical implications derived from the findings are that: promoting nursing competence is key to improving not only the quality of care provided by nurses, but also to retaining the nursing workforce, and the model can be used to develop strategies that would mitigate their turnover intention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  9. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    . 103-120. Dimoyiannis, D. 2012. Wet aggregate stability as affected by excess carbonate and other soil properties. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 450- 455. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1085 Fernández-Calviño, D., Garrido-Rodríguez, B., López-Periago, J. E., Paradelo, M., and Arias-Estévez, M. 2013. Spatial distribution of copper fractions in a vineyard soil. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 556- 563. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1150 García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Jacinthe, P.A., R. Lal, L.B. Owens, and D.L. Hothem. (2004) Transport of labile carbon in runoff as affected by land use and rainfall characteristics. Soil and Tillage Research 77: 111-123 Kocyigit, R., Demirci, S. 2012. Long-term changes of aggregate-associated and labile soil organic carbon and nitrogen after conversion from forest to grassland and cropland in northern Turkey. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 475- 482. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1092 Lal, R., 2003. Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Environment International 29, 437-450 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Bodì, M.B., Cerdà, A. 2011. The impact of fire on redistribution of soil organic matter on a Mediterranean hillslope under maquia vegetation type. Land Degradation and Development, 2: 530 - 536. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1027 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Kuzyakov, Y., Schillaci, C., Laudicina, V.A., La Mantia, T., 2013. Turnover and availability of soil organic carbon under different Mediterranean land use as estimated by 13C natural abundance. European Journal ofSoil science, 64, 466-475. DOI: 10.1111/ejss.12038 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S., Santoro, A., Cerda, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil & Tillage Research 117

  10. Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover affects resistance training hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Paul T; Borack, Michael S; Markofski, Melissa M; Dickinson, Jared M; Fry, Christopher S; Deer, Rachel R; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2017-05-01

    Acute bouts of resistance exercise and subsequent training alters protein turnover in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in basal post-absorptive protein turnover and its impact on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether post-absorptive muscle protein turnover following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) plays a role in muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we were interested in determining potential molecular mechanisms responsible for altering post-training muscle protein turnover. Healthy young men (n = 31) participated in supervised whole body progressive RET at 60-80% 1 repetition maximum (1-RM), 3 days/week for 3 months. Pre- and post-training vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and blood samples taken during an infusion of (13)C6 and (15)N phenylalanine and were used to assess skeletal muscle protein turnover in the post-absorptive state. Lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength (determined by dynamometry), vastus lateralis muscle thickness (MT), myofiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), and mRNA were assessed pre- and post-RET. RET increased strength (12-40%), LBM (~5%), MT (~15%) and myofiber CSA (~20%) (p < 0.05). Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) increased 24% while muscle protein breakdown (MPB) decreased 21%, respectively. These changes in protein turnover resulted in an improved net muscle protein balance in the basal state following RET. Further, the change in basal MPS is positively associated (r = 0.555, p = 0.003) with the change in muscle thickness. Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover is associated with muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise training.

  11. Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with turnover…

  12. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  13. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  14. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    PubMed

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  15. The Dynamics and Turnover of Tau Aggregates in Cultured Cells: INSIGHTS INTO THERAPIES FOR TAUOPATHIES.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing L; Buist, Arjan; Soares, Alberto; Callaerts, Kathleen; Calafate, Sara; Stevenaert, Frederik; Daniels, Joshua P; Zoll, Bryan E; Crowe, Alex; Brunden, Kurt R; Moechars, Diederik; Lee, Virginia M Y

    2016-06-17

    Filamentous tau aggregates, the hallmark lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), play key roles in neurodegeneration. Activation of protein degradation systems has been proposed to be a potential strategy for removing pathological tau, but it remains unclear how effectively tau aggregates can be degraded by these systems. By applying our previously established cellular model system of AD-like tau aggregate induction using preformed tau fibrils, we demonstrate that tau aggregates induced in cells with regulated expression of full-length mutant tau can be gradually cleared when soluble tau expression is suppressed. This clearance is at least partially mediated by the autophagy-lysosome pathway, although both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome pathway are deficient in handling large tau aggregates. Importantly, residual tau aggregates left after the clearance phase leads to a rapid reinstatement of robust tau pathology once soluble tau expression is turned on again. Moreover, we succeeded in generating monoclonal cells persistently carrying tau aggregates without obvious cytotoxicity. Live imaging of GFP-tagged tau aggregates showed that tau inclusions are dynamic structures constantly undergoing "fission" and "fusion," which facilitate stable propagation of tau pathology in dividing cells. These findings provide a greater understanding of cell-to-cell transmission of tau aggregates in dividing cells and possibly neurons. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Effect of organic fertilizer and biochar application on soil macro-aggregate formation and organic carbon turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, Dennis; Kaiser, Michael; Ludwig, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Macro-aggregates are important for the organic matter dynamic and thus the productivity of sustainably managed soils. To date, less is known about the influence of biochar in comparison to other commonly used organic soil additives on the formation of macro-aggregates and organic carbon turnover. Here we aimed to analyze the effects of biochar applied individually and in combination with slurry versus the effects of the individual application of slurry and manure on macro-aggregate yield, the associated organic carbon concentration, and the organic carbon mineralization. For this, we crushed the macro-aggregate fraction (>250 μm) of two different soils that were then mixed with biochar (combustion temperature: 550° C, feedstock: woodchips) and/or cattle-slurry or cattle-manure and incubated within a microcosm experiment at 5° C, 15° C, and 25° C. We monitored the CO2 evolution during the incubation experiment. After four and eight weeks, we determined the dry mass and the carbon concentration of the newly formed macro-aggregates (>250 μm) and the microbial biomass carbon concentration. Carbon mineralization was modelled assuming first-order kinetics and using a rate modifying factor for the temperature (taken from the RothC-26.3 model). Two pools were considered (mineralization of the native organic matter from the control soils and mineralization of the substrates added) in each treatment and the models were calibrated to the C mineralization data at 25° C, whereas the data for 15° C and 5° C were used for validation. Independent from the incubation temperature and the duration of the experiment, the individual application of biochar did not show significant effects on the macro-aggregate yield, the associated carbon concentration, or the CO2 emission rate compared to the control sample receiving no amendments. For the application of biochar in combination with slurry, we observed only for the 15° C treatment higher CO2 emission rates in combination with

  17. Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

    2013-12-14

    In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and β-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish.

  18. Familial Aggregation and Heritability of Schizophrenia and Co-aggregation of Psychiatric Illnesses in Affected Families

    PubMed Central

    Chou, I-Jun; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Huang, Yu-Shu; Valdes, Ana M; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Huang, Lu-Shuang; Tseng, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Strong familial aggregation of schizophrenia has been reported but there is uncertainty concerning the degree of genetic contribution to the phenotypic variance of the disease. This study aimed to examine the familial aggregation and heritability of schizophrenia, and the relative risks (RRs) of other psychiatric diseases, in relatives of people with schizophrenia using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. The study population included individuals with affected first-degree or second-degree relatives identified from all beneficiaries (n = 23 422 955) registered in 2013. Diagnoses of schizophrenia made by psychiatrists were ascertained between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2013. Having an affected co-twin, first-degree relative, second-degree relative, or spouse was associated with an adjusted RR (95% CI) of 37.86 (30.55–46.92), 6.30 (6.09–6.53), 2.44 (1.91–3.12), and 1.88 (1.64–2.15), respectively. Compared with the general population, individuals with one affected first-degree relative had a RR (95% CI) of 6.00 (5.79–6.22) and those with 2 or more had a RR (95% CI) of 14.66 (13.00–16.53) for schizophrenia. The accountability for the phenotypic variance of schizophrenia was 47.3% for genetic factors, 15.5% for shared environmental factors, and 37.2% for non-shared environmental factors. The RR (95% CI) in individuals with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia was 3.49 (3.34–3.64) for mood disorders and 3.91 (3.35–4.57) for delusional disorders. A family history of schizophrenia is therefore associated with a higher risk of developing schizophrenia, mood disorders, and delusional disorders. Heritability and environmental factors each account for half of the phenotypic variance of schizophrenia. PMID:27872260

  19. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G

    2002-03-15

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  20. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.

    1989-07-01

    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and (3H)PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of (3H)PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation).

  1. The Influence of Haemoglobin A1c Levels on Platelet Aggregation and Platelet Turnover in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Treated with Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Neergaard-Petersen, Søs; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Larsen, Sanne Bøjet; Gregersen, Søren; Kristensen, Steen Dalby

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia may attenuate the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and thereby increase the risk of cardiovascular events. We investigated the influence of increased haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels on platelet aggregation and turnover in a large cohort of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with type 2 diabetes, prediabetes or no diabetes. Methods In this observational study, we included 865 stable CAD patients on 75 mg aspirin as mono-therapy of whom 242 patients had type 2 diabetes and were receiving antidiabetic drugs. Among 623 patients without diabetes, we classified 303 patients with prediabetes (HbA1c ≥5.7–6.4% [39–47 mmol/mol]) naive to antidiabetic drugs. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by the Multiplate Analyzer using arachidonic acid and collagen and by the VerifyNow Aspirin. Platelet turnover was evaluated by immature platelets using flow cytometry and platelet activation by soluble P-selectin. Results CAD patients with type 2 diabetes had higher platelet aggregation (all p-values <0.01), platelet turnover (immature platelet count, p<0.01) and platelet activation (p<0.001) than patients without diabetes. CAD patients with prediabetes had increased platelet aggregation (p = 0.02) and platelet count (p = 0.02) compared with patients without diabetes. Increased levels of HbA1c correlated positively with increased platelet aggregation using arachidonic acid (r = 0.19, p<0.0001), collagen (r = 0.10, p<0.01) and VerifyNow (r = 0.15, p<0.0001), and with platelet count (r = 0.08, p = 0.01), immature platelet count (r = 0.11, p<0.001) and soluble P-selectin (r = 0.15, p<0.0001). These associations were mainly evident in non-diabetic and prediabetic CAD patients. Conclusions CAD patients with prediabetes and diabetes may have attenuated antiplatelet effect of aspirin compared with CAD patients without diabetes. This may be related to increased platelet count in patients with prediabetes. Increased levels of HbA1c correlated positively

  2. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui

    2016-12-01

    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5–2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  3. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui

    2016-01-01

    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5–2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared. PMID:27958366

  4. Job Factors, Attitudes and Preferences Affecting the Relative Advancement and Turnover of Men and Women in Federal Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Albert P.

    This report discusses the job factors, attitudes and preferences affecting the relative advancement and turnover of men and women in federal careers. The study of advancement utilized the responses of 11,000 men and 15,000 women. Findings included that women were more highly educated, participated as much or more, were older and had more service…

  5. Factors Affecting Turnover Intention for New Graduate Nurses in Three Transition Periods for Job and Work Environment Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi; Kang, Kyung Ja

    2016-03-01

    The turnover rate of new graduate nurses in Korea is twice that of all Korean nurses; job/work environment satisfaction is a known risk factor. The authors examined these factors in new graduate nurses at various transition periods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using stratified sampling from nine regions of Korea, and 443 new graduate nurses were enrolled. Job/work environment satisfaction and turnover intention were measured. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified the factors affecting turnover intention. The factors differed through the transition periods. At 0 to 6 months, the factors were work schedule, desired hospital, orientation duration, becoming part of a team, professional development, and practical support; at 7 to 12 months, the factors were work schedule and desired hospital; and at 13 to 18 months, the factor was professional development, which accounted for 31%, 22.9%, and 12.6%, respectively, of the reasons for turnover intention. Reducing turnover intention requires consideration of the influential factors at each transition period. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Water level changes affect carbon turnover and microbial community composition in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Weise, Lukas; Ulrich, Andreas; Moreano, Matilde; Gessler, Arthur; Kayler, Zachary E; Steger, Kristin; Zeller, Bernd; Rudolph, Kristin; Knezevic-Jaric, Jelena; Premke, Katrin

    2016-05-01

    Due to climate change, many lakes in Europe will be subject to higher variability of hydrological characteristics in their littoral zones. These different hydrological regimes might affect the use of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We used sandy sediment microcosms to examine the effects of different hydrological regimes (wet, desiccating, and wet-desiccation cycles) on carbon turnover. (13)C-labelled particulate organic carbon was used to trace and estimate carbon uptake into bacterial biomass (via phospholipid fatty acids) and respiration. Microbial community changes were monitored by combining DNA- and RNA-based real-time PCR quantification and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA. The shifting hydrological regimes in the sediment primarily caused two linked microbial effects: changes in the use of available organic carbon and community composition changes. Drying sediments yielded the highest CO2 emission rates, whereas hydrological shifts increased the uptake of allochthonous organic carbon for respiration. T-RFLP patterns demonstrated that only the most extreme hydrological changes induced a significant shift in the active and total bacterial communities. As current scenarios of climate change predict an increase of drought events, frequent variations of the hydrological regimes of many lake littoral zones in central Europe are anticipated. Based on the results of our study, this phenomenon may increase the intensity and amplitude in rates of allochthonous organic carbon uptake and CO2 emissions.

  7. Water level changes affect carbon turnover and microbial community composition in lake sediments

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Lukas; Ulrich, Andreas; Moreano, Matilde; Gessler, Arthur; E. Kayler, Zachary; Steger, Kristin; Zeller, Bernd; Rudolph, Kristin; Knezevic-Jaric, Jelena; Premke, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Due to climate change, many lakes in Europe will be subject to higher variability of hydrological characteristics in their littoral zones. These different hydrological regimes might affect the use of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We used sandy sediment microcosms to examine the effects of different hydrological regimes (wet, desiccating, and wet-desiccation cycles) on carbon turnover. 13C-labelled particulate organic carbon was used to trace and estimate carbon uptake into bacterial biomass (via phospholipid fatty acids) and respiration. Microbial community changes were monitored by combining DNA- and RNA-based real-time PCR quantification and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA. The shifting hydrological regimes in the sediment primarily caused two linked microbial effects: changes in the use of available organic carbon and community composition changes. Drying sediments yielded the highest CO2 emission rates, whereas hydrological shifts increased the uptake of allochthonous organic carbon for respiration. T-RFLP patterns demonstrated that only the most extreme hydrological changes induced a significant shift in the active and total bacterial communities. As current scenarios of climate change predict an increase of drought events, frequent variations of the hydrological regimes of many lake littoral zones in central Europe are anticipated. Based on the results of our study, this phenomenon may increase the intensity and amplitude in rates of allochthonous organic carbon uptake and CO2 emissions. PMID:26902802

  8. Attachment of Escherichia coli to Soil Aggregates as Affected by Aggregate Water Content and Presence of Manure Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, A.; Pachepsky, Y.; Shelton, D. R.; Yu, O.

    2006-12-01

    Many soils contain relatively large structural units that do not slack when soil is being wetted. Soil aggregates, obtained from dry soil samples by sieving, present a model media to study the interactions of intact soils with dissolved or suspended contaminants. Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and Echerichia coli is widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that Echerichia coli attachment to soil aggregates is affected by aggregate size, aggregate water content, and presence of suspended manure colloids and dissolved organic compounds. Three aggregate fractions of 3.4-4.8 mm, 4.8-7.9 mm and 7.9-9.5 mm diameters were obtained by dry sieving of a loam soil. Air-dry and water-saturated aggregates were submerged in bacteria-water and bacteria-manure suspensions at four E. coli concentrations for 24 h. Amounts of attached E. coli were calculated from the difference between the amount applied and the amount remained in the suspension. Significant differences in E. coli attachment to air-dry and saturated aggregates were found. Both increase in water content and the presence of manure significantly decreased the Echerichia coli attachment to all aggregate fractions regardless of the aggregate size. Because E. coli transport in soil generally occurs through large pores between structural units when rainfall follows manure application, the decrease in bacteria attachment as a result of soil saturation and presence of suspended or dissolved manure components can enhance bacterial mobility and increase risk of ground water contamination.

  9. Aggregate formation affects ultrasonic disruption of microalgal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasonication is a cell disruption process of low energy efficiency. This study dosed K(+), Ca(2+) and Al(3+) to Chlorella vulgaris cultured in Bold's Basal Medium at 25°C and measured the degree of cell disruption under ultrasonication. Adding these metal ions yielded less negatively charged surfaces of cells, while with the latter two ions large and compact cell aggregates were formed. The degree of cell disruption followed: control=K(+)>Ca(2+)>Al(3+) samples. Surface charges of cells and microbubbles have minimal effects on the microbubble number in the proximity of the microalgal cells. Conversely, cell aggregates with large size and compact interior resist cell disruption under ultrasonication. Staining tests revealed high diffusional resistance of stains over the aggregate interior. Microbubbles may not be effective generated and collapsed inside the compact aggregates, hence leading to low cell disruption efficiencies. Effective coagulation/flocculation in cell harvesting may lead to adverse effect on subsequent cell disruption efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chirality affects aggregation kinetics of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iftheker A; Afrooz, A R M Nabiul; Flora, Joseph R V; Schierz, P Ariette; Ferguson, P Lee; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Saleh, Navid B

    2013-02-19

    Aggregation kinetics of chiral-specific semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was systematically studied through time-resolved dynamic light scattering. Varied monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl(2)) electrolyte composition was used as background solution chemistry. Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) was used to study the effects of natural organic matter on chirally separated SWNT aggregation. Increasing salt concentration and introduction of divalent cations caused aggregation of SWNT clusters by suppressing the electrostatic repulsive interaction from the oxidized surfaces. The (6,5) SWNTs, i.e., SG65, with relatively lower diameter tubes compared to (7,6), i.e., SG76, showed substantially higher stability (7- and 5-fold for NaCl and CaCl(2), respectively). The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values were 96 and 13 mM NaCl in the case of NaCl and 2.8 and 0.6 mM CaCl(2) for SG65 and SG76, respectively. The increased tube diameter for (7,6) armchair SWNTs likely presented with higher van der Waals interaction and thus increased the aggregation propensity substantially. The presence of SRHA enhanced SWNT stability in divalent CaCl(2) environment through steric interaction from adsorbed humic molecules; however showed little or no effects for monovalent NaCl. The mechanism of aggregation-describing favorable interaction tendencies for (7,6) SWNTs-is probed through ab initio molecular modeling. The results suggest that SWNT stability can be chirality dependent in typical aquatic environment.

  11. Absence of fibromodulin affects matrix composition, collagen deposition and cell turnover in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Andréasson, Kristofer; Hesselstrand, Roger; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The ECM exerts great effects on cells, and changed composition may therefore have profound impact. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans, e.g. fibromodulin, are essential in collagen assembly. Our aim was to investigate the role of fibromodulin in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma, theorizing that fibromodulin-deficient animals would be protected against fibrosis. Repeated subcutaneous bleomycin-injections were given to wild type and fibromodulin-deficient mice, inducing pulmonary fibrosis. Development of fibrosis, ECM composition, cell turnover and inflammatory responses were investigated. Fibromodulin-deficient animals were not protected from fibrosis, but the composition of the matrix was affected, with decreased Collagen I in fibromodulin-deficient animals, both in controls (0.07 ± 0.04% vs. 0.18 ± 0.07% tissue area) and after bleomycin (0.37 ± 0.16% vs. 0.61 ± 0.21% tissue area). Biglycan was increased in fibromodulin-deficient animals, whereas decorin was decreased. Furthermore, bleomycin increased cell turnover in wild type, but only proliferation in fibromodulin-deficient animals, resulting in hyperplasia. In addition, the bleomycin-induced immune response was affected in fibromodulin-deficient animals. We thus conclude that fibromodulin has a profound effect on ECM, both in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma, and may be providing a permissive microenvironment affecting cell turnover. Furthermore, this study highlights the need to acknowledge specific ECM components, when assessing tissue properties and ultimately cell behaviour. PMID:25230586

  12. Nitrogen stress affects the turnover and size of nitrogen pools supplying leaf growth in a grass.

    PubMed

    Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Wild, Melanie; Schnyder, Hans

    2013-08-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) stress on the pool system supplying currently assimilated and (re)mobilized N for leaf growth of a grass was explored by dynamic ¹⁵N labeling, assessment of total and labeled N import into leaf growth zones, and compartmental analysis of the label import data. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants, grown with low or high levels of N fertilization, were labeled with ¹⁵NO₃⁻/¹⁴NO₃⁻ from 2 h to more than 20 d. In both treatments, the tracer time course in N imported into the growth zones fitted a two-pool model (r² > 0.99). This consisted of a "substrate pool," which received N from current uptake and supplied the growth zone, and a recycling/mobilizing "store," which exchanged with the substrate pool. N deficiency halved the leaf elongation rate, decreased N import into the growth zone, lengthened the delay between tracer uptake and its arrival in the growth zone (2.2 h versus 0.9 h), slowed the turnover of the substrate pool (half-life of 3.2 h versus 0.6 h), and increased its size (12.4 μg versus 5.9 μg). The store contained the equivalent of approximately 10 times (low N) and approximately five times (high N) the total daily N import into the growth zone. Its turnover agreed with that of protein turnover. Remarkably, the relative contribution of mobilization to leaf growth was large and similar (approximately 45%) in both treatments. We conclude that turnover and size of the substrate pool are related to the sink strength of the growth zone, whereas the contribution of the store is influenced by partitioning between sinks.

  13. D-tyrosine affects aggregation behavior of Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Yu, Jiajia; Jiang, Jing; Liang, Chen; Feng, Yongjun

    2017-02-01

    D-amino acids have been proved to disassemble biofilms by disassociating the matrix. Pantoea agglomerans is characterized by the formation of another kind of multicellular structure called symplasmata, which also remains the ability to form biofilms. In this study, a rice diazotrophic endophyte P. agglomerans YS19 was selected as a model strain to explore the effects of D-amino acids on these two kinds of cell aggregate structures. It was discovered that D-tyrosine disassociates biofilm, yet promotes symplasmata formation. D-tyrosine showed no influence on bacterial growth yet promoted the bacterial motility and inhibited the expression of cellular MalE and OmpF proteins, which enriched our knowledge of the biological effect of D-amino acids and expanded the research ideas of symplasmata formation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Bacterial community structure and carbon turnover in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena Delta, northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dirk; Kobabe, Svenja; Liebner, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Arctic permafrost environments store large amounts of organic carbon. As a result of global warming, intensified permafrost degradation and release of significant quantities of the currently conserved organic matter is predicted for high latitudes. To improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, the present study investigates structure and carbon turnover of the bacterial community in a permafrost-affected soil of the Lena Delta (72 degrees 22'N, 126 degrees 28'E) in northeastern Siberia. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the presence of all major soil bacterial groups and of the canditate divisions OD1 and OP11. A shift within the bacterial community was observed along the soil profile indicated by the absence of Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and a simultaneous increase in abundance and diversity of fermenting bacteria like Firmicutes and Actinobacteria near the permafrost table. BIOLOG EcoPlates were used to describe the spectrum of utilized carbon sources of the bacterial community in different horizons under in situ temperature conditions in the presence and absence of oxygen. The results revealed distinct qualitative differences in the substrates used and the turnover rates under oxic and anoxic conditions. It can be concluded that constantly negative redox potentials as characteristic for the near permafrost table horizons of the investigated soil did effectively shape the structure of the indigenous bacterial community limiting its phylum-level diversity and carbon turnover capacity.

  15. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  16. A Protein Aggregation Based Test for Screening of the Agents Affecting Thermostability of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Eronina, Tatyana; Borzova, Vera; Maloletkina, Olga; Kleymenov, Sergey; Asryants, Regina; Markossian, Kira; Kurganov, Boris

    2011-01-01

    To search for agents affecting thermal stability of proteins, a test based on the registration of protein aggregation in the regime of heating with a constant rate was used. The initial parts of the dependences of the light scattering intensity (I) on temperature (T) were analyzed using the following empiric equation: I = Kagg(T−T0)2, where Kagg is the parameter characterizing the initial rate of aggregation and T0 is a temperature at which the initial increase in the light scattering intensity is registered. The aggregation data are interpreted in the frame of the model assuming the formation of the start aggregates at the initial stages of the aggregation process. Parameter T0 corresponds to the moment of the origination of the start aggregates. The applicability of the proposed approach was demonstrated on the examples of thermal aggregation of glycogen phosphorylase b from rabbit skeletal muscles and bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase studied in the presence of agents of different chemical nature. The elaborated approach to the study of protein aggregation may be used for rapid identification of small molecules that interact with protein targets. PMID:21760963

  17. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity. PMID:26197473

  18. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity.

  19. Turnover in health care: the mediating effects of employee engagement.

    PubMed

    Collini, Stevie A; Guidroz, Ashley M; Perez, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the interaction between interpersonal respect, diversity climate, mission fulfilment and engagement to better predict turnover in health care. Registered nurse turnover has averaged 14% and current nursing shortages are expected to spread. Few studies have studied employee engagement as a mediator between organisational context and turnover. Study participants were employees working within 185 departments across ten hospitals within a large healthcare organisation in the USA. Although a total of 5443 employees work in these departments, employee opinion survey responses were aggregated by department before being linked to turnover rates gathered from company records. Engagement fully mediated the relationship between respect and turnover and the relationship between mission fulfilment and turnover. Diversity climate was not related to turnover. Turnover in health care poses a significant threat to the mission of creating a healing environment for patients and these results demonstrate that workplace respect and connection to the mission affect turnover by decreasing engagement. The findings demonstrated that to increase engagement, and improve turnover rates in health care, it would be beneficial for organisations, and nurse management to focus on improving mission fulfilment and interpersonal relationships. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Arginine dipeptides affect insulin aggregation in a pH- and ionic strength-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Nuhu, Mariam M; Curtis, Robin

    2015-03-01

    Solutions containing arginine or mixtures of arginine and other amino acids are commonly used for protein liquid formulations to overcome problems such as high viscosities, aggregation, and phase separation. The aim of this work is to examine whether the stabilizing properties of arginine can be improved by incorporating the amino acid into a dipeptide. A series of arginine-containing dipeptides have been tested for their ability to suppress insulin aggregation over a range of pH and ionic strength. The aggregation is monitored at room temperature using a combination of turbidimetry and light scattering for solutions at pH 5.5 or 3.7, whereas thermal-induced aggregation is measured at pH 7.5. In addition, intrinsic fluorescence has been used to quantify additive binding to insulin. The dipeptide diArg is the most effective additive in solutions at pH 5.5 and 3.7, whereas the dipeptide Arg-Phe almost completely eliminates thermally-induced aggregation of insulin at pH 7.5 up to temperature of 90°C. Insulin has been chosen as a model system because the molecular forces controlling its aggregation are well known. From this understanding, we are able to provide a molecular basis for how the various dipeptides affect insulin aggregation. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, C; Larnkjaer, A; Cashman, K D; Lamberg-Allardt, C; Jakobsen, J; Michaelsen, K F

    2010-02-01

    A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 microg/day vitamin D(3) for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence of VDR and ER genotype on the effect of the supplementation. The girls (n=221) were randomized to receive either 5 microg or 10 microg vitamin D(3) supplementation per day or placebo for 12 months. Whole body and lumbar spine bone mass measured by DXA and pubertal status were determined at baseline and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. The S-25OHD concentration increased (p<0.001) relative to the baseline values in the groups receiving either 5 microg/day (mean+/-SD; 11.0+/-10.3 nmol/l, baseline 41.9+/-17.6 nmol/l) or 10 microg/day (13.3+/-11.8 nmol/l, baseline 44.4+/-16.6 nmol/l) vitamin D(3) for 12 months compared to placebo (-3.1+/-9.8 nmol/l, baseline 43.4+/-17.1 nmol/l). There was no effect of vitamin D-supplementation on biomarkers for bone turnover or on whole body or spine bone mineral augmentation. However, vitamin D supplementation increased whole body bone mineral density (BMD) (p=0.007) and bone mineral content (BMC) (p=0.048) in the FF VDR genotype but not in the Ff or ff VDR genotypes. Supplementation with vitamin D (5 or 10 microg/day) over 12 months increased the S-25OHD concentration

  2. FBXW7 and USP7 regulate CCDC6 turnover during the cell cycle and affect cancer drugs susceptibility in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Morra, Francesco; Luise, Chiara; Merolla, Francesco; Poser, Ina; Visconti, Roberta; Ilardi, Gennaro; Paladino, Simona; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Guggino, Gianluca; Monaco, Roberto; Colecchia, David; Monaco, Guglielmo; Cerrato, Aniello; Chiariello, Mario; Denning, Krista; Claudio, Pier Paolo; Staibano, Stefania; Celetti, Angela

    2015-05-20

    CCDC6 gene product is a pro-apoptotic protein substrate of ATM, whose loss or inactivation enhances tumour progression. In primary tumours, the impaired function of CCDC6 protein has been ascribed to CCDC6 rearrangements and to somatic mutations in several neoplasia. Recently, low levels of CCDC6 protein, in NSCLC, have been correlated with tumor prognosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the variable levels of CCDC6 in primary tumors have not been described yet.We show that CCDC6 turnover is regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner. CCDC6 undergoes a cyclic variation in the phosphorylated status and in protein levels that peak at G2 and decrease in mitosis. The reduced stability of CCDC6 in the M phase is dependent on mitotic kinases and on degron motifs that are present in CCDC6 and direct the recruitment of CCDC6 to the FBXW7 E3 Ubl. The de-ubiquitinase enzyme USP7 appears responsible of the fine tuning of the CCDC6 stability, affecting cells behaviour and drug response.Thus, we propose that the amount of CCDC6 protein in primary tumors, as reported in lung, may depend on the impairment of the CCDC6 turnover due to altered protein-protein interaction and post-translational modifications and may be critical in optimizing personalized therapy.

  3. FBXW7 and USP7 regulate CCDC6 turnover during the cell cycle and affect cancer drugs susceptibility in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Francesco; Poser, Ina; Visconti, Roberta; Ilardi, Gennaro; Paladino, Simona; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Guggino, Gianluca; Monaco, Roberto; Colecchia, David; Monaco, Guglielmo; Cerrato, Aniello; Chiariello, Mario; Denning, Krista; Claudio, Pier Paolo; Staibano, Stefania; Celetti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    CCDC6 gene product is a pro-apoptotic protein substrate of ATM, whose loss or inactivation enhances tumour progression. In primary tumours, the impaired function of CCDC6 protein has been ascribed to CCDC6 rearrangements and to somatic mutations in several neoplasia. Recently, low levels of CCDC6 protein, in NSCLC, have been correlated with tumor prognosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the variable levels of CCDC6 in primary tumors have not been described yet. We show that CCDC6 turnover is regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner. CCDC6 undergoes a cyclic variation in the phosphorylated status and in protein levels that peak at G2 and decrease in mitosis. The reduced stability of CCDC6 in the M phase is dependent on mitotic kinases and on degron motifs that are present in CCDC6 and direct the recruitment of CCDC6 to the FBXW7 E3 Ubl. The de-ubiquitinase enzyme USP7 appears responsible of the fine tuning of the CCDC6 stability, affecting cells behaviour and drug response. Thus, we propose that the amount of CCDC6 protein in primary tumors, as reported in lung, may depend on the impairment of the CCDC6 turnover due to altered protein-protein interaction and post-translational modifications and may be critical in optimizing personalized therapy. PMID:25885523

  4. Exposure to zidovudine adversely affects mitochondrial turnover in primary T cells.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Zoë R; Sanderson, Sharon; Simon, Anna Katarina; Dorrell, Lucy

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine (ZDV) is a widely used component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, despite its known adverse effects, which include mitochondrial toxicity in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. It has also been associated with impaired immunological recovery. We hypothesised that ZDV might impair mitochondrial health and survival of primary T cells. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of mitochondrial function, mitophagy and susceptibility to apoptosis in healthy donor primary T cells after exposure to ZDV in vitro, together with T cells from patients who were virologically suppressed on ZDV-containing ART regimens for ≥1 year and age-matched subjects receiving non-ZDV ART regimens. The proportion of T cells expressing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) was significantly higher after in vitro (CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells) and in vivo (CD4(+) T cells) exposure to ZDV than other antiretroviral agents. We did not detect any effect of ZDV on mitophagy, as indicated by change in autophagic flux. However, spontaneous apoptosis, indicated by upregulation of caspase-3 was greater in ZDV-exposed T cells. In conclusion, ZDV exposure was associated with impaired mitochondrial turnover and increased susceptibility to apoptosis in T cells. These mechanisms could contribute to sub-optimal immune reconstitution.

  5. Short-term vitamin A supplementation does not affect bone turnover in men.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Tisha N; Krueger, Diane C; Engelke, Jean A; Harke, Judy M; Binkley, Neil C

    2002-06-01

    Limited data in humans and animals indicate that excess vitamin A stimulates bone resorption and inhibits bone formation, effects that over time might lead to bone loss and fracture. Thus, it is possible that vitamin A supplementation is a currently unrecognized risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. To further evaluate this possibility, a prospective, randomized, single-blind study of vitamin A supplementation was conducted in 80 healthy men age 18-58 y. One half received 7576 microg (25,000 IU) of retinol palmitate daily with their evening meal; the others took a placebo. Blood was collected from fasting subjects and serum prepared at baseline and after 2, 4 and 6 wk of supplementation. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and N-Telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx) were measured at all time points. Serum osteocalcin (Oc) was measured at baseline and after 6 wk of supplementation. BSAP, NTx and Oc did not differ between the supplemented and placebo-treated groups over the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term vitamin A supplementation at this dosage in healthy men does not alter serum markers of skeletal turnover. Thus, it is unlikely that short-term administration of vitamin A would contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Whether long-term vitamin A supplementation might have adverse skeletal effects remains to be determined.

  6. Aggressive behavior, related conduct problems, and variation in genes affecting dopamine turnover.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; De Young, Colin G; Eastman, Maria; Getchell, Marya; Haeffel, Gerald J; Klinteberg, Britt af; Koposov, Roman A; Oreland, Lars; Pakstis, Andrew J; Ponomarev, Oleg A; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Singh, Jay P; Yrigollen, Carolyn M

    2010-01-01

    A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and DbetaH) in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n=182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n=60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.

  7. Primary cultivation: factors affecting contamination and Mycobacterium ulcerans growth after long turnover time of clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Bratschi, Martin W; Bolz, Miriam; Grize, Leticia; Kerber, Sarah; Minyem, Jacques C; Um Boock, Alphonse; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Pluschke, Gerd

    2014-11-30

    While cultivation of pathogens represents a foundational diagnostic approach in the study of infectious diseases, its value for the confirmation of clinical diagnosis of Buruli ulcer is limited by the fact that colonies of Mycobacterium ulcerans appear only after about eight weeks of incubation at 30°C. However, for molecular epidemiological and drug sensitivity studies, primary isolation of M. ulcerans remains an essential tool. Since for most of the remote Buruli ulcer endemic regions of Africa cultivation laboratories are not easily accessible, samples from lesions often have to be stored for extended periods of time prior to processing. The objective of the current study therefore was to determine which transport medium, decontamination method or other factors decrease the contamination rate and increase the chance of primary isolation of M. ulcerans bacilli after long turnover time. Swab and fine needle aspirate (FNA) samples for the primary cultivation were collected from clinically confirmed Buruli ulcer patients in the Mapé Basin of Cameroon. The samples were either stored in the semi-solid transport media 7H9 or Amies or dry for extended period of time prior to processing. In the laboratory, four decontamination methods and two inoculation media were evaluated and statistical methods applied to identify factors that decrease culture contamination and factors that increase the probability of M. ulcerans recovery. The analysis showed: i) that the use of moist transport media significantly increased the recovery rate of M. ulcerans compared to samples kept dry; ii) that the choice of the decontamination method had no significant effect on the chance of M. ulcerans isolation; and iii) that Löwenstein-Jensen supplemented with antibiotics as inoculation medium yielded the best results. We further found that, ten extra days between sampling and inoculation lead to a relative decrease in the isolation rate of M. ulcerans by nearly 20%. Finally, collection and

  8. Water level changes affect carbon turnover and microbial community composition in lake sediments

    Treesearch

    Lukas Weise; Andreas Ulrich; Matilde Moreano; Arthur Gessler; Zachary E. Kayler; Kristin Steger; Bernd Zeller; Kristin Rudolph; Jelena. Knezevic-Jaric

    2016-01-01

    Due to climate change, many lakes in Europe will be subject to higher variability of hydrological characteristics in their littoral zones. These different hydrological regimes might affect the use of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We used sandy sediment microcosms to examine the effects of different hydrological regimes (wet, desiccating, and wet-...

  9. Antecedents of Student Teachers' Affective Commitment to the Teaching Profession and Turnover Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Solhaug, Trond; Turmo, Are

    2016-01-01

    Several European countries have experienced both a dearth of and reduction in the quality of applicants to teacher education study programmes. There is also significant leakage from these programmes. The rationale for this study therefore lies in the need to reduce teacher attrition. Research indicates that affective commitment to a profession is…

  10. The passage of a hemodialysis filter affects hemorheology, red cell shape, and platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, W H; Cagienard, F; Schulzki, T; Venzin, R M

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the passage of a hemodialysis filter on red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and hemorheological parameters. After one hour of hemodialysis, blood was drawn from 15 patients immediately ahead and behind the dialysis filter. RBCs were fixed for morphological analysis. Blood viscosity was measured with a Couette viscometer (LS-30, Contraves), RBC aggregation with a Myrenne aggregometer, platelet aggregation in flowing whole blood and in platelet rich plasma. The passage of the hemodialysis filter increased the hematocrit from 34.0 ± 3.8 to 44.6 ± 8.7% (p < 0.01). Discocytes decreased from 73 ± 9 to 60 ± 15%, while echinocytes/knizocytes were more abundant 24 ± 9% and 38 ± 15%, respectively, p < 0.01). Blood viscosity increased from 3.77 ± 0.52 to 6.75 ± 2.21 mPa.s (p < 0.01). The RBC aggregation index decreased from 25.8 ± 5.0 to 20.9 ± 5.6 (p < 0.05). These changes were less pronounced when the blood flow rate was reduced from 350 to 100 ml/min. Platelet aggregation was slightly increased in flowing whole blood, but decreased in platelet rich plasma. At the end of hemodialysis, a small increase in abnormally shaped RBCs, hematocrit, and whole blood viscosity persisted; platelet aggregation in flowing whole blood was reduced in all patients. We conclude that the passage of a hemodialysis filter induced RBC shape changes, increased the hematocrit, whole blood and plasma viscosity, decreased RBC aggregation, and affected platelet aggregation.

  11. Cerium oxide nanoparticle aggregates affect stress response and function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Steven; Rice, Kevin M; Manne, Nandini Dpk; Shokuhfar, Tolou; He, Kun; Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Blough, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    The continual increase in production and disposal of nanomaterials raises concerns regarding the safety of nanoparticles on the environmental and human health. Recent studies suggest that cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles may possess both harmful and beneficial effects on biological processes. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how exposure to different concentrations (0.17-17.21 µg/mL) of aggregated CeO2 nanoparticles affects indices of whole animal stress and survivability in Caenorhabditis elegans. Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to different concentrations of CeO2 nanoparticles and evaluated. Our findings demonstrate that chronic exposure of CeO2 nanoparticle aggregates is associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species and heat shock stress response (HSP-4) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but not mortality. Conversely, CeO2 aggregates promoted strain-dependent decreases in animal fertility, a decline in stress resistance as measured by thermotolerance, and shortened worm length. The data obtained from this study reveal the sublethal toxic effects of CeO2 nanoparticle aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans and contribute to our understanding of how exposure to CeO2 may affect the environment.

  12. Heterogeneous hosts: how variation in host size, behaviour and immunity affects parasite aggregation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Hoverman, Jason T

    2014-09-01

    Infection heterogeneity is one of the most fundamental patterns in disease ecology, yet surprisingly few studies have experimentally explored its underlying drivers. Here, we used large-scale field assessments to evaluate the degree of parasite aggregation within amphibian host populations followed by a novel experimental approach to assess the potential influence of host size, behaviour and immunity in reproducing such heterogeneity. Among 227 wetlands, 2468 hosts and seven parasite species, infections were consistently aggregated among host individuals within populations of the Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla). For each parasite species, the relationship between the log-mean and log-variance of infection load was strongly linear (R(2): 0·91-0·98) with a slope between 1·37 and 1·67, indicative of aggregation relative to the expected Poisson slope of unity. In laboratory trials with P. regilla and the most virulent trematode (Ribeiroia ondatrae), experimental reductions in either host immunity (through corticosterone exposure) or antiparasite behaviours (through anaesthesia exposure) increased parasite infection loads in isolated hosts by 62-102% relative to unmanipulated individuals. In a second experiment designed to test how variation in host immunity, behaviour and body size affected variation in infection load within small groups (dyads), a reduction in immune function or behaviour of one host significantly amplified infection heterogeneity within the group, effectively doubling the variance-to-mean ratio. However, immunity affected aggregation only in the absence of behavioural manipulation, and changing the size distribution of hosts did not appreciably affect aggregation. Using Taylor's Power Law to integrate field and laboratory data, we found that only treatments involving behavioural reductions achieved aggregation levels comparable to natural host populations. Thus, despite their short duration, our treatments generated heterogeneity in

  13. Aggregate stability and water retention near saturation characteristics as affected by soil texture, aggregate size and polyacrylamide application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the effects of soil intrinsic properties and extrinsic conditions on aggregate stability is essential for the development of effective soil and water conservation practices. Our objective was to evaluate the combined role of soil texture, aggregate size and application of a stabilizing...

  14. The impact of quality of work life on job embeddedness and affective commitment and their co-effect on turnover intention of nurses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, XiaoWen; Sun, Tao; Cao, QiuRu; Li, Ce; Duan, XiaoJian; Fan, LiHua; Liu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    To verify with empirical evidence the hypothesised relation and the effect of quality of work life, job embeddedness and affective commitment on turnover intention of clinical nurses in China. High turnover of the nursing workforce in healthcare organisations is a difficult and recurring problem in China as well as in many other countries in the world. It leads to great waste of resources and increases management cost. Developing and retaining the nursing workforce, which is a major challenge faced by human resources practitioners in hospitals and public health agencies, also becomes a subject of interest for management studies. Most of the literature about voluntary turnover focused on such traditional measures as job satisfaction and job alternatives in the past. The introduction of such new concepts as quality of work life, job embeddedness and affective commitment, which views the issue from a much broader and comprehensive spectrum, made a great breakthrough in the turnover study. In this study, we selected quality of work life, job embeddedness and affective commitment - three of the most important factors in employer-employee relations - and analysed the interaction between each one of them, as well as their co-effect on turnover intention of Chinese nurses. Cross-sectional survey and structural equation modelling were applied in studying the self-report questionnaires distributed to 1000 nurses employed in five large-scale government-owned hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. Our study confirmed the hypothesised positive relation of quality of work life with job embeddedness and affective commitment and the hypothesised negative relation of quality of work life with turnover intention, that is, high quality of work life perceived by the nurses enhances their job embeddedness and affective commitment and thus reduces their intention to leave the job. The effect of quality of work life is positive on job embeddedness and affection commitment

  15. Increased nitrogen deposition did not affect the composition and turnover of plant and microbial biomarkers in forest soil density fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal; Hagedorn, Frank; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2013-04-01

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and elevated CO2 concentrations affect many forests and their ecosystem functions, including organic matter cycling in soils, the largest carbon pool of terrestrial ecosystems. However, it is still not clear how, and what the underlying mechanisms are. Specific molecules of plant and microbial origin (biomarkers) might respond differently to N deposition, depending on their internal N content. Microbial cell-wall-constituents with high-N content like amino sugars are reliable biomarkers to distinguish between fungal- and bacterial-derived organic residues. Individual lipids are plant-specific biomarkers that lack N in their molecular structure. Here, we tested the effects of elevated CO2 and increased N deposition on the dynamics of plant and microbial biomarkers by studying their composition and turnover in forest soil density fractions. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers respond differently to increased N deposition, depending on their internal N content. We used soil samples from a 4-year elevated CO2 and N deposition experiment in model forest ecosystems (open-top chambers), that were fumigated with ambient and 13C-depleted CO2 and treated with two levels of 15N-labeled fertilizer. Bulk soil was separated into free light fraction, occluded light fraction and heavy fraction by density fractionation and ultrasonic dispersion. The heavy fraction was further particle-size fractionated with 20 μm as a cut-off. We determined carbon and N concentrations and their isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ15N) within bulk soil and density fractions. Therein, we extracted and quantified individual amino sugars and lipids and conducted compound-specific stable-isotope-analysis using GC- and LC-IRMS. Results show that amino sugars were mainly stabilized in association with soil minerals. Especially bacterial amino sugars were preferentially associated with soil minerals, exemplified by a consistent decrease

  16. Oocytes affected by smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates: to discard or not to discard?

    PubMed

    Shaw-Jackson, Chloë; Thomas, Anne-Laure; Van Beirs, Nina; Ameye, Lieveke; Colin, Jérôme; Bertrand, Evelyne; Becker, Bénédicte; Rozenberg, Serge; Autin, Candice

    2016-07-01

    Oocytes containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates (SERa) have been associated with reduced fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates as well as compromised neonatal outcomes. It was therefore recommended by an Alpha-ESHRE Consensus to discard oocytes presenting this dysmorphism. The data in the literature are nevertheless conflicting and healthy babies have recently been obtained from affected oocytes. The objectives of this study were to compare clinical outcomes between ICSI cycles with and without oocytes affected by smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates and to confirm whether affected oocytes can produce healthy babies. A prospective observational study was performed comparing 714 SERa- ICSI cycles to 112 SERa+ cycles. Among the SERa+ cycles, 518 SERa- oocytes and 213 SERa+ oocytes were analyzed. Fertilization, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates as well as neonatal outcomes were compared between SERa+ and SERa- cycles as well as between SERa+ and SERa- oocytes. The presence of SERa was not associated with an adverse effect on embryological, clinical or neonatal data for SERa+ cycles and oocytes. Seven healthy babies were born from embryos originating from SERa+ oocytes. These results are encouraging and might contribute in the future to a revision of the Alpha-ESHRE Consensus. Larger studies, including a correlation between frequency and size of SERa, clinical outcomes and malformation rates, as well as the follow-up of babies born are nevertheless necessary. In the meantime, the currently conflicting data requires caution when considering transfers of embryos affected by SERa.

  17. Policy of IVF centres towards oocytes affected by Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum aggregates: a multicentre survey study.

    PubMed

    Van Beirs, Nina; Shaw-Jackson, Chloë; Rozenberg, Serge; Autin, Candice

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum aggregates (SERa) has been reported to be associated with adverse outcomes. An Alpha-ESHRE Consensus was published in 2011, strongly recommending to not inseminating affected oocytes. On the other hand, healthy babies have been born from oocytes presenting this dysmorphism. We surveyed several European IVF centres, to assess their attitudes concerning affected oocytes. This survey is based on a computer format and includes questions regarding the fate of affected oocytes. About 14 % of centres who answered our survey discard SERa+ oocytes. 43 % of centres that do not discard the oocytes, register and follow up neonatal data. About a quarter of centres inform their patients about this dysmorphism. Half of them require an informed consent prior to transferring affected embryos. Twenty-one centres reported having SERa+ births, with one reporting a malformation. 48 % of centres declared having been influenced by the Alpha-ESHRE Consensus, in their management policy of SERa+ oocytes. Few centres scrupulously respect the recommendations of the Alpha-ESHRE Consensus and discard affected oocytes. Since it is essential to determine if there truly is an impact of this dysmorphism and whether the guidelines are still valid, transfer of affected embryos should only be done when accompanied with data recording and monitoring of all foetal malformations from IVF. Clarifying the situation will allow IVF centres to correctly inform patients about the risk of birth malformations as well as whether a decreased chance of pregnancy exists.

  18. Passage number affects the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells as judged by tetraploid embryo aggregation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Yun; Jia, Qing; Di, Ke-Qian; Gao, Shu-Min; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Rong-Yan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Li-Ze

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the number of passages affected the developmental pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells as measured by the attainment of adult fertile mice derived from embryonic stem (ES) cell/tetraploid embryo complementation. Thirty-six newborns were produced by the aggregation of tetraploid embryos and hybrid ES cells after various numbers of passages. These newborns were entirely derived from ES cells as judged by microsatellite DNA, coat-color phenotype, and germline transmission. Although 15 survived to adulthood, 17 died of respiratory failure, and four were eaten by their foster mother. From the 15 mice that reached adulthood and that could reproduce, none arose from ES cells at passage level 15 or more. All 15 arose from cells at passages 3-11. Our results demonstrate that the number of passages affects the developmental pluripotency of ES cells.

  19. Different Factors Affecting Human ANP Amyloid Aggregation and Their Implications in Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Millucci, Lia; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Laschi, Marcella; Consumi, Marco; Spreafico, Adriano; Tanganelli, Piero; Lupetti, Pietro; Magnani, Agnese; Santucci, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Aims Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)-containing amyloid is frequently found in the elderly heart. No data exist regarding ANP aggregation process and its link to pathologies. Our aims were: i) to experimentally prove the presumptive association of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Isolated Atrial Amyloidosis (IAA); ii) to characterize ANP aggregation, thereby elucidating IAA implication in the CHF pathogenesis. Methods and Results A significant prevalence (85%) of IAA was immunohistochemically proven ex vivo in biopsies from CHF patients. We investigated in vitro (using Congo Red, Thioflavin T, SDS-PAGE, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy) ANP fibrillogenesis, starting from α-ANP as well as the ability of dimeric β-ANP to promote amyloid formation. Different conditions were adopted, including those reproducing β-ANP prevalence in CHF. Our results defined the uncommon rapidity of α-ANP self-assembly at acidic pH supporting the hypothesis that such aggregates constitute the onset of a fibrillization process subsequently proceeding at physiological pH. Interestingly, CHF-like conditions induced the production of the most stable and time-resistant ANP fibrils suggesting that CHF affected people may be prone to develop IAA. Conclusions We established a link between IAA and CHF by ex vivo examination and assessed that β-ANP is, in vitro, the seed of ANP fibrils. Our results indicate that β-ANP plays a crucial role in ANP amyloid deposition under physiopathological CHF conditions. Overall, our findings indicate that early IAA-related ANP deposition may occur in CHF and suggest that these latter patients should be monitored for the development of cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:21814559

  20. Statistical image analysis reveals features affecting fates of Myxococcus xanthus developmental aggregates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Zhang, Haiyang; Shimkets, Lawrence J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2011-04-05

    Starving Myxococcus xanthus bacteria use their motility systems to self-organize into multicellular fruiting bodies, large mounds in which cells differentiate into metabolically inert spores. Despite the identification of the genetic pathways required for aggregation and the use of microcinematography to observe aggregation dynamics in WT and mutant strains, a mechanistic understanding of aggregation is still incomplete. For example, it is not clear why some of the initial aggregates mature into fruiting bodies, whereas others disperse, merge, or split into two. Here, we develop high-throughput image quantification and statistical analysis methods to gain insight into M. xanthus developmental aggregation dynamics. A quantitative metric of features characterizing each aggregate is used to deduce the properties of the aggregates that are correlated with each fate. The analysis shows that small aggregate size but not neighbor-related parameters correlate with aggregate dispersal. Furthermore, close proximity is necessary but not sufficient for aggregate merging. Finally, splitting occurs for those aggregates that are unusually large and elongated. These observations place severe constraints on the underlying aggregation mechanisms and present strong evidence against the role of long-range morphogenic gradients or biased cell exchange in the dispersal, merging, or splitting of transient aggregates. This approach can be expanded and adapted to study self-organization in other cellular systems.

  1. Concrete modelling for expertise of structures affected by alkali aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Grimal, E.; Sellier, A.; Multon, S.; Le Pape, Y.; Bourdarot, E.

    2010-04-15

    Alkali aggregate reaction (AAR) affects numerous civil engineering structures and causes irreversible expansion and cracking. In order to control the safety level and the maintenance cost of its hydraulic dams, Electricite de France (EDF) must reach better comprehension and better prediction of the expansion phenomena. For this purpose, EDF has developed a numerical model based on the finite element method in order to assess the mechanical behaviour of damaged structures. The model takes the following phenomena into account: concrete creep, the stress induced by the formation of AAR gel and the mechanical damage. A rheological model was developed to assess the coupling between the different phenomena (creep, AAR and anisotropic damage). Experimental results were used to test the model. The results show the capability of the model to predict the experimental behaviour of beams subjected to AAR. In order to obtain such prediction, it is necessary to take all the phenomena occurring in the concrete into consideration.

  2. Soil aggregate stability as affected by clay mineralogy and polyacrylamide addition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The addition of polyacrylamide (PAM) to soil leads to stabilization of existing aggregates and improved bonding between, and aggregation of adjacent soil particles However, the dependence of PAM efficacy as an aggregate stabilizing agent on soil-clay mineralogy has not been studied. Sixteen soil sam...

  3. How the Timing of Climate Change Policy Affects Infrastructure Turnover in the Electricity Sector: Engineering, Economic and Policy Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izard, Catherine Finlay

    The electricity sector is responsible for producing 35% of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates suggest that ideally, the electricity sector would be responsible for approximately 85% of emissions abatement associated with climate polices such as America's Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). This is equivalent to ˜50% cumulative emissions reductions below projected cumulative business-as-usual (BAU) emissions. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the US electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society is likely to have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Unfortunately, the inertia in the electricity sector means that there may be physical constraints to the rate at which new electricity generating capacity can be built. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical---the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing GHG emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. There is a real, and thus far unexplored, possibility that the U.S. could delay climate change policy implementation for long enough that it becomes infeasible to attain the necessary rate of turnover in the electricity sector. This dissertation investigates the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. The goal of the dissertation is to answer the question: How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? Using the Infrastructure Flow Assessment Model, which was developed in this work, this dissertation shows that delaying climate change policy increases average retirements rates by 200-400%, increases average construction rates by 25-85% and increases maximum construction

  4. Protein turnover and cellular stress in mildly and severely affected muscles from patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I.

    PubMed

    Hauerslev, Simon; Sveen, Marie L; Vissing, John; Krag, Thomas O

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting primarily in the proximal muscles, while distal muscles often are spared. Our aim was to investigate if wasting could be caused by impaired regeneration in the proximal compared to distal muscles. Biopsies were simultaneously obtained from proximal and distal muscles of the same patients with LGMD2I (n = 4) and healthy subjects (n = 4). The level of past muscle regeneration was evaluated by counting internally nucleated fibers and determining actively regenerating fibers by using the developmental markers embryonic myosin heavy chain (eMHC) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and also assessing satellite cell activation status by myogenin positivity. Severe muscle histopathology was occasionally observed in the proximal muscles of patients with LGMD2I whereas distal muscles were always relatively spared. No difference was found in the regeneration markers internally nucleated fibers, actively regenerating fibers or activation status of satellite cells between proximal and distal muscles. Protein turnover, both synthesis and breakdown, as well as cellular stress were highly increased in severely affected muscles compared to mildly affected muscles. Our results indicate that alterations in the protein turnover and myostatin levels could progressively impair the muscle mass maintenance and/or regeneration resulting in gradual muscular atrophy.

  5. Genetic Modulation of c-di-GMP Turnover Affects Multiple Virulence Traits and Bacterial Virulence in Rice Pathogen Dickeya zeae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yufan; Lv, Mingfa; Liao, Lisheng; Gu, Yanfang; Liang, Zhibin; Shi, Zurong; Liu, Shiyin; Zhou, Jianuan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2016-01-01

    The frequent outbreaks of rice foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae have become a significant concern in rice planting regions and countries, but the regulatory mechanisms that govern the virulence of this important pathogen remain vague. Given that the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with modulation of various virulence-related traits in various microorganisms, here we set to investigate the role of the genes encoding c-di-GMP metabolism in the regulation of the bacterial physiology and virulence by construction all in-frame deletion mutants targeting the annotated c-di-GMP turnover genes in D. zeae strain EC1. Phenotype analyses identified individual mutants showing altered production of exoenzymes and phytotoxins, biofilm formation and bacterial motilities. The results provide useful clues and a valuable toolkit for further characterization and dissection of the regulatory complex that modulates the pathogenesis and persistence of this important bacterial pathogen. PMID:27855163

  6. Influence of the Mixing Energy Consumption Affecting Coagulation and Floc Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Vadasarukkai, Yamuna S; Gagnon, Graham A

    2017-03-21

    The operational significance of energy-intensive rapid mixing processes remains unaddressed in coagulation and flocculation of insoluble precipitates (flocs), which play an important role in the removal of impurities from drinking water supplies. In this study, the influence of rapid mixing and associated mixing energy on floc aggregation was examined for a surface water source characterized by a high fraction of aquatic humic matter. Infrared spectral analyses showed that the colloidal complexes resulting from ligand exchange between iron and dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) were not substantially influenced by the mixing energy input. This signified that DOM removal by coagulation can be achieved at lower mixing intensity, thereby reducing energy consumption. In contrast, macroscopic investigations showed the coagulation mixing energy affected floc size distributions during the slow mixing stage in flocculation and, to some extent, their settling characteristics. The results from analysis of floc properties clearly showed that more mixing energy was expended than necessary in coagulation, which is typically designed at a high mixing intensity range of 600-1000 s(-1) in treatment plants. The key findings from this study have practical implications to water utilities to strategically meet water quality goals while reducing energy demands.

  7. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  8. Turnover Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystems contain energy and materials such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water, and are open to their flow-through. Turnover time refers to the amount of time required for replacement by flow-through of the energy or substance of interest contained in the system, and is ...

  9. Turnover Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystems contain energy and materials such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water, and are open to their flow-through. Turnover time refers to the amount of time required for replacement by flow-through of the energy or substance of interest contained in the system, and is ...

  10. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883

  11. Supervisory turnover in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Knight, Danica K; Broome, Kirk M; Edwards, Jennifer R; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover.

  12. Growth hormone favorably affects bone turnover and bone mineral density in patients with short bowel syndrome undergoing intestinal rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tangpricha, Vin; Luo, Menghua; Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Gu, Li H; Bazargan, Niloofar; Klapproth, Jan-Michael; Sitaraman, Shanthi V; Galloway, John R; Leader, Lorraine M; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) have a high prevalence of metabolic bone disease due to nutrient malabsorption and potential effects of parenteral nutrition (PN). Human growth hormone (hGH) has been shown in some studies to have anabolic effects on bone, but hGH effects on bone in patients with SBS are unknown. Adults with PN-dependent SBS underwent a 7-day period of baseline studies while receiving usual oral diet and PN and then began receiving modified diets designed to improve nutrient absorption and daily oral calcium/vitamin D supplements (1500 mg elemental calcium and 600 IU vitamin D, respectively). Subjects were randomized to receive in a double-blind manner either subcutaneous (sc) saline placebo as the control or hGH (0.1 mg/kg/d for 3 weeks, then 0.1 mg/kg 3 days a week for 8 subsequent weeks). Open-label hGH was given from week 13 to week 24 in subjects who required PN after completion of the 12-week double-blind phase. Markers of bone turnover (serum osteocalcin and urinary N-telopeptide [NTX]), vitamin D nutriture (serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OH D] and parathyroid hormone [PTH] concentrations), and intestinal calcium absorption were measured at baseline and at weeks 4 and 12. Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and spine was performed to determine bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. The majority of subjects in each group exhibited evidence of vitamin D deficiency at baseline (25-OH D levels<30 ng/mL; 78% and 79% of control and hGH-treated subjects, respectively). Subjects treated with hGH demonstrated a significant increase from baseline in serum osteocalcin levels at 12 weeks (+62%; p<.05). The levels of NTX were increased over time in the hGH-treated group; however, this did not reach statistical significance. Both NTX and osteocalcin remained unchanged in control subjects. BMD of the spine and total hip was unchanged in subjects treated with placebo or hGH at 24 weeks. However, femoral neck BMD

  13. Spatial pattern formation of microbes at the soil microscale affect soil C and N turnover in an individual-based microbial community model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Christina; Evans, Sarah; Dieckmann, Ulf; Widder, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    At the μm-scale, soil is a highly structured and complex environment, both in physical as well as in biological terms, characterized by non-linear interactions between microbes, substrates and minerals. As known from mathematics and theoretical ecology, spatial structure significantly affects the system's behaviour by enabling synergistic dynamics, facilitating diversity, and leading to emergent phenomena such as self-organisation and self-regulation. Such phenomena, however, are rarely considered when investigating mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover. Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial reservoir for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and plays a pivotal role in global biogeochemical cycles. Still, the underlying mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter buildup and turnover remain elusive. We explored mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover using an individual-based, stoichiometrically and spatially explicit computer model, which simulates the microbial de-composer system at the soil microscale (i.e. on a grid of 100 x 100 soil microsites). Soil organic matter dynamics in our model emerge as the result of interactions among individual microbes with certain functional traits (f.e. enzyme production rates, growth rates, cell stoichiometry) at the microscale. By degrading complex substrates, and releasing labile substances microbes in our model continusly shape their environment, which in turn feeds back to spatiotemporal dynamics of the microbial community. In order to test the effect of microbial functional traits and organic matter input rate on soil organic matter turnover and C and N storage, we ran the model into steady state using continuous inputs of fresh organic material. Surprisingly, certain parameter settings that induce resource limitation of microbes lead to regular spatial pattern formation (f.e. moving spiral waves) of microbes and substrate at the μm-scale at steady-state. The occurrence of these

  14. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochem...

  15. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochem...

  16. Heat-induced aggregation of thylakoid membranes affect their interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Östbring, Karolina; Rayner, Marilyn; Albertsson, Per-Åke; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Many of our most popular lipid containing foods are in emulsion form. These foods are often highly palatable with high caloric density, that subsequently increases the risk of overconsumption and possibly lead to obesity. Regulating the lipid bioavailability of high-fat foods is one approach to prevent overconsumption. Thylakoids, the chloroplast membrane, creates a barrier around lipid droplets, which prolong lipolysis and increase satiety as demonstrated both in animal and human studies. However, a reduced lipase inhibiting capacity has been reported after heat treatment but the mechanism has not yet been fully established. The aim of this study was to investigate thylakoids' emulsifying properties post heat-treatment and possible links to alterations in lipase inhibiting capacity and chlorophyll degradation. Heat-treatment of thylakoids at either 60 °C, 75 °C or 90 °C for time interval ranging from 15 s to 4 min reduced ability to stabilise emulsions, having increased lipid droplets sizes, reduced emulsification capacity, and elevated surface load as consequence. Emulsifying properties were also found to display a linear relationship to both chlorophyll and lipase inhibiting capacity. The correlations support the hypothesis that heat-treatment induce chlorophyll degradation which promote aggregation within proteins inside the thylakoid membrane known to play a decisive role in interfacial processes. Therefore, heat-treatment of thylakoids affects both chlorophyll content, lipase inhibiting capacity and ability to stabilise the oil-water interface. Since the thylakoid's appetite reducing properties are a surface-related phenomenon, the results are useful to optimize the effect of thylakoids as an appetite reducing agent.

  17. Geologic and societal factors affecting the international oceanic transport of aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregate, and together comprise approximately half the volume and tonnage of mined material in the United States. Natural aggregate is a bulky, heavy material without special or unique properties, and it is commonly used near its source of production to minimize haulage cost. However, remoteness is no longer an absolute disqualifier for the production of aggregate. Today interstate aggregate routinely is shipped hundreds of kilometers by rail and barge. In addition, during 1992, the United States imported 1,317,000 metric tons of aggregate from Canada and 1,531,000 metric tons from Mexico. A number of ports on the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States receive imports of crushed stone from foreign sources for transport to various parts of the eastern United States. These areas either lack adequate supplies of aggregate or are augmenting their supplies because they have difficulties meeting current demand. These difficulties may include poor stone quality, environmental permitting problems, or transportation. Certain societal and geologic conditions of New York City and Philadelphia along the Atlantic Coast, and Tampa and New Orleans along the Gulf Coast, are discussed to demonstrate the different combinations of issues that contribute to the economic viability of importing crushed stone. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  18. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Case, S D C; Jensen, L S

    2016-03-01

    The combined effects of pig slurry acidification, subsequent separation techniques and biochar production from the solid fraction on N mineralisation and N2O and CO2 emissions in soil were investigated in an incubation experiment. Acidification of pig slurry increased N availability from the separated solid fractions in soil, but did not affect N2O and CO2 emissions. However acidification reduced soil N and C turnover from the liquid fraction. The use of more advanced separation techniques (flocculation and drainage > decanting centrifuge > screw press) increased N mineralisation from acidified solid fractions, but also increased N2O and CO2 emissions in soil amended with the liquid fraction. Finally, the biochar production from the solid fraction of pig slurry resulted in a very recalcitrant material, which reduced N and C mineralisation in soil compared to the raw solid fractions.

  19. Hydrophilic linkers and polar contacts affect aggregation of FG repeat peptides.

    PubMed

    Dölker, Nicole; Zachariae, Ulrich; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2010-06-02

    Transport of large proteins into the nucleus involves two events, binding of the cargo protein to a transport receptor in the cytoplasm and passage of the cargo-transporter complex through the selective permeability barrier of the nuclear pore complex. The permeability barrier is formed by largely disordered polypeptides, each containing a number of conserved hydrophobic phenylalanine-glycine (FG) sequence motifs, connected by hydrophilic linkers of varying sequence (FG nups). How the motifs interact to form the permeability barrier, however, is not yet known. We have, therefore, carried out molecular dynamics simulations on various model FG repeat peptides to study the aggregation propensity of FG nups and the specific roles of the hydrophobic FG motifs and the hydrophilic linkers. Our simulations show spontaneous aggregation of the model nups into hydrated aggregates, which exhibit structural features assumed to be part of the permeability barrier. Our simulations suggest that short beta-sheets are an important structural feature of the aggregates and that Phe residues are sufficiently exposed to allow rapid binding of transport receptors. A surprisingly large influence of the amino acid composition of the hydrophilic linkers on aggregation is seen, as well as a major contribution of hydrogen-bonding patterns. Copyright (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of aggregate stability and soil organic C distribution as affected by climatic aggressiveness: a mesocosm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Sergio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Costanza Andrenelli, Maria; Barbetti, Roberto; Castelli, Fabio; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Tomozeiu, Rodica; Razzaghi, Somayyeh; Vignozzi, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    changed at the end of the trial, depending of soil types. In CAS and MED a decrease of C content was observed in fractions larger than 0.250 mm, while an accumulation occurred only in CAS microaggregates. BOV showed a singular pattern, with an increase of organic C in all fractions. In this site an improvement of aggregation, involving the coarser fractions, seems to have been favoured during the experiment. Overall, the imposed climate did not affect significantly these trends, except in CAS, where TYP and SIM climates showed an increase of macroaggregates and their C concentration. Soil pedoclimatic characteristics showed to be the main factors affecting C and aggregates dynamics in this mesocosm experiment.

  1. Factors that affect the nearshore aggregations of Antarctic krill in a biological hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Kim S.; Cimino, Megan; Fraser, William; Kohut, Josh; Oliver, Matthew J.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna; Schofield, Oscar M. E.; Statscewich, Hank; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Winsor, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, is a highly abundant and ecologically important zooplankton species in the Southern Ocean. Regions of elevated Antarctic krill biomass exist around Antarctica, often as a result of the concentrating effect of bathymetry and ocean currents. Such areas are considered biological hotspots and are key foraging grounds for numerous top predators in the region. A hotspot of Antarctic krill biomass exists off the southern extent of Anvers Island, Western Antarctic Peninsula, and supports a population of Adélie penguins that feed almost exclusively on it, as well as numerous other top predators. We investigated the spatio-temporal variability in Antarctic krill biomass and aggregation structure over four consecutive summer seasons, identifying environmental factors that were responsible. We identified three distinct krill aggregation types (Large-dense, Small-close and Small-sparse), and found that the relative proportion of each type to total aggregation numbers varied significantly between survey days. Large-dense aggregations occurred more frequently when westerly winds predominated and when the local mixed tide was in the diurnal regime. Small-close aggregations were also more frequent during diurnal tides and were negatively correlated with phytoplankton biomass. Small-sparse aggregations, on the other hand, were more prevalent when the mixed tide was in the semi-diurnal phase. We suggest that, under certain conditions (i.e. diurnal tides and westerly winds), the biological hotspot in the nearshore waters off Palmer Station, Anvers Island, functions as a zone of accumulation, concentrating krill biomass. Our findings provide important information on the dynamics of Antarctic krill at the local scale.

  2. Stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates affected by application of apatite, lime, and charcoal.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongbiao; Ma, Kaiqiang; Fan, Yuchao; Peng, Xinhua; Mao, Jingdong; Zhou, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhongbin; Zhou, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates after soil treatments to reduce the availability of heavy metals. In this study, apatite (22.3 t ha(-1)), lime (4.45 t ha(-1)), and charcoal (66.8 t ha(-1)) were applied to a heavy metal-contaminated soil for 4 years. The stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates were investigated by dry and wet sieving. No significant change in the dry mean weight diameter was observed in any treatments. Compared with the control, three-amendment treatments significantly increased the wet mean weight diameter, but only charcoal treatment significantly increased the wet aggregate stability. The soil treatments increased the content of soil organic carbon, and the fraction 0.25-2 mm contained the highest content of soil organic carbon. Amendments' application slightly increased soil total Cu and Cd, but decreased the concentrations of CaCl2 -extractable Cu and Cd except for the fraction <0.053 mm. The fractions >2 and 0.25-2 mm contained the highest concentrations of CaCl2-extractable Cu and Cd, accounted for about 74.5-86.8 % of CaCl2-extractable Cu and Cd in soil. The results indicated that amendments' application increased the wet soil aggregate stability and decreased the available Cu and Cd. The distribution of available heavy metals in wet soil aggregates was not controlled by soil aggregate stability, but possibly by soil organic carbon.

  3. Does the magnetic field of a magnetic stirrer in an optical aggregometer affect concurrent platelet aggregation?

    PubMed

    Sagdilek, Engin; Sebik, Oguz; Celebi, Gurbuz

    2013-07-01

    Platelets are subjected to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields during standard aggregometry measurements owing to the use of a magnetic stir bar in the instrument. This study evaluates the effects of this magnetic field exposure on platelet aggregation by comparing the results obtained in a modified aggregometer. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were anticoagulated using citrate or heparin. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) samples were prepared. A mechanical stirring device was attached to the aggregometer instead of the magnetic stir bar system. The PRP samples were stirred using a stirring rod tip that did not produce any magnetic fields in one channel of the aggregometer; in the other channel, a stirring rod carrying a small magnet at its tip was used. As a result, a magnetic field in the extremely low frequency range and in the amplitude range of 1.9-65 mT was applied to the platelets assigned to the channel where the magnetic stirring rod tip was used. Aggregation was induced using adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, or epinephrine. The slopes, maximum aggregation values, and areas under the aggregation curves were compared between the magnetic and neutral stirring rod tip groups. For samples stirred with the magnetic stirring rod tip, a significant decrease was observed in 12 of the 14 parameters evaluated for aggregations induced with ADP or collagen compared to the neutral stirring rod tip, regardless of the method used for anticoagulation. This observation indicates that the magnetic stir bars used in standard aggregometry may significantly alter aggregation parameters and platelets may be possible targets of electromagnetic fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Primary particle size distribution of eroded material affected by degree of aggregate slaking and seal development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Primary particle size distribution (PSD) of eroded sediments can be used to estimate potential nutrient losses from soil and pollution hazards to the environment. We studied eroded sediment PSDs from three saturated soils, packed in trays (20 x 40 x 4 cm), that had undergone either minimal aggregate...

  5. Environmental factors affecting twitching motility, biofilm development, and aggregation by Xylella fastidiosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes many important plant diseases in different crops such as citrus, grapes, almond and coffee. While disease symptoms expressed by this pathogen are not completely understood, it is widely accepted that blockage of xylem vessels by aggregates of the bact...

  6. Does the Level of Occupational Aggregation Affect Estimates of the Gender Wage Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Using data from the 1989 Canadian Labour-Market Activity Survey, when occupation is treated as a productivity-related characteristic, gender wage gap estimates are distorted. Using a larger number of occupations, the occupational aggregation by gender reflects barriers women face in attempting to enter male-dominated occupations. (SK)

  7. In vivo aggregation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin is affected by Cys at position 121.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Gaetano; Annoni, Emanuele; Natalello, Antonino; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Lotti, Marina

    2008-11-01

    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) has been widely used as a model system to study protein folding and aggregation and for biotechnology applications. Native BLG contains two disulfide bonds and one free cysteine at position 121. This free thiol group has been shown to be responsible for the irreversibility of BLG denaturation in vitro, but nothing is known about its relevance during protein folding inside the cell. Here, we report the expression of soluble wild type recombinant BGL in Escherichia coli cells at about 109 mg rBLG/g wet weight cells and a comparison between the aggregation of wt BLG and its variant C121S upon intracellular expression. We show that in E. coli C121SBLG is more prone to aggregation than the wild type protein and that their different behavior depends on the oxidation of disulfide bonds. Our results underline the key contribution of the unpaired cysteine residue during the oxidative folding pathway and indicate BLG as a useful tool for the study of protein aggregation in vivo.

  8. The inability of tegaserod to affect platelet aggregation and coronary artery tone at supratherapeutic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Deborah L; Ero, Mike P; Loeb, Michelle; Kersey, Kathryn; Hopkins, Alan; Beattie, David T

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the results from a meta analysis of 29 clinical studies indicated that tegaserod (Zelnorm®), a 5-hydroxytryptamine(4) (5-HT(4)) receptor agonist with gastrointestinal prokinetic activity, was associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular ischemic events, resulting in its withdrawal from many markets around the world. Stimulation of platelet aggregation has been proposed to explain the phenomenon. However, data from recent epidemiological studies have suggested that there is no correlation between tegaserod use and the incidence of cardiovascular ischemia. In this study, the influence of tegaserod, at concentrations up to tenfold higher than the total plasma C (max) for the 6 mg clinical dose, has been investigated on platelet aggregation under standard conditions with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained from healthy human subjects. Additionally, the influence of tegaserod on coronary artery tone was evaluated as an alternative pro-ischemic mechanism. The positive control, thrombopoietin, but not tegaserod, demonstrated a statistically significant increase in platelet aggregation using the same PRP samples with either adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or ADP plus 5-HT as an aggregation agonist. Tegaserod had no contractile activity in either porcine or human isolated coronary artery preparations, and only a small and variable response in canine coronary arteries at concentrations higher than those achieved clinically. Taken together, these studies do not identify a mechanism for the ischemic events that have been attributed to tegaserod in humans.

  9. Aggregation of adverse behaviors and its affecting factors among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Der-Min; Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Lai, Hsiang-Ru

    2007-06-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of the aggregation in common lifestyle habits, namely, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel-nut chewing and the demographic correlates of individual aggregation in these lifestyle behaviors among young military conscripts in Taiwan. Cross-sectional screening was conducted among conscripts in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan from Aug. 1st to Dec. 31st 2001. Totally, 3913 conscripts who had more than 1 month of service were included in this multistage sampling study. Information on smoking, drinking, and betel-nut chewing habits were ascertained as part of a self-administered questionnaire completed by examinees at the service unit. Aggregation in lifestyle habits was studied by comparing the observed and expected proportions (O/E ratio) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for zero, one, two, and three simultaneously occurring lifestyle habits. The study results showed a significant clustering of lifestyle habits studied; the number of subjects was greater than expected in groups with two (for cigarette smoking and betel-nut chewing, O/E ratio=1.17, 95%CI=1.06-1.28), and three (O/E ratio=5.63, 95%CI=5.06-6.20) lifestyle habits. Determinants for this clustering of lifestyle habits included lower educational levels and residential area in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan. There was a significant individual aggregation in lifestyle habits including cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel-nut chewing in the health survey among young military conscripts. In addition, young military conscripts with low educational levels and residential area in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan had an apparent tendency toward the aggregation in these lifestyle habits.

  10. Leucine supplementation does not affect protein turnover and impairs the beneficial effects of endurance training on glucose homeostasis in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Costa Júnior, José M; Rosa, Morgana R; Protzek, André O; de Paula, Flávia M; Ferreira, Sandra M; Rezende, Luiz F; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Zoppi, Cláudio C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Boschero, Antonio C; de Oliveira, Camila A M; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2015-04-01

    Endurance exercise training as well as leucine supplementation modulates glucose homeostasis and protein turnover in mammals. Here, we analyze whether leucine supplementation alters the effects of endurance exercise on these parameters in healthy mice. Mice were distributed into sedentary (C) and exercise (T) groups. The exercise group performed a 12-week swimming protocol. Half of the C and T mice, designated as the CL and TL groups, were supplemented with leucine (1.5 % dissolved in the drinking water) throughout the experiment. As well known, endurance exercise training reduced body weight and the retroperitoneal fat pad, increased soleus mass, increased VO2max, decreased muscle proteolysis, and ameliorated peripheral insulin sensitivity. Leucine supplementation had no effect on any of these parameters and worsened glucose tolerance in both CL and TL mice. In the soleus muscle of the T group, AS-160(Thr-642) (AKT substrate of 160 kDa) and AMPK(Thr-172) (AMP-Activated Protein Kinase) phosphorylation was increased by exercise in both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions, but it was reduced in TL mice with insulin stimulation compared with the T group. Akt phosphorylation was not affected by exercise but was lower in the CL group compared with the other groups. Leucine supplementation increased mTOR phosphorylation at basal conditions, whereas exercise reduced it in the presence of insulin, despite no alterations in protein synthesis. In trained groups, the total FoxO3a protein content and the mRNA for the specific isoforms E2 and E3 ligases were reduced. In conclusion, leucine supplementation did not potentiate the effects of endurance training on protein turnover, and it also reduced its positive effects on glucose homeostasis.

  11. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban do not affect AA- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in patients receiving concomitant platelet inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Christoph B; Weik, Patrick; Meyer, Melanie; Weber, Susanne; Diehl, Philipp; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Zhou, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are novel, vitamin K-independent oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and act via antagonism of the coagulation factor (F) IIa (dabigatran) or FXa (rivaroxaban), respectively. Compared to vitamin-K-antagonists, NOACs have shown non-inferiority of risk and benefit in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). In clinical practice there is increasing use of NOACs combined with platelet inhibitors in patients with AF and coronary artery disease. However, whether NOACs affect the function of platelet inhibitors remains incompletely known. This observational study aimed to assess the platelet function in patients receiving dabigatran or rivaroxaban and concomitant platelet inhibitors. A single centre observational study was performed analysing the platelet aggregation of patients treated with dabigatran or rivaroxaban with or without concomitant platelet inhibitors. Measurements before the initiation of NOAC therapy served as the respective control group. Platelet aggregation was measured by multiple electrode aggregometry and was induced with adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 6.5 µM) and arachidonic acid (AA, 0.5 mM), respectively. In order to evaluate whether NOACs interact with platelet inhibition by ASA or the P2Y12-antagonist clopidogrel, 87 patients were grouped according to their concomitant antiplatelet medication. Comparing the ADP- and AA-induced platelet aggregation in patients without concomitant platelet inhibitors (n = 45) no significant differences under therapy with dabigatran (d) or rivaroxaban (r) compared to the control group (c) were observed. In patients taking clopidogrel as a concomitant platelet inhibitor (n = 21), neither dabigatran nor rivaroxaban affected the ADP-induced platelet aggregation (c 20 ± 11, d 21 ± 14, r 18 ± 8 AU*min, p = 0.200). Patients receiving dabigatran or rivaroxaban in combination with ASA (n = 42; 21 ASA only, 21 ASA + clopidogrel) showed no significant differences of the AA

  12. The pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloid Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xing-li; Su, Wen; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue-hu; Ming, Xin; Kong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Psm2, one of the pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids isolated from whole Selaginella moellendorffii plants, has shown a potent antiplatelet activity. In this study, we further evaluated the antiplatelet effects of Psm2, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human platelet aggregation in vitro and rat platelet aggregation ex vivo were investigated. Agonist-induced platelet aggregation was measured using a light transmission aggregometer. The antithrombotic effects of Psm2 were evaluated in arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiplatelet activity of Psm2, ELISAs, Western blotting and molecular docking were performed. The bleeding risk of Psm2 administration was assessed in a mouse tail cutting model, and the cytotoxicity of Psm2 was measured with MTT assay in EA.hy926 cells. Results: Psm2 dose-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, U4619, thrombin and collagen with IC50 values of 0.64, 0.37, 0.35 and 0.87 mg/mL, respectively. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) administered to rats significantly inhibited platelet aggregation ex vivo induced by ADP. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/mL, iv) administered to rats with the A–V shunt dose-dependently decreased the thrombus formation. Psm2 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and collagen with IC50 values of 84.5 and 96.5 mg/mL, respectively, but did not affect the binding of fibrinogen to GPIIb/IIIa. Furthermore, Psm2 inhibited AktSer473 phosphorylation, but did not affect MAPK signaling and Src kinase activation. Molecular docking showed that Psm2 bound to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase β (PI3Kβ) with a binding free energy of −13.265 kcal/mol. In addition, Psm2 did not cause toxicity in EA.hy926 cells and produced only slight bleeding in a mouse tail cutting model. Conclusion: Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling. Psm2 may be a lead compound or drug candidate that could be developed for the

  13. Factors affecting crystallization, dispersion, and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate in various urinary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmas, Kimberly Gail

    The mechanisms for the formation of kidney stones are not well understood. One possible mechanism is the formation of aggregates in the nephron tubules of the kidneys. However, altering the urinary environment may be a method to help prevent the recurrence of the formation of kidney stones. The primary inorganic constituent found in kidney stones of North American patients is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In this research, studies on the effect of mixing rate on COM precipitation showed that rapid mixing compared to slow mixing produced smaller particle sizes and a narrower particle size distribution due to the more uniform supersaturation level. The findings are consistent with the general contention that mixing directly influences nucleation rate while mixing rate has relatively little influence over rate of growth in precipitation processes. Screening and central composite experimental designs are used to determine the effect of various factors on the aggregation and dispersion characteristics of previously grown calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in artificial urinary environments of controlled variables. The variables examined are pH, calcium, oxalate, pyrophosphate, citrate, and protein concentrations in ultrapure water and artificial urine. Optical density measurements, zeta potential analysis, particle size analyzer, optical microscopy, AFM force measurements, protein adsorption, and ions and small molecule adsorption have been used to assess the state of aggregation and dispersion of the COM crystals and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a complex system. The data indicate that our model protein, mucin, acts as a dispersant. This is attributed to steric hindrance resulting from the adsorbed mucoprotein. Oxalate, however, promotes aggregation. Interesting interactions between protein and oxalate along with protein and citrate are observed. Such interactions (synergistic or antagonistic) are found to depend on the concentrations of

  14. Colloidal Aggregation Affects the Efficacy of Anticancer Drugs in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many small molecules, including bioactive molecules and approved drugs, spontaneously form colloidal aggregates in aqueous solution at micromolar concentrations. Though it is widely accepted that aggregation leads to artifacts in screens for ligands of soluble proteins, the effects of colloid formation in cell-based assays have not been studied. Here, seven anticancer drugs and one diagnostic reagent were found to form colloids in both biochemical buffer and in cell culture media. In cell-based assays, the antiproliferative activities of three of the drugs were substantially reduced when in colloidal form as compared to monomeric form; a new formulation method ensured the presence of drug colloids versus drug monomers in solution. We also found that Evans Blue, a dye classically used to measure vascular permeability and to demonstrate the “enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect” in solid tumors, forms colloids that adsorb albumin, as opposed to older literature that suggested the reverse. PMID:22625864

  15. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kini, R. Manjunatha; Koh, Cho Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. PMID:27690102

  16. Viscosity affected by nanoparticle aggregation in Al2O3-water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fei; Kwek, Dingtian; Crivoi, Alexandru

    2011-03-22

    An investigation on viscosity was conducted 2 weeks after the Al2O3-water nanofluids having dispersants were prepared at the volume concentration of 1-5%. The shear stress was observed with a non-Newtonian behavior. On further ultrasonic agitation treatment, the nanofluids resumed as a Newtonian fluids. The relative viscosity increases as the volume concentrations increases. At 5% volume concentration, an increment was about 60% in the re-ultrasonication nanofluids in comparison with the base fluid. The microstructure analysis indicates that a higher nanoparticle aggregation had been observed in the nanofluids before re-ultrasonication.

  17. A literature review of nursing turnover costs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Jones, Cheryl B

    2013-04-01

    To report the findings of a literature review of studies examining nursing staff turnover costs published between 1990 and 2010. Nurse turnover is a global concern that is both costly for health-care organizations and, in the context of the work environment, affects quality and safety. We reviewed past literature and describe the conceptualization of nurse turnover, evaluate the methodologies and calculation of costs, identify the reported range of turnover costs and provide suggestions for future study. We report inconsistencies in past studies in terms of the conceptualization and measurement of nurse turnover and turnover rates, the methodologies for gathering data and the data sources used, the approaches for calculating turnover costs and the resulting nursing staff turnover costs estimated. Past studies reached different conclusions about nurse turnover. We still need to explore the actual costs and benefits of nurse turnover and retention. This study should be helpful for nurse executives as they build a business case to address nurse turnover in their organizations, and for policy-makers as they develop policies about turnover. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate turnover in Azorhizobium caulinodans is required for growth and affects nifA expression.

    PubMed

    Mandon, K; Michel-Reydellet, N; Encarnación, S; Kaminski, P A; Leija, A; Cevallos, M A; Elmerich, C; Mora, J

    1998-10-01

    Azorhizobium caulinodans is able to fix nitrogen in the free-living state and in symbiosis with the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. The bacteria accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) under both conditions. The structural gene for PHB synthase, phbC, was inactivated by insertion of an interposon. The mutant strains obtained were devoid of PHB, impaired in their growth properties, totally devoid of nitrogenase activity ex planta (Nif-), and affected in nucleotide pools and induced Fix- nodules devoid of bacteria. The Nif- phenotype was the consequence of the lack of nifA transcription. Nitrogenase activity was partially restored to a phbC mutant by constitutive expression of the nifA gene. However, this constitutive nifA expression had no effect on the nucleotide content or on growth of the phbC mutant. It is suggested that PHB is required for maintaining the reducing power of the cell and therefore the bacterial growth. These observations also suggest a new control of nifA expression to adapt nitrogen fixation to the availability of carbon and reducing equivalents.

  19. Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate Turnover in Azorhizobium caulinodans Is Required for Growth and Affects nifA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mandon, Karine; Michel-Reydellet, Nathalie; Encarnación, Sergio; Kaminski, P. Alexandre; Leija, Alfonso; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Elmerich, Claudine; Mora, Jaime

    1998-01-01

    Azorhizobium caulinodans is able to fix nitrogen in the free-living state and in symbiosis with the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. The bacteria accumulate poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) under both conditions. The structural gene for PHB synthase, phbC, was inactivated by insertion of an interposon. The mutant strains obtained were devoid of PHB, impaired in their growth properties, totally devoid of nitrogenase activity ex planta (Nif−), and affected in nucleotide pools and induced Fix− nodules devoid of bacteria. The Nif− phenotype was the consequence of the lack of nifA transcription. Nitrogenase activity was partially restored to a phbC mutant by constitutive expression of the nifA gene. However, this constitutive nifA expression had no effect on the nucleotide content or on growth of the phbC mutant. It is suggested that PHB is required for maintaining the reducing power of the cell and therefore the bacterial growth. These observations also suggest a new control of nifA expression to adapt nitrogen fixation to the availability of carbon and reducing equivalents. PMID:9748438

  20. The molecular mass of dextran used to modify magnetite nanoparticles affects insulin amyloid aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siposova, Katarina; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Safarik, Ivo; Safarikova, Mirka; Kubovcikova, Martina; Kopcansky, Peter; Gazova, Zuzana

    2017-04-01

    Protein transformation from its soluble state into amyloid aggregates is associated with amyloid-related diseases. Amyloid deposits of insulin fibrils have been found in the sites of subcutaneous insulin application in patients with prolonged diabetes. Using atomic force microscopy and ThT fluorescence assay we have investigated the interference of insulin amyloid aggregation with superparamagnetic Fe3O4-based nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with dextran (DEX); molecular mass of dextran was equal to 15-20, 40 or 70 kDa. The obtained data indicate that all three types of dextran coated nanoparticles (NP-FeDEXs) are able to inhibit insulin fibrillization and to destroy amyloid fibrils. The extent of anti-amyloid activities depends on the properties of NP-FeDEXs, mainly on the size of nanoparticles which is determined by molecular mass of dextran molecules. The most effective inhibiting activity was observed for the smallest nanoparticles coated with 15-20 kDa dextran. Contrary, the highest destroying activity was observed for the largest NP-FeDEX (70 kDa dextran).

  1. Identification of Structural Features of Condensed Tannins That Affect Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ropiak, Honorata M.; Lachmann, Peter; Ramsay, Aina; Green, Rebecca J.; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2017-01-01

    A diverse panel of condensed tannins was used to resolve the confounding effects of size and subunit composition seen previously in tannin-protein interactions. Turbidimetry revealed that size in terms of mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) or average molecular weight (amw) was the most important tannin parameter. The smallest tannin with the relatively largest effect on protein aggregation had an mDP of ~7. The average size was significantly correlated with aggregation of bovine serum albumin, BSA (mDP: r = -0.916; amw: r = -0.925; p<0.01; df = 27), and gelatin (mDP: r = -0.961; amw: r = -0.981; p<0.01; df = 12). The procyanidin/prodelphinidin and cis-/trans-flavan-3-ol ratios gave no significant correlations. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching indicated that procyanidins and cis-flavan-3-ol units contributed most to the tannin interactions on the BSA surface and in the hydrophobic binding pocket (r = 0.677; p<0.05; df = 9 and r = 0.887; p<0.01; df = 9, respectively). Circular dichroism revealed that higher proportions of prodelphinidins decreased the apparent α-helix content (r = -0.941; p<0.01; df = 5) and increased the apparent β-sheet content (r = 0.916; p<0.05; df = 5) of BSA. PMID:28125657

  2. Indole affects the formation of multicellular aggregate structures in Pantoea agglomerans YS19.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuemei; Jiang, Jing; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Jieru; Shen, Delong; Feng, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans YS19 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rice. As well as having the ability to form a biofilm, as do most bacteria, it is characterized by the formation of a unique multicellular aggregate structure called symplasmata. Indole is traditionally known as a metabolite of the amino acid tryptophan, which, however, has recently been shown to participate in various regulations of bacterial physiological processes, including stress resistance, quorum sensing and biofilm formation. Here, an indole signal was found to promote symplasmata formation, yet inhibit biofilm formation, indicating different regulatory pathways of indole in the construction of the two structures. However, symplasmata showed almost an equivalent stress-resistant capability, as compared with biofilms, for YS19 to confront acids, heavy metals (Cu(2+)), and UV treatments. Moreover, indole was tested to show a promoting effect on exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and an inhibition effect on the expression of an outer membrane protein OmpW. These results provide evidence for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of indole on such multicellular aggregates.

  3. Ica-status of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains affects adhesion and aggregation: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuryastuti, Titik; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2017-06-12

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major nosocomial pathogen associated with infections of indwelling medical devices. One important virulence factor of these organisms is their ability to adhere to devices and form biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the ica operon on cell surface hydrophobicity, thermodynamics of adhesion, and biofilm formation for seven S. epidermidis strains. The surface free energy parameters of the bacterial cell surface and the substratum were determined by contact angle measurement. Biofilm formation was assayed using crystal violet staining. Results showed that ica-positive strains demonstrated a higher hydrophobic characteristic than ica-negative strains, suggesting that the ica-operon seems to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity of S. epidermidis. Interaction of ica-positive strains with a tissue-culture treated polystyrene surface was energetically favourable (ΔG(Tot) < 0), in contrast to ica-negative strains (ΔG(Tot) > 0). The interfacial free energy of aggregation of S. epidermidis was lower for ica-positive than for ica-negative strains. Our study suggests that, in addition to biofilm formation, adhesion and aggregation of clinical S. epidermidis is stimulated in ica-positive strains by influencing the thermodynamics of interaction.

  4. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Dispersion Methods Affect Their Aggregation, Deposition, and Biomarker Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    To systematically evaluate how dispersion methods affect the environmental behaviors of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), MWNTs were dispersed in various solutions (e.g., surfactants, natural organic matter (NOM), and etc.) via ultrasonication (SON) and long-term stirring (LT...

  5. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Dispersion Methods Affect Their Aggregation, Deposition, and Biomarker Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    To systematically evaluate how dispersion methods affect the environmental behaviors of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), MWNTs were dispersed in various solutions (e.g., surfactants, natural organic matter (NOM), and etc.) via ultrasonication (SON) and long-term stirring (LT...

  6. Tripeptide SQL Inhibits Platelet Aggregation and Thrombus Formation by Affecting PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Su, Xing-li; Su, Wen; He, Zhi-long; Ming, Xin; Kong, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Centipede has been prescribed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries for several hundred years. Previously, a new antiplatelet tripeptide SQL (H-Ser-Gln-Leu-OH) was isolated and characterized from centipede. In this study, we investigated its antithrombotic activities in vivo and underlying mechanism. It was found that SQL inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate, thrombin, epinephrine, and collagen and attenuated thrombus formation in both the ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis model and arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats. It did not prolong the bleeding time in mice even at the dose of 10 mg/kg that showed potent antithrombosis effects. Molecular docking revealed that SQL binds PI3Kβ with the binding free energy of -24.341 kcal/mol, which is close to that of cocrystallized ligand (-24.220 kcal/mol). Additionally, SQL displayed inhibition on the late (180 seconds) but did not influence the early (60 seconds) Akt Ser473 phosphorylation in the immunoblot assay. These results suggest that SQL inhibits thrombus formation in vivo and that SQL inhibits PI3K-mediated signaling or even the PI3K itself in platelets. This study may help elucidate the mechanism for centipede treating cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Understanding how the aggregation structure of starch affects its gastrointestinal digestion rate and extent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Wang, Kai; Kuang, Qirong; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Dazheng; Liu, Xingxun

    2016-06-01

    Regulating the starch gastrointestinal digestion rate by control of its aggregation structure is an effective way, but the mechanism is still not clear. Multi-scale structure of waxy and normal wheat starches were studied by confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopes, as well as wide-angle and small-angle X-ray techniques in this study. In vitro digestion kinetics of those two starches and structure-digestion relationship were also discussed. Both waxy and normal starches show A-type diffraction pattern, but waxy variety shows a slightly higher crystallinity. Small-angle X-ray scattering results show that waxy wheat starch has higher scattering peak intensity (Imax) and a larger crystallinity lamellar repeat distance (Lp) compared with the normal wheat starch. We suggested that the higher digestion rate of waxy starch at initial stage is mainly due to more small-size particles, but the higher crystallinity and the larger crystalline lamellar size limit the digestion extent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dragon's Blood extract has antithrombotic properties, affecting platelet aggregation functions and anticoagulation activities.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Li, Yu-Juan; Li, Yan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Schlappi, Michael; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2011-05-17

    Dragon's Blood from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen (Yunnan, China), as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, was shown to have certain antithrombotic effects. A new preparation process was used to extract effective components from Dragon's Blood. A 95% ethanol extract A (EA) and a precipitate B (PB) fraction were obtained and compared. Reliability of the preparation process was validated by pharmacodynamic experiments. A rat/mouse thrombosis and blood stasis model was developed for this study, and EA and PB effects on thrombosis, platelet functions and blood coagulation activities were analyzed. It was observed that the EA fraction had significantly better inhibitory effects than the PB fraction on thrombosis (p<0.05), platelet aggregation function (p<0.01) and anticoagulation activity (p<0.05-0.01). The results obtained here showed that EA fraction from Dragon's Blood contained pharmacologically effective compounds with antithrombotic effects, partially improving platelet function and anticoagulation activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Astrocyte-derived tissue Transglutaminase affects fibronectin deposition, but not aggregation, during cuprizone-induced demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Espitia Pinzon, Nathaly; Sanz-Morello, Berta; Brevé, John J. P.; Bol, John G. J. M.; Drukarch, Benjamin; Bauer, Jan; Baron, Wia; van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Astrogliosis as seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) develops into astroglial scarring, which is beneficial because it seals off the site of central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, astroglial scarring also forms an obstacle that inhibits axon outgrowth and (re)myelination in brain lesions. This is possibly an important cause for incomplete remyelination in the CNS of early stage MS patients and for failure in remyelination when the disease progresses. In this study we address whether under demyelinating conditions in vivo, tissue Transglutaminase (TG2), a Ca2+ -dependent enzyme that catalyses posttranslational modification of proteins, contributes to extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and/or aggregation. We used the cuprizone model for de- and remyelination. TG2 immunoreactivity and enzymatic activity time-dependently appeared in astrocytes and ECM, respectively, in the corpus callosum of cuprizone-treated mice. Enhanced presence of soluble monomeric and multimeric fibronectin was detected during demyelination, and fibronectin immunoreactivity was slightly decreased in cuprizone-treated TG2−/− mice. In vitro TG2 overexpression in astrocytes coincided with more, while knock-down of TG2 with less fibronectin production. TG2 contributes, at least partly, to fibronectin production, and may play a role in fibronectin deposition during cuprizone-induced demyelination. Our observations are of interest in understanding the functional implications of TG2 during astrogliosis. PMID:28128219

  10. In situ characterization of protein aggregates in human tissues affected by light chain amyloidosis: a FTIR microspectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Ami, Diletta; Lavatelli, Francesca; Rognoni, Paola; Palladini, Giovanni; Raimondi, Sara; Giorgetti, Sofia; Monti, Luca; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Natalello, Antonino; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis, caused by deposition of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chains (LCs), is the most common systemic form in industrialized countries. Still open questions, and premises for developing targeted therapies, concern the mechanisms of amyloid formation in vivo and the bases of organ targeting and dysfunction. Investigating amyloid material in its natural environment is crucial to obtain new insights on the molecular features of fibrillar deposits at individual level. To this aim, we used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy for studying in situ unfixed tissues (heart and subcutaneous abdominal fat) from patients affected by AL amyloidosis. We compared the infrared response of affected tissues with that of ex vivo and in vitro fibrils obtained from the pathogenic LC derived from one patient, as well as with that of non amyloid-affected tissues. We demonstrated that the IR marker band of intermolecular β-sheets, typical of protein aggregates, can be detected in situ in LC amyloid-affected tissues, and that FTIR microspectroscopy allows exploring the inter- and intra-sample heterogeneity. We extended the infrared analysis to the characterization of other biomolecules embedded within the amyloid deposits, finding an IR pattern that discloses a possible role of lipids, collagen and glycosaminoglycans in amyloid deposition in vivo. PMID:27373200

  11. Inhalation of Whole Diesel Exhaust but not Gas-Phase Components Affects In Vitro Platelet Aggregation in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Intravascular thrombosis and platelet aggregation are enhanced following exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and other respirable particulate matter; however, the roles of endothelial and circulating mediators on platelet aggregation remain unclear. We hypothesized that ad...

  12. Inhalation of Whole Diesel Exhaust but not Gas-Phase Components Affects In Vitro Platelet Aggregation in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Intravascular thrombosis and platelet aggregation are enhanced following exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and other respirable particulate matter; however, the roles of endothelial and circulating mediators on platelet aggregation remain unclear. We hypothesized that ad...

  13. Military Families' Perceptions of Neighborhood Characteristics Affecting Reintegration: Development of an Aggregate Measure.

    PubMed

    Beehler, Sarah; Ahern, Jennifer; Balmer, Brandi; Kuhlman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the validity and reliability of an Experience of Neighborhood (EON) measure developed to assess neighborhood characteristics that shape reintegration opportunities for returning service members and their families. A total of 91 post-9/11 veterans and spouses completed a survey administered at the Minnesota State Fair. Participants self-reported on their reintegration status (veterans), social functioning (spouses), social support, and mental health. EON factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and validity (discriminant, content, criterion) were analyzed. The EON measure showed adequate reliability, discriminant validity, and content validity. More work is needed to assess criterion validity because EON scores were not correlated with scores on a Census-based index used to measure quality of military neighborhoods. The EON may be useful in assessing broad local factors influencing health among returning veterans and spouses. More research is needed to understand geographic variation in neighborhood conditions and how those affect reintegration and mental health for military families.

  14. Military Families’ Perceptions of Neighborhood Characteristics Affecting Reintegration: Development of an Aggregate Measure

    PubMed Central

    Beehler, Sarah; Ahern, Jennifer; Balmer, Brandi; Kuhlman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the validity and reliability of an Experience of Neighborhood (EON) measure developed to assess neighborhood characteristics that shape reintegration opportunities for returning service members and their families. A total of 91 post-9/11 veterans and spouses completed a survey administered at the Minnesota State Fair. Participants self-reported on their reintegration status (veterans), social functioning (spouses), social support, and mental health. EON factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and validity (discriminant, content, criterion) were analyzed. The EON measure showed adequate reliability, discriminant validity, and content validity. More work is needed to assess criterion validity because EON scores were not correlated with scores on a Census-based index used to measure quality of military neighborhoods. The EON may be useful in assessing broad local factors influencing health among returning veterans and spouses. More research is needed to understand geographic variation in neighborhood conditions and how those affect reintegration and mental health for military families. PMID:28936370

  15. Employee Turnover: Evidence from a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of employee turnover from a medium-sized law firm in Australia were examined in regard to theories of worker mobility (matching, sectoral shift, and incentive). Results support a role for matching effects, but personnel practices affect the timing of turnover. Matching and incentive-based theories do not explain the high rates of turnover…

  16. Long-term elevation of temperature affects organic N turnover and associated N2O emissions in a permanent grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen-Willems, Anne B.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Clough, Timothy J.; Andresen, Louise C.; Müller, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Over the last century an increase in mean soil surface temperature has been observed, and it is predicted to increase further in the future. In order to evaluate the legacy effects of increased temperature on both nitrogen (N) transformation rates in the soil and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, an incubation experiment and modelling approaches were combined. Based on previous observations that gross N transformations in soils are affected by long-term elevated-temperature treatments we hypothesized that any associated effects on gaseous N emissions (e.g. N2O) can be confirmed by a change in the relative emission rates from various pathways. Soils were taken from a long-term in situ warming experiment on temperate permanent grassland. In this experiment the soil temperature was elevated by 0 (control), 1, 2 or 3 °C (four replicates per treatment) using IR (infrared) lamps over a period of 6 years. The soil was subsequently incubated under common conditions (20 °C and 50 % humidity) and labelled as NO315NH4 Gly, 15NO3NH4 Gly or NO3NH4 15N-Gly. Soil extractions and N2O emissions were analysed using a 15N tracing model and source-partitioning model. Both total inorganic N (NO3- + NH4+) and NO3- contents were higher in soil subjected to the +2 and +3 °C temperature elevations (pre- and post-incubation). Analyses of N transformations using a 15N tracing model showed that, following incubation, gross organic (but not inorganic) N transformation rates decreased in response to the prior soil warming treatment. This was also reflected in reduced N2O emissions associated with organic N oxidation and denitrification. Furthermore, a newly developed source-partitioning model showed the importance of oxidation of organic N as a source of N2O. In conclusion, long-term soil warming can cause a legacy effect which diminishes organic N turnover and the release of N2O from organic N and denitrification.

  17. Optimization and influence of parameter affecting the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate: using full factorial design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Thulasirajan; Purushothaman, Revathi

    2017-07-01

    There are several parameters that influence the properties of geopolymer concrete, which contains recycled concrete aggregate as the coarse aggregate. In the present study, the vital parameters affecting the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate are analyzedby varying four parameters with two levels using full factorial design in statistical software Minitab® 17. The objective of the present work is to gain an idea on the optimization, main parameter effects, their interactions and the predicted response of the model generated using factorial design. The parameters such as molarity of sodium hydroxide (8M and 12M), curing time (6hrs and 24 hrs), curing temperature (60°C and 90°C) and percentage of recycled concrete aggregate (0% and 100%) are considered. The results show that the curing time, molarity of sodium hydroxide and curing temperature were the orderly significant parameters and the percentage of Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was statistically insignificant in the production of geopolymer concrete. Thus, it may be noticeable that the RCA content had negligible effect on the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. The expected responses from the generated model showed a satisfactory and rational agreement to the experimental data with the R2 value of 97.70%. Thus, geopolymer concrete comprising recycled concrete aggregate can solve the major social and environmental concerns such as the depletion of the naturally available aggregate sources and disposal of construction and demolition waste into the landfill.

  18. Nitrogen Stress Affects the Turnover and Size of Nitrogen Pools Supplying Leaf Growth in a Grass1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Wild, Melanie; Schnyder, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) stress on the pool system supplying currently assimilated and (re)mobilized N for leaf growth of a grass was explored by dynamic 15N labeling, assessment of total and labeled N import into leaf growth zones, and compartmental analysis of the label import data. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants, grown with low or high levels of N fertilization, were labeled with 15NO3−/14NO3− from 2 h to more than 20 d. In both treatments, the tracer time course in N imported into the growth zones fitted a two-pool model (r2 > 0.99). This consisted of a “substrate pool,” which received N from current uptake and supplied the growth zone, and a recycling/mobilizing “store,” which exchanged with the substrate pool. N deficiency halved the leaf elongation rate, decreased N import into the growth zone, lengthened the delay between tracer uptake and its arrival in the growth zone (2.2 h versus 0.9 h), slowed the turnover of the substrate pool (half-life of 3.2 h versus 0.6 h), and increased its size (12.4 μg versus 5.9 μg). The store contained the equivalent of approximately 10 times (low N) and approximately five times (high N) the total daily N import into the growth zone. Its turnover agreed with that of protein turnover. Remarkably, the relative contribution of mobilization to leaf growth was large and similar (approximately 45%) in both treatments. We conclude that turnover and size of the substrate pool are related to the sink strength of the growth zone, whereas the contribution of the store is influenced by partitioning between sinks. PMID:23757403

  19. Global skeletal uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (GSU) in patients affected by endocrine diseases: comparison with biochemical markers of bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Scillitani, A; Dicembrino, F; Chiodini, I; Minisola, S; Fusilli, S; Di Giorgio, A; Garrubba, M; D'Aloiso, L; Frusciante, V; Torlontano, M; Modoni, S; Trischitta, V; Trischitta, V; Carnevale, V

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed to clinically validate the global skeletal uptake (GSU) of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP), and to compare it with a marker of bone formation (i.e. serum osteocalcin or OC) and an index of bone resorption (i.e. urinary deoxypyridinoline or U-DPD) in different endocrine disorders affecting the skeleton. We studied 29 female patients with thyrotoxicosis (TT), 27 with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 16 with acromegaly (AC), 15 with Cushing's syndrome (CS), and altogether 110 healthy women matched for age, BMI and menstrual status. In all subjects total body digital scan images (TBDS) were acquired at 5 min and at 4 h after the administration of (99m)Tc-MDP; the whole body retention (WBR) of the tracer was measured by counting two identical sets of rectangular ROIs, and GSU was subsequently calculated by drawing an irregular ROI on 4 h TBDS images. Serum OC was assessed by IRMA and urinary DPD by fluorometric detection after reverse phase high pressure chromatography. In TT patients GSU (40.0 +/- 5.1 vs 36.5 +/- 4.8%), OC (19.1 +/- 11.8 vs 7.1 +/- 2.9 microg/l) and U-DPD (62.4 +/- 42.7 vs 19.5 +/- 5.3 pmol/pmol) were significantly ( p<0.01) higher than in controls. PHPT patients showed GSU (47.2 +/- 6.6 vs 37.8 +/- 5.3%), OC (38.6 +/- 40.9 vs 8.2 +/- 2.5 microg/l), and U-DPD (55.0 +/- 51.3 vs 21.9 +/- 6.1 pmol/pmol) values significantly ( p<0.001) higher than controls. In CS patients, GSU (39.6 +/- 6.4 vs 32.7 +/- 3.5%; p<0.01) and U-DPD (22.8 +/- 8.4 vs 16.5 +/- 2.7 pmol/pmol; p<0.05) were higher, whereas OC (3.6 +/- 2.4 vs 5.2 +/- 1.9 mg/l; p<0,05) was lower than in controls. In AC patients, GSU (34.9 +/- 5.3 vs 35.2 +/- 3.4%) did not differ significantly from controls, whereas OC (16.8 +/- 8.8 vs 6.9 +/- 2.9 microg/l; p<0.001) and U-DPD (30.9 +/- 13.6 vs 21.0 +/- 5.7 pmol/pmol; p<0.01) were higher. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed with disease activity, creatinine clearance, age, and years since

  20. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures. PMID:26782664

  1. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures.

  2. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) and biomass turnover of soil microbial communities as affected by bedrock, land management and soil temperature and moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qing; Hu, Yuntao; Richter, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Soil microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the proportion of organic C taken up that is allocated to microbial growth, represents an important synthetic representation of microbial community C metabolism that describes the flux partitioning between microbial respiration and growth. Therefore, studying microbial CUE is critical for the understanding of soil C cycling. Microbial CUE is thought to vary with environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and soil moisture). Microbial CUE is thought to decrease with increasing temperature and declining soil moisture, as the latter may trigger stress responses (e.g. the synthesis of stress metabolites), which may consequently lower microbial community CUE. However, these effects on microbial CUE have not been adequately measured so far due to methodological restrictions. The most widely used methods for microbial CUE estimation are based on tracing 13C-labeled substrates into microbial biomass and respiratory CO2, approaches that are known to overestimate microbial CUE of native organic matter in soil. Recently, a novel substrate-independent approach based on the measurement of (i) respiration rates and (ii) the incorporation rates of 18O from labelled water into newly formed microbial DNA has been developed in our laboratory for measuring microbial CUE. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of previously used methods and has already been shown to yield realistic estimations of soil microbial CUE. This approach can also be applied to concurrently measure microbial biomass turnover rates, which also influence the sequestration of soil organic C. Microbial turnover rates are also thought to be impacted by environmental factors, but rarely have been directly measured so far. Here, we aimed at determining the short-term effects of environmental factors (soil temperature and soil moisture) on microbial CUE and microbial biomass turnover rates based on the novel 18O approach. Soils from three land-use types (arable

  3. Predictors of turnover intention in nurse faculty.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Denise K; Kennerly, Susan

    2011-04-01

    Turnover of nurse faculty is an increasingly important issue in nursing as the available number of qualified faculty continues to decrease. Understanding the factors that contribute to turnover is important to academic administrators to retain and recruit qualified nursing faculty. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of turnover intention in nurse faculty working in departments and schools of nursing in Carnegie Doctoral/Research Universities-Extensive, public and private, not-for-profit institutions. The multidimensional model of organizational commitment was used to frame this study. The predictor variables explored were organizational climate, organizational commitment, work role balance, role ambiguity, and role conflict. The work roles examined were research, teaching, and service. Logistical regression was performed to examine the predictors of turnover intention. Organizational climate intimacy and disengagement, affective and continuance organizational commitment, and role ambiguity were shown to predict turnover intention in nurse faculty. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Norplant((R)) implants and progesterone vaginal rings do not affect maternal bone turnover and density during lactation and after weaning.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Reyes, M V; Zepeda, A; González, G B; López, J M; Campino, C; Croxatto, H B

    1999-10-01

    Bone density and turnover was assessed in a longitudinal study of healthy lactating women who initiated use of Norplant((R)) implants (NOR, n = 29), progesterone vaginal rings (PVR, n = 28) or Copper T 380A intrauterine devices (T-Cu, n = 51, control group) around day 60 postpartum. Bone density, serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatases, parathyroid hormone (PTH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), oestradiol and prolactin, and urinary hydroxyproline and creatinine were measured at postpartum months 1 (PM1), and 12 (PM12) and 6 or 12 months after weaning; at month 6 postpartum (PM6) serum and urine tests alone were performed. Baseline characteristics and lactation performance were similar between groups. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were higher at PM1, PM6 and PM12 than after weaning, with no differences between groups. Bone density in the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck at PM1 and PM12 ( approximately 1.11 g/cm(2)) was similar in three groups. Lumbar spine values were found to be lower in lactating women than those present in non-lactating women, but increased after weaning to similar values. The two progestin-only contraceptives studied appear to have no deleterious effect upon bone density and metabolism in healthy lactating women.

  5. Coniston Dam: The rehabiliation of a 50-year-old concrete dam affected by alkali aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.H.; Thomas, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the rehabilitation of the Coniston main dam in Ontario, with particular emphasis on the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) related aspects of the investigation and the influence of these on the design approach adopted, including measures taken to allow for possible future expansion of the original gravity section concrete. The rehabilitation program was primarily undertaken to increase the stability of the gravity sections and log chute which did not meet current dam safety criteria. However, all parts of the structure were found to be affected by AAR and the downstream face of the gravity sections were severely deteriorated due to the combined effects of AAR and freeze-thaw cycles. Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken to determine the extent of deterioration of the dam structures and to assess the potential for continued deterioration. Based on the findings from these studies, a rehabilitation and upgrade strategy was developed which included removal of badly deteriorated concrete, placement of reinforced concrete liners (upstream and downstream), addition of mass concrete buttresses along the length of the gravity sections, replacement of the deck and epoxy injection of the cracked sluiceway piers. Particular attention was paid to the design of the new concrete mixes (to limit the supply of alkalis to the existing concrete) and to the relief of stress between the original concrete core and new concrete liners. The new gravity section liner was debonded from the core concrete to reduce the transfer of stress due to continued expansion of the core; furthermore, the reinforcement of the liner was designed to resist tensile stresses induced by future expansion. Consideration was also given to minimizing the ingress of water to the dam core in order to reduce the degree of saturation and likelihood of further AAR and freeze-thaw action.

  6. Pyroglutamate-modified Aβ(3-42) affects aggregation kinetics of Aβ(1-42) by accelerating primary and secondary pathways.

    PubMed

    Dammers, C; Schwarten, M; Buell, A K; Willbold, D

    2017-07-01

    The aggregation into amyloid fibrils of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A variety of Aβ peptides have been discovered in vivo, with pyroglutamate-modified Aβ (pEAβ) forming a significant proportion. pEAβ is mainly localized in the core of plaques, suggesting a possible role in inducing and facilitating Aβ oligomerization and accumulation. Despite this potential importance, the aggregation mechanism of pEAβ and its influence on the aggregation kinetics of other Aβ variants have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that pEAβ(3-42) forms fibrils much faster than Aβ(1-42) and the critical concentration above which aggregation was observed was drastically decreased by one order of magnitude compared to Aβ(1-42). We elucidated the co-aggregation mechanism of Aβ(1-42) with pEAβ(3-42). At concentrations at which both species do not aggregate as homofibrils, mixtures of pEAβ(3-42) and Aβ(1-42) aggregate, suggesting the formation of mixed nuclei. We show that the presence of pEAβ(3-42) monomers increases the rate of primary nucleation of Aβ(1-42) and that fibrils of pEAβ(3-42) serve as highly efficient templates for elongation and catalytic surfaces for secondary nucleation of Aβ(1-42). On the other hand, the addition of Aβ(1-42) monomers drastically decelerates the primary and secondary nucleation of pEAβ(3-42) while not altering the pEAβ(3-42) elongation rate. In addition, even moderate concentrations of fibrillar Aβ(1-42) prevent pEAβ(3-42) aggregation, likely due to non-reactive binding of pEAβ(3-42) monomers to the surfaces of Aβ(1-42) fibrils. Thus, pEAβ(3-42) accelerates aggregation of Aβ(1-42) by affecting all individual reaction steps of the aggregation process while Aβ(1-42) dramatically slows down the primary and secondary nucleation of pEAβ(3-42).

  7. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and petrographic image analysis of aggregates in concrete pavements affected by alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stastna, A.; Sachlova, S.; Pertold, Z.; Prikryl, R.; Leichmann, J.

    2012-03-15

    Various microscopic techniques (cathodoluminescence, polarizing and electron microscopy) were combined with image analysis with the aim to determine a) the modal composition and degradation features within concrete, and b) the petrographic characteristics and the geological types (rocks, and their provenance) of the aggregates. Concrete samples were taken from five different portions of Highway Nos. D1, D11, and D5 (the Czech Republic). Coarse and fine aggregates were found to be primarily composed of volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, as well as of quartz and feldspar aggregates of variable origins. The alkali-silica reaction was observed to be the main degradation mechanism, based upon the presence of microcracks and alkali-silica gels in the concrete. Use of cathodoluminescence enabled the identification of the source materials of the quartz aggregates, based upon their CL characteristics (i.e., color, intensity, microfractures, deformation, and zoning), which is difficult to distinguish only employing polarizing and electron microscopy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR in concrete pavements on the Highways Nos. D1, D5 and D11 (Czech Republic). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodoluminescence was combined with various microscopic techniques and image analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR was attributed to aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Source materials of aggregates were identified based on cathodoluminescence characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz comes from different volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic parent rocks.

  8. Nurse turnover: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Laureen J; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Duffield, Christine; Shamian, Judith; Buchan, James; Hughes, Frances; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; North, Nicola; Stone, Patricia W

    2006-02-01

    Ongoing instability in the nursing workforce is raising questions globally about the issue of nurse turnover. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the current state of knowledge about the scope of the nurse turnover problem, definitions of turnover, factors considered to be determinants of nurse turnover, turnover costs and the impact of turnover on patient, and nurse and system outcomes. Much of the research to date has focused on turnover determinants, and recent studies have provided cost estimations at the organizational level. Further research is needed to examine the impact of turnover on health system cost, and how nurse turnover influences patient and nurse outcomes.

  9. Cysteine 111 Affects Aggregation and Cytotoxicity of Mutant Cu,Zn-superoxide Dismutase Associated with Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis*

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Mauro; Amori, Ilaria; Grazia Pesaresi, Maria; Ferri, Alberto; Nencini, Monica; Teresa Carrì, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Converging evidence indicates that aberrant aggregation of mutant Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (mutSOD1) is strongly implicated in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). MutSOD1 forms high molecular weight oligomers, which disappear under reducing conditions, both in neural tissues of FALS transgenic mice and in transfected cultured cells, indicating a role for aberrant intermolecular disulfide cross-linking in the oligomerization and aggregation process. To study the contribution of specific cysteines in the mechanism of aggregation, we mutated human SOD1 in each of its four cysteine residues and, using a cell transfection assay, analyzed the solubility and aggregation of those SOD1s. Our results suggest that the formation of mutSOD1 aggregates are the consequence of covalent disulfide cross-linking and non-covalent interactions. In particular, we found that the removal of Cys-111 strongly reduces the ability of a range of different FALS-associated mutSOD1s to form aggregates and impair cell viability in cultured NSC-34 cells. Moreover, the removal of Cys-111 impairs the ability of mutSOD1s to form disulfide cross-linking. Treatments that deplete the cellular pool of GSH exacerbate mutSOD1s insolubility, whereas an overload of intracellular GSH or overexpression of glutaredoxin-1, which specifically catalyzes the reduction of protein-SSG-mixed disulfides, significantly rescues mutSOD1s solubility. These data are consistent with the view that the redox environment influences the oligomerization/aggregation pathway of mutSOD1 and point to Cys-111 as a key mediator of this process. PMID:18006498

  10. Assessment of Determinants of Emission Potentially Affecting the Concentration of Airborne Nano-Objects and Their Agglomerates and Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Cindy; Fransman, Wouter; Boessen, Ruud; Oerlemans, Arné; Ottenbros, Ilse B; Vermeulen, Roel

    2017-01-01

    Nano-specific inhalation exposure models could potentially be effective tools to assess and control worker exposure to nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA). However, due to the lack of reliable and consistent collected NOAA exposure data, the scientific basis for validation of the existing NOAA exposure models is missing or limited. The main objective of this study was to gain more insight into the effect of various determinants underlying the potential on the concentration of airborne NOAA close to the source with the purpose of providing a scientific basis for existing and future exposure inhalation models. Four experimental studies were conducted to investigate the effect of 11 determinants of emission on the concentration airborne NOAA close to the source during dumping of ~100% nanopowders. Determinants under study were: nanomaterial, particle size, dump mass, height, rate, ventilation rate, mixing speed, containment, particle surface coating, moisture content of the powder, and receiving surface. The experiments were conducted in an experimental room (19.5 m3) with well-controlled environmental and ventilation conditions. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured using real-time measurement devices. Dumping of nanopowders resulted in a higher number concentration and larger particles than dumping their reference microsized powder (P < 0.05). Statistically significant more and larger particles were also found during dumping of SiO2 nanopowder compared to TiO2/Al2O3 nanopowders. Particle surface coating did not affect the number concentration but on average larger particles were found during dumping of coated nanopowders. An increase of the powder's moisture content resulted in less and smaller particles in the air. Furthermore, the results indicate that particle number concentration increases with increasing dump height, rate, and mass and decreases when ventilation is turned on. These results give an indication of

  11. Cu(2+) affects amyloid-β (1-42) aggregation by increasing peptide-peptide binding forces.

    PubMed

    Hane, Francis; Tran, Gary; Attwood, Simon J; Leonenko, Zoya

    2013-01-01

    The link between metals, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its implicated protein, amyloid-β (Aβ), is complex and highly studied. AD is believed to occur as a result of the misfolding and aggregation of Aβ. The dyshomeostasis of metal ions and their propensity to interact with Aβ has also been implicated in AD. In this work, we use single molecule atomic force spectroscopy to measure the rupture force required to dissociate two Aβ (1-42) peptides in the presence of copper ions, Cu(2+). In addition, we use atomic force microscopy to resolve the aggregation of Aβ formed. Previous research has shown that metal ions decrease the lag time associated with Aβ aggregation. We show that with the addition of copper ions the unbinding force increases notably. This suggests that the reduction of lag time associated with Aβ aggregation occurs on a single molecule level as a result of an increase in binding forces during the very initial interactions between two Aβ peptides. We attribute these results to copper ions acting as a bridge between the two peptide molecules, increasing the stability of the peptide-peptide complex.

  12. TDP-43 aggregation mirrors TDP-43 knockdown, affecting the expression levels of a common set of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Prpar Mihevc, S.; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele; Rogelj, Boris

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 protein plays an important role in regulating transcriptional repression, RNA metabolism, and splicing. Typically it shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm to perform its functions, while abnormal cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). For the purpose of this study we selected a set of proteins that were misregulated following silencing of TDP-43 and analysed their expression in a TDP-43-aggregation model cell line HEK293 Flp-in Flag-TDP-43-12x-Q/N F4L. Following TDP-43 sequestration in insoluble aggregates, we observed higher nuclear levels of EIF4A3, and POLDIP3β, whereas nuclear levels of DNMT3A, HNRNPA3, PABPC1 and POLDIP3α dropped, and cytoplasmic levels of RANBP1 dropped. In addition, immunofluorescence signal intensity quantifications showed increased nuclear expression of HNRNPL and YARS, and downregulation of cytoplasmic DPCD. Furthermore, cytoplasmic levels of predominantly nuclear protein ALYREF increased. In conclusion, by identifying a common set of proteins that are differentially expressed in a similar manner in these two different conditions, we show that TDP-43 aggregation has a comparable effect to TDP-43 knockdown. PMID:27665936

  13. Nursing home spending, staffing, and turnover.

    PubMed

    Kash, Bita A; Castle, Nicholas G; Phillips, Charles D

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on nursing home staffing and turnover has stressed the importance of ownership and resources. However, few studies have examined spending behaviors, which might also influence staffing levels and staff turnover rates. This study investigates whether spending behaviors measured by financial ratios are associated with staffing levels and staff turnover in nursing homes. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,014 Texas homes. Data were from the 2002 Texas Nursing Facility Medicaid Cost Report and the 2003 Area Resource File. First, we examined differences in financial ratios by ownership type. Next, the effect of 10 financial ratios on staffing levels and turnover rates for registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, and certified nursing assistants was examined using robust regression models. Descriptive data indicated that expense ratios related to resident care activities and staff development were significantly higher among not-for-profit than for-profit homes. Higher profits were associated with lower staffing levels, but not higher turnover rates. Administrative expenses (a measure of management capacity) had a negative impact both on staffing levels and staff turnover for licensed vocational nurses and certified nursing assistants, but they did not affect registered nurse staffing. Employee benefit expenses exhibited a positive impact on registered nurse and licensed vocational nurse staffing levels. The addition of information on financial ratios to models predicting staffing indicators reduced the effect of ownership on these indicators. Solutions to the staffing and turnover problem should focus on more effective management practices. Certain levels of administrative and staff benefit expenses may be necessary to improve professional staff recruitment and reduce both staffing and turnover costs. Differences in these financial ratios may partially explain the role played by ownership in determining staffing levels and turnover.

  14. A 3D Culture Model to Study How Fluid Pressure and Flow Affect the Behavior of Aggregates of Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski-Daspit, Alexandra S; Simi, Allison K; Pang, Mei-Fong; Tien, Joe; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-01-01

    Cells are surrounded by mechanical stimuli in their microenvironment. It is important to determine how cells respond to the mechanical information that surrounds them in order to understand both development and disease progression, as well as to be able to predict cell behavior in response to physical stimuli. Here we describe a protocol to determine the effects of interstitial fluid flow on the migratory behavior of an aggregate of epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D) culture model. This protocol includes detailed methods for the fabrication of a 3D cell culture chamber with hydrostatic pressure control, the culture of epithelial cells as an aggregate in a collagen gel, and the analysis of collective cell behavior in response to pressure-driven flow.

  15. Seasonality and wildlife disease: how seasonal birth, aggregation and variation in immunity affect the dynamics of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches.

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Parviez R.; Dhondt, André A.; Dobson, Andy

    2004-01-01

    We examine the role of host seasonal breeding, host seasonal social aggregation and partial immunity in affecting wildlife disease dynamics, focusing on the dynamics of house finch conjunctivitis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in Carpodacus mexicanus). This case study of an unmanaged emerging infectious disease provides useful insight into the important role of seasonal factors in driving ongoing disease dynamics. Seasonal breeding can force recurrent epidemics through the input of fresh susceptibles, which will clearly affect a wide variety of wildlife disease dynamics. Seasonal patterns of social aggregation and foraging behaviour could change transmission dynamics. We use latitudinal variation in the timing of breeding, and social systems to model seasonal dynamics of house finch conjunctivitis across eastern North America. We quantify the patterns of seasonal breeding, and social aggregation across a latitudinal gradient in the eastern range of the house finch, supplemented with known field and laboratory information on immunity to MG in finches. We then examine the interactions of these factors in a theoretical model of disease dynamics. We find that both forms of seasonality could explain the dynamics of the house finch-MG system, and that these factors could have important effects on the dynamics of wildlife diseases generally. In particular, while either alone is sufficient to create recurrent cycles of prevalence in a population with an endemic disease, both are required to produce the specific semi-annual pattern of disease prevalence seen in the house finch conjunctivitis system. PMID:15615682

  16. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples.

  17. Interannual Changes in Biomass Affect the Spatial Aggregations of Anchovy and Sardine as Evidenced by Geostatistical and Spatial Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Barra, Marco; Petitgas, Pierre; Bonanno, Angelo; Somarakis, Stylianos; Woillez, Mathieu; Machias, Athanasios; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Giannoulaki, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Geostatistical techniques were applied and a series of spatial indicators were calculated (occupation, aggregation, location, dispersion, spatial autocorrelation and overlap) to characterize the spatial distributions of European anchovy and sardine during summer. Two ecosystems were compared for this purpose, both located in the Mediterranean Sea: the Strait of Sicily (upwelling area) and the North Aegean Sea (continental shelf area, influenced by freshwater). Although the biomass of anchovy and sardine presented high interannual variability in both areas, the location of the centres of gravity and the main spatial patches of their populations were very similar between years. The size of the patches representing the dominant part of the abundance (80%) was mostly ecosystem- and species-specific. Occupation (area of presence) appears to be shaped by the extent of suitable habitats in each ecosystem whereas aggregation patterns (how the populations are distributed within the area of presence) were species-specific and related to levels of population biomass. In the upwelling area, both species showed consistently higher occupation values compared to the continental shelf area. Certain characteristics of the spatial distribution of sardine (e.g. spreading area, overlapping with anchovy) differed substantially between the two ecosystems. Principal component analysis of geostatistical and spatial indicators revealed that biomass was significantly related to a suite of, rather than single, spatial indicators. At the spatial scale of our study, strong correlations emerged between biomass and the first principal component axis with highly positive loadings for occupation, aggregation and patchiness, independently of species and ecosystem. Overlapping between anchovy and sardine increased with the increase of sardine biomass but decreased with the increase of anchovy. This contrasting pattern was attributed to the location of the respective major patches combined with the

  18. Ionic strength affects tertiary structure and aggregation propensity of a monoclonal antibody adsorbed to silicone oil-water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Alana; Bonam, Kurt; Bee, Jared S; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2013-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins formulated in prefilled syringes lubricated with silicone oil come in contact with silicone oil-water interfaces for their entire shelf lives. Thus, the interactions between protein and silicone oil were studied to determine the effect of silicone oil on a monoclonal antibody's stability, both at the interface and in the bulk solution. The influence of ionic strength on these interactions was also investigated through the addition of various monovalent and divalent salts to sample formulations. The tertiary structure of the antibody was perturbed when it adsorbed to the silicone oil-water interface in solutions at low ionic strength. However, the tertiary structure of the antibody at the interface was not perturbed when the ionic strength of the formulation was increased. Even at low ionic strength, the secondary structure of the antibody adsorbed to the silicone oil-water interface was retained, suggesting that at low ionic strength, the adsorbed antibody assumes a molten globule-like conformation. This partially unfolded species was aggregation-prone, especially during agitation. Silicone oil-induced aggregation of the antibody was inhibited at higher ionic strength. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Suspension stability and aggregation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes as affected by dissolved organic matters extracted from agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Qiu, Yanhua; Wang, Xiaonuan; Liu, Wenhao; Chen, Guangcai; Ma, Yibing; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-03-01

    Dissolved organic matters (DOMs) extracted from wheat straw (SDOM) and cow manure (MDOM) were used to investigate their effects on the suspension stability and aggregation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Two types of DOM can effectively disperse and stabilize the MWCNTs. At initial MWCNT concentration of 500 mg/L, suspended MWCNT concentration ranged from 8.0 to 17.9 mg/L as DOM were varied from 50 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values were estimated to be 41.4 mM NaCl and 5.3 mM CaCl2 in the absence of DOM. The presence of SDOM and MDOM significantly retarded the aggregation rate of MWCNTs. The CCC values increased to 120 mM NaCl and 14.8 mM CaCl2 at SDOM concentration of 20 mg/L DOC. Due to its higher aromaticity and molecular weight, MDOM showed higher ability to stabilize MWCNTs, with CCC values of 201 mM and 15.8 mM at 20 mg/L DOC. These findings revealed that DOMs originated from agricultural wastes will have great impact on the dispersion and stabilization of MWCNTs, thus their fate in the aquatic environment.

  20. Conditions for self-consistent aggregation by chemotactic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masayo; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2008-04-01

    We have numerically studied chemotactic aggregation of microorganisms by introducing a model consisting of elements with intracellular dynamics, random walks with a state-dependent turnover rate, and secretion of attractant. Three phases with and without aggregation, as well as partial aggregation, were obtained as to the diffusion and degradation rates of the attractant, and conditions for cellular aggregation were analyzed. The size of aggregated clusters was shown to be independent of cell density, as is consistent with experiment.

  1. Cell wall composition and penetration resistance against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum are affected by impaired starch turnover in Arabidopsis mutants

    PubMed Central

    Engelsdorf, Timo; Will, Cornelia; Hofmann, Jörg; Schmitt, Christine; Merritt, Brian B.; Rieger, Leonie; Frenger, Marc S.; Marschall, André; Franke, Rochus B.; Pattathil, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Penetration resistance represents the first level of plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we report that the starch-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana phosphoglucomutase (pgm) mutant has impaired penetration resistance against the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. We could not determine any changes in leaf cutin and epicuticular wax composition or indolic glucosinolate levels, but detected complex alterations in the cell wall monosaccharide composition of pgm. Notably, other mutants deficient in starch biosynthesis (adg1) or mobilization (sex1) had similarly affected cell wall composition and penetration resistance. Glycome profiling analysis showed that both overall cell wall polysaccharide extractability and relative extractability of specific pectin and xylan epitopes were affected in pgm, suggesting extensive structural changes in pgm cell walls. Screening of mutants with alterations in content or modification of specific cell wall monosaccharides indicated an important function of pectic polymers for penetration resistance and hyphal growth of C. higginsianum during the biotrophic interaction phase. While mutants with affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (mur8) were hypersusceptible, penetration frequency and morphology of fungal hyphae were impaired on pmr5 pmr6 mutants with increased pectin levels. Our results reveal a strong impact of starch metabolism on cell wall composition and suggest a link between carbohydrate availability, cell wall pectin and penetration resistance. PMID:28204541

  2. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical vitamin B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker.

    PubMed

    Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam A; Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé; Rosado, Jorge L; Keyes, William R; Newman, John W; Miller, Joshua W; Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-10-01

    A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations has been reported in studies and surveys in Latin America including Mexico, but the functional consequences are unknown. This randomized controlled trial assessed the response to a high-dose vitamin B-12 supplementation of women in rural Querétaro, Mexico. Participants aged 20-59 y were stratified at baseline to deficient, marginal, and adequate status groups (serum vitamin B-12, 75-148, 149-220, and >220 pmol/L, respectively), and each group was randomized to vitamin B-12 treatment (single dose of 1 mg i.m. then 500 μg/d orally for 3 mo, n = 70) or placebo (n = 62). Measures at baseline and 3 mo included: complete blood count, serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), folate, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), bone alkaline phosphatase, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). At baseline, 11% of the women were vitamin B-12 deficient and 22% had marginal status. HoloTC was low (<35 pmol/L) in 23% and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = 0.7; P < 0.001). Elevated MMA (>271 nmol/L) and tHcy (>12 μmol/L) occurred in 21 and 31%, respectively, and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.28, P < 0.0007 and r = -0.20, P < 0.01, respectively). Supplementation increased serum vitamin B-12 and holoTC and lowered MMA and tHcy, normalizing all values except for elevated tHcy in 21% of the women. Supplementation did not affect hematology or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Vitamin B-12 supplementation normalized biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 status in the treatment group but did not affect the functional outcomes measured.

  3. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  4. Aggregate-cement paste transition zone properties affecting the salt-frost damage of high-performance concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Cwirzen, Andrzej; Penttala, Vesa

    2005-04-01

    The influence of the cement paste-aggregate interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on the frost durability of high-performance silica fume concrete (HPSFC) has been studied. Investigation was carried out on eight non-air-entrained concretes having water-to-binder (W/B) ratios of 0.3, 0.35 and 0.42 and different additions of condensed silica fume. Studies on the microstructure and composition of the cement paste have been made by means of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM)-BSE, ESEM-EDX and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) analysis. The results showed that the transition zone initiates and accelerates damaging mechanisms by enhancing movement of the pore solution within the concrete during freezing and thawing cycles. Cracks filled with ettringite were primarily formed in the ITZ. The test concretes having good frost-deicing salt durability featured a narrow transition zone and a decreased Ca/Si atomic ratio in the transition zone compared to the bulk cement paste. Moderate additions of silica fume seemed to densify the microstructure of the ITZ.

  5. Predicting Turnover Intentions and Turnover Behavior: A Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasuraman, Saroj

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relative influence of personal, attitudinal, and behavioral variables on behavioral intentions and voluntary turnover among nonsupervisory plant workers. Results show that personal variables have little direct effect on turnover; rather, their influence on turnover is channeled through their effects on behavioral intentions. (Author)

  6. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  7. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  8. Novel antiplatelet drug revacept (Dimeric Glycoprotein VI-Fc) specifically and efficiently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation without affecting general hemostasis in humans.

    PubMed

    Ungerer, Martin; Rosport, Kai; Bültmann, Andreas; Piechatzek, Richard; Uhland, Kerstin; Schlieper, Peter; Gawaz, Meinrad; Münch, Götz

    2011-05-03

    Blocking of glycoprotein VI-dependent pathways by interfering in vascular collagen sites is commonly seen as an attractive target for an antiplatelet therapy of acute atherosclerotic diseases such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Revacept (soluble dimeric glycoprotein VI-Fc fusion protein) has been shown to reduce platelet adhesion by blocking vascular collagen in plaques or erosion and to be safe in preclinical studies. A dose-escalating clinical phase I study was performed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of Revacept in humans. In a first-in-humans study, 30 healthy men received a single intravenous administration of 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg Revacept. The serum concentration-time courses of each dosage of Revacept showed a narrow variation and a concentration and time dependence. Revacept did not significantly affect the bleeding time. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was dose-dependently inhibited up to 48 hours at lower doses and for 7 days after higher dose levels. In contrast, ADP- or thrombin receptor activating peptide-dependent platelet aggregation remained unaltered. There were no relevant drug-related adverse events or drug-related changes in laboratory parameters (biochemistry, hematology, and coagulation parameters). There were no drug-related changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or ECG parameters (including 24-hour Holter monitoring). No anti-Revacept antibodies were detected. This phase I study demonstrated that Revacept is a safe and well-tolerated new antiplatelet compound with a clear dose-dependent pharmacokinetic profile with specific, dose-related inhibition of platelet aggregation despite completely unaltered general hemostasis. URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT 01042964. URL: eudract.ema.europa.eu. Identifier: 2005-004656-12.

  9. Fat cell turnover in humans.

    PubMed

    Arner, Peter; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2010-05-21

    Obesity is a condition where excess body fat accumulates to such an extent that one's health may be affected. Owing to the cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated with obesity, and the epidemic of obesity facing most countries today, life expectancy in the developed world may start to decrease for the first time in recent history. Other conditions, such as anorexia nervosa and cachexia, are characterised by subnormal levels of adipose tissue and as with obesity lead to morbidity and mortality. Given the significant personal and economic costs of these conditions and their increasing prevalence in society, understanding the factors that determine the fat mass is therefore of prime interest and may lead to effective treatments and/or interventions for these disorders. Fat mass can be regulated in two ways. The lipid filling of pre-existing fat cells could be altered and the number of fat cells could be changed by the generation of new fat cells or the dying of old ones (i.e. adipocyte turnover). This review summarizes what is known about fat cell turnover in humans and the potential clinical implications. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe low turnover osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Luca

    2007-08-01

    Severe osteoporosis, a situation with fractures, can worsen in the case of poor response to usual therapies, such as bisphosphonates associated with calcium and vitamin D, especially if bone turnover is strongly suppressed. One way of inverting the poor evolution of non-responders is to use Teriparatide. The case of a non-responder is reported, with considerations about the possibility of detecting these patients before a new fracture takes place.

  11. Turnover of Junior Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    by reference to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory (24:42). The lowest needs on Maslow’s hierarchy are for survival and security. Pay is the principal... Hierarchy of Needs Theory (2:42) suggests that once pay is adequate to satisfy the lower needs for survival and security, it decreases in importance to...satisfaction increases. This result indicated that pay does not play the role depicted in the synthesized turnover model in Chapter II. Maslow’s

  12. Growth and aggregation behavior of representative phytoplankton as affected by the environmental contaminant di-n-butyl phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Acey, R.; Healy, P.; Unger, T.F.; Ford, C.E.; Hudson, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors' continuing efforts to characterize the molecular basis for the development-stage-dependent phthalate ester toxicity in the brine shrimp, Artemia, led them to consider a number of microorganisms as foraging species for Artemia. The sensitivity of these microorganisms to phthalate esters was surprising and suggests that the nature and distribution of fresh water phytoplankton may already have been significantly altered by phthalates. The purpose of our experiments was to demonstrate the extent to which present levels of oceanic contamination by phthalates may be approaching those necessary to affect the distribution and survival of phytoplankton in the biosphere.

  13. [Experiences of nurse turnover].

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Jung; Kim, Kwuy-Bun

    2008-04-01

    This study was designed to search for nursing intervention strategies centering around the meaning structure of the nurse's turnover experience by applying phenomenological methods. The participants were 6 nurses in small and medium sized hospitals who had experienced at least 1 turnover. Data were collected used MP3 records. The data analysis was done by Giorgi (1985) method. The results were divided into the following categories: 1) Careless decision: wrong decisions, imprudent desire, insufficient patience, unclear future, 2) Inappropriate working environment: irregular working hours, high workload, poor working environment, insufficient understanding of related divisions, lack of opinion collection, low salary, 3) Interpersonal relations problems: discord with colleagues, difficulty in relationships with others, difficulty in daily lives, 4) Lack of specialization: feeling of inertia, lack of role identification, lack of self identification, 5) Inappropriate coping: regret with clinical challenges, difficulty with a new environment, repentance, expectation, relative humility, 6) New self-dignity: expectation, new challenge, relaxing lives, decisions based on future-oriented confidence. The finding of this study will offer profound information on the nurse's turnover experience and provide basic raw materials for improving the quality of nursing performance and contribute to the development of hospital organization.

  14. Perception of Lay People Regarding Determinants of Health and Factors Affecting It: An Aggregated Analysis from 29 Countries

    PubMed Central

    ZAHRA, Aqeela; LEE, Eun-Whan; SUN, Li-Yuan; PARK, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the perception of lay people regarding determinants of health at global level and factors affecting it. Methods: Data was collected from International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and World Bank website. Multilevel regression analysis was done and lay people’s perception regarding health behavior, environment, poverty and genes as health determinants was assessed. Various socio demographic factors were used as independent variables. Results: The highest percentage of people agreed environment as determinant of health. An inverse relationship was observed between GNI quartiles and an individual’s agreement with poverty, health behavior, and environment as health determinant. There was a significant negative association of females with health damaging behavior (P<0.05) and positive association with environment and genes (P<0.05) as health determinants. Elderly people agreed with poverty as determinant of health (P<0.05). GNI was negatively related to environment (P<0.05) and poverty (P<0.05) as health determinant. Conclusion: The common public is now becoming aware of a broadened concept of health and people belonging to different backgrounds have different perceptions regarding determinants of health. Our results show that highest percentage of people agreed with environment as determinant of health, which is consistent with scientific view of increased burden of disease, caused by environmental factors. Thus, tailored health programs and policies that address an individual’s specific problems are likely to induce a change in behavior and attitude, hence decreasing the disease burden. PMID:26811813

  15. Crop size, plant aggregation, and microhabitat type affect fruit removal by birds from individual melastome plants in the Upper Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Loiselle, Bette A; Blake, John G

    2008-11-01

    We studied the efficiency (proportion of the crop removed) and quantitative effectiveness (number of fruits removed) of dispersal of Miconia fosteri and M. serrulata (Melastomataceae) seeds by birds in lowland tropical wet forest of Ecuador. Specifically, we examined variation in fruit removal in order to reveal the spatial scale at which crop size influences seed dispersal outcome of individual plants, and to evaluate how the effect of crop size on plant dispersal success may be affected by conspecific fruit abundance and by the spatial distribution of frugivore abundance. We established two 9-ha plots in undisturbed terra-firme understory, where six manakin species (Pipridae) disperse most seeds of these two plant species. Mean levels of fruit removal were low for both species, with high variability among plants. In general, plants with larger crop sizes experienced greater efficiency and effectiveness of fruit removal than plants with smaller crops. Fruit removal, however, was also influenced by microhabitat, such as local topography and local neighborhood. Fruit-rich and disperser-rich patches overlapped spatially for M. fosteri but not M. serrulata, nonetheless fruit removal of M. serrulata was still much greater in fruit-rich patches. Fruit removal from individual plants did not decrease in patches with many fruiting conspecifics and, in fact, removal effectiveness was enhanced for M. fosteri with small crop sizes when such plants were in patches with more conspecifics. These results suggest that benefits of attracting dispersers to a patch balanced or outweighed the costs of competition for dispersers. Spatial pattern of fruit removal, a measure of plant fitness, depended on a complex interaction among plant traits, spatial patterns of plant distribution, and disperser behavior.

  16. Biomass turnover time in terrestrial ecosystems halved by land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Fetzel, Tamara; Plutzar, Christoph; Kastner, Thomas; Lauk, Christian; Mayer, Andreas; Niedertscheider, Maria; Körner, Christian; Haberl, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is not well quantified. Biomass turnover time is a crucial parameter in the global carbon cycle, and contributes to the feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate. Biomass turnover time varies substantially in time and space, but its determinants are not well known, making predictions of future global carbon cycle dynamics uncertain. Land use--the sum of activities that aim at enhancing terrestrial ecosystem services--alters plant growth and reduces biomass stocks, and is hence expected to affect biomass turnover. Here we explore land-use-induced alterations of biomass turnover at the global scale by comparing the biomass turnover of the actual vegetation with that of a hypothetical vegetation state with no land use under current climate conditions. We find that, in the global average, biomass turnover is 1.9 times faster with land use. This acceleration affects all biomes roughly equally, but with large differences between land-use types. Land conversion, for example from forests to agricultural fields, is responsible for 59% of the acceleration; the use of forests and natural grazing land accounts for 26% and 15% respectively. Reductions in biomass stocks are partly compensated by reductions in net primary productivity. We conclude that land use significantly and systematically affects the fundamental trade-off between carbon turnover and carbon stocks.

  17. Long noncoding RNA turnover

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Je-Hyun; Kim, Jiyoung; Gorospe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Most RNAs transcribed in mammalian cells lack protein-coding sequences. Among them is a vast family of long (>200 nt) noncoding (lnc)RNAs. LncRNAs can modulate cellular protein expression patterns by influencing the transcription of many genes, the post-transcriptional fate of mRNAs and ncRNAs, and the turnover and localization of proteins. Given the broad impact of lncRNAs on gene regulation, there is escalating interest in elucidating the mechanisms that govern the steady-state levels of lncRNAs. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the factors and mechanisms that modulate mammalian lncRNA stability. PMID:25769416

  18. The effects of sexual harassment on turnover in the military: time-dependent modeling.

    PubMed

    Sims, Carra S; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2005-11-01

    Sexual harassment has consistently negative consequences for working women, including changes in job attitudes (e.g., lower satisfaction) and behaviors (e.g., increased work withdrawal). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that harassment influences turnover intentions. However, few studies have used actual turnover; rather, they rely on proxies. With a sample of 11,521 military servicewomen with turnover data spanning approximately 4 years, the authors used the appropriate method for longitudinal turnover data--Cox's regression--to investigate the impact of harassment on actual turnover. Experiences of harassment led to increased turnover, even after controlling for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and marital status. Among officers, harassment also affected turnover over and above rank. Given turnover's relevance to organizational bottom lines, these findings have important implications not only for individual women but also for organizations.

  19. Metabolic turnover of myelin glycerophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Morell, P; Ousley, A H

    1994-08-01

    The apparent half life for metabolic turnover of glycerophospholipids in the myelin sheath, as determined by measuring the rate of loss of label in a myelin glycerophospholipid following radioactive precursor injection, varies with the radioactive precursor used, age of animal, and time after injection during which metabolic turnover is studied. Experimental strategies for resolving apparent inconsistencies consequent to these variables are discussed. Illustrative data concerning turnover of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in myelin of rat brain are presented. PC of the myelin membrane exhibits heterogeneity with respect to metabolic turnover rates. There are at least two metabolic pools of PC in myelin, one with a half life of the order of days, and another with a half life of the order of weeks. To a significant extent biphasic turnover is due to differential turnover of individual molecular species (which differ in acyl chain composition). The two predominant molecular species of myelin PC turnover at very different rates (16:0, 18:1 PC turning over several times more rapidly than 18:0, 18:1 PC). Therefore, within the same membrane, individual molecular species of a phospholipid class are metabolized at different rates. Possible mechanisms for differential turnover of molecular species are discussed, as are other factors that may contribute to a multiphasic turnover of glycerophospholipids.

  20. A co culture approach show that polyamine turnover is affected during inflammation in Atlantic salmon immune and liver cells and that arginine and LPS exerts opposite effects on p38MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Holen, Elisabeth; Espe, Marit; Andersen, Synne M; Taylor, Richard; Aksnes, Anders; Mengesha, Zebasil; Araujo, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    This study assess which pathways and molecular processes are affected by exposing salmon head kidney cells or liver cells to arginine supplementation above the established requirements for growth support. In addition to the conventional mono cultures of liver and head kidney cells, co cultures of the two cell types were included in the experimental set up. Responses due to elevated levels of arginine were measured during inflammatory (lipopolysaccharide/LPS) and non -inflammatory conditions. LPS up regulated the genes involved in polyamine turnover; ODC (ornithine decarboxylase), SSAT (spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase) and SAMdc (S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase) in head kidney cells when co cultured with liver cells. Regardless of treatment, liver cells in co culture up regulated ODC and down regulated SSAT when compared to liver mono cultures. This suggests that polyamines have anti-inflammatory properties and that both salmon liver cells and immune cells seem to be involved in this process. The transcription of C/EBP β/CCAAT, increased during inflammation in all cultures except for liver mono cultures. The observed up regulation of this gene may be linked to glucose transport due to the highly variable glucose concentrations found in the cell media. PPARα transcription was also increased in liver cells when receiving signals from head kidney cells. Gene transcription of Interleukin 1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and CD83 were elevated during LPS treatment in all the head kidney cell cultures while arginine supplementation reduced IL-1β and IL-8 transcription in liver cells co cultured with head kidney cells. This is probably connected to p38MAPK signaling as arginine seem to affect p38MAPK signaling contrary to the LPS induced p38MAPK signaling, suggesting anti-inflammatory effects of arginine/arginine metabolites. This paper shows that co culturing these two cell types reveals the connection between metabolism and

  1. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  2. Integrating Turnover Reasons and Shocks with Turnover Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.; Kmitta, Kayla R.

    2012-01-01

    We interviewed and classified 186 quitters from many jobs and organizations via a theoretically-based protocol into five decision process types. We then tested exploratory hypotheses comparing users of these types on their propensity to report certain turnover reasons and turnover shocks. "Impulsive-type quitters," with neither a job offer in hand…

  3. Integrating Turnover Reasons and Shocks with Turnover Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.; Kmitta, Kayla R.

    2012-01-01

    We interviewed and classified 186 quitters from many jobs and organizations via a theoretically-based protocol into five decision process types. We then tested exploratory hypotheses comparing users of these types on their propensity to report certain turnover reasons and turnover shocks. "Impulsive-type quitters," with neither a job offer in hand…

  4. Proteome Dynamics: Revisiting Turnover with a Global Perspective*

    PubMed Central

    Claydon, Amy J.; Beynon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Although bulk protein turnover has been measured with the use of stable isotope labeled tracers for over half a century, it is only recently that the same approach has become applicable to the level of the proteome, permitting analysis of the turnover of many proteins instead of single proteins or an aggregated protein pool. The optimal experimental design for turnover studies is dependent on the nature of the biological system under study, which dictates the choice of precursor label, protein pool sampling strategy, and treatment of data. In this review we discuss different approaches and, in particular, explore how complexity in experimental design and data processing increases as we shift from unicellular to multicellular systems, in particular animals. PMID:23125033

  5. Mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisca; Moraes, Carlos T

    2008-07-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process involving the coordinated expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, the import of the products of the latter into the organelle and turnover. The mechanisms associated with these events have been intensively studied in the last 20 years and our understanding of their details is much improved. Mitochondrial biogenesis requires the participation of calcium signaling that activates a series of calcium-dependent protein kinases that in turn activate transcription factors and coactivators such as PGC-1alpha that regulates the expression of genes coding for mitochondrial components. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis involves the balance of mitochondrial fission-fusion. Mitochondrial malfunction or defects in any of the many pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis can lead to degenerative diseases and possibly play an important part in aging.

  6. Salary, Performance, and Superintendent Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Mitani, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Superintendent retention is an important goal for many school districts, yet the factors contributing to superintendent turnover are poorly understood. Most prior quantitative studies of superintendent turnover have relied on small, cross-sectional samples, limiting the evidence base. Utilizing longitudinal administrative records from…

  7. Teacher Turnover: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, Cynthia; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the available literature concerning teacher turnover. The seriousness of this issue was addressed as cause for concern is clearly present. Issues we examined in this conceptual analysis were the federal government's role in public education, the No Child Left Behind Act, teacher turnover, teacher retention, teacher…

  8. Salary, Performance, and Superintendent Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Mitani, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Superintendent retention is an important goal for many school districts, yet the factors contributing to superintendent turnover are poorly understood. Most prior quantitative studies of superintendent turnover have relied on small, cross-sectional samples, limiting the evidence base. Utilizing longitudinal administrative records from…

  9. Cellular strategies for regulating functional and nonfunctional protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M Madan

    2012-11-29

    Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier's principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control.

  10. Occupational stress and employee turnover.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert S; Day, Andrea J; Morton, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data captured in January-March 2007 were examined in relation to turnover in males and females during the next five years. In general, most of the workplace stressors (such as role conflict or peer support) were not antecedents of turnover in any group. Junior personnel with psychological strain in 2007 had an increased risk of turnover in the next five years. Low commitment to the service in 2007 increased the odds of turnover in male and female juniors and in female officers. Female juniors with less effective skills for coping with stress and who exercised less frequently on a weekly basis were more likely to leave. An incidental finding was that the odds of turnover were three times greater in female officers with children than in female officers with no children. Stress management interventions focusing on effective coping and sports and exercise participation which are targeted appropriately may improve retention.

  11. Predictors of actual turnover in a national sample of newly licensed registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Greene, William; Tukov-Shuser, Magdalene; Djukic, Maja

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study of factors that affect turnover of newly licensed registered nurses in United States hospitals. There is a large body of research related to nursing retention; however, there is little information specific to newly licensed registered nurse turnover. Incidence rates of turnover among new nurses are unknown because most turnover data are not from nationally representative samples of nurses. This study used a longitudinal panel design to obtain data from 1653 registered nurses who were recently licensed by examination for the first time. We mailed surveys to a nationally representative sample of hospital registered nurses 1 year apart. The analytic sample consisted of 1653 nurses who responded to both survey mailings in January of 2006 and 2007. Full-time employment and more sprains and strains (including back injuries) result in more turnover. Higher intent to stay and hours of voluntary overtime and more than one job for pay reduces turnover. When we omitted intent to stay from the probit model, less job satisfaction and organizational commitment led to more turnover, confirming their importance to turnover. Magnet Recognition Award(®) hospitals and several other work attributes had no effect on turnover.   Turnover problems are complex, which means that there is no one solution to decreasing turnover. Multiple points of intervention exist. One specific approach that may improve turnover rates is hospital policies that reduce strains and sprains. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Work and Career considerations in Understanding Employee Turnover Intentions and Turnover: Development of the Turnover Diagnostic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    researchers have noted that organizations perceived not to link rewards to performance had higher turnover ( Hellriegel & White, 1973; Hulln, 1966, 1968...Telly, French, & Scott, 1971). Similarly, some company policy and administrative Issues related to pay and promotion ( Hellriegel & White, 1973...practices are a strong correlate of turnover (Dansereau, Cashman, & Graen, 1973; Fleishman & Harris, 1962; Graen & Ginsburgh, 1977; Hellriegel & White

  13. Turnover intention among intensive care unit nurses in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mosallam, Rasha; Hamidi, Samer; Elrefaay, Manal

    2015-06-01

    Given the difficulty in recruiting new nurses, it is imperative to retain those already in the profession. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship of demographic and work-related factors, burnout, conflict management and relationship between nurses and physicians on turnover intentions among ICU nurses in eight major hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. Data on burnout, conflict management, nurse-physician communication, and turnover intention were collected by surveying 100 nurses in eight hospitals in Alexandria governorate. All nurses at the ICU of selected hospitals were approached (n=100) and a 47-item Likert scale questionnaire was administered to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of ICU nurses in Alexandria. ICU nurses exhibited a mean score for turnover intention of 3.23 (mean score percentage 65.0%). There was a moderately positive statistically significant correlation between turnover intention and emotional exhaustion (r=0.29, P<0.05), nurse-physician communication (r=0.25, P<0.05), and age (r=0.21, P<0.05). The predicting factors for turnover intention were emotional exhaustion and age. Nurses turnover intention at the ICU of the selected hospitals is high and is significantly associated with nurses' emotional exhaustion, poor nurse-physician communication, and nurses age.

  14. Modification of the degree of branching of a beta-(1,3)-glucan affects aggregation behavior and activity in an oxidative burst assay.

    PubMed

    Magee, Andrew S; Langeslay, Ryan R; Will, Paul M; Danielson, Michael E; Wurst, Lindsay R; Iiams, Vanessa A

    2015-12-01

    Scleroglucan is a β-(1,3)-glucan which is highly branched at the 6-position with a single glucose residue. Acid hydrolysis of a high molecular weight scleroglucan gave a medium molecular weight, freely soluble material. Linkage analysis by the partially methylated alditol acetate method showed that the solubilized material had 30% branching. When the material was subjected to partial Smith degradations, the percent branching was reduced accordingly to 12% or 17%. After the percent branching was reduced, the average molecular weight of the samples increased considerably, indicating the assembly of higher ordered aggregate structures. An aggregate number distribution analysis was applied to confirm the higher aggregated structures. These aggregated structures gave the material significantly enhanced activity in an in vitro oxidative burst assay compared to the highly branched material.

  15. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  16. The influence of erythrocyte aggregation on induced platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ott, C; Lardi, E; Schulzki, T; Reinhart, W H

    2010-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) affect platelet aggregation in flowing blood (primary hemostasis). We tested the hypothesis that RBC aggregation could influence platelet aggregation. RBC aggregation was altered in vitro by: (i) changing plasma aggregatory properties with 3.7 g% dextran 40 (D40), 3.0 g% dextran 70 (D70) or 1.55 g% dextran 500 (D500); (ii) changing RBC aggregatory properties by incubating RBCs in 50 mU/ml neuraminidase for 60 min (reduction of the surface sialic acid content, thus reducing electrostatic repulsion) and subsequent RBC resuspension in platelet rich plasma (PRP) containing 1 g% dextran 70. RBC aggregation was assessed with the sedimentation rate (ESR). Platelet aggregation was measured: (i) in flowing whole blood with a platelet function analyzer PFA-100(R), which simulates in vivo conditions with RBCs flowing in the center and platelets along the wall, where they adhere to collagen and aggregate; and (ii) in a Chrono-log 700 Aggregometer, which measures changes of impedance by platelet aggregation in whole blood or changes in light transmission in PRP. We found that RBC aggregation increased with increasing molecular weight of dextran (ESR: 4 +/- 3 mm/h, 34 +/- 14 mm/h and 89 +/- 23 mm/hfor D40, D70 and D500, respectively, p < 0.0001) and with neuraminidase-treated RBCs (76 +/- 27 mm/h vs 27 +/- 8 mm/h, respectively, p < 0.0001). Platelet aggregation measured in whole blood under flow conditions (PFA-100) and without flow (Chronolog Aggregometer) was not affected by RBC aggregation. Our data suggest that RBC aggregation does not affect platelet aggregation in vitro and plays no role in primary hemostasis.

  17. Non-Arrhenius protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Roberts, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Protein aggregation presents one of the key challenges in the development of protein biotherapeutics. It affects not only product quality but also potentially impacts safety, as protein aggregates have been shown to be linked with cytotoxicity and patient immunogenicity. Therefore, investigations of protein aggregation remain a major focus in pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions. Due to the complexity of the aggregation process and temperature-dependent conformational stability, temperature-induced protein aggregation is often non-Arrhenius over even relatively small temperature windows relevant for product development, and this makes low-temperature extrapolation difficult based simply on accelerated stability studies at high temperatures. This review discusses the non-Arrhenius nature of the temperature dependence of protein aggregation, explores possible causes, and considers inherent hurdles for accurately extrapolating aggregation rates from conventional industrial approaches for selecting accelerated conditions and from conventional or more advanced methods of analyzing the resulting rate data.

  18. Turnover Among Air Force Nurses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    profession. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 8(3), 227-235. Mowday, R.T. (1984). Strategies for adapting to high rates of employee turnover. Human Resource ...Behavior and Human Performance, 17(l), 66-75. Seybolt, J.W., Pavett, C., & Walker, D.D. (1978). Turnover among nurses: It can be managed . Journal of...committee member, and friend. - John W. Seybolt, Ph.D., Assistant Dean for Graduate Studies, and Professor of Management , School of Business, for his

  19. Glucose turnover and recycling in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kokal, W A; McCulloch, A; Wright, P D; Johnston, I D

    1983-11-01

    Glucose metabolism is affected by various pathologic states including tumors. In this project, glucose turnover and recycling rates in 11 patients with colorectal carcinoma were measured using a double-labelled 3-3H and 1-14C glucose injection technique. Fasting blood glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, plasma cortisol, and plasma insulin concentrations were also measured. No patient in the study had a history of diabetes mellitus or endocrine disorders, nor any abnormal liver function tests. The findings demonstrated a significantly elevated glucose turnover rate in patients with Dukes C and D lesions in comparison to patients with Dukes B lesions. Cori recycling rates were not significantly different between Dukes B vs. Dukes C and D patients. There were no differences between Dukes B and Dukes C and D patients in any of the metabolites measured. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in glucose turnover or recycling rates as a function of pre-illness weight loss. These data suggest that, when colorectal carcinoma extends beyond the limits of the bowel wall, glucose metabolism is significantly altered.

  20. Turnover of soil monosaccharides: Recycling versus Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, Anna; Dyckmans, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a mixture of differently degradable compounds. Each of these compounds are characterised by different dynamics due to different chemical recalcitrance, transformation or stabilisation processes in soil. Carbohydrates represent one of these compounds and contribute up to 25 % to the soil organic matter. Vascular plants are the main source of pentose sugars (Arabinose and Xylose), whereas hexoses (Galactose and Mannose) are primarily produced by microorganisms. Several studies suggest that the mean turnover times of the carbon in soil sugars are similar to the turnover dynamics of the bulk carbon in soil. The aim of the study is to characterise the influence of stabilisation and turnover of soil carbohydrates. Soil samples are collected from (i) a continuous maize cropping experiment ('Höhere Landbauschule' Rotthalmünster, Bavaria) established 1979 on a Stagnic Luvisol and (ii) from a continuous wheat cropping, established 1969, as reference site. The effect of stabilisation is estimated by the comparison of turnover times of microbial and plant derived soil carbohydrates. As the dynamics of plant derived carbohydrate are solely influenced by stabilisation processes, whereas the dynamics of microbial derived carbohydrates are affected by recycling of organic carbon compounds derived by C3 plant substrate as well as stabilisation processes. The compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of soil carbohydrates was performed using a HPLC/o/IRMS system. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric subunits were coupled with a LC-Isolink interface. Soil sugars were extracted after mild hydrolysis using 4 M trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Chromatographic separation of the sugars was achieved using a low strength 0.25 mM NaOH solution as mobile phase at a ?ow rate of 250 μL min-1 at 10 ° C.

  1. Age-Dependent Protein Aggregation Initiates Amyloid-β Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Nicole; Bühler, Anika; Huang, Chaolie; Li, Ka Wan; van Nierop, Pim; Smit, August B.; Fändrich, Marcus; Baumann, Frank; David, Della C.

    2017-01-01

    Aging is the most important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases associated with pathological protein aggregation such as Alzheimer’s disease. Although aging is an important player, it remains unknown which molecular changes are relevant for disease initiation. Recently, it has become apparent that widespread protein aggregation is a common feature of aging. Indeed, several studies demonstrate that 100s of proteins become highly insoluble with age, in the absence of obvious disease processes. Yet it remains unclear how these misfolded proteins aggregating with age affect neurodegenerative diseases. Importantly, several of these aggregation-prone proteins are found as minor components in disease-associated hallmark aggregates such as amyloid-β plaques or neurofibrillary tangles. This co-localization raises the possibility that age-dependent protein aggregation directly contributes to pathological aggregation. Here, we show for the first time that highly insoluble proteins from aged Caenorhabditis elegans or aged mouse brains, but not from young individuals, can initiate amyloid-β aggregation in vitro. We tested the seeding potential at four different ages across the adult lifespan of C. elegans. Significantly, protein aggregates formed during the early stages of aging did not act as seeds for amyloid-β aggregation. Instead, we found that changes in protein aggregation occurring during middle-age initiated amyloid-β aggregation. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed several late-aggregating proteins that were previously identified as minor components of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles such as 14-3-3, Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 and Lamin A/C, highlighting these as strong candidates for cross-seeding. Overall, we demonstrate that widespread protein misfolding and aggregation with age could be critical for the initiation of pathogenesis, and thus should be targeted by therapeutic strategies to alleviate neurodegenerative

  2. The rapid yet uneven turnover of Earth's groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Jasechko, Scott; Luijendijk, Elco; Gleeson, Tom; Bayani Cardenas, M.

    2017-06-01

    The turnover of groundwater through recharge drives many processes throughout Earth's surface and subsurface. Yet groundwater turnover rates and their relationship to regional climate and geology remain largely unknown. We estimated that over 200 × 106 km3 of groundwater has recharged since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is 10 times the volume of global groundwater storage. However, flushing is very unevenly distributed throughout Earth's one million watersheds, with some aquifers turned over thousands of times to others with <1% turnover. The median global groundwater turnover of 5 ± 3 times since the LGM highlights groundwater's active role in Earth system processes. Incomplete groundwater turnover since the LGM beneath a third of land areas reveals the imprint of relict climate conditions on modern-day groundwater resources. The bulk groundwater turnover calculated here enables better quantification of groundwater's impact in dynamic global water budgets and the transport of nutrients, contaminants, and geologic weathering products.Plain Language SummaryThe duration groundwater spends in an aquifer sets how long it is sequestered from the rest of the hydrologic cycle, where it can interact with the surrounding matrix and transport dissolved chemicals to and from the land surface. Over geologic timescales, these interactions transform landscapes, <span class="hlt">affect</span> global climate, and regulate water resource sustainability and quality. We present how much groundwater has recharged since the Last Glacial Maximum and where groundwater on Earth is associated with previous climate conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17036002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17036002"><span>Long-period astronomical forcing of mammal <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Dam, Jan A; Abdul Aziz, Hayfaa; Alvarez Sierra, M Angeles; Hilgen, Frederik J; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Lourens, Lucas J; Mein, Pierre; van der Meulen, Albert J; Pelaez-Campomanes, Pablo</p> <p>2006-10-12</p> <p>Mammals are among the fastest-radiating groups, being characterized by a mean species lifespan of the order of 2.5 million years (Myr). The basis for this characteristic timescale of origination, extinction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is not well understood. Various studies have invoked climate change to explain mammalian species <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, but other studies have either challenged or only partly confirmed the climate-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> hypothesis. Here we use an exceptionally long (24.5-2.5 Myr ago), dense, and well-dated terrestrial record of rodent lineages from central Spain, and show the existence of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> cycles with periods of 2.4-2.5 and 1.0 Myr. We link these cycles to low-frequency modulations of Milankovitch oscillations, and show that pulses of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> occur at minima of the 2.37-Myr eccentricity cycle and nodes of the 1.2-Myr obliquity cycle. Because obliquity nodes and eccentricity minima are associated with ice sheet expansion and cooling and <span class="hlt">affect</span> regional precipitation, we infer that long-period astronomical climate forcing is a major determinant of species <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in small mammals and probably other groups as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=217976','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=217976"><span>Changes in eroded material and runoff as <span class="hlt">affected</span> by rain depth and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> slaking in three semi-arid region soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Seal formation, runoff and interrill soil erosion are controlled by, among other factors, soil texture, rain properties (kinetic energy and intensity), and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> slaking. Previous studies typically reported the total amounts of runoff and soil loss for an entire storm.We examined, at intervals o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17050752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17050752"><span>Effect of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on staffing: A closer look at registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, and certified nursing assistants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kash, Bita A; Castle, Nicholas G; Naufal, George S; Hawes, Catherine</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>We examined the effects of facility and market-level characteristics on staffing levels and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates for direct care staff, and we examined the effect of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on staffing levels. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,014 Texas nursing homes. Data were from the 2002 Texas Nursing Facility Medicaid Cost Report and the Area Resource File for 2003. After examining factors associated with staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, we tested the significance and impact of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on staffing levels for registered nurses (RNs), licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). All three staff types showed strong dependency on resources, such as reimbursement rates and facility payor mix. The ratio of contracted to employed nursing staff as well as RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> increased LVN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. CNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was reduced by higher administrative expenditures and higher CNA wages. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> rates significantly reduced staffing levels for RNs and CNAs. LVN staffing levels were not <span class="hlt">affected</span> by LVN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> but were influenced by market factors such as availability of LVNs in the county and women in the labor force. Staffing levels are not always associated with staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. We conclude that staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is a predictor of RN and CNA staffing levels but that LVN staffing levels are associated with market factors rather than <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Therefore, it is important to focus on management initiatives that help reduce CNA and RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and ultimately result in higher nurse staffing levels in nursing homes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27560773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27560773"><span>Inhibition of glutamate receptors reduces the homocysteine-induced whole blood platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> but does not <span class="hlt">affect</span> superoxide anion generation or platelet membrane fluidization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karolczak, Kamil; Pieniazek, Anna; Watala, Cezary</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Homocysteine (Hcy) is an excitotoxic amino acid. It is potentially possible to prevent Hcy-induced toxicity, including haemostatic impairments, by antagonizing glutaminergic receptors. Using impedance aggregometry with arachidonate and collagen as platelet agonists, we tested whether the blockade of platelet NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) and kainate receptors with their inhibitors: MK-801 (dizocilpine hydrogen maleate, [5R,10S]-[+]-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine), CNQX (7-nitro-2,3-dioxo-1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-6-carbonitrile) and UBP-302 (2-{[3-[(2S)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydropyrimidin 1(2H)-yl]methyl}benzoic acid) may hamper Hcy-dependent platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. All the tested compounds significantly inhibited Hcy-augmented <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of blood platelets stimulated either with arachidonate or collagen. Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion in whole blood samples in a concentration-dependent manner; however, this process appeared as independent on ionotropic glutamate receptors, as well as on NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C, and was not apparently associated with the extent of either arachidonate- or collagen-dependent platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Moreover, Hcy acted as a significant fluidizer of surface (more hydrophilic) and inner (more hydrophobic) regions of platelet membrane lipid bilayer, when used at the concentration range from 10 to 50 µmol/l. However, this effect was independent on the Hcy action through glutamate ionotropic receptors, since there was no effects of MK-801, CNQX or UBP-302 on Hcy-mediated membrane fluidization. In conclusion, Hcy-induced changes in whole blood platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> are mediated through the ionotopic excitotoxic receptors, although the detailed mechanisms underlying such interactions remain to be elucidated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628391G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628391G"><span>Composition analysis of fractions of extracellular polymeric substances from an activated sludge culture and identification of dominant forces <span class="hlt">affecting</span> microbial <span class="hlt">aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) appear to play a critical role in the formation of bioaggregates, such as sludge flocs, in activated sludge processes. Here, we systematically investigated the composition and chemical structure of various EPS fractions excreted from an activated sludge culture using multi-analysis techniques to examine the ability of the sludge to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>. Chemical analysis was used with a three-dimensional excitation emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, applying inter-particle forces theory. The combined findings revealed that hydrophobic groups, especially protein-related N-H, were present in a greater proportion in tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). This result, which explained the specificity of TB-EPS in the chemical structure, was consistent with data indicating that TB-EPS contained a large amount of protein-like substances (86.7 mg/g of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids, 39.7% of the total EPS). Subsequently, a novel experimental procedure was developed to pinpoint key inter-particle forces in sludge <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. The result revealed that hydrogen bonds are the predominant triggers that promote sludge <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. This comprehensive analysis indicated that hydrophobic proteins in TB-EPS are responsible for the critical role played by hydrogen bonds in sludge formation. Our findings highlight the need to elucidate the mechanisms of TB-EPS-mediated flocculation in future efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4911604','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4911604"><span>Composition analysis of fractions of extracellular polymeric substances from an activated sludge culture and identification of dominant forces <span class="hlt">affecting</span> microbial <span class="hlt">aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) appear to play a critical role in the formation of bioaggregates, such as sludge flocs, in activated sludge processes. Here, we systematically investigated the composition and chemical structure of various EPS fractions excreted from an activated sludge culture using multi-analysis techniques to examine the ability of the sludge to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>. Chemical analysis was used with a three-dimensional excitation emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, applying inter-particle forces theory. The combined findings revealed that hydrophobic groups, especially protein-related N–H, were present in a greater proportion in tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). This result, which explained the specificity of TB-EPS in the chemical structure, was consistent with data indicating that TB-EPS contained a large amount of protein-like substances (86.7 mg/g of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids, 39.7% of the total EPS). Subsequently, a novel experimental procedure was developed to pinpoint key inter-particle forces in sludge <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. The result revealed that hydrogen bonds are the predominant triggers that promote sludge <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. This comprehensive analysis indicated that hydrophobic proteins in TB-EPS are responsible for the critical role played by hydrogen bonds in sludge formation. Our findings highlight the need to elucidate the mechanisms of TB-EPS-mediated flocculation in future efforts. PMID:27311788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20148408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20148408"><span>Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and <span class="hlt">affects</span> human platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22663557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22663557"><span>When and how is job embeddedness predictive of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>? a meta-analytic investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Kaifeng; Liu, Dong; McKay, Patrick F; Lee, Thomas W; Mitchell, Terence R</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The present meta-analytic study introduces an overall model of the relationships between job embeddedness and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> outcomes. Drawing on 65 independent samples (N = 42,907), we found that on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness negatively related to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions and actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, after controlling for job satisfaction, <span class="hlt">affective</span> commitment, and job alternatives. In addition, the negative relationships between on-the-job embeddedness (off-the-job embeddedness) and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> criteria were stronger in female-dominated samples and public organizations (collectivistic countries). Finally, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions, job search behavior, and job performance fully (partially) mediated the effect of on-the-job embeddedness (off-the-job embeddedness) on actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The research and practical implications of our findings are noted, in light of study limitations and future research needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24232236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24232236"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span>, staffing, skill mix, and resident outcomes in a national sample of US nursing homes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trinkoff, Alison M; Han, Kihye; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy; Johantgen, Meg; Gartrell, Kyungsook</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The authors examined the relationship of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> to selected nursing home quality outcomes, in the context of staffing and skill mix. Staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is a serious concern in nursing homes as it has been found to adversely <span class="hlt">affect</span> care. When employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is minimized, better care quality is more likely in nursing homes. Data from the National Nursing Home Survey, a nationally representative sample of US nursing homes, were linked to Nursing Home Compare quality outcomes and analyzed using logistic regression. Nursing homes with high certified nursing assistant <span class="hlt">turnover</span> had significantly higher odds of pressure ulcers, pain, and urinary tract infections even after controlling for staffing, skill mix, bed size, and ownership. Nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was associated with twice the odds of pressure ulcers, although this was attenuated when staffing was controlled. This study suggests <span class="hlt">turnover</span> may be more important in explaining nursing home (NH) outcomes than staffing and skill mix and should therefore be given greater emphasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4209723','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4209723"><span>Transformational Leadership Moderates the Relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intention among Community Mental Health Providers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Green, Amy E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Aarons, Gregory A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively <span class="hlt">affect</span> job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers’ emotional exhaustion on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among public sector mental health providers. PMID:22052429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052429"><span>Transformational leadership moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention among community mental health providers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Green, Amy E; Miller, Elizabeth A; Aarons, Gregory A</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively <span class="hlt">affect</span> job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers' emotional exhaustion on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among public sector mental health providers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045788','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045788"><span>Construction <span class="hlt">aggregates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tepordei, V.V.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045781','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045781"><span>Construction <span class="hlt">aggregates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Construction <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045785','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045785"><span>Construction <span class="hlt">aggregates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tepordei, V.V.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=certified+AND+nurse+AND+assistant&id=EJ696315','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=certified+AND+nurse+AND+assistant&id=EJ696315"><span>Complexity Science and the Dynamics of Climate and Communication: Reducing Nursing Home <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, Ruth A.; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in nursing homes is a widespread problem adversely <span class="hlt">affecting</span> care quality. Using complexity theory, we tested the effect of administrative climate, communication patterns, and the interaction between the two on <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, controlling for facility context. Design and Methods: Perceptions of administrative climate and communication…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED571812.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED571812.pdf"><span>Dynamic Effects of Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> on the Quality of Instruction. Working Paper 170</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.; Schiman, Jeffrey C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is widely believed that teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> adversely <span class="hlt">affects</span> the quality of instruction in urban schools serving predominantly disadvantaged children, and a growing body of research investigates various components of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> effects. The evidence at first seems contradictory, as the quality of instruction appears to decline following turnover…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bet&id=EJ936838','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bet&id=EJ936838"><span>Three-Component Commitment and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: An Examination of Temporal Aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Culpepper, Robert A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>SEM (N = 182) was employed to examine implied temporal aspects of three-component commitment theory as they relate to <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Consistent with expectations, <span class="hlt">affective</span> commitment predicted subsequent <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in an immediate and relatively short interval of 4 months, but failed to do in a much longer but outlying interval of 5-12 months. Side bet…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+nursing+AND+home&pg=7&id=EJ696315','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+nursing+AND+home&pg=7&id=EJ696315"><span>Complexity Science and the Dynamics of Climate and Communication: Reducing Nursing Home <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, Ruth A.; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in nursing homes is a widespread problem adversely <span class="hlt">affecting</span> care quality. Using complexity theory, we tested the effect of administrative climate, communication patterns, and the interaction between the two on <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, controlling for facility context. Design and Methods: Perceptions of administrative climate and communication…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover+AND+cost&id=EJ902527','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover+AND+cost&id=EJ902527"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in the Advancement Profession</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Iarrobino, Jon D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Recruitment and retention is an area with which most organizations are concerned. Excessive <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has exorbitant costs and wastes valuable time. Institutions of higher education are no exception. One of the most vital operations in nonprofit colleges and universities is its Office of Institutional Advancement. More and more, an institution of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover&pg=3&id=EJ803076','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover&pg=3&id=EJ803076"><span>Relation of Principal Transformational Leadership to School Staff Job Satisfaction, Staff <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>, and School Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Griffith, James</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, the direct effect of principal transformational leadership to school staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and school performance was examined, in addition to its indirect effect through school staff job satisfaction. Survey data were obtained from elementary school staff and students, and school-<span class="hlt">aggregated</span> student achievement test scores were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498001.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498001.pdf"><span>The High Cost of Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>. Policy Brief</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In 2007, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) completed an 18-month study of the costs of teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in five school districts. The selected districts varied in size, location, and demographics enabling exploration of how these variations <span class="hlt">affected</span> costs. Costs of recruiting, hiring, processing, and training…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2547454','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2547454"><span>Peptide <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> in Finite Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Gurpreet; Brovchenko, Ivan; Oleinikova, Alla; Winter, Roland</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Universal features of the peptide <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> process suggest a common mechanism, with a first-order phase transition in aqueous solutions of the peptides being the driving force. Small system sizes strongly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the stability of the minor phase in the two-phase region. We show manifestations of this effect in aqueous solutions of fragments of the islet amyloid polypeptide, using computer simulation methods and invoking various approaches in characterizing clustering and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> formation. These systems with peptide concentrations deeply inside the immiscibility region show two distinct stable states, which interchange with time: one state contains a peptide <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>; and the other state has an <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> that is noticeably dissolved. The first state is relevant for macroscopic systems, whereas the second one is artificial. At a fixed concentration, the occurrence probability of the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> state vanishes upon decreasing the system size, thus indicating the necessity to apply a finite size-scaling for meaningful studies of peptide <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> by simulations. The effect observed may be one of the factors responsible for the difference between intracellular and extracellular <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and fibrillization of polypeptides. The finite size of biological cells or their compartments may be playing a decisive role in hampering intracellular <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of highly insoluble amyloidogenic proteins, whereas <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is unavoidable in the extracellular space at the same peptide concentration. PMID:18621830</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23482417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23482417"><span>Diabetes, biochemical markers of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, diabetes control, and bone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Starup-Linde, Jakob</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may <span class="hlt">affect</span> bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone markers and the similarities and differences of type 1- and type 2-diabetics regarding bone markers will be evaluated. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and SveMed+ with the search terms: "Diabetes mellitus," "Diabetes mellitus type 1," "Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus," "Diabetes mellitus type 2," "Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus," "Bone," "Bone and Bones," "Bone diseases," "Bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>," "Hemoglobin A Glycosylated," and "HbA1C." After removing duplicates from this search 1,188 records were screened by title and abstract and 75 records were assessed by full text for inclusion in the review. In the end 43 records were chosen. Bone formation and resorption markers are investigated as well as bone regulating systems. T1D is found to have lower osteocalcin and CTX, while osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid are found to be lower in T2D, and sclerostin is increased and collagen <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers altered. Other bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers do not seem to be altered in T1D or T2D. A major problem is the lack of histomorphometric studies in humans linking changes in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers to actual changes in bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and further research is needed to strengthen this link.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19293605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19293605"><span>Bone and bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crofton, Patricia M</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely <span class="hlt">affect</span> bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relative+AND+measurement+AND+error&pg=6&id=EJ742751','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relative+AND+measurement+AND+error&pg=6&id=EJ742751"><span>Measuring Staff <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Nursing Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Castle, Nicholas G.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: In this study the levels of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> reported in the nursing home literature (1990-2003) are reviewed, as well as the definitions of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> used in these prior studies. With the use of primary data collected from 354 facilities, the study addresses the various degrees of bias that result, depending on how staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is defined…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Turnover+AND+PERSONAL&pg=7&id=EJ242045','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Turnover+AND+PERSONAL&pg=7&id=EJ242045"><span>Predictors of <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of Female Factory Workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koch, James L.; Rhodes, Susan R.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Examines predictors of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of female factory workers in a multivariate framework. Findings indicate that organizational, job, and personal characteristics are equally important in explaining <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Variables significantly related to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are tenure, cycle time, peer leadership, communication flow, training time, family income, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=disruptive+AND+model&pg=7&id=EJ995828','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=disruptive+AND+model&pg=7&id=EJ995828"><span>How Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Harms Student Achievement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on over 850,000 New York…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=connotation&pg=7&id=EJ864762','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=connotation&pg=7&id=EJ864762"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> as a Recruitment Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Duncan, Sandra</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is notoriously high in the field of early childhood education with an estimated 33% of staff exiting the workplace each year. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> is costly. Not only do high levels of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> negatively impact children's growth and development, it also erodes the program's economic stability and wherewithal to provide effective operations…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover&id=EJ742751','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover&id=EJ742751"><span>Measuring Staff <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Nursing Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Castle, Nicholas G.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: In this study the levels of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> reported in the nursing home literature (1990-2003) are reviewed, as well as the definitions of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> used in these prior studies. With the use of primary data collected from 354 facilities, the study addresses the various degrees of bias that result, depending on how staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is defined…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Programming+AND+children&pg=5&id=EJ864762','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Programming+AND+children&pg=5&id=EJ864762"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> as a Recruitment Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Duncan, Sandra</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is notoriously high in the field of early childhood education with an estimated 33% of staff exiting the workplace each year. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> is costly. Not only do high levels of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> negatively impact children's growth and development, it also erodes the program's economic stability and wherewithal to provide effective operations…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Costs%2c&pg=7&id=EJ1002016','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Costs%2c&pg=7&id=EJ1002016"><span>Estimating Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Costs: A Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levy, Abigail Jurist; Joy, Lois; Ellis, Pamela; Jablonski, Erica; Karelitz, Tzur M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>High teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in large U.S. cities is a critical issue for schools and districts, and the students they serve; but surprisingly little work has been done to develop methodologies and standards that districts and schools can use to make reliable estimates of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs. Even less is known about how to detect variations in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4710634','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4710634"><span>Cytoplasmic mRNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and ageing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borbolis, Fivos; Syntichaki, Popi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Messenger RNA (mRNA) <span class="hlt">turnover</span> that determines the lifetime of cytoplasmic mRNAs is a means to control gene expression under both normal and stress conditions, whereas its impact on ageing and age-related disorders has just become evident. Gene expression control is achieved at the level of the mRNA clearance as well as mRNA stability and accessibility to other molecules. All these processes are regulated by cis-acting motifs and trans-acting factors that determine the rates of translation and degradation of transcripts. Specific messenger RNA granules that harbor the mRNA decay machinery or various factors, involved in translational repression and transient storage of mRNAs, are also part of the mRNA fate regulation. Their assembly and function can be modulated to promote stress resistance to adverse conditions and over time <span class="hlt">affect</span> the ageing process and the lifespan of the organism. Here, we provide insights into the complex relationships of ageing modulators and mRNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span> mechanisms. PMID:26432921</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24333591','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24333591"><span>Liposomes bi-functionalized with phosphatidic acid and an ApoE-derived peptide <span class="hlt">affect</span> Aβ <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> features and cross the blood-brain-barrier: implications for therapy of Alzheimer disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bana, Laura; Minniti, Stefania; Salvati, Elisa; Sesana, Silvia; Zambelli, Vanessa; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Orlando, Antonina; Cazzaniga, Emanuela; Zwart, Rob; Scheper, Wiep; Masserini, Massimo; Re, Francesca</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Targeting amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) within the brain is a strategy actively sought for therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the ability of liposomes bi-functionalized with phosphatidic acid and with a modified ApoE-derived peptide (mApoE-PA-LIP) to <span class="hlt">affect</span> Aβ <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>/disaggregation features and to cross in vitro and in vivo the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Surface plasmon resonance showed that bi-functionalized liposomes strongly bind Aβ (kD=0.6 μM), while Thioflavin-T and SDS-PAGE/WB assays show that liposomes inhibit peptide <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> (70% inhibition after 72 h) and trigger the disaggregation of preformed <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> (60% decrease after 120 h incubation). Moreover, experiments with dually radiolabelled LIP suggest that bi-functionalization enhances the passage of radioactivity across the BBB either in vitro (permeability=2.5×10(-5) cm/min, 5-fold higher with respect to mono-functionalized liposomes) or in vivo in healthy mice. Taken together, our results suggest that mApoE-PA-LIP are valuable nanodevices with a potential applicability in vivo for the treatment of AD. From the clinical editor: Bi-functionalized liposomes with phosphatidic acid and a modified ApoE-derived peptide were demonstrated to influence Aβ <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>/disaggregation as a potential treatment in an Alzheimer's model. The liposomes were able to cross the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in vivo. Similar liposomes may become clinically valuable nanodevices with a potential applicability for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057144&hterms=bone+density&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbone%2Bdensity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057144&hterms=bone+density&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbone%2Bdensity"><span>Altered bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> during spaceflight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turner, R. T.; Morey, E. R.; Liu, C.; Baylink, D. J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Modifications in calcium metabolism during spaceflight were studied, using parameters that reflect bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Bone formation rate, medullary area, bone length, bone density, pore size distribution, and differential bone cell number were evaluated in growing rate both immediately after and 25 days after orbital spaceflights aboard the Soviet biological satellites Cosmos 782 and 936. The primary effect of space flight on bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was a reversible inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface. A simultaneous increase in the length of the periosteal arrest line suggests that bone formation ceased along corresponding portions of that surface. Possible reasons include increased secretion of glucocorticoids and mechanical unloading of the skeleton due to near-weightlessness, while starvation and immobilization are excluded as causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057144&hterms=periosteal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dperiosteal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057144&hterms=periosteal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dperiosteal"><span>Altered bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> during spaceflight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turner, R. T.; Morey, E. R.; Liu, C.; Baylink, D. J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Modifications in calcium metabolism during spaceflight were studied, using parameters that reflect bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Bone formation rate, medullary area, bone length, bone density, pore size distribution, and differential bone cell number were evaluated in growing rate both immediately after and 25 days after orbital spaceflights aboard the Soviet biological satellites Cosmos 782 and 936. The primary effect of space flight on bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was a reversible inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface. A simultaneous increase in the length of the periosteal arrest line suggests that bone formation ceased along corresponding portions of that surface. Possible reasons include increased secretion of glucocorticoids and mechanical unloading of the skeleton due to near-weightlessness, while starvation and immobilization are excluded as causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10106673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10106673"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: strategies for staff retention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>SnowAntle, S</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050232055&hterms=1074&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231074','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050232055&hterms=1074&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231074"><span>Surface characteristics of spacecraft components <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10 degrees C), and high CO(2) gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18495660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18495660"><span>Promiscuous modification of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein by multiple protein-arginine methyltransferases does not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fronz, Katharina; Otto, Silke; Kölbel, Knut; Kühn, Uwe; Friedrich, Henning; Schierhorn, Angelika; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Wahle, Elmar</p> <p>2008-07-18</p> <p>The mammalian nuclear poly(A)-binding protein, PABPN1, carries 13 asymmetrically dimethylated arginine residues in its C-terminal domain. By fractionation of cell extracts, we found that protein-arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs)-1, -3, and -6 are responsible for the modification of PABPN1. Recombinant PRMT1, -3, and -6 also methylated PABPN1. Our data suggest that these enzymes act on their own, and additional polypeptides are not involved in recognizing PABPN1 as a substrate. PRMT1 is the predominant methyltransferase acting on PABPN1. Nevertheless, PABPN1 was almost fully methylated in a Prmt1(-/-) cell line; thus, PRMT3 and -6 suffice for methylation. In contrast to PABPN1, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is selectively methylated only by PRMT1. Efficient methylation of synthetic peptides derived from PABPN1 or hnRNP K suggested that PRMT1, -3, and -6 recognize their substrates by interacting with local amino acid sequences and not with additional domains of the substrates. However, the use of fusion proteins suggested that the inability of PRMT3 and -6 to modify hnRNP K is because of structural masking of the methyl-accepting amino acid sequences by neighboring domains. Mutations leading to intracellular <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of PABPN1 cause the disease oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. The C-terminal domain containing the methylated arginine residues is known to promote PAPBN1 self-association, and arginine methylation has been reported to inhibit self-association of an orthologous protein. Thus, arginine methylation might be relevant for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. However, in two different types of assays we have been unable to detect any effect of arginine methylation on the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of bovine PABPN1.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AsBio...5..545S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AsBio...5..545S"><span>Surface Characteristics of Spacecraft Components <span class="hlt">Affect</span> the <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> of Microorganisms and May Lead to Different Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuerger, Andrew W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10°C), and high CO2 gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16078871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16078871"><span>Surface characteristics of spacecraft components <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schuerger, Andrew C; Richards, Jeffrey T; Hintze, Paul E; Kern, Roger G</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10 degrees C), and high CO(2) gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050232055&hterms=bacteria&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbacteria','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050232055&hterms=bacteria&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbacteria"><span>Surface characteristics of spacecraft components <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10 degrees C), and high CO(2) gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2271037','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2271037"><span>Complexity Science and the Dynamics of Climate and Communication: Reducing Nursing Home <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anderson, Ruth A.; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; McDaniel, Reuben R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Purpose <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in nursing homes is a widespread problem adversely <span class="hlt">affecting</span> care quality. Using complexity theory, we tested the effect of administrative climate, communication patterns, and the interaction between the two on <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, controlling for facility context. Design and Methods Perceptions of administrative climate and communication were collected from 3,449 employees in 164 randomly sampled nursing homes, and they were linked to secondary data on facility characteristics, resource allocation, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. We used hierarchical regression to test the hypotheses. Results Climate and communication both <span class="hlt">affected</span> <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, but lower <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was dependent on the interaction between climate and communication. In nursing homes with reward-based administrative climates, higher levels of communication openness and accuracy explained lower <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of licensed vocational nurses and certified nurse assistants, relative to nursing homes with an ambiguous climate. Adequate staffing and longer tenure of the nursing director were also important predictors of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Implications Although context is important, managers can also influence <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by addressing climate and communication patterns and by encouraging stable nursing leadership. PMID:15197292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18405459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18405459"><span>Premature red blood cells have decreased <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and enhanced <span class="hlt">aggregability</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arbell, D; Orkin, B; Bar-Oz, B; Barshtein, G; Yedgar, S</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Preterm infants are highly susceptible to ischemic damage. This damage is most obvious in the brain, retina, and gastrointestinal tract. Studies focusing on the rheological properties of premature red blood cells (pRBCs) have consistently shown minimal or no RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Previously, measurements of pRBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> kinetics indicated that specific plasma properties are responsible for the decreased RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> observed in the neonates, but that their specific RBC properties do not <span class="hlt">affect</span> it. However, the strength of interaction in the pRBC <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> as a function of medium composition has not been tested. In our previous research, we described clinically relevant parameters, that is, the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> resistance to disaggregation by flow. With the help of a cell flow property analyzer (CFA), we can monitor RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> by direct visualization of its dynamics during flow. We used the CFA to examine pRBC (from 9 premature babies) in the natural plasma and in PBS buffer supplemented with dextran (500 kDa) to distinguish between RBC intrinsic-cellular and plasma factors. pRBCs suspended in the native plasma showed minimal or no <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in comparison to normal adult RBC. When we transferred pRBCs from the same sample to the dextran solution, enhanced resistance to disaggregation by flow was apparent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6939280','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6939280"><span>Methyl group <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins during chemotaxis by Bacillus subtilis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thoelke, M.S.; Casper, J.M.; Ordal, G.W. )</p> <p>1990-02-05</p> <p>The addition of attractant to Bacillus subtilis briefly exposed to radioactive methionine causes an increase of labeling of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins. The addition of attractant to cells radiolabeled for longer times shows no change in the extent of methylation. Therefore, the increase in labeling for the briefly labeled cells is due to an increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of methyl groups caused by attractant. All amino acids gave enhanced <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. This <span class="hlt">turnover</span> lasted for a prolonged time, probably spanning the period of smooth swimming caused by the attractant addition. Repellent did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> when added alone or simultaneously with attractant. Thus, for amino acid attractants, the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is probably the excitatory signal, which is seen to extend long into or throughout the adaptation period, not just at the start of it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457013','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457013"><span>Patient <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and the relationship between nurse staffing and patient outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Shin Hye; Blegen, Mary A; Spetz, Joanne; Chapman, Susan A; De Groot, Holly</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>High patient <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (patient throughput generated by admissions, discharges, and transfers) contributes to increased demands and resources for care. We examined how the relationship between registered nurse (RN) staffing and failure-to-rescue (FTR) varied with patient <span class="hlt">turnover</span> levels by analyzing quarterly data from the University HealthSystem Consortium. The data included 42 hospitals, representing 759 nursing units and about 1 million inpatients. Higher RN staffing was associated with lower FTR. When patient <span class="hlt">turnover</span> increased from 48.6% to 60.7% on nonintensive units (non-ICUs), the beneficial effect of non-ICU RN staffing on FTR was reduced by 11.5%. RN staffing should be adjusted according to patient <span class="hlt">turnover</span> because <span class="hlt">turnover</span> increases patient care demand beyond that presented by patient count, and outcomes may be adversely <span class="hlt">affected</span>. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1361595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1361595"><span>Bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in malnourished children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Branca, F; Robins, S P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Golden, M H</p> <p></p> <p>Pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) are cross-linking aminoacids of collagen that are located mainly in bone and cartilage. When bone matrix is resorbed these cross-links are quantitatively excreted in the urine and therefore represent specific markers. We have measured the urinary excretion rate of PYD and DPD in 46 severely malnourished boys to assess their skeletal <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and to relate this to their subsequent rate of growth. The children were aged 13 months (SD 6), and height-for-age was -3.6 (1.6) Z-score, and weight-for-height was -2.4 (0.8) Z-score. PYD excretion when malnourished and after "recovery" was 11.2 (4.6) nmol h-1m-2 and 32.2 (10.8) nmol h-1m-2 and DPD excretion was 2.6 (1.3) nmol h-1m-2 and 7.5 (3.0) nmol h-1m-2, respectively. The ratio of the two cross-links did not change with recovery. These data show that cartilage and bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is much lower in the malnourished than in the recovered child. There was no difference in the degree of depression of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> between the children with marasmus, marasmic-kwashiorkor, or kwashiorkor. The rate of height gain during recovery was significantly related to cross-link excretion, age, and weight-for-height on admission. These three factors accounted for 44% of the variance in the height velocity of the children. PYD and DPD excretion rate could be used to assess therapeutic interventions designed to alleviate stunting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27191663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27191663"><span>Serum phosphorus adds to value of serum parathyroid hormone for assessment of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in renal osteodystrophy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gentry, Jimmy; Webb, Jonathan; Davenport, Daniel; Malluche, Hartmut H</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>It is well-established that parathyroid hormone (PTH) correlates with the level of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5D (CKD-5D). Hyperphosphatemia is a well-established complication of end-stage renal disease and is usually attributed to dietary intake. This study evaluates the relationship between serum phosphorus levels and bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in patients with CKD-5D. 93 patients with CKD-5D from the Kentucky Bone Registry who had sequentially undergone anterior iliac bone biopsies were reviewed. Undecalcified bone sections were qualitatively assessed for <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and placed into a group with low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and a group with non-low (normal/high) <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Results of PTH and phosphorus concentrations in blood drawn at the time of biopsies were compared between the groups. PTH and phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the non-low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> group compared to the low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> group. Cutoff levels for PTH and phosphorus were tested for predictive power of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Both PTH and phosphorus correlated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Adding serum phosphorus to serum PTH enhanced predictive power of PTH for low <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The vast majority of patients with serum phosphorus levels ≥ 6.0 mg/dL had non-low <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, while the majority of those with low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> had phosphorus values < 6.0 mg/dL. Classification and regression-tree analysis showed that elevated serum phosphorus (> 6.2 mg/dL) in patients with PTH < 440 pg/mL was helpful in diagnosing nonlow <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in this range of PTH. In patients with PTH ranges of 440 - 814 pg/mL, serum phosphorus levels > 4.55 mg/dL ruled out low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> bone disease. This suggests that not only dietary intake but also bone <span class="hlt">affects</span> serum phosphorus levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3853253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3853253"><span>Determinants of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among nursing department employees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Curry, J P; Wakefield, D S; Price, J L; Mueller, C W; McCloskey, J C</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>A causal model of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, or quitting, among hospital nursing department employees was evaluated. This model includes job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to leave as intervening variables that mediate 13 determinants of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The sample consisted of 841 female nursing department employees selected from five hospitals in a western state. Attitudinal and background data were obtained through a mail questionnaire survey, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was monitored for 18 months following the survey. Intent to leave had a strong direct effect on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> while kinship responsibility, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment had indirect effects on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> through intent to leave. Task repetitiveness, autonomy, promotional opportunities, and fairness of rewards were important determinants of jobs satisfaction and thus provide a mechanism whereby hospital management may enhance commitment to the organization while reducing <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18157000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18157000"><span>Revisiting nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs: adjusting for inflation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Cheryl Bland</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Organizational knowledge of nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs is important, but gathering these data frequently may not always be feasible in today's fast-paced and complex healthcare environment. The author presents a method to inflation adjust baseline nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs using the Consumer Price Index. This approach allows nurse executives to gain current knowledge of organizational nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs when primary data collection is not practical and to determine costs and potential savings if nurse retention investments are made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5175399','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5175399"><span>Expression, purification, and analysis of three recombinant ECD disintegrins (r-colombistatins) from P-III class snake venom metalloproteinases <span class="hlt">affecting</span> platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and SK-MEL-28 cell adhesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suntravat, Montamas; Helmke, Thomas J.; Atphaisit, Chairat; Cuevas, Esteban; Lucena, Sara E.; Uzcátegui, Nestor L.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Crotalid venoms are rich sources of components that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the hemostatic system. Snake venom metalloproteinases are zinc-dependent enzymes responsible for hemorrhage that also interfere with hemostasis. The disintegrin domain is a part of snake venom metalloproteinases, which involves the binding of integrin receptors. Integrins play an essential role in cancer survival and invasion, and they have been major targets for drug development and design. Both native and recombinant disintegrins have been widely investigated for their anti-cancer activities in biological systems as well as in vitro and in vivo systems. Here, three new cDNAs encoding ECD disintegrin-like domains of metalloproteinase precursor sequences obtained from a Venezuelan mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) venom gland cDNA library have been cloned. Three different N- and C-terminal truncated ECD disintegrin-like domains of metalloproteinases named colombistatins 2, 3, and 4 were amplified by PCR, cloned into a pGEX-4T-1 vector, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and tested for inhibition of platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and inhibition of adhesion of human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28) cancer cell lines on collagen I. Purified recombinant colombistatins 2, 3, and 4 were able to inhibit ristocetin- and collagen-induced platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. r-Colombistatins 2 showed the most potent inhibiting SK-Mel-28 cancer cells adhesion to collagen. These results suggest that colombistatins may have utility in the development of therapeutic tools in the treatment of melanoma cancers and also thrombotic diseases. PMID:27641750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19860812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19860812"><span>Alcohol, signaling, and ECM <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seth, Devanshi; D'Souza El-Guindy, Nympha B; Apte, Minoti; Mari, Montserrat; Dooley, Steven; Neuman, Manuela; Haber, Paul S; Kundu, Gopal C; Darwanto, Agus; de Villiers, Willem J; Vonlaufen, A; Xu, Z; Phillips, P; Yang, S; Goldstein, D; Pirola, R M; Wilson, J S; Moles, Anna; Fernández, Anna; Colell, Anna; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Meyer, Christoph; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Alcohol is recognized as a direct hepatotoxin, but the precise molecular pathways that are important for the initiation and progression of alcohol-induced tissue injury are not completely understood. The current understanding of alcohol toxicity to organs suggests that alcohol initiates injury by generation of oxidative and nonoxidative ethanol metabolites and via translocation of gut-derived endotoxin. These processes lead to cellular injury and stimulation of the inflammatory responses mediated through a variety of molecules. With continuing alcohol abuse, the injury progresses through impairment of tissue regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, leading to fibrogenesis and cirrhosis. Several cell types are involved in this process, the predominant being stellate cells, macrophages, and parenchymal cells. In response to alcohol, growth factors and cytokines activate many signaling cascades that regulate fibrogenesis. This mini-review brings together research focusing on the underlying mechanisms of alcohol-mediated injury in a number of organs. It highlights the various processes and molecules that are likely involved in inflammation, immune modulation, susceptibility to infection, ECM <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and fibrogenesis in the liver, pancreas, and lung triggered by alcohol abuse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19648834','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19648834"><span>The costs of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in nursing homes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. To estimate the net costs associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of direct care staff in nursing homes. DATA AND SAMPLE: Nine hundred two nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set, Medicare enrollment files, Census, and Area Resource File. We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate. Instrumental variable limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and costs. The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The instrumental variable estimate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs was negative and significant (P = 0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10% point increase in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. The net savings associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2761533','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2761533"><span>The costs of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in nursing homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mukamel, Dana B.; Spector, William D.; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. Objectives To estimate the net costs associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of direct care staff in nursing homes. Data and sample 902 nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), Medicare enrollment files, Census and Area Resource File (ARF). Research Design We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate. Instrumental variable (IV) limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and costs. Results The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The IV estimate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs was negative and significant (p=0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10 percentage point increase in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. Conclusion The net savings associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and costs. PMID:19648834</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296701','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296701"><span>Guide to good practices for operations <span class="hlt">turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>, Chapter XII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing operations <span class="hlt">turnover</span> programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a formal operations <span class="hlt">turnover</span> program to promote safe and efficient operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARD12014B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARD12014B"><span>Structure of Viral <span class="hlt">Aggregates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution <span class="hlt">affects</span> the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...842...11S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...842...11S"><span>Heating of Porous Icy Dust <span class="hlt">Aggregates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sirono, Sin-iti</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>At the beginning of planetary formation, highly porous dust <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are formed through coagulation of dust grains. Outside the snowline, the main component of an <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> is H2O ice. Because H2O ice is formed in amorphous form, its thermal conductivity is extremely small. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of an icy dust <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> is low. There is a possibility of heating inside an <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> owing to the decay of radionuclides. It is shown that the temperature increases substantially inside an <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>, leading to crystallization of amorphous ice. During the crystallization, the temperature further increases sufficiently to continue sintering. The mechanical properties of icy dust <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> change, and the collisional evolution of dust <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the sintering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28522393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28522393"><span>Protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>: From background to inhibition strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alam, Parvez; Siddiqi, Khursheed; Chturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Khan, Rizwan Hasan</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of specific proteins is hypothesized to cause several pathological conditions, which are collectively known as amyloid disorders. The <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of peptides and proteins is mainly associated with the perturbation of cellular function, ageing and various human disorders. Mounting evidence suggests that protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is often caused by mutation, environmental stress or the cellular response to an imbalanced protein homeostasis. This review summarizes the background information on the protein folding, misfolding, cellular strategies against protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and mechanism of protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. We then focus on various inhibitors for protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude with a perspective that better therapeutics could be developed by using cocktail of small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of amyloid diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=push+AND+pull+AND+theory&id=EJ933895','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=push+AND+pull+AND+theory&id=EJ933895"><span>Dynamic Aspects of Voluntary <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: An Integrated Approach to Curvilinearity in the Performance-<span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Relationship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Becker, William J.; Cropanzano, Russell</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Previous research pertaining to job performance and voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has been guided by 2 distinct theoretical perspectives. First, the push-pull model proposes that there is a quadratic or curvilinear relationship existing between these 2 variables. Second, the unfolding model of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> posits that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is a dynamic process and that a…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=predictor+AND+human+AND+organizational+AND+performance&id=EJ933895','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=predictor+AND+human+AND+organizational+AND+performance&id=EJ933895"><span>Dynamic Aspects of Voluntary <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: An Integrated Approach to Curvilinearity in the Performance-<span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Relationship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Becker, William J.; Cropanzano, Russell</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Previous research pertaining to job performance and voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has been guided by 2 distinct theoretical perspectives. First, the push-pull model proposes that there is a quadratic or curvilinear relationship existing between these 2 variables. Second, the unfolding model of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> posits that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is a dynamic process and that a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28253932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28253932"><span>Does the low prevalence <span class="hlt">affect</span> the sample size of interventional clinical trials of rare diseases? An analysis of data from the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> analysis of clinicaltrials.gov.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hee, Siew Wan; Willis, Adrian; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Day, Simon; Miller, Frank; Madan, Jason; Posch, Martin; Zohar, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel</p> <p>2017-03-02</p> <p>Clinical trials are typically designed using the classical frequentist framework to constrain type I and II error rates. Sample sizes required in such designs typically range from hundreds to thousands of patients which can be challenging for rare diseases. It has been shown that rare disease trials have smaller sample sizes than non-rare disease trials. Indeed some orphan drugs were approved by the European Medicines Agency based on studies with as few as 12 patients. However, some studies supporting marketing authorisation included several hundred patients. In this work, we explore the relationship between disease prevalence and other factors and the size of interventional phase 2 and 3 rare disease trials conducted in the US and/or EU. We downloaded all clinical trials from <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> Analysis of ClinialTrials.gov (AACT) and identified rare disease trials by cross-referencing MeSH terms in AACT with the list from Orphadata. We examined the effects of prevalence and phase of study in a multiple linear regression model adjusting for other statistically significant trial characteristics. Of 186941 ClinicalTrials.gov trials only 1567 (0.8%) studied a single rare condition with prevalence information from Orphadata. There were 19 (1.2%) trials studying disease with prevalence <1/1,000,000, 126 (8.0%) trials with 1-9/1,000,000, 791 (50.5%) trials with 1-9/100,000 and 631 (40.3%) trials with 1-5/10,000. Of the 1567 trials, 1160 (74%) were phase 2 trials. The fitted mean sample size for the rarest disease (prevalence <1/1,000,000) in phase 2 trials was the lowest (mean, 15.7; 95% CI, 8.7-28.1) but were similar across all the other prevalence classes; mean, 26.2 (16.1-42.6), 33.8 (22.1-51.7) and 35.6 (23.3-54.3) for prevalence 1-9/1,000,000, 1-9/100,000 and 1-5/10,000, respectively. Fitted mean size of phase 3 trials of rarer diseases, <1/1,000,000 (19.2, 6.9-53.2) and 1-9/1,000,000 (33.1, 18.6-58.9), were similar to those in phase 2 but were statistically significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28156041','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28156041"><span>Interaction rewiring and the rapid <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of plant-pollinator networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>CaraDonna, Paul J; Petry, William K; Brennan, Ross M; Cunningham, James L; Bronstein, Judith L; Waser, Nickolas M; Sanders, Nathan J</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Whether species interactions are static or change over time has wide-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, species interaction networks are typically constructed from temporally <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> interaction data, thereby implicitly assuming that interactions are fixed. This approach has advanced our understanding of communities, but it obscures the timescale at which interactions form (or dissolve) and the drivers and consequences of such dynamics. We address this knowledge gap by quantifying the within-season <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of plant-pollinator interactions from weekly censuses across 3 years in a subalpine ecosystem. Week-to-week <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of interactions (1) was high, (2) followed a consistent seasonal progression in all years of study and (3) was dominated by interaction rewiring (the reassembly of interactions among species). Simulation models revealed that species' phenologies and relative abundances constrained both total interaction <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and rewiring. Our findings reveal the diversity of species interactions that may be missed when the temporal dynamics of networks are ignored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20127620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20127620"><span>[A study of work values, professional commitment, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention and related factors among clinical nurses].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Kuei-Ying; Chou, Chuan-Chiang; Huang, Jui-Lan</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>The high rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in nursing positions is a global problem. There have been few studies done addressing the relationship between work values and nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between work values, professional commitment and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention among clinical nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 1st to March 10th, 2008 on a convenience sample of nurses, all of whom had at least a half year of work experience at one of four teaching hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 289 valid responses were received, with a response rate of 96.3%. Major findings included: (1) Nurses who were older, had more years of school, had worked more years, held specific job duties, earned a higher salary, held Buddhist beliefs, or were married with two or more children presented higher work values and professional commitment and lower <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention; (2) As a group, total work values and professional commitment scores corresponded negatively with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention scores; (3) Significant factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent in clinical nurses included professional commitment, institution characteristics, Buddhist beliefs and salary. These four variables accounted for 52.2% of the variation in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. This study indicated that nurses with higher work values and professional commitment tend to exhibit less <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. It is highly recommended to develop strategies to bolster the teaching of altruistic values and professional commitment in nursing education in order to reduce <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent. Also, further studies on the influence of religious beliefs and organizational attributes on nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions are also suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Turnover+AND+PERSONAL&pg=7&id=EJ197645','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Turnover+AND+PERSONAL&pg=7&id=EJ197645"><span>Employee <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: An Empirical and Methodological Assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muchinsky, Paul M.; Tuttle, Mark L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Reviews research on the prediction of employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Groups predictor variables into five general categories: attitudinal (job satisfaction), biodata, work-related, personal, and test-score predictors. Consistent relationships between common predictor variables and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were found for four categories. Eight methodological problems/issues…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9287799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9287799"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> among nursing home staff. A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen-Mansfield, J</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> is especially critical in nursing homes: continuity of care and personal relationships between care-givers and residents are important determinants of quality of care. Additionally, for the cognitively impaired nursing home resident, constant change of staff is bound to aggravate disorientation. Research demonstrates links between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and employment/employee characteristics and employment availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544706.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544706.pdf"><span>Principal <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>. Information Capsule. Volume 0914</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blazer, Christie</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies indicate that school districts are facing increasing rates of principal <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Frequent principal changes deprive schools of the leadership stability they need to succeed, disrupt long-term school reform efforts, and may even be linked to increased teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and lower levels of student achievement. This Information Capsule…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997286"><span>Social disadvantage and network <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cornwell, Benjamin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups--especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)--experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents' confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants--especially due to death--than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals' poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4342724','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4342724"><span>Social Disadvantage and Network <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3607227','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3607227"><span>Cellular Strategies for Regulating Functional and Nonfunctional Protein <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M. Madan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary Growing evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>? We reveal that <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Genetic modulators that enhance the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/<span class="hlt">aggregate</span> form, as explained by Le Chatelier’s principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and keep functional assemblies/<span class="hlt">aggregates</span> under control. PMID:23168257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22975932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22975932"><span>Erythrocyte <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>: basic aspects and clinical importance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baskurt, Oguz K; Meiselman, Herbert J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Red blood cell (RBC) <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> to form two- and three-dimensional structures when suspended in aqueous solutions containing large plasma proteins or polymers; this <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is reversible and shear dependent (i.e., dispersed at high shear and reformed at low or stasis). The extent of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is the main determinant of low shear blood viscosity, thus predicting an inverse relationship between <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and in vivo blood flow. However, the effects of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> on hemodynamic mechanisms (e.g., plasma skimming, Fåhraeus Effect, microvascular hematocrit) may promote rather than impede vascular blood flow. The impact of enhanced RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> on endothelial function and hemostatic mechanisms adds further complexity, thereby requiring specific attention to the nature, extent and time course of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> when considering its overall influence on tissue perfusion. A detailed understanding of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> effects is important from a clinical point of view since it may be enhanced during a variety of pathophysiological processes, including infections, circulatory and metabolic disorders, hematological pathologies and several other disease states. Altered RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> may be an indicator of disease as well as a factor <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the course of the clinical condition; the prognostic value of RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> indices has been demonstrated in various diseases. Currently, RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is an easily and accurately measurable parameter, and therefore may be expected to have broader clinical usage in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8456143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8456143"><span>Predictors of physical therapy faculty job <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Radtka, S</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine what factors are predictive of job <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of faculty in physical therapy education programs. Four hundred six physical therapy faculty and 92 academic program directors participated in the study. Data were collected from two questionnaires mailed to the participants. Fifteen predictors of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were tested, using correlational and multiple regression analyses for data on faculty and education programs. Findings showed that 10% of the faculty resigned within a 1-year period. Low, but significant, correlations were found between higher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and fewer years of employment, behavioral intentions to leave, lower salary, higher job stress, and baccalaureate programs. Multiple regression analysis revealed that education programs with faculty having fewer years of employment and the availability of many job alternatives demonstrated significantly higher <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Measures to reduce <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, including faculty recruitment and retention plans, job redesign strategies, and faculty development programs for new faculty, are recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476194"><span>Concurrent and lagged effects of registered nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and staffing on unit-acquired pressure ulcers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Shin Hye; Boyle, Diane K; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Staggs, Vincent S; Dunton, Nancy E</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We examined the concurrent and lagged effects of registered nurse (RN) <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on unit-acquired pressure ulcer rates and whether RN staffing mediated the effects. Quarterly unit-level data were obtained from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators for 2008 to 2010. A total of 10,935 unit-quarter observations (2,294 units, 465 hospitals) were analyzed. This longitudinal study used multilevel regressions and tested time-lagged effects of study variables on outcomes. The lagged effect of RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on unit-acquired pressure ulcers was significant, while there was no concurrent effect. For every 10 percentage-point increase in RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in a quarter, the odds of a patient having a pressure ulcer increased by 4 percent in the next quarter. Higher RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in a quarter was associated with lower RN staffing in the current and subsequent quarters. Higher RN staffing was associated with lower pressure ulcer rates, but it did not mediate the relationship between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and pressure ulcers. We suggest that RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is an important factor that <span class="hlt">affects</span> pressure ulcer rates and RN staffing needed for high-quality patient care. Given the high RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates, hospital and nursing administrators should prepare for its negative effect on patient outcomes. © Health Research and Educational Trust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4239846','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4239846"><span>Concurrent and Lagged Effects of Registered Nurse <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and Staffing on Unit-Acquired Pressure Ulcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Shin Hye; Boyle, Diane K; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Staggs, Vincent S; Dunton, Nancy E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective We examined the concurrent and lagged effects of registered nurse (RN) <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on unit-acquired pressure ulcer rates and whether RN staffing mediated the effects. Data Sources/Setting Quarterly unit-level data were obtained from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators for 2008 to 2010. A total of 10,935 unit-quarter observations (2,294 units, 465 hospitals) were analyzed. Methods This longitudinal study used multilevel regressions and tested time-lagged effects of study variables on outcomes. Findings The lagged effect of RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on unit-acquired pressure ulcers was significant, while there was no concurrent effect. For every 10 percentage-point increase in RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in a quarter, the odds of a patient having a pressure ulcer increased by 4 percent in the next quarter. Higher RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in a quarter was associated with lower RN staffing in the current and subsequent quarters. Higher RN staffing was associated with lower pressure ulcer rates, but it did not mediate the relationship between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and pressure ulcers. Conclusions We suggest that RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is an important factor that <span class="hlt">affects</span> pressure ulcer rates and RN staffing needed for high-quality patient care. Given the high RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates, hospital and nursing administrators should prepare for its negative effect on patient outcomes. PMID:24476194</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25222533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25222533"><span>Safety organizing, emotional exhaustion, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in hospital nursing units.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vogus, Timothy J; Cooil, Bruce; Sitterding, Mary; Everett, Linda Q</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Prior research has found that safety organizing behaviors of registered nurses (RNs) positively impact patient safety. However, little research exists on how engaging in safety organizing <span class="hlt">affects</span> caregivers. While we know that organizational processes can have divergent effects on organizational and employee outcomes, little research exists on the effects of pursuing highly reliable performance through safety organizing on caregivers. Specifically, we examined whether, and the conditions under which, safety organizing <span class="hlt">affects</span> RN emotional exhaustion and nursing unit <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. Subjects included 1352 RNs in 50 intensive care, internal medicine, labor, and surgery nursing units in 3 Midwestern acute-care hospitals who completed questionnaires between August and December 2011 and 50 Nurse Managers from the units who completed questionnaires in December 2012. Cross-sectional analyses of RN emotional exhaustion linked to survey data on safety organizing and hospital incident reporting system data on adverse event rates for the year before survey administration. Cross-sectional analysis of unit-level RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates for the year following the administration of the survey linked to survey data on safety organizing. Multilevel regression analysis indicated that safety organizing was negatively associated with RN emotional exhaustion on units with higher rates of adverse events and positively associated with RN emotional exhaustion with lower rates of adverse events. Tobit regression analyses indicated that safety organizing was associated with lower unit level of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates over time. Safety organizing is beneficial to caregivers in multiple ways, especially on nursing units with high levels of adverse events and over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641750"><span>Expression, purification, and analysis of three recombinant ECD disintegrins (r-colombistatins) from P-III class snake venom metalloproteinases <span class="hlt">affecting</span> platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and SK-MEL-28 cell adhesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suntravat, Montamas; Helmke, Thomas J; Atphaisit, Chairat; Cuevas, Esteban; Lucena, Sara E; Uzcátegui, Nestor L; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Crotalid venoms are rich sources of components that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the hemostatic system. Snake venom metalloproteinases are zinc-dependent enzymes responsible for hemorrhage that also interfere with hemostasis. The disintegrin domain is a part of snake venom metalloproteinases, which involves the binding of integrin receptors. Integrins play an essential role in cancer survival and invasion, and they have been major targets for drug development and design. Both native and recombinant disintegrins have been widely investigated for their anti-cancer activities in biological systems as well as in vitro and in vivo systems. Here, three new cDNAs encoding ECD disintegrin-like domains of metalloproteinase precursor sequences obtained from a Venezuelan mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) venom gland cDNA library have been cloned. Three different N- and C-terminal truncated ECD disintegrin-like domains of metalloproteinases named colombistatins 2, 3, and 4 were amplified by PCR, cloned into a pGEX-4T-1 vector, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and tested for inhibition of platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and inhibition of adhesion of human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28) cancer cell lines on collagen I. Purified recombinant colombistatins 2, 3, and 4 were able to inhibit ristocetin- and collagen-induced platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. r-Colombistatins 2 showed the most potent inhibiting SK-Mel-28 cancer cells adhesion to collagen. These results suggest that colombistatins may have utility in the development of therapeutic tools in the treatment of melanoma cancers and also thrombotic diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3703460','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3703460"><span>Signaling Pathways That Control mRNA <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thapar, Roopa; Denmon, Andria P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cells regulate their genomes mainly at the level of transcription and at the level of mRNA decay. While regulation at the level of transcription is clearly important, the regulation of mRNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by signaling networks is essential for a rapid response to external stimuli. Signaling pathways result in posttranslational modification of RNA binding proteins by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, methylation, acetylation etc. These modifications are important for rapid remodeling of dynamic ribonucleoprotein complexes and triggering mRNA decay. Understanding how these posttranslational modifications alter gene expression is therefore a fundamental question in biology. In this review we highlight recent findings on how signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints involving phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and arginine methylation <span class="hlt">affect</span> mRNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. PMID:23602935</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=365198','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=365198"><span>RNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in Trypanosoma brucei.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ehlers, B; Czichos, J; Overath, P</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Regulation of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) mRNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in Trypanosoma brucei was studied in bloodstream forms, in procyclic cells, and during in vitro transformation of bloodstream forms to procyclic cells by approach-to-equilibrium labeling and pulse-chase experiments. Upon initiation of transformation at 27 degrees C in the presence of citrate-cis-aconitate, the half-life of VSG mRNA was reduced from 4.5 h in bloodstream forms to 1.2 h in transforming cells. Concomitantly, an approximately 25-fold decrease in the rate of transcription was observed, resulting in a 100-fold reduction in the steady-state level of de novo-synthesized VSG mRNA. This low level of expression was maintained for at least 7 h, finally decreasing to an undetectable level after 24 h. Transcription of the VSG gene in established procyclic cells was undetectable. For comparison, the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNA, beta-tubulin mRNA, and mini-exon-derived RNA (medRNA) was studied. For medRNA, no significant changes in the rate of transcription or stability were observed during differentiation. In contrast, while the rate of transcription of beta-tubulin mRNA in in vitro-cultured bloodstream forms, transforming cells, and established procyclic cells was similar, the half life was four to five times longer in procyclic cells (t1/2, 7 h) than in cultured bloodstream forms (t1/2, 1.4 h) or transforming cells (t1/2, 1.7 h). Inhibition of protein synthesis in bloodstream forms at 37 degrees Celsius caused a dramatic 20-fold decrease in the rate of VSG mRNA synthesis and a 6-fold decrease in half-life to 45 min, while beta-tubulin mRNA was stabilized 2- to 3-fold and mRNA stability remained unaffected. It is postulated that triggering transformation or inhibiting protein synthesis induces changes in the abundance of the same regulatory molecules which effect the shutoff of VSG gene transcription in addition to shortening the half-life of VSG mRNA. Images PMID:2436040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22874754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22874754"><span>The island-mainland species <span class="hlt">turnover</span> relationship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C</p> <p>2012-10-07</p> <p>Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species <span class="hlt">turnover</span> as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species <span class="hlt">turnover</span> with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and, to a lesser extent, I-I <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249322"><span>RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>: laboratory data and models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meiselman, H J; Neu, B; Rampling, M W; Baskurt, O K</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The reversible <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of red blood cells (RBC) into linear and three-dimensional structures continues to be of basic science and clinical interest: RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> <span class="hlt">affects</span> low shear blood viscosity and microvascular flow dynamics, and can be markedly enhanced in several clinical states. Until fairly recently, most research efforts were focused on relations between suspending medium composition (i.e., protein levels, polymer type and concentration) and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> formation. However, there is now an increasing amount of experimental evidence indicating that RBC cellular properties can markedly <span class="hlt">affect</span> <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, with the term "RBC <span class="hlt">aggregability</span>" coined to describe the cell's intrinsic tendency to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>. Variations of <span class="hlt">aggregability</span> can be large, with some changes of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> substantially greater than those resulting from pathologic states. The present review provides a brief overview of this topic, and includes such areas as donor-to-donor variations, polymer-plasma correlations, effects of RBC age, effects of enzymatic treatment, and current developments related to the mechanisms involved in RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28724055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28724055"><span>Bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> after bariatric surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melo, Thalita Lima; Froeder, Leila; Baia, Leandro da Cunha; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of bone and mineral metabolism after bariatric surgery. This sectional study included data from medical records from 61 bariatric surgery (BS) patients (minimum period of 6 months after the procedure) and from 30 class II and III obese patients as a control group (Cont), consisting of daily dietary intake of macronutrients, calcium and sodium, serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other biochemical serum and urinary parameters. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), leptin, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYD) were determined from available banked serum and urinary samples. Mean body mass index (BMI), median energy, carbohydrate, protein and sodium chloride consumption were significantly lower in the BS versus Cont, but calcium and lipids were not. No significant differences were found in ionized calcium, 25(OH)D, PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) between groups. Mean serum BAP was significantly higher for BS versus Cont and had a positive correlation with time after the surgical procedure. Mean serum leptin was significantly lower and median urinary DPYD higher in BS versus Cont. The present study showed an increase in bone markers of both bone formation and resorption among bariatric patients up to more than 7 years after the surgical procedure, suggesting that an increased bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> persists even at a very long-term follow-up in such patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252980"><span>Global covariation of carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T; Reichstein, Markus</p> <p>2014-10-09</p> <p>The response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties <span class="hlt">affecting</span> future climate change projections. The feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> time of carbon in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type. Here we present a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean global carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> time is 23(+7)(-4) years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, carbon resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75° north (mean <span class="hlt">turnover</span> times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/carbon-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the global carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/carbon-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26993578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26993578"><span>Triacylglycerol <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the failing heart.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carley, Andrew N; Lewandowski, E Douglas</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>No longer regarded as physiologically inert the endogenous triacylglyceride (TAG) pool within the cardiomyocyte is now recognized to play a dynamic role in metabolic regulation. Beyond static measures of content, the relative rates of interconversion among acyl intermediates are more closely linked to dynamic processes of physiological function in normal and diseased hearts, with the potential for both adaptive and maladaptive contributions. Indeed, multiple inefficiencies in cardiac metabolism have been identified in the decompensated, hypertrophied and failing heart. Among the intracellular responses to physiological, metabolic and pathological stresses, TAG plays a central role in the balance of lipid handling and signaling mechanisms. TAG dynamics are profoundly altered from normal in both diabetic and pathologically stressed hearts. More than just expansion or contraction of the stored lipid pool, the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates of TAG are sensitive to and compete against other enzymatic pathways, anabolic and catabolic, for reactive acyl-CoA units. The rates of TAG synthesis and lipolysis thusly <span class="hlt">affect</span> multiple components of cardiomyocyte function, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, and enzyme activation, as well as the regulation of gene expression in both normal and diseased states. This review examines the multiple etiologies and metabolic consequences of the failing heart and the central role of lipid storage dynamics in the pathogenic process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12147501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12147501"><span>Mechanisms and rates of bacterial colonization of sinking <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiørboe, Thomas; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Ploug, Helle; Tang, Kam</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>Quantifying the rate at which bacteria colonize <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> is a key to understanding microbial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. We used encounter models based on random walk and advection-diffusion considerations to predict colonization rates from the bacteria's motility patterns (swimming speed, tumbling frequency, and turn angles) and the hydrodynamic environment (stationary versus sinking <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>). We then experimentally tested the models with 10 strains of bacteria isolated from marine particles: two strains were nonmotile; the rest were swimming at 20 to 60 microm s(-1) with different tumbling frequency (0 to 2 s(-1)). The rates at which these bacteria colonized artificial <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> (stationary and sinking) largely agreed with model predictions. We report several findings. (i) Motile bacteria rapidly colonize <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, whereas nonmotile bacteria do not. (ii) Flow enhances colonization rates. (iii) Tumbling strains colonize <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> enriched with organic substrates faster than unenriched <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, while a nontumbling strain did not. (iv) Once on the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, the bacteria may detach and typical residence time is about 3 h. Thus, there is a rapid exchange between attached and free bacteria. (v) With the motility patterns observed, freely swimming bacteria will encounter an <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> in <1 day at typical upper-ocean <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> concentrations. This is faster than even starving bacteria burn up their reserves, and bacteria may therefore rely solely on <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> for food. (vi) The net result of colonization and detachment leads to a predicted equilibrium abundance of attached bacteria as a function of <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size, which is markedly different from field observations. This discrepancy suggests that inter- and intraspecific interactions among bacteria and between bacteria and their predators may be more important than colonization in governing the population dynamics of bacteria on natural <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2883888','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2883888"><span>The longitudinal study of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and the cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in EMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Few studies have examined employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, total median cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The cost associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> to calculate the mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, total median cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (n=25), the weighted median cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and costs associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20199235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20199235"><span>The longitudinal study of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and the cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in emergency medical services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patterson, P Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B; Hubble, Michael W; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Few studies have examined employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). To quantify the mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, total median cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a six-month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data-collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The cost associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> to calculate the mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, total median cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and median cost per termination were determined for three categories of agency staff mix: all-paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed) staff, and all-volunteer staff. The overall weighted mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix (all-paid = 10.2%, mixed = 12.3%, all-volunteer = 12.4%). Among agencies that experienced <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (n = 25), the weighted median cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix (all-paid = $86,452.05, mixed = $9,766.65, and all-volunteer = $0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix (all-paid = $7,161.38, mixed = $1,409.64, and all-volunteer = $0). Annual rates of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and costs associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study's mean annual rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1222998','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1222998"><span>In vitro <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of the regulated secretory protein chromogranin A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jain, Renu K; Chang, Wen Tzu; Geetha, Chitta; Joyce, Paul B M; Gorr, Sven-Ulrik</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> chaperones, consisting of secretory proteins that contain a hexa-histidine epitope tag, enhance the calcium-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of regulated secretory proteins and their sorting to secretory granules. The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of this unusual <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> mechanism. Hexa-histidine-epitope-tagged secreted alkaline phosphatase, an <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> chaperone, enhanced the in vitro <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of chromogranin A in the presence of calcium, but not in the presence of magnesium or other divalent cations. As an exception, chromogranin was completely <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> by zinc, even in the absence of the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> chaperone. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy of the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> reaction mixture showed an increase in fluorescence intensity consistent with the formation of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. The calcium-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of chromogranin A was completely inhibited by 0.2% Triton X-100, suggesting that it involves hydrophobic interactions. In contrast, the detergent did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> chaperone-enhanced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, suggesting that this <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> does not depend on hydrophobic interactions. EDTA-treated chaperone did not enhance chromogranin A <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, indicating that divalent cations are necessary for chaperone action. Although the structure of the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> chaperone was not important, the size of the chaperone was. Thus the free His-hexapeptide could not substitute for the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> chaperone. Based on these results, we propose that the hexa-histidine tag, in the context of a polypeptide, acts as a divalent cation-dependent nucleation site for chromogranin A <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. PMID:12175332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11280512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11280512"><span>Leaching behaviour of synthetic <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van der Sloot, H A; Hoede, D; Cresswell, D J; Barton, J R</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In the framework of EU project "Utilising innovative kiln technology to recycle waste into synthetic <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>" (BRST-CT98-5234), the leaching behaviour of synthetic <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> has been studied to assess its environmental compatibility in the various stages of its use. Since the conditions are very different for the different uses, the assessment calls for a variety of different leaching conditions. The pH dependence test is used to cover important differences in pH environment to which the materials are exposed to as well as for an assessment of the buffering capacity of the material. Synthetic <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> features a low buffer capacity, which makes it sensitive to externally imposed pH conditions. Utilisation and storage exposed to acidic conditions needs to be avoided. The results of the pH dependence test and column leaching test are mutually consistent. The CEN TC 154 method appears to provide systematically low values due to the arbitrary selection of test conditions. Synthetic <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> studied to date will not adversely <span class="hlt">affect</span> the concrete in its service life. The main issue for <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> use is the recycling and the "end of life" condition, when the material becomes construction debris. Not metals, but oxyanions, such as Cr VI and Mo are most relevant under these conditions. A concise test has been applied to assess crucial aspects of leaching for different production mixes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=food+AND+shortage&pg=4&id=EJ382032','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=food+AND+shortage&pg=4&id=EJ382032"><span>Coping with <span class="hlt">Turnovers</span> in School Food Service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pannell, Dorothy V.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Labor shortages, cost increases, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> have prompted Fairfax County Schools, Virginia, food service managers to offer training programs and recruitment bonuses, to use more convenience foods, and to price out every service. (MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhPro..53...90O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhPro..53...90O"><span>Thermodynamics of Protein <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit</p> <p></p> <p>Amyloid protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> may share similar <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> pathway by studying <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (<span class="hlt">aggregation</span>) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16816684','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16816684"><span>Expanding the scope of the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> flap.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitra, Avir; Spears, Julie; Newsome, Edward; McCampbell, Beth; Kiran, Ravi; Mitra, Amit</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> flaps are often utilized as alternatives to more traditional flaps, especially in situations where traditional flap viability is limited. Most <span class="hlt">turnover</span> flaps are currently used in the lower extremities. This study examined the senior author's use of the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> flap in 103 cases between 1987 and 2004. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 months to 10 years, with an average follow-up of 9 months. The majority (n = 90) of the cases involved the lower extremities and carried high success rates; there were 72 successful operations (complete graft take), 10 partial flap losses (partial graft take that could be treated postoperatively without surgery), and eight complete flap losses (no graft take and the necessity of additional surgery). Three of the partial flap losses and two of the complete flap losses involved patients with end-stage vascular disease. End-stage vascular disease cases represented 20.0 percent of the lower extremity cases and carried a significantly higher percentage of partial or complete flap loss (27.8 percent). These circumstances were examined in detail; the authors found that the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> flap provided improved outcome to such end-stage patients who otherwise would have undergone amputation. In 13 cases, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> flaps were utilized in nontraditional regions, such as the chest wall, abdominal wall, head and neck region, and upper extremities, with a high degree of success (zero partial or complete flap losses). These approaches are discussed in detail. The surgical approach is examined with recommendations regarding preferred wound size and type and overall flap design. This study indicates that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> flaps are effective and useful as an alternative and, in some cases, primary procedure. In addition, the results serve to expand the present scope of the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> flap by examining nontraditional regions in which the flap was highly successful. The authors believe the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> flap should be given higher priority as a reconstructive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28308654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28308654"><span>[Energy <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of water bugs].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waitzbauer, Wolfgang</p> <p>1976-06-01</p> <p>1. This study concerns the energy <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of the water bug species Naucoris cimicoides (Naucoridae), Notonecta glauca (Notonectidae) and Ranatra linearis (Nepidae). The results refer to the conditions in the reed belt of the lake "Neusiedler See" in eastern Austria. 2. Population density was, using various methods, quantitatively determined for each test species. In summer the values were as follows: Naucoris 8, Notonecta 2 and Ranatra 0.5 individuals per m(2) in the closed reed belt. Abundance in the next spring was a halving of the initial values due to an increase in the death rate of males in winter. Generally, mortality was very high; the highest death rate for all species occurred in the first two larval stages. The total mortality, beginning at emergence and continuing until immediately after oviposition, was determined to be 91% for Naucoris, 97% for Notonecta and 99% for Ranatra. 3. Production of an average male was 211.45 cal (Naucoris), 243.24 cal (Notonecta) and 256.26 cal (Ranatra) for the entire life span. The production values determined for average females until oviposition are 316.87 cal (Naucoris), 300.79 cal (Notonecta) and 559.51 cal (Ranatra). 53.89 cal (Naucoris), 73.35 cal (Notonecta) and 264.66 cal (Ranatra) are needed for egg production. 4. Respiration was determined by volumetric measurement for all developmental stages and the imago at different times of the year. From emergence until death the following spring the O2-consumption of an average individual was determined as 129.27 cal (♂), 156.45 cal (♀) for Naucoris, 690.66 cal (♂), 882.04 cal (♀) for Notonecta and 548.30 cal (♂), 589.16 cal (♀) for Ranatra. 5. Assimilation was calculated from production and respiration (A=P+R) for all larval and mature stages. Assimilation was determined as 340.72 cal (♂), 419.43 cal (♀) for Naucoris, 933.90 cal (♂), 1109.48 cal (♀) for Notonecta and 804.56 cal (♂), 884.01 cal (♀) for Ranatra, (cumulative values). 6. Since the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3865F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3865F"><span>Modelling the impact of soil tillage on SOM <span class="hlt">turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franko, Uwe; Spiegel, Heide</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The CCB model of the soil organic matter (SOM) <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has been proved to be valid over a wide range of site conditions and cropping systems. It is based on the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of different fresh organic matter to the flux of SOM reproducing carbon (Crep) and on the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of the complexity of site conditions as Biologic Active Time (BAT). Next to carbon input and site conditions the soil tillage is known to have an impact on SOM. The CCB model calculates the BAT value from a statistically based meta model using soil texture and climate data. The CANDY model as ancestor of CCB is also based on the BAT calculation - but under consideration of soil temperature, soil moisture and the depth of the reaction layer in the top soil. Especially the latter effect takes into account that gas exchange between the reaction space in the soil pores and the atmosphere may be hindered in deeper soil layers as well as the filling of pore space with water. Depending on soil type and soil moisture dynamics the BAT at the base of the plough layer may be considerably lower than in the layers above. If the soil is ploughed regularly, there are no long-term effects on SOM dynamics in the different depth steps (10 cm) of the top soil. In contrast, on ploughless systems with reduced cultivation depth we expect depth depending effects of SOM storage. The integration of this mechanism had to be based on a simplified approach because the CCB model is working in annual time steps and is based on very few soil parameters. An analysis of the general mechanisms of BAT calculation led to a simplified solution to calculate a site specific correction factor of the BAT estimation from the meta model. Therefore, we assume a texture dependent reduction of the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> activity with depth, indicated by the coefficient alpha. A first examination of this approach has been performed using the dataset of the Fuchsenbigl experiment in Austria with three tillage variants (conventional ploughing, reduced and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28830055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28830055"><span>Biochar-induced negative carbon mineralization priming effects in a coastal wetland soil: Roles of soil <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and microbial modulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Hao; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Wang, Zhenyu; Xing, Baoshan</p> <p>2017-08-19</p> <p>Biochar can sequestrate carbon (C) in soils and <span class="hlt">affect</span> native soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization via priming effects. However, the roles of soil <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and microbial regulation in priming effects of biochars on SOC in coastal wetland soils are poorly understood. Thus, a coastal wetland soil (δ(13)C -22‰) was separated into macro-micro <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> (53-2000μm, MA) and silt-clay fractions (<53μm, SF) to investigate the priming effect using two (13)C enriched biochars produced from corn straw (δ(13)C -11.58‰) at 350 and 550°C. The two biochars induced negative priming effect on the native SOC mineralization in the both soil <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size fractions, attributed to the enhanced stability of the soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> resulting from the intimate physico-chemical associations between the soil minerals and biochar particles. Additionally, biochar amendments increased soil microbial biomass C and resulted in a lower metabolic quotient, suggesting that microbes in biochar amended <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> could likely incorporate biomass C rather than mineralize it. Moreover, the biochar amendments induced obvious shifts of the bacterial community towards low C <span class="hlt">turnover</span> bacteria taxa (e.g., Actinobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria) and the bacteria taxa responsible for stabilizing soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> (e.g., Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria), which also accounted for the negative priming effect. Overall, these results suggested that biochar had considerable merit for stabilizing SOC in the coastal soil and thus has potential to restore and/or enhance "blue C" sink in the degraded coastal wetland ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15647669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15647669"><span>The costs of nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, part 2: application of the Nursing <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Cost Calculation Methodology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Cheryl Bland</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This is the second article in a 2-part series focusing on nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and its costs. Part 1 (December 2004) described nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs within the context of human capital theory, and using human resource accounting methods, presented the updated Nursing <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Cost Calculation Methodology. Part 2 presents an application of this method in an acute care setting and the estimated costs of nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> that were derived. Administrators and researchers can use these methods and cost information to build a business case for nurse retention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7190220','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7190220"><span>Norepinephrine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in heart of the copper deficient rat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seidel, K.E.; Failla, M.L.; Rosebrough, R. )</p> <p>1989-02-01</p> <p>Weaned male SD rats were fed a modified AIN-76A diet containing 62% sucrose and either 7 ppm (+Cu) or 0.5 ppm (-Cu) copper for 5 weeks. Dietary copper deprivation resulted in lower concentrations of copper in liver and serum and enlarged hearts. Tissue levels of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DPA) were quantified by HPLC using electrochemical detection. Cardiac concentration of NE and DPA and 26% lower and 63% higher, respectively, in -Cu rats than in +Cu controls. Altered cardiac levels of NE and DPA in -Cu rats were also evident after overnight fasting, a stress that depresses SNS activity. NE <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was investigated after inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by injection of {alpha}-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester (250 mg/kg). The fractional rate of NE <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the heart was 4.6%/hour for rats fed -Cu and +Cu diets. Calculated NE <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was greater in heart of +Cu rats than -Cu rats (26 vs. 19 ng/g/hr). NE and DPA concentration in brain, pancreas, and spleen were not <span class="hlt">affected</span> by dietary copper. These data suggest that synthesis of NE in cardiac nerve endings of the weaned rats sensitive to dietary copper deficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24785245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24785245"><span>Staff nurse commitment, work relationships, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions: a latent profile analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gellatly, Ian R; Cowden, Tracy L; Cummings, Greta G</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The three-component model of organization commitment has typically been studied using a variable-centered rather than a person-centered approach, preventing a more complete understanding of how these forms of commitment are felt and expressed as a whole. Latent profile analysis was used to identify qualitatively distinct categories or profiles of staff nurses' commitment. Then, associations of the profiles with perceived work unit relations and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions were examined. Three hundred thirty-six registered nurses provided data on <span class="hlt">affective</span>, normative, and continuance commitment, perceived work unit relations, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions. Latent profile analysis of the nurses' commitment scores revealed six distinct profile groups. Work unit relations and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions were compared in the six profile-defined groups. Staff nurses with profiles characterized by high <span class="hlt">affective</span> commitment and/or high normative commitment in relation to other components experienced stronger work unit relations and reported lower <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions. Profiles characterized by high continuance commitment relative to other components or by low overall commitment experienced poorer work unit relations, and the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> risk was higher. High continuance commitment in combination with high <span class="hlt">affective</span> and normative commitment was experienced differently than high continuance commitment in combination with low <span class="hlt">affective</span> and normative commitment. Healthcare organizations often foster commitment by using continuance commitment-enhancing strategies (e.g., offer high salaries and attractive benefits) that may inadvertently introduce behavioral risk. This work suggests the importance of changing the context in which continuance commitment occurs by strengthening the other two components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2169276','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2169276"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the global avifauna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Richard G; Orme, C. David L; Olson, Valerie A; Thomas, Gavin H; Ding, Tzung-Su; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Lennon, Jack J; Bennett, Peter M; Owens, Ian P.F; Blackburn, Tim M</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Despite its wide implications for many ecological issues, the global pattern of spatial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the occurrence of species has been little studied, unlike the global pattern of species richness. Here, using a database on the breeding distributions of birds, we present the first global maps of variation in spatial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for an entire taxonomic class, a pattern that has to date remained largely a matter of conjecture, based on theoretical expectations and extrapolation of inconsistent patterns from different biogeographic realms. We use these maps to test four predictions from niche theory as to the form that this variation should take, namely that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> should increase with species richness, towards lower latitudes, and with the steepness of environmental gradients and that variation in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is determined principally by rare (restricted) species. Contrary to prediction, we show that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is high both in areas of extremely low and high species richness, does not increase strongly towards the tropics, and is related both to average environmental conditions and spatial variation in those conditions. These results are closely associated with a further important and novel finding, namely that global patterns of spatial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are driven principally by widespread species rather than the restricted ones. This complements recent demonstrations that spatial patterns of species richness are also driven principally by widespread species, and thus provides an important contribution towards a unified model of how terrestrial biodiversity varies both within and between the Earth's major land masses. PMID:17472910</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17472910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17472910"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the global avifauna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Richard G; Orme, C David L; Olson, Valerie A; Thomas, Gavin H; Ding, Tzung-Su; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Lennon, Jack J; Bennett, Peter M; Owens, Ian P F; Blackburn, Tim M</p> <p>2007-07-07</p> <p>Despite its wide implications for many ecological issues, the global pattern of spatial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the occurrence of species has been little studied, unlike the global pattern of species richness. Here, using a database on the breeding distributions of birds, we present the first global maps of variation in spatial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for an entire taxonomic class, a pattern that has to date remained largely a matter of conjecture, based on theoretical expectations and extrapolation of inconsistent patterns from different biogeographic realms. We use these maps to test four predictions from niche theory as to the form that this variation should take, namely that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> should increase with species richness, towards lower latitudes, and with the steepness of environmental gradients and that variation in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is determined principally by rare (restricted) species. Contrary to prediction, we show that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is high both in areas of extremely low and high species richness, does not increase strongly towards the tropics, and is related both to average environmental conditions and spatial variation in those conditions. These results are closely associated with a further important and novel finding, namely that global patterns of spatial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are driven principally by widespread species rather than the restricted ones. This complements recent demonstrations that spatial patterns of species richness are also driven principally by widespread species, and thus provides an important contribution towards a unified model of how terrestrial biodiversity varies both within and between the Earth's major land masses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27354281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27354281"><span>Lysosomal Acid Lipase Hydrolyzes Retinyl Ester and <span class="hlt">Affects</span> Retinoid <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grumet, Lukas; Eichmann, Thomas O; Taschler, Ulrike; Zierler, Kathrin A; Leopold, Christina; Moustafa, Tarek; Radovic, Branislav; Romauch, Matthias; Yan, Cong; Du, Hong; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Fickert, Peter; Kratky, Dagmar; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim</p> <p>2016-08-19</p> <p>Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the clearance of endocytosed cholesteryl ester and triglyceride-rich chylomicron remnants. Humans and mice with defective or absent LAL activity accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in multiple tissues. Although chylomicrons also contain retinyl esters (REs), a role of LAL in the clearance of endocytosed REs has not been reported. In this study, we found that murine LAL exhibits RE hydrolase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LAL in the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2, incubated with chylomicrons, led to increased accumulation of REs in endosomal/lysosomal fractions. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of LAL in murine liver largely reduced in vitro acid RE hydrolase activity. Interestingly, LAL-deficient mice exhibited increased RE content in the duodenum and jejunum but decreased RE content in the liver. Furthermore, LAL-deficient mice challenged with RE gavage exhibited largely reduced post-prandial circulating RE content, indicating that LAL is required for efficient nutritional vitamin A availability. In summary, our results indicate that LAL is the major acid RE hydrolase and required for functional retinoid homeostasis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016185','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016185"><span>Lysosomal Acid Lipase Hydrolyzes Retinyl Ester and <span class="hlt">Affects</span> Retinoid <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grumet, Lukas; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Zierler, Kathrin A.; Leopold, Christina; Moustafa, Tarek; Radovic, Branislav; Romauch, Matthias; Yan, Cong; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Fickert, Peter; Lass, Achim</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the clearance of endocytosed cholesteryl ester and triglyceride-rich chylomicron remnants. Humans and mice with defective or absent LAL activity accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in multiple tissues. Although chylomicrons also contain retinyl esters (REs), a role of LAL in the clearance of endocytosed REs has not been reported. In this study, we found that murine LAL exhibits RE hydrolase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LAL in the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2, incubated with chylomicrons, led to increased accumulation of REs in endosomal/lysosomal fractions. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of LAL in murine liver largely reduced in vitro acid RE hydrolase activity. Interestingly, LAL-deficient mice exhibited increased RE content in the duodenum and jejunum but decreased RE content in the liver. Furthermore, LAL-deficient mice challenged with RE gavage exhibited largely reduced post-prandial circulating RE content, indicating that LAL is required for efficient nutritional vitamin A availability. In summary, our results indicate that LAL is the major acid RE hydrolase and required for functional retinoid homeostasis. PMID:27354281</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5105571','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5105571"><span>Bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers: Emerging tool in the management of osteoporosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shetty, Sahana; Kapoor, Nitin; Bondu, Joseph Dian; Thomas, Nihal; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers (BTMs) provides an insight of the dynamics of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD). These microarchitectural alterations <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the bone quality can be assessed by BTMs and thus may serve as a complementary tool to BMD in the assessment of fracture risk. A systematic search of literature regarding BTMs was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Various reliable, rapid, and cost-effective automated assays of BTMs with good sensitivity are available for the management of osteoporosis. However, BTMs are subjected to various preanalytical and analytical variations necessitating strict sample collection and assays methods along with utilizing ethnicity-based reference standards for different populations. Estimation of fracture risk and monitoring the adherence and response to therapy, which is a challenge in a chronic, asymptomatic disease such as osteoporosis, are the most important applications of measuring BTMs. This review describes the physiology of bone remodeling, various conventional and novel BTMs, and BTM assays and their role in the assessment of fracture risk and monitoring response to treatment with antiresorptive or anabolic agents. PMID:27867890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15632752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15632752"><span>The costs of nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: part 1: an economic perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Cheryl Bland</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is costly for healthcare organizations. Administrators and nurse executives need a reliable estimate of nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs and the origins of those costs if they are to develop effective measures of reducing nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and its costs. However, determining how to best capture and quantify nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs can be challenging. Part 1 of this series conceptualizes nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> via human capital theory and presents an update of a previously developed method for determining the costs of nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, the Nursing <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Cost Calculation Method. Part 2 (January 2005) presents a recent application of the methodology in an acute care hospital.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol11-sec63-1408.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol11-sec63-1408.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1408 - <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> batch vent stream provisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> batch vent streams at a new or existing <span class="hlt">affected</span> source shall comply with either paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol11-sec63-1408.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol11-sec63-1408.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1408 - <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> batch vent stream provisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> batch vent streams at a new or existing <span class="hlt">affected</span> source shall comply with either paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18263024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18263024"><span>On mean type <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yager, R R</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We introduce and define the concept of mean <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of a collection of n numbers. We point out that the lack of associativity of this operation compounds the problem of the extending mean of n numbers to n+1 numbers. The closely related concepts of self identity and the centering property are introduced as one imperative for extending mean <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> operators. The problem of weighted mean <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is studied. A new concept of prioritized mean <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is then introduced. We next show that the technique of selecting an element based upon the performance of a random experiment can be considered as a mean <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808181"><span>Addressing employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and retention: keeping your valued performers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McConnell, Charles R</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and employee retention are inextricably linked; to control <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is to enhance retention. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> is a relatively simple concept; however, considerable confusion often results when addressing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates are expressed. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect and thus not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, some that can be corrected and some that cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling <span class="hlt">turnover</span> requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is an essential part of the department manager's role; every improvement in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is a direct improvement in retention, with eventual positive effects on the bottom line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17025268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17025268"><span>Effects of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>: an immunologic perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenberg, Amy S</p> <p>2006-08-04</p> <p>The capacity of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> to enhance immune responses to the monomeric form of the protein has been known for over a half-century. Despite the clear connection between protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and antibody mediated adverse events in treatment with early therapeutic protein products such as intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and human growth hormone, surprisingly little is known about the nature of the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> species responsible for such effects. This review focuses on a framework for understanding how <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> species potentially interact with the immune system to enhance immune responses, garnered from basic immunologic research. Thus, protein antigens presented in a highly arrayed structure, such as might be found in large nondenatured <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> species, are highly potent in inducing antibody responses even in the absence of T-cell help. Their potency may relate to the ability of multivalent protein species to extensively cross-link B-cell receptor, which (1) activates B cells via Bt kinases to proliferate, and (2) targets protein to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-loading compartments, efficiently eliciting T-cell help for antibody responses. The review further focuses on protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> as they <span class="hlt">affect</span> an immunogenicity risk assessment, the use of animal models and studies in uncovering effects of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, and changes in product manufacture and packaging that may <span class="hlt">affect</span> generation of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19594245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19594245"><span>Unit-level voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> consequences, little research examines how unit-level <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates <span class="hlt">affect</span> essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that <span class="hlt">turnover</span>'s negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3473S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3473S"><span>Analysis of Soil Structure <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Matter <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. The methodology is tested for two case studies: (1) soil compaction of a silty loam soil in steps of 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 g/cm3 and (2) wetting/drying cycles at different bulk densities in the same soil. We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and can be readily combined with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27453995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27453995"><span>Analysis of Soil Structure <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Matter <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and can be readily combined with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4959753','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4959753"><span>Analysis of Soil Structure <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vogel, Hans-Jörg</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Matter <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure <span class="hlt">turnover</span> provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and can be readily combined with each other. PMID:27453995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26231548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26231548"><span>Job embeddedness factors as a predictor of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention among infection control nurses in Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Jeong Sil; Kim, Kyung Mi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Job embeddedness indicates the degree to which an employee of an organization intends to remain in his or her position at that organization. This study examined how job embeddedness <span class="hlt">affects</span> infection control nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention along with general characteristics, job satisfaction, and perceived job alternatives. We collected data from a total of 133 infection control nurses using self-reporting questionnaire methods. All questions were answered on a 5-point Likert scale. The average <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention was 3.01 ± 0.72 (100-point conversion, 60.2%), and average job satisfaction was 3.48 ± 0.79 (100-point conversion, 69.6%). The average perceived availability of job alternatives was 3.02 ± 0.78 (100-point conversion, 60.4%), and average job embeddedness was 3.33 ± 0.57 (100-point conversion, 66.6%). Predictors of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention were monthly income, perceived availability of job alternatives, and job embeddedness. Job embeddedness among predictors has high explanatory power as a predictor of infection control nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Through this study we identified predictors of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention and found that job embeddedness among predictors has high explanatory power as a predictor of infection control nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Strategies to enhance infection control nurses' job embeddedness are needed. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268070"><span>Home nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions: the impact of informal supervisory feedback and self-efficacy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Waeyenberg, Thomas; Decramer, Adelien; Anseel, Frederik</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To examine how home nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions are <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the quality and frequency of supervisory feedback and by their own self-efficacy. Little is known about effective retention strategies for the growing home healthcare sector that struggles to retain an adequate workforce. While the work environment and supervisors have been found to play a key-role in nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions, home nurses mostly work autonomously and apart from their supervisors. These circumstances require a customized approach and need to be understood to ensure high-quality home health care. We used a correlational, cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of 312 home nurses was selected from a division of a large home health care organization in Flanders, Belgium. Data were collected in 2013 using structured questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics, structural equation modelling and relative weight analysis. The quality of feedback was related to lower levels of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions. This relationship was fully mediated by home nurses' self-efficacy. Frequent favourable feedback was directly related to lower <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions while the relationship between frequent unfavourable feedback and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions was conditional on home nurses' level of self-efficacy. This study contributes to our understanding of home nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions and the role of informal supervisory feedback and home nurses' self-efficacy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3042591','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3042591"><span>Quantitative Analysis of Actin <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Listeria Comet Tails: Evidence for Catastrophic Filament <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kueh, Hao Yuan; Brieher, William M.; Mitchison, Timothy J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Rapid assembly and disassembly (<span class="hlt">turnover</span>) of actin filaments in cytoplasm drives cell motility and shape remodeling. While many biochemical processes that facilitate filament <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are understood in isolation, it remains unclear how they work together to promote filament <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in cells. Here, we studied cellular mechanisms of actin filament <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by combining quantitative microscopy with mathematical modeling. Using live cell imaging, we found that actin polymer mass decay in Listeria comet tails is very well fit by a simple exponential. By analyzing candidate filament <span class="hlt">turnover</span> pathways using stochastic modeling, we found that exponential polymer mass decay is consistent with either slow treadmilling, slow Arp2/3-dissociation, or catastrophic bursts of disassembly, but is inconsistent with acceleration of filament <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by severing. Imaging of single filaments in Xenopus egg extract provided evidence that disassembly by bursting dominates isolated filament <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in a cytoplasmic context. Taken together, our results point to a pathway where filaments grow transiently from barbed ends, rapidly terminate growth to enter a long-lived stable state, and then undergo a catastrophic burst of disassembly. By keeping filament lengths largely constant over time, such catastrophic filament <span class="hlt">turnover</span> may enable cellular actin assemblies to maintain their mechanical integrity as they are turning over. PMID:20923649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4196888','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4196888"><span>Predictors of Staff <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians’ responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity) explained a significant amount of variance in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions and job satisfaction. PMID:25336960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15293324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15293324"><span>Effect of the difference of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on peri-titanium implant osteogenesis in ovariectomized rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okamura, Akira; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Iyama, Shinji; Koyano, Kiyoshi</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>High and low bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> situations, both of which are typically observed as postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis, were created by ovariectomy (OVX), and then an investigation of whether or not the difference of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> peri-titanium (Ti) implant osteogenesis in rats was conducted. Female rats were divided into four groups. The experimental and control groups underwent OVX or sham operations at 15 or 27 weeks of age, as high or low bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> groups, respectively. Ti implants were inserted into the tibiae at 30 weeks, then fluorochromes were injected 10 or 20 days after the implantation for histometry. The implants were retained for 30 days and then ground sections were prepared. Afterward, the cortical bone growth rate, bone contact ratio (BCR) of the implant in both the cortical bone area and medullary canal area, and the average trabecular bone thickness around the implant were evaluated. Biochemical markers of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were also measured. Biochemical measurements indicated both increasing osteocalcin production in OVX rats and decreasing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in the low-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> group. Histometrical measurements showed decreasing cortical growth and low BCR in the medullary canal of the low-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> group. The high-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> group demonstrated BCR as high as that of the control group. There was no significant difference in the average trabecular bone thickness around the implant among the groups. As a result, two types of osteoporotic situations were confirmed and it was shown that the difference of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was clearly due to the diverse osteogenesis around the Ti implant. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24524942','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24524942"><span>Rest break organization in geriatric care and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: a multimethod cross-sectional study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Schrod, Nadine; Roitzsch, Katharina; Tomaschek, Anne; Kliegel, Matthias</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Various determinants of nurses' work motivation and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> behavior have been examined in previous studies. In this research, we extend this work by investigating the impact of care setting (nursing homes vs. home care services) and the important role of rest break organization. We aimed to identify direct and indirect linkages between geriatric care setting, rest break organization, and registered nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> assessed over a period of one year. We designed a multimethod cross-sectional study. 80 nursing units (n=45 nursing homes, n=35 home care) in 51 German geriatric care services employing 597 registered nurses. We gathered documentary, interview, and observational data about the organization of rest breaks, registered nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and additional organizational characteristics (type of ownership, location, nursing staff, clients, and client-to-staff-ratio). The findings show that the rest break system in geriatric nursing home units is more regularly as well as collectively organized and causes less unauthorized rest breaks than in home care units. Moreover, the feasibility of collective rest breaks was, as predicted, negatively associated with registered nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and <span class="hlt">affected</span> indirectly the relation between care setting and registered nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Care setting, however, had no direct impact on <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Furthermore, registered nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was higher in for-profit care units than in public or non-profit units. This study reveals significant differences in rest break organization as a function of geriatric care setting and highlights the role of collective rest breaks for nursing staff retention. Our study underlines the integration of organizational context variables and features of rest break organization for the analysis of nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5056598','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5056598"><span>Proteasome regulates <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of toxic human amylin in pancreatic cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Sanghamitra; Trikha, Saurabh; Sarkar, Anjali; Jeremic, Aleksandar M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Toxic human amylin (hA) oligomers and <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although recent studies demonstrated a causal connection between hA uptake and toxicity in pancreatic cells, the mechanism of amylin’s clearance following its internalization and its relationship to toxicity is yet to be determined, and hence was investigated here. Using pancreatic rat insulinoma β-cells and human islets as model systems, we show that hA, following its internalization, first accumulates in the cytosol followed by its translocation into nucleus, and to a lesser extent lysosomes, keeping the net cytosolic amylin content low. An increase in hA accumulation in the nucleus of pancreatic cells correlated with its cytotoxicity, suggesting that its excessive accumulation in the nucleus is detrimental. hA interacted with 20S core and 19S lid subunits of the β-cell proteasomal complex, as suggested by immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies, which subsequently resulted in a decrease in the proteasome’s proteolytic activity in these cells. In vitro binding and activity assays confirmed an intrinsic and potent ability of amylin to interact with the 20S core complex thereby modulating its proteolytic activity. Interestingly, less toxic and <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> incapable rat amylin (rA) showed a comparable inhibitory effect on proteasome activity and protein ubiquitination, decoupling amylin <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>/toxicity and amylin-induced protein stress. In agreement with these studies, inhibition of proteasomal proteolytic activity significantly increased intracellular amylin content and toxicity. Taken together, our results suggest a pivotal role of proteasomes in amylin’s <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and detoxification in pancreatic cells. PMID:27340132</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19426369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19426369"><span>Nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: the mediating role of burnout.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leiter, Michael P; Maslach, Christina</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>This study tested whether the mediation model of burnout could predict nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions. A better understanding of what factors support a commitment to a nursing career could inform both policies and workplace practices. The mediation model of burnout provides a way of linking the quality of a nurse's worklife to various outcomes, such as <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Data on areas of worklife, burnout, and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions were collected by surveying 667 Canadian nurses in the Atlantic Provinces. The findings supported the mediation model of burnout, in which areas of worklife predicted burnout, which in turn predicted <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions. Cynicism was the key burnout dimension for <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and the most critical areas of worklife were value conflicts and inadequate rewards. The results of this study provide some new insights into how the intention of nurses to leave their job is related to particular aspects of their worklife and to burnout. These results suggest what may be the most appropriate areas to target for interventions to reduce the risk of nurses exiting early from their chosen career.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11464428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11464428"><span>Primary care physician job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buchbinder, S B; Wilson, M; Melick, C F; Powe, N R</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>To examine the relationship of personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, and overall job satisfaction to primary care physician (PCP) <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. A cohort of 507 postresident, nonfederally employed PCPs younger than 45 years of age, who completed their medical training between 1982 and 1985, participated in national surveys in 1987 and 1991. Psychological, economic, and sociological theories and constructs provided a conceptual framework. Primary care physician personal, organizational, and overall job satisfaction variables from 1987 were considered independent variables. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>-related responses from 1991 were dependent variables. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. More than half (55%) of all PCPs in the cohort left at least 1 practice between 1987 and 1991. Twenty percent of the cohort left 2 employers. PCPs dissatisfied in 1987 were 2.38 times more likely to leave (P < .001). Primary care physicians who believed that third-party payer influence would decrease in 5 years were 1.29 times more likely to leave (P < .03). Non-board certified PCPs were 1.3 times more likely to leave (P < .003). Primary care physicians who believed that standardized protocols were overused were 1.18 times more likely to leave (P < .05). Specialty, gender, age, race, and practice setting were not associated with PCP <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> was an important phenomenon among PCPs in this cohort. The results of this study could enable policy makers, managed care organizations, researchers, and others to better understand the relationship between job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12814293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12814293"><span>Why managers should care about fairness: the effects of <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> justice perceptions on organizational outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simons, Tony; Roberson, Quinetta</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>This work examines the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of justice perceptions to the departmental level and the business-unit level, the impact of these <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> perceptions on business-unit-level outcomes, and the usefulness of the distinction between procedural and interpersonal justice at different levels of analysis. Latent variables analyses of individual-level and department-level data from 4,539 employees in 783 departments at 97 hotel properties showed that the 2 justice types exercise unique paths of impact on employees' organizational commitment and thus on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions and discretionary service behavior. Business-unit-level analyses further demonstrate paths of association between <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> justice perceptions, <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> commitment levels, and the business-unit-level outcomes of employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates and customer satisfaction ratings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043746"><span>Do Employees Leave Just Because They Can? Examining the Perceived Employability-<span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intentions Relationship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Acikgoz, Yalcin; Sumer, H Canan; Sumer, Nebi</p> <p>2016-07-03</p> <p>The relationship between perceived employability and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions seems much more complicated than what the common sense would suggest. Based on the reviewed literature, it was expected that job satisfaction, <span class="hlt">affective</span> commitment, and perceived job security would moderate this relationship. Using a sample of working individuals from different occupations and sectors (N = 721), it was found that employees who perceived themselves as highly employable were more likely to have <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions when their <span class="hlt">affective</span> commitment was low and perceived job security was high; and the relationship was negative for employees with shorter tenures. Understanding the conditions under which perceived employability is associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions may help organizations design human resource policies that allow them to retain an educated and competent workforce.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12971234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12971234"><span>Nursing home staffing, <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and case mix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrington, Charlene; Swan, James H</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>This study examined the predictors of total nurse and registered nurse (RN) staffing hours per resident day separately in all free-standing California nursing homes (1,555), using staffing data from state cost reports in 1999. This study used a two-stage least squares model, taking into account nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates, resident case mix levels, and other factors. As expected, total nurse and RN staffing hours were negatively associated with nurse staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates and positively associated with resident case mix. Facilities were resource dependent in that a high proportion of Medicare residents predicted higher staffing hours, and a higher proportion of Medicaid residents predicted lower staffing hours and higher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. Nursing assistant wages were positively associated with total nurse staffing hours. For-profit facilities and high-occupancy rate facilities had lower total nurse and RN staffing hours. Medicaid reimbursement rates and multifacility organizations were positively associated with RN staffing hours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28679685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28679685"><span>Changes of Protein <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Aging Caenorhabditis elegans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dhondt, Ineke; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Bauer, Sophie; Brewer, Heather M; Smith, Richard D; Depuydt, Geert; Braeckman, Bart P</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates severely decline in aging organisms, including C. elegans However, limited information is available on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> dynamics at the individual protein level during aging. We followed changes in protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> at one-day resolution using a multiple-pulse (15)N-labeling and accurate mass spectrometry approach. Forty percent of the proteome shows gradual slowdown in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> with age, whereas only few proteins show increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Decrease in protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was consistent for only a minority of functionally related protein subsets, including tubulins and vitellogenins, whereas randomly diverging <span class="hlt">turnover</span> patterns with age were the norm. Our data suggests increased heterogeneity of protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of the translation machinery, whereas protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of ubiquitin-proteasome and antioxidant systems are well-preserved over time. Hence, we presume that maintenance of quality control mechanisms is a protective strategy in aging worms, although the ultimate proteome collapse is inescapable. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26284891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26284891"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> structure, morphology and the effect of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> mechanisms on viscosity at elevated protein concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barnett, Gregory V; Qi, Wei; Amin, Samiul; Neil Lewis, E; Roberts, Christopher J</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Non-native <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is a common issue in a number of degenerative diseases and during manufacturing of protein-based therapeutics. There is a growing interest to monitor protein stability at intermediate to high protein concentrations, which are required for therapeutic dosing of subcutaneous injections. An understanding of the impact of protein structural changes and interactions on the protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> mechanisms and resulting <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size and morphology may lead to improved strategies to reduce <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and solution viscosity. This report investigates non-native <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of a model protein, α-chymotrypsinogen, under accelerated conditions at elevated protein concentrations. Far-UV circular dichroism and Raman scattering show structural changes during <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Size exclusion chromatography and laser light scattering are used to monitor the progression of <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> growth and monomer loss. Monomer loss is concomitant with increased β-sheet structures as monomers are added to <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, which illustrate a transition from a native monomeric state to an <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> state. <span class="hlt">Aggregates</span> grow predominantly through monomer-addition, resulting in a semi-flexible polymer morphology. Analysis of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> growth kinetics shows that pH strongly <span class="hlt">affects</span> the characteristic timescales for nucleation (τn) and growth (τg), while the initial protein concentration has only minor effects on τn or τg. Low-shear viscosity measurements follow a common scaling relationship between average <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> molecular weight (Mw(agg)) and concentration (σ), which is consistent with semi-dilute polymer-solution theory. The results establish a link between <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> growth mechanisms, which couple Mw(agg) and σ, to increases in solution viscosity even at these intermediate protein concentrations (less than 3w/v %).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6871540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6871540"><span>Acetal phosphatidic acids: novel platelet <span class="hlt">aggregating</span> agents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brammer, J P; Maguire, M H; Walaszek, E J; Wiley, R A</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>1 Palmitaldehyde, olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids induced rapid shape change and dose-dependent biphasic <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma; <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> was reversible at low doses and irreversible at high doses of the acetal phosphatidic acids. The palmitaldehyde congener elicited monophasic dose-dependent <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of sheep platelets in platelet-rich plasma.2 The threshold concentration for palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid (PGAP)-induced platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> was 2.5-5 muM for human platelets and 0.25-0.5 muM for sheep platelets. PGAP was 4-5 times as potent versus human platelets as the olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids, which were equipotent.3 PGAP-induced irreversible <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of [(14)C]-5-hydroxytryptamine ([(14)C]-5-HT)-labelled human platelets in platelet-rich plasma was accompanied by release of 44.0+/-2.4% (s.e.) of the platelet [(14)C]-5-HT; reversible <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> was not associated with release. In contrast, PGAP-induced release of [(14)C]-5-HT-labelled sheep platelets was dose-dependent.4 The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist, 2-methylthio-AMP, and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, aspirin, abolished PGAP-induced second phase <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and release in human platelets but did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the first, reversible, phase of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Both the first and second phases of PGAP-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> were abolished by chlorpromazine, by the phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, mepacrine, and by nmolar concentrations of prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)); these agents abolished the second, but not the first phase of ADP-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>.5 The related phospholipids, lecithin, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid, at <100 muM, neither induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma, nor modified PGAP-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>; 1-palmityl lysophosphatidic acid elicited <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of human platelets at a threshold concentration of 100 muM.6 It is concluded that the acetal phosphatidic acids</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..158B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..158B"><span>Quantification of isotopic <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in agricultural systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The isotopic <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFDL29010Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFDL29010Y"><span>Bacteria <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> in a Steady Vortical Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yazdi, Shahrzad; Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ardekani, Arezoo</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The interaction between microorganisms and flow field is an important, yet complicated topic that <span class="hlt">affects</span> the design of biological reactors, marine ecological processes, and biofilm formation in porous media. Vortical structures and secondary flows are inherently present in porous media despite small Reynolds numbers. Our experimental results show that bacteria in a steady vortical flow <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> and subsequently form biofilm streamers in a microfluidic system. The combined effects of shape, motility and the vortical background flow contribute to this fast bacteria <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27681457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27681457"><span>Altered collagen <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in factor VIII-deficient rats with hemophilic arthropathy identifies potential novel serological biomarkers in hemophilia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manon-Jensen, T; Karsdal, M A; Nielsen, L N; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M; Vandahl, B; Olsen, E H N; Enoksson, M; Roepstorff, K</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Essentials Joint bleeding in hemophilia may induce significant remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Biomarkers of collagen <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were investigated in a F8(-/-) rat model of hemophilic arthropathy. Biomarkers of cartilage degradation increased significantly during development of arthropathy. Basement membrane and interstitial matrix <span class="hlt">turnover</span> changed significantly following hemarthrosis. Background Hemophilic arthropathy is a severe complication of hemophilia. It is caused by recurrent bleeding into joint cavities, which leads to synovial inflammation, fibrosis, cartilage degradation and bone remodeling. Extracellular matrix remodeling of <span class="hlt">affected</span> tissues is a hallmark of these pathological processes. Objectives The aim of this study was to use serological biomarkers of collagen <span class="hlt">turnover</span> to evaluate extracellular matrix remodeling in a factor VIII-deficient rat model of hemophilic arthropathy. Methods F8(-/-) rats and wild-type littermate controls were subjected to repeated knee bleeds induced by needle puncture on days 0 and 14. Development of arthropathy was confirmed by histology after termination on day 28. Serum samples were collected at baseline and throughout the study and analyzed for biomarkers of collagen <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, including collagens of the basement membrane (type IV collagen), the interstitial matrix (collagen types III, V and VI) and cartilage (type II collagen). Results In F8(-/-) rats, induced knee bleeding and subsequent development of arthropathy caused significant alterations in collagen <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, measured as changes in serological biomarkers of basement membrane <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, interstitial matrix <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and cartilage degradation. Biomarkers of type II collagen degradation correlated significantly with cartilage degradation and degree of arthropathy. Hemophilic rats had a 50% higher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of the basement membrane than wild-type littermates at baseline. Conclusions Joint bleeding and hemophilic arthropathy cause changes in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3628100','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3628100"><span>Amyloid precursor protein controls cholesterol <span class="hlt">turnover</span> needed for neuronal activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pierrot, Nathalie; Tyteca, Donatienne; D'auria, Ludovic; Dewachter, Ilse; Gailly, Philippe; Hendrickx, Aurélie; Tasiaux, Bernadette; Haylani, Laetitia El; Muls, Nathalie; N'Kuli, Francisca; Laquerrière, Annie; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Campion, Dominique; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Courtoy, Pierre J; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Octave, Jean-Noël</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Perturbation of lipid metabolism favours progression of Alzheimer disease, in which processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) has important implications. APP cleavage is tightly regulated by cholesterol and APP fragments regulate lipid homeostasis. Here, we investigated whether up or down regulation of full-length APP expression <span class="hlt">affected</span> neuronal lipid metabolism. Expression of APP decreased HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR)-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis and SREBP mRNA levels, while its down regulation had opposite effects. APP and SREBP1 co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized in the Golgi. This interaction prevented Site-2 protease-mediated processing of SREBP1, leading to inhibition of transcription of its target genes. A GXXXG motif in APP sequence was critical for regulation of HMGCR expression. In astrocytes, APP and SREBP1 did not interact nor did APP <span class="hlt">affect</span> cholesterol biosynthesis. Neuronal expression of APP decreased both HMGCR and cholesterol 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and consequently cholesterol <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, leading to inhibition of neuronal activity, which was rescued by geranylgeraniol, generated in the mevalonate pathway, in both APP expressing and mevastatin treated neurons. We conclude that APP controls cholesterol <span class="hlt">turnover</span> needed for neuronal activity. PMID:23554170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93b2708L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93b2708L"><span>Orthogonal flexible Rydberg <span class="hlt">aggregates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ239280.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ239280.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregations</span> in Flatworms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Described is a school project to investigate <span class="hlt">aggregations</span> in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already <span class="hlt">aggregating</span> flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=flatworms&id=EJ239280','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=flatworms&id=EJ239280"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregations</span> in Flatworms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Described is a school project to investigate <span class="hlt">aggregations</span> in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already <span class="hlt">aggregating</span> flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+study&pg=2&id=EJ1014196','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+study&pg=2&id=EJ1014196"><span>Employee Development and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intention: Theory Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED432857.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED432857.pdf"><span>Home Visitor Job Satisfaction and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Duggan, Anne K.; Young, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Sia, Cal</p> <p></p> <p>This paper summarizes findings of a 3-year study of the job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of home visitors, both professional and paraprofessional, in programs which link families-at-risk for impaired functioning to medical home care and other resources. Specifically, the study examined: (1) home visitor personal characteristics that influence…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070016"><span>Health care workplace discrimination and physician <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>To examine the association between physician race/ ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007 of practicing physicians (n = 529) randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and the National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and chi2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-4.9). Among physicians who experienced workplace discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value < .01), and 40% were contemplating a career change (vs 10% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value < .001). Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543582.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543582.pdf"><span>Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Charter Schools. Research Brief</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stuit, David; Smith, Thomas M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The current study aimed to contribute to a deeper understanding of the organizational conditions of charter schools by examining teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS), researchers from the National Center on School…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Early+retirement%22&id=EJ962411','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Early+retirement%22&id=EJ962411"><span>Director <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: An Australian Academic Development Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fraser, Kym; Ryan, Yoni</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Although it can be argued that directors of central academic development units (ADUs) are critical to the implementation of university teaching and learning strategies, it would appear there is a high director <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate. While research in the USA, the UK, and Australia illustrates that ADUs are frequently closed or restructured, that research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=process+AND+costing&pg=3&id=EJ635702','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=process+AND+costing&pg=3&id=EJ635702"><span>Costing Child Protective Services Staff <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Graef, Michelle I.; Hill, Erick L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Details process of determining a child welfare agency's actual dollar costs directly attributed to protective services staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, using the agency's human resources database and interviews with administrative personnel. Provides formulas and process for calculating specific cost elements due to employee separation, replacement, and training.…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover&pg=3&id=EJ962411','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover&pg=3&id=EJ962411"><span>Director <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: An Australian Academic Development Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fraser, Kym; Ryan, Yoni</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Although it can be argued that directors of central academic development units (ADUs) are critical to the implementation of university teaching and learning strategies, it would appear there is a high director <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate. While research in the USA, the UK, and Australia illustrates that ADUs are frequently closed or restructured, that research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover&pg=2&id=ED564772','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+turnover&pg=2&id=ED564772"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of Public School Superintendents in Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meyer, Joyce Ntsoaki</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study used a descriptive qualitative design utilizing a phenomenological approach to determine and examine the reasons behind the voluntary or involuntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of Arizona school superintendents. Open-ended questions were used to interview five superintendents who had left their districts between 2008 and 2013 about their perceptions on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1007523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1007523"><span>Minor psychiatric morbidity and labour <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jenkins, R</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The relation of minor psychiatric morbidity with labour <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is examined, using data from a study of young, predominantly middle class, white collar men and women. The results suggest that the presence of psychiatric symptomatology is at least as important as occupational attitudes in identifying individuals who would subsequently leave the organisation. PMID:4016004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ1014196','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ1014196"><span>Employee Development and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intention: Theory Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461958','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461958"><span>Dynamics of telomeric DNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in yeast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McEachern, Michael J; Underwood, Dana Hager; Blackburn, Elizabeth H</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Telomerase adds telomeric DNA repeats to telomeric termini using a sequence within its RNA subunit as a template. We characterized two mutations in the Kluyveromyces lactis telomerase RNA gene (TER1) template. Each initially produced normally regulated telomeres. One mutation, ter1-AA, had a cryptic defect in length regulation that was apparent only if the mutant gene was transformed into a TER1 deletion strain to permit extensive replacement of basal wild-type repeats with mutant repeats. This mutant differs from previously studied delayed elongation mutants in a number of properties. The second mutation, TER1-Bcl, which generates a BclI restriction site in newly synthesized telomeric repeats, was indistinguishable from wild type in all phenotypes assayed: cell growth, telomere length, and in vivo telomerase fidelity. TER1-Bcl cells demonstrated that the outer halves of the telomeric repeat tracts turn over within a few hundred cell divisions, while the innermost few repeats typically resisted <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for at least 3000 cell divisions. Similarly deep but incomplete <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was also observed in two other TER1 template mutants with highly elongated telomeres. These results indicate that most DNA <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in functionally normal telomeres is due to gradual replicative sequence loss and additions by telomerase but that there are other processes that also contribute to <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. PMID:11805045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22cultural+market%22&id=EJ808902','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22cultural+market%22&id=EJ808902"><span>Intraorganizational Career Advancement and Voluntary <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in a Multinational Bank in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Xueguang</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This study aims to investigate how various aspects of intraorganizational career advancement--current career attainments, recent pace of upward mobility, and future prospect of career advancement--<span class="hlt">affect</span> voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, drawing empirical evidence from a multinational corporation (MNC) in Taiwan's cultural and labor market environment.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46923','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46923"><span>Accelerated microbial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> but constant growth efficiency with warming in soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Shannon B. Hagerty; Kees Jan van Groenigen; Steven D. Allison; Bruce A. Hungate; Egbert Schwartz; George W. Koch; Randall K. Kolka; Paul. Dijkstra</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rising temperatures are expected to reduce global soil carbon (C) stocks, driving a positive feedback to climate change1-3. However, the mechanisms underlying this prediction are not well understood, including how temperature <span class="hlt">affects</span> microbial enzyme kinetics, growth effiency (MGE), and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>4,5. Here, in a laboratory...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rabia&pg=5&id=EJ1151508','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rabia&pg=5&id=EJ1151508"><span>Teacher's <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intentions: Examining the Impact of Motivation and Organizational Commitment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Imran, Rabia; Allil, Kamaal; Mahmoud, Ali Bassam</p> <p></p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the path of motivation leading to organizational commitment resulting in reduced <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions (TIs). It examines the relationship between dimensions of motivation (amotivation, introjected regulations (IRs) and intrinsic motivation (IM)) with dimensions of commitment (<span class="hlt">affective</span>, normative and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+title+AND+value&pg=2&id=EJ808902','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+title+AND+value&pg=2&id=EJ808902"><span>Intraorganizational Career Advancement and Voluntary <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in a Multinational Bank in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Xueguang</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This study aims to investigate how various aspects of intraorganizational career advancement--current career attainments, recent pace of upward mobility, and future prospect of career advancement--<span class="hlt">affect</span> voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, drawing empirical evidence from a multinational corporation (MNC) in Taiwan's cultural and labor market environment.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.B24A0320N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.B24A0320N"><span>Marine Synechococcus <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4512757','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4512757"><span>Changes in skeletal collagen crosslinks and matrix hydration in high and low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> chronic kidney disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Allen, Matthew R.; Newman, Christopher L.; Chen, Neal; Granke, Mathilde; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Moe, Sharon M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose/Introduction Clinical data have documented a clear increase in fracture risk associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preclinical studies have shown reductions in bone mechanical properties although the tissue-level mechanisms for these differences remain unclear. The goal of this study was to assess collagen cross-links and matrix hydration, two variables known to <span class="hlt">affect</span> mechanical properties, in animals with either high or low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> CKD. Methods At 35 weeks of age (>75% reduction in kidney function), the femoral diaphysis of male Cy/+ rats with high or low bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates, along with normal littermate (NL) controls, were assessed for collagen cross-links (pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and pentosidine (PE)) using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay as well as pore and bound water per volume (pw and bw) using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. Material-level biomechanical properties were calculated based on previously published whole bone mechanical tests. Results Cortical bone from animals with high <span class="hlt">turnover</span> disease had lower Pyd and Dpd crosslink levels (−21% each), lower bw (−10%), higher PE (+71%), and higher pw (+46%), compared to NL. Animals with low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> had higher Dpd, PE (+71%), and bw (+7%) along with lower pw (−60%) compared to NL. Both high and low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> animals had reduced material-level bone toughness compared to NL animals as determined by three-point bending. Conclusions These data document an increase in skeletal PE with advanced CKD that is independent of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate and inversely related to decline in kidney function. Although hydration changes occur in both high and low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> disease, the data suggest that non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks may be a key factor in compromised mechanical properties of CKD. PMID:25466530</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20636468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20636468"><span>Predicting nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> with catastrophe theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagner, Cheryl M</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>This paper is a report of a study comparing an innovative nonlinear model and a traditional linear model for accuracy in prediction of nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. An international, sustained nursing shortage creates a need to target accurately the staff population at risk for <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Existing linear methodology is cumbersome with the number of variables needed, while producing inadequate results. Nonlinear modelling methods offer increased simplicity and accuracy in predictability. A correlational survey with a longitudinal cohort prospective study was carried out in 2005-2006 with a convenience sample of 1033 Registered Nurses from the Midwest region of the United States of America. At time 1, 756 usable questionnaires were returned and 496 at time 2. Data analysis included analyses of a cusp catastrophe model, a cube-shaped four-dimensional figure with a top that provided a down-turning slope area (the catastrophe/cusp zone). This fluid, dynamic cusp version employed the smallest number of control and dependent variables. The exceedingly small <span class="hlt">turnover</span> sample preempted the use of the computerized program Cuspfit; a proven quasi-quantitative methodology demonstrated 80.4% predictability in the cusp catastrophe model overall and 53.6% correct predictions of actual terminations, particularly in nurses with <5 years of nursing experience. Additional accurate predictions were obtained with the use of a time-staged model. Organizational commitment and anticipated <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were accurate predictor variables; job tension was not. Catastrophe models are useful in predicting nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Future nursing researchers should act on this evidence to benefit forthcoming studies and the profession.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2861545','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2861545"><span>Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and Aging of Long-Lived Postmitotic Cells: The Mitochondrial–Lysosomal Axis Theory of Aging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kurz, Tino; Navratil, Marian; Arriaga, Edgar A.; Brunk, Ulf T.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Abstract It is now generally accepted that aging and eventual death of multicellular organisms is to a large extent related to macromolecular damage by mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species, mostly <span class="hlt">affecting</span> long-lived postmitotic cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. These cells are rarely or not at all replaced during life and can be as old as the whole organism. The inherent inability of autophagy and other cellular-degradation mechanisms to remove damaged structures completely results in the progressive accumulation of garbage, including cytosolic protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, defective mitochondria, and lipofuscin, an intralysosomal indigestible material. In this review, we stress the importance of crosstalk between mitochondria and lysosomes in aging. The slow accumulation of lipofuscin within lysosomes seems to depress autophagy, resulting in reduced <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of effective mitochondria. The latter not only are functionally deficient but also produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, prompting lipofuscinogenesis. Moreover, defective and enlarged mitochondria are poorly autophagocytosed and constitute a growing population of badly functioning organelles that do not fuse and exchange their contents with normal mitochondria. The progress of these changes seems to result in enhanced oxidative stress, decreased ATP production, and collapse of the cellular catabolic machinery, which eventually is incompatible with survival. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 503–535. PMID:19650712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+health+AND+nursing&pg=5&id=EJ408070','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+health+AND+nursing&pg=5&id=EJ408070"><span>Work-Related Variables and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intention among Registered Nurses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pooyan, Abdullah; And Others</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Health institutions have become more interested in the causes of job <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among registered nurses. Proper management of job <span class="hlt">turnover</span> can improve the financial health and long-term survival of health care institutions. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10747463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10747463"><span>Staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: occasional friend, frequent foe, and continuing frustration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McConnell, C R</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> appears to be a relatively simple concept. However, considerable confusion results when discussing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> because of differences in how it is defined--what is counted, how it is counted, and how the rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is expressed. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to <span class="hlt">turnover</span>'s cost because so much of it is indirect and thus not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, some which can be corrected and some which cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling <span class="hlt">turnover</span> requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is an essential part of the department manager's role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JQSRT.100..199K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JQSRT.100..199K"><span>Light-scattering properties of random-oriented <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>: Do they represent the properties of an ensemble of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ziegler, Klaus; Mann, Ingrid</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>We question a common assumption that orientation-averaged light-scattering properties of a single <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> represent the properties of an ensemble of random <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> which have the same number of the same constituent particles. Using the T-matrix code for calculation of light scattering by <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of spheres, we obtain efficiencies and scattering-angle dependences of intensity and polarization for several samples of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. The <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are built using ballistic particle cluster and cluster cluster <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> procedures. Their constituent particles have the same size and the same properties but their arrangement (i.e. specific positions) in the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are different. We have found that the random-oriented efficiencies and asymmetry parameter, as well as the angular dependence of the intensity, vary significantly from one <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> to another. Linear polarization appears to be not very sensitive to the arrangement of particles within the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>, whereas circular polarization has been found the most <span class="hlt">affected</span> characteristics, which can be zero, positive or negative for the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> that differ only in the arrangement of their constituents. This effect originates from the violation of mirror symmetry in <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, which reveals itself even at random orientation. Thus, the correct description of light scattering by an ensemble of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> requires a realistic averaging over a variety of random <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. Such an averaging can be provided by the random-matrix approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25463233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25463233"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> behaviour of engineered nanoparticles in natural waters: characterising <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure using on-line laser light scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chekli, L; Zhao, Y X; Tijing, L D; Phuntsho, S; Donner, E; Lombi, E; Gao, B Y; Shon, H K</p> <p>2015-03-02</p> <p>Adsorption of natural organic matter, <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and disaggregation have been identified as three of the main processes <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the fate and behaviour of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic environments. However, although several methods have been developed to study the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> behaviour of ENPs in natural waters, there are only a few studies focusing on the fate of such <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and their potential disaggregation behaviour. In this study, we proposed and demonstrated a simple method for characterising the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> behaviour and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure of ENPs in different natural waters. Both the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size of ENPs and their adsorption capacity for dissolved organic matter (DOM) were strongly related (R(2)>0.97, p<.05) to the combined effect of initial concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the ionic strength of the natural waters. The structure of the formed <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> was strongly correlated (R(2)>0.95, p<.05) to the amount of DOM adsorbed by the ENPs during the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> process. Under high ionic strength conditions, <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is mainly governed by diffusion and the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> formed under these conditions showed the lowest stability and fractal dimension, forming linear, chain-like <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. In contrast, under low ionic strength conditions, the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure was more compact, most likely due to strong chemical binding with DOM and bridging mechanisms involving divalent cations formed during reaction-limited <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3259017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3259017"><span>An <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> sensing reporter identifies leflunomide and teriflunomide as polyglutamine <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> inhibitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fuentealba, Rodrigo A.; Marasa, Jayne; Diamond, Marc I.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Weihl, Conrad C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Intracellular protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is a common pathologic feature in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington' disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson' disease. Although progress towards understanding protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in vitro has been made, little of this knowledge has translated to patient therapy. Moreover, mechanisms controlling <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> formation and catabolism in cellulo remain poorly understood. One limitation is the lack of tools to quantitatively monitor protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and disaggregation. Here, we developed a protein-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span> reporter that uses huntingtin exon 1 containing 72 glutamines fused to the N-terminal end of firefly luciferase (httQ72-Luc). httQ72-Luc fails to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> unless seeded by a non-luciferase-containing polyglutamine (polyQ) protein such as Q80-cfp. Upon co-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, httQ72-luc becomes insoluble and loses its enzymatic activity. Using httQ72-Luc with Q80(CFP/YFP) as seeds, we screened the Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library and identified leflunomide, a dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor with immunosuppressive and anti-psoriatic activities, as a novel drug that prevents polyQ <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Leflunomide and its active metabolite teriflunomide inhibited protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> independently of their known role in pyrimidine biosynthesis, since neither uridine treatment nor other pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors <span class="hlt">affected</span> polyQ <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Inducible cell line and cycloheximide-chase experiments indicate that these drugs prevent incorporation of expanded polyQ into an <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>. This study demonstrates the usefulness of luciferase-based protein <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> reporters for high-throughput screening applications. As current trials are under-way for teriflunomide in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, we propose that this drug be considered a possible therapeutic agent for polyQ diseases. PMID:22052286</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPTO7005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPTO7005M"><span>Charged Dust <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> as well as the manner in which the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ898888.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ898888.pdf"><span>Salary and Ranking and Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: A Statewide Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garcia, Cynthia Martinez; Slate, John R.; Delgado, Carmen Tejeda</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study examined three years of data obtained from the Academic Excellence Indicator System of the State of Texas regarding teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate and teacher salary. Across all public school districts, teacher salary was consistently negatively related to teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span>; that is, where salary was lower, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate was higher When data were…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25041798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25041798"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of regulated nurses in long-term care facilities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chu, Charlene H; Wodchis, Walter P; McGilton, Katherine S</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>To describe the relationship between nursing staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in long-term care (LTC) homes and organisational factors consisting of leadership practices and behaviours, supervisory support, burnout, job satisfaction and work environment satisfaction. The <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of regulated nursing staff [Registered Nurses (RNs) and Registered Practical Nurses (RPNs)] in LTC facilities is a pervasive problem, but there is a scarcity of research examining this issue in Canada. The study was conceptualized using a Stress Process model. Distinct surveys were distributed to administrators to measure organisational factors and to regulated nurses to measure personal and job-related sources of stress and workplace support. In total, 324 surveys were used in the linear regression analysis to examine factors associated with high <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. Higher leadership practice scores were associated with lower nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span>; a one score increase in leadership correlated with a 49% decrease in nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. A significant inverse relationship between leadership <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was found: the higher the administrator <span class="hlt">turnover</span> the lower the nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate. Leadership practices and administrator <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are significant in influencing regulated nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in LTC. Long-term care facilities may want to focus on building good leadership and communication as an upstream method to minimize nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14992479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14992479"><span>The shocking cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in health care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waldman, J Deane; Kelly, Frank; Arora, Sanjeev; Smith, Howard L</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Review of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> costs at a major medical center helps health care managers gain insights about the magnitude and determinants of this managerial challenge and assess the implications for organizational effectiveness. Here, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> includes hiring, training, and productivity loss costs. Minimum cost of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> represented a loss of >5 percent of the total annual operating budget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED357313.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED357313.pdf"><span>Factors Related to <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> among Mental Health Workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tang, Thomas Li-Ping</p> <p></p> <p>In view of the extremely high <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among corporation recruits, there is growing and justified interest in having organizations identify the causes of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and possible ways of reducing it. Many studies have examined different variables related to <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, including organizational commitment, career commitment, job satisfaction, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf"><span>41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf"><span>41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf"><span>41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf"><span>41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title41-vol3-sec109-27-5002.pdf"><span>41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a <span class="hlt">turnover</span> ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED523101.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED523101.pdf"><span>Superintendent <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study examines superintendent <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how <span class="hlt">turnover</span> varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent <span class="hlt">turnover</span> during 1998/99-2007/08;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23637828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23637828"><span>PIN2 <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in Arabidopsis root epidermal cells explored by the photoconvertible protein Dendra2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jásik, Ján; Boggetti, Barbara; Baluška, František; Volkmann, Dieter; Gensch, Thomas; Rutten, Twan; Altmann, Thomas; Schmelzer, Elmon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The steady state level of integral membrane proteins is dependent on a strictly controlled delivery and removal. Here we show that Dendra2, a green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent protein, is a suitable tool to study protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in plants. We characterized the fluorescence properties of Dendra2 expressed either as a free protein or as a tag in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and optimized photoconversion settings to study protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Dendra2 was fused to the PIN2 protein, an auxin transporter in the root tip, and by time-lapse imaging and assessment of red and green signal intensities in the membrane after photoconversion we quantified directly and simultaneously the rate of PIN2 delivery of the newly synthesized protein into the plasma membrane as well as the disappearance of the protein from the plasma membrane due to degradation. Additionally we have verified several factors which are expected to <span class="hlt">affect</span> PIN2 protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and therefore potentially regulate root growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20038162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20038162"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> breakup in a contracting nozzle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soos, Miroslav; Ehrl, Lyonel; Bäbler, Matthäus U; Morbidelli, Massimo</p> <p>2010-01-05</p> <p>The breakup of dense <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> in an extensional flow was investigated experimentally. The flow was realized by pumping the suspension containing the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> through a contracting nozzle. Variation of the cluster mass distribution during the breakage process was measured by small-angle light scattering. Because of the large size of primary particles and the dense <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure image analysis was used to determine the shape and structure of the produced fragments. It was found, that neither <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure, characterized by a fractal dimension d(f) = 2.7, nor shape, characterized by an average aspect ratio equal to 1.5, was <span class="hlt">affected</span> by breakage. Several passes through the nozzle were required to reach the steady state. This is explained by the radial variation of the hydrodynamic stresses at the nozzle entrance, characterized through computational fluid dynamics, which implies that only the fraction of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> whose strength is smaller than the local hydrodynamic stress is broken during one pass through the nozzle. Scaling of the steady-state <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size as a function of the hydrodynamic stress was used to determine the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL26008K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL26008K"><span>Local <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> characteristics of microscale blood flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Dusting, Jonathan; Balabani, Stavroula</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Erythrocyte <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> (EA) is an important aspect of microvascular flows <span class="hlt">affecting</span> blood flow and viscosity. Microscale blood flows have been studied extensively in recent years using computational and microfluidic based approaches. However, the relationship between the local structural characteristics of blood and the velocity field has not been quantified. We report simultaneous measurements of the local velocity, <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and haematocrit distributions of human erythrocytes flowing in a microchannel. EA was induced using Dextran and flows were imaged using brightfield microscopy. Local <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> characteristics were investigated using statistical and edge-detection image processing techniques while velocity profiles were obtained using PIV algorithms. <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> intensity was found to strongly correlate with local variations in velocity in both the central and wall regions of the channel. The edge detection method showed that near the side wall large <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are associated with high local velocities and low local shear rates. In the central region large <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> occurred in regions of low velocity and high erythrocyte concentration. The results demonstrate the combined effect of haematocrit and velocity distributions on local <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773230"><span>Protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> analysis in Salmonella Typhimurium during infection by dynamic SILAC, Topograph, and quantitative proteomics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhe; Han, Qiang-Qiang; Zhou, Mao-Tian; Chen, Xi; Guo, Lin</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> <span class="hlt">affects</span> protein abundance and phenotypes. Comprehensive investigation of protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> dynamics has the potential to provide substantial information about gene expression. Here we report a large-scale protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> study in Salmonella Typhimurium during infection by quantitative proteomics. Murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells were infected with SILAC labeled Salmonella. Bacterial cells were extracted after 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. Mass spectrometry analyses yielded information about Salmonella protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> dynamics and a software program named Topograph was used for the calculation of protein half lives. The half lives of 311 proteins from intracellular Salmonella were obtained. For bacteria cultured in control medium (DMEM), the half lives for 870 proteins were obtained. The calculated median of protein half lives was 69.13 and 99.30 min for the infection group and the DMEM group, respectively, indicating an elevated protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> at the initial stage of infection. Gene ontology analyses revealed that a number of protein functional groups were significantly regulated by infection, including proteins involved in ribosome, periplasmic space, cellular amino acid metabolic process, ion binding, and catalytic activity. The half lives of proteins involved in purine metabolism pathway were found to be significantly shortened during infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16953125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16953125"><span>[The effect of assertiveness training on communication related factors and personnel <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate among hospital nurses].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Myung Ja; Lee, Haejung</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of assertiveness training on nurses' assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. Nurses were assigned into the experimental or control groups, each consisting of 39 nurses. Data was collected between January to March 2004. An 'Assertiveness Training Program' for Nurses developed by Park was used for the study. To emphasize assertiveness practice, 5 practice sessions utilizing ABCDE principles were added to Park's program. To examine the effects of the program, differences between the two groups in assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate were analyzed using ANCOVA. The assertiveness training was effective in improving the nurses' assertiveness behaviors, but was not effective in improving interpersonal relations, reducing the subjects' communication conflicts, changing the conflict management style or reducing their personnel <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate. There have been many studies about factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> nurses' personnel <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates, but few have been done about methods of intervention to reduce the personnel <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate. Thus, this study provides a significant contribution in attempting such an intervention from nursing management perspectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18091446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18091446"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and vacancy rates for registered nurses: do local labor market factors matter?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rondeau, Kent V; Williams, Eric S; Wagar, Terry H</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of nursing staff is a significant issue <span class="hlt">affecting</span> health care cost, quality, and access. In recent years, a worldwide shortage of skilled nurses has resulted in sharply higher vacancy rates for registered nurses in many health care organizations. Much research has focused on the individual, group, and organizational determinants of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Labor market factors have also been suggested as important contributors to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and vacancy rates but have received limited attention by scholars. This study proposes and tests a conceptual model showing the relationships of organization-market fit and three local labor market factors with organizational <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and vacancy rates. The model is tested using ordinary least squares regression with data collected from 713 Canadian hospitals and nursing homes. Results suggest that, although modest in their impact, labor market and the organization-market fit factors do make significant yet differential contributions to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and vacancy rates for registered nurses. Knowledge of labor market factors can substantially shape an effective campaign to recruit and retain nurses. This is particularly true for employers who are perceived to be "employers-of-choice."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24708565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24708565"><span>Nursing churn and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in Australian hospitals: nurses perceptions and suggestions for supportive strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawson, Angela J; Stasa, Helen; Roche, Michael A; Homer, Caroline S E; Duffield, Christine</p> <p>2014-04-08</p> <p>This study aimed to reveal nurses' experiences and perceptions of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in Australian hospitals and identify strategies to improve retention, performance and job satisfaction. Nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety, increase health care costs and impact on staff morale. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Key factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were limited career opportunities; poor support; a lack of recognition; and negative staff attitudes. The nursing working environment is characterised by inappropriate skill-mix and inadequate patient-staff ratios; a lack of overseas qualified nurses with appropriate skills; low involvement in decision-making processes; and increased patient demands. These issues impacted upon heavy workloads and stress levels with nurses feeling undervalued and disempowered. Nurses described supportive strategies: improving performance appraisals, responsive preceptorship and flexible employment options. Nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is influenced by the experiences of nurses. Positive steps can be made towards improving workplace conditions and ensuring nurse retention. Improving performance management and work design are strategies that nurse managers could harness to reduce <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3985533','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3985533"><span>Nursing churn and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in Australian hospitals: nurses perceptions and suggestions for supportive strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background This study aimed to reveal nurses’ experiences and perceptions of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in Australian hospitals and identify strategies to improve retention, performance and job satisfaction. Nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety, increase health care costs and impact on staff morale. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Method A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Results Key factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were limited career opportunities; poor support; a lack of recognition; and negative staff attitudes. The nursing working environment is characterised by inappropriate skill-mix and inadequate patient-staff ratios; a lack of overseas qualified nurses with appropriate skills; low involvement in decision-making processes; and increased patient demands. These issues impacted upon heavy workloads and stress levels with nurses feeling undervalued and disempowered. Nurses described supportive strategies: improving performance appraisals, responsive preceptorship and flexible employment options. Conclusion Nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is influenced by the experiences of nurses. Positive steps can be made towards improving workplace conditions and ensuring nurse retention. Improving performance management and work design are strategies that nurse managers could harness to reduce <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. PMID:24708565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121092"><span>Constituent attachment and voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in low-wage/low-skill service work.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ellingson, Jill E; Tews, Michael J; Dachner, Alison M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper draws on life stage theory, ethnographic research conducted in the service sector, and evidence for secondary segmentation within the low-wage/low-skill labor force to offer evidence that social bond development with coworkers can help reduce the high rate of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> observed in low-wage/low-skill service work. Contrary to the belief that these employees will leave before social ties can develop, constituent attachment was found to be the only significant predictor of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in 2 samples of front-line service workers in a casual dining, national restaurant chain after controlling for other aspects of work that can create a sense of attachment to a job, and other job attitudes, such as satisfaction and commitment. However, the effect was dependent on developmental life stage. Constituent attachment reduced <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among workers classified as emerging adults, whereas constituent attachment did little to <span class="hlt">affect</span> <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among nonemerging adults. Implications of the results are discussed with respect to the value of considering segmentation in future research on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the service sector and the use of life stage theory for understanding the leaving behavior of workers in different stages of adulthood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70146126','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70146126"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> and the environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This book is designed to help you understand our <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> resources and our living planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6996P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6996P"><span>Lignin as a molecular marker of land management impacts on soil C storage and <span class="hlt">turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panettieri, Marco; Rumpel, Cornelia; Dignac, Marie-France; Billiou, Daniel; Chabbi, Abad</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Implementation of temporary grassland on cropped lands may be a sustainable option to enhance the carbon storage via the accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM). However, carbon storage is not only a matter of quantity, since higher inputs of labile carbon may stimulate soil microbial and fungal communities and induce the degradation of the formerly stabilized SOM, through the so-called priming effect. Therefore, targeted strategies for carbon storage need to consider the stability of newly added SOM at long term. Recently, soil ecologist emphasized the huge spatial variability of soil structure and properties, and the fact that many ecosystem functions of SOM are only achieved if it decomposes. Thus, more attention must be paid to fluxes of carbon rather than to the quantities accumulated. The present study aims to cope with the listed problems. The aim of the study was to use lignin as a molecular marker of plant C <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, to assess carbon storage provided by a temporary (ley) grassland system situated at the long term experimental observatory in Lusignan (http://www.soere-acbb.com/). Our conceptual approach included plots under permanent grassland, permanent cropland and bare fallow as controls. A soil fractionation into water stable <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> has been chosen as a strategy to overcome spatial complexity, and compound specific analyses were focused on lignin phenols within the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. The hypothesis of this work is that lignin <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> may be influenced by land uses, lignin localisation within soil compartments, the nature of litter input (above vs. belowground biomass), <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> distribution, and plant cover characteristics (crop vs. grass). To test the hypothesis, cycles of storage and degradation of lignin were studied using compound specific stable isotope probing, taking advantage of in situ labelling provided by the switches from C3 to C4 plants (i.e. grassland to continuous maize) in the experimental area. Lignin monophenols were extracted and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713739C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713739C"><span>Global distribution of carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> times in terrestrial ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T.; Reichstein, Markus</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The response of the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability remains one of the largest uncertainties <span class="hlt">affecting</span> future projections of climate change. This feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by the response of carbon uptake and by changes in the residence time of carbon in land ecosystems, which depend on climate, soil, and vegetation type. Thus, it is of foremost importance to quantify the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> times of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and its spatial co-variability with climate. Here, we develop a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> times (τ) to investigate its co-variation with climate at global scale. Assuming a balance between uptake (gross primary production, GPP) and emission fluxes, τ can be defined as the ratio between the total stock (C_total) and the output or input fluxes (GPP). The estimation of vegetation (C_veg) stocks relies on new remote sensing-based estimates from Saatchi et al (2011) and Thurner et al (2014), while soil carbon stocks (C_soil) are estimated based on state of the art global (Harmonized World Soil Database) and regional (Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database) datasets. The uptake flux estimates are based on global observation-based fields of GPP (Jung et al., 2011). Globally, we find an overall mean global carbon <span class="hlt">turnover</span> time of 23-4+7 years (95% confidence interval). A strong spatial variability globally is also observed, from shorter residence times in equatorial regions to longer periods at latitudes north of 75°N (mean τ of 15 and 255 years, respectively). The observed latitudinal pattern reflect the clear dependencies on temperature, showing increases from the equator to the poles, which is consistent with our current understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. However, long <span class="hlt">turnover</span> times are also observed in semi-arid and forest-herbaceous transition regions. Furthermore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25282953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25282953"><span>Organ-specific changes in norepinephrine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> against various stress conditions in thermoneutral mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teramura, Yasufumi; Terao, Akira; Okada, Yuko; Tomida, Junichi; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kimura, Kazuhiro</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The effects of three stressors of different categories, namely cold exposure, immobilization, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, on sympathetic nerve activity were examined by assessing its biochemical index norepinephrine (NE) <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in peripheral organs of C57BL/6 mice. NE <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was assessed by measuring the decrease in the organ NE concentration 3 h after inhibition of catecholamine biosynthesis with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. NE <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the room temperature (23 degrees C) control group was as high as that in the cold exposure (4 degrees C) group. Similarly, the mRNA level of the thermogenic marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the room temperature control group was as high as that in the cold exposure group. As sympathetic stimulation upregulates the UCP1 mRNA level, we thought that sympathetic nerve tonus in BAT was already accelerated at room temperature. To exclude factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> basal sympathetic nerve activity, mice housed at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C) were used as controls for the subsequent experiments. In this condition, cold exposure accelerated NE <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the BAT, as well as heart and pancreas. The corticosterone level showed a higher trend in the cold exposure group in comparison to the control group. Immobilization accelerated NE <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the spleen, pancreas, and white adipose tissue and elevated the corticosterone level. LPS (3 mg/kg, i.p.) did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> NE <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in all peripheral organs but elevated the corticosterone level. In summary, the sympathetic nervous and adrenocortical responses to three stressors differed greatly. In particular, sympathetic responses showed clear organ-specific acceleration patterns. This important feature may improve our understanding of the multiplicity of biological responses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2600745','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2600745"><span>Plasma membrane microdomains regulate <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of transport proteins in yeast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grossmann, Guido; Malinsky, Jan; Stahlschmidt, Wiebke; Loibl, Martin; Weig-Meckl, Ina; Frommer, Wolf B.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Tanner, Widmar</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate whether the stable segregation of proteins and lipids within the yeast plasma membrane serves a particular biological function. We show that 21 proteins cluster within or associate with the ergosterol-rich membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC). However, proteins of the endocytic machinery are excluded from MCC. In a screen, we identified 28 genes <span class="hlt">affecting</span> MCC appearance and found that genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and vesicle transport are significantly overrepresented. Deletion of Pil1, a component of eisosomes, or of Nce102, an integral membrane protein of MCC, results in the dissipation of all MCC markers. These deletion mutants also show accelerated endocytosis of MCC-resident permeases Can1 and Fur4. Our data suggest that release from MCC makes these proteins accessible to the endocytic machinery. Addition of arginine to wild-type cells leads to a similar redistribution and increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of Can1. Thus, MCC represents a protective area within the plasma membrane to control <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of transport proteins. PMID:19064668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648497','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648497"><span>Comparative Proteome Analysis of hAT-MSCs Isolated from Chronic Renal Failure Patients with Differences in Their Bone <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Status</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akpinar, Gurler; Tuncay, Mehmet; Aksoy, Ayça; Karaoz, Erdal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between the stem cells and the bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in uremic bone disease due to chronic renal failure (CRF) is not described. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> status on stem cell properties. To search for the presence of such link and shed some light on stem-cell relevant mechanisms of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, we carried out a study with mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue biopsies were taken from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of a CRF patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism with the high <span class="hlt">turnover</span> bone disease. This patient underwent parathyroidectomy operation (PTX) and another sample was taken from this patient after PTX. A CRF patient with adynamic bone disease with low <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and a healthy control were also included. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the subjects were analyzed using proteomic and molecular approaches. Except ALP activity, the bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> status did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> common stem cell properties. However, detailed proteome analysis revealed the presence of regulated protein spots. A total of 32 protein spots were identified following 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analyzes. The identified proteins were classified into seven distinct groups and their potential relationship to bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were discussed. Distinct protein expression patterns emerged in relation to the bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> status indicate a possible link between the stem cells and bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in uremic bone disease due to CRF. PMID:26575497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009197','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009197"><span>Protein Colloidal <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28558799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28558799"><span>Propagation of Tau <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia</p> <p>2017-05-30</p> <p>Since 2009, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagation of Tau <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> is often called prion-like, which refers to the capacity of an assembled protein to induce the same abnormal conformation in a protein of the same kind, initiating a self-amplifying cascade. In addition, prion-like encompasses the release of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> from brain cells and their uptake by neighbouring cells. In mice, the intracerebral injection of Tau inclusions induced the ordered assembly of monomeric Tau, followed by its spreading to distant brain regions. Short fibrils constituted the major species of seed-competent Tau. The existence of several human Tauopathies with distinct fibril morphologies has led to the suggestion that different molecular conformers (or strains) of <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> Tau exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990EOSTr..71..218.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990EOSTr..71..218."><span>Marine <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The direction and scope of the Office of Naval Research's Marine <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> Dynamics Accelerated Research Initiative will be the topic of an open-house style meeting February 14, 7:30-10:00 P.M. in Ballroom D of the Hyatt Regency New Orleans at the Louisiana Superdome. This meeting is scheduled during the AGU/American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Ocean Sciences Meeting February 12-16 in New Orleans.The critical focus of the ARI is the measurement and modeling of the dynamics of the biological, physical, chemical and molecular processes that drive <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and produce <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. This new ARI will provide funding in Fiscal Years 1991-1995 to identify and quantify mechanisms that determine the distribution, abundance and size spectrum of <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> particulate matter in the ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED055186.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED055186.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> and Averaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Siegel, Irving H.</p> <p></p> <p>The arithmetic processes of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28309197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28309197"><span>Orthophosphate <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in East African lakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peters, Robert Henry; MacIntyre, Sally</p> <p>1976-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> rates of (32)P-PO4 and concentrations of orthophosphate as soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) were measured in five East African waters. Rapid incorporation of (32)P-PO4 by the seston and orthophosphate concentrations below the limit of detectibility were found in Lakes Elmenteita, Naivasha, and Naivasha Crater Lake. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> was slow and orthophosphate concentration high in both Lake Nakuru and the Crescent Island Crater basin of Lake Naivasha. Further experiments in Lake Nakuru indicated that colloidal binding of orthophosphate was limited and that particles retained by an 8.0 μ filter incorporated 66% as much tracer as particles retained by a 0.1 μ filter. These experiments strengthen our conclusion that a large quantity of orthophosphate is available for algal use in Lake Nakuru.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88b2806J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88b2806J"><span>Replicator dynamics with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of players</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Juul, Jeppe; Kianercy, Ardeshir; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Pigolotti, Simone</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We study adaptive dynamics in games where players abandon the population at a given rate and are replaced by naive players characterized by a prior distribution over the admitted strategies. We demonstrate how such a process leads macroscopically to a variant of the replicator equation, with an additional term accounting for player <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. We study how Nash equilibria and the dynamics of the system are modified by this additional term for prototypical examples such as the rock-paper-scissors game and different classes of two-action games played between two distinct populations. We conclude by showing how player <span class="hlt">turnover</span> can account for nontrivial departures from Nash equilibria observed in data from lowest unique bid auctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2997936','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2997936"><span>Occupational <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions among substance abuse counselors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the U.S. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors’ substance use disorder impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors’ work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20947285</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2440489','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2440489"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> intention in new graduate nurses: a multivariate analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beecroft, Pauline C; Dorey, Frederick; Wenten, Madé</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Title <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> intention in new graduate nurses: a multivariate analysis Aim This paper is a report of a study to determine the relationship of new nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent with individual characteristics, work environment variables and organizational factors and to compare new nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> with actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the 18 months of employment following completion of a residency. Background Because of their influence on patient safety and health outcomes nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent have received considerable attention worldwide. When nurse staffing is inadequate, especially during nursing shortages, unfavourable clinical outcomes have been documented. Method Prospective data collection took place from 1999 to 2006 with 889 new paediatric nurses who completed the same residency. Scores on study instruments were related to likelihood of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent using logistic regression analysis models. Relationships between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent and actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were compared using Kaplan–Meier survivorship. Results The final model demonstrated that older respondents were more likely to have <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent if they did not get their ward choice. Also higher scores on work environment and organizational characteristics contributed to likelihood that the new nurse would not be in the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent group. These factors distinguish a new nurse with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent from one without 79% of the time. Increased seeking of social support was related to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent and older new graduates were more likely to be in the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent group if they did not get their ward choice. Conclusion When new graduate nurses are satisfied with their jobs and pay and feel committed to the organization, the odds against <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent decrease. What is already known about this topic There is concern in many countries about nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and the resulting effects on patient safety and quality of care. Decreasing ability to recruit experienced nurses has increased the emphasis on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075235"><span>Review of nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> research, 1977-1996.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tai, T W; Bame, S I; Robinson, C D</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> represents a major problem for health care services in terms of cost and quality of care given. As a result, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has been the subject of a large number of investigations. However, the variety of study populations, research methodologies, and inconsistent definitions and measurements of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> lead to difficulties when attempting to compare studies. The purpose of this paper is to present: (1) a summary of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> study methods and procedures, and (2) a summary of socio-demographic, organizational, and social support factors associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of nursing staff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhyA..351..551J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhyA..351..551J"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> of retail stores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jensen, Pablo; Boisson, Jean; Larralde, Hernán</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>We propose a simple model to understand the economic factors that induce <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of some businesses over small geographical regions. The model incorporates price competition with neighboring stores, transportation costs and the satisfaction probability of finding the desired product. We show that <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is more likely for stores selling expensive products and/or stores carrying only a fraction of the business variety. We illustrate our model with empirical data collected in the city of Lyon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3833271','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3833271"><span>Health Care Workplace Discrimination and Physician <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M.; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective To examine the association between physician race/ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Methods Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006–2007 of practicing physicians [n = 529] randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and The National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and χ2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Results Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job <span class="hlt">turnover</span> [adjusted odes ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4–4.9]. Among physicians who experienced work-place discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value < .01], and 40% were con-templating a career change (vs 10% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value < .001). Conclusion Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist. PMID:20070016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11021345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11021345"><span>Costing child protective services staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graef, M I; Hill, E L</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This article details the process used in one state to determine the financial costs to the child welfare agency accrued over the course of one year that were directly attributable to CPS staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The formulas and process for calculating specific cost elements due to separation, replacement and training are provided. The practical considerations inherent in this type of analysis are highlighted, as well as the use of this type of data to inform agency human resource strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930714"><span>Water <span class="hlt">turnover</span> assessment in overweight adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Connell, Bláthnaid N; Weinheimer, Eileen M; Martin, Berdine R; Weaver, Connie M; Campbell, Wayne W</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Adequate intake (AI) standards for water in adolescents range between 2.4-3.3 l/day for males and 2.1-2.3 l/day for females, independent of obesity status. Water intakes and excretions of this population are not well documented. The purposes of this study were to assess water <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, inputs, and outputs in overweight adolescents, compare these parameters between males and females, and evaluate the reproducibility of water <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Eighteen girls (BMI 31.7 ± 4 kg/m(2); mean ± s.d.) and nine boys (BMI 26.3 ± 3 kg/m(2)) aged 12-15 years completed two 3-week metabolic balance trials. Rate of water <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (rH(2)O) was measured by tracking the decline of deuterated water from the body over 14 days. Water inputs (diet*, ad libitum(#), metabolic(#)) and outputs (urine*, feces*, insensible(#)) were assessed (*measured, #estimated). rH(2)O was lower (P = 0.002) in girls vs. boys (3,742 ± 536 vs. 4,537 ± 623 g/day). Per kg body weight, rH(2)O was 28% lower in girls vs. boys (46 ± 7 vs. 64 ± 9 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)). Water input from food and beverages provided and metabolic production were 44 and 28% lower, respectively, in girls vs. boys. Urine and insensible water losses were 21 and 17% lower in girls vs. boys. BMI was positively associated with water <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in both sexes (girls P = 0.037; boys P = 0.014). The intraclass correlation of rH(2)O between trials was 0.981 (P < 0.001). In conclusion, these overweight adolescents consumed water well in excess of sex-specific AI standards. The lower rH(2)O in girls compared to boys is consistent with adult females and males.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA079122','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA079122"><span>Employee <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and Post Decision Accommodation Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-11-01</p> <p>1977; Dansereau et al., 1974; Koch and Steers, 1978, Waters et al., 1976; Krackhardt, McKenna , Porter and Steers, 1978). Variables such as these, when...worker. New York: Wiley, 1965. Krackhardt, D., McKenna , J., Porter, L. 14., and Steers, R. M. Coal- setting, supervisory behavior, and employee...consequences of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and to Larry Cummings, Daniel Ilgen, Terence R. Mitchell, Charles O’Reilly, and Barry Staw for their insightful and useful comments on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24698014','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24698014"><span>Protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and prionopathies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Renner, M; Melki, R</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Prion protein and prion-like proteins share a number of characteristics. From the molecular point of view, they are constitutive proteins that <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> following conformational changes into insoluble particles. These particles escape the cellular clearance machinery and amplify by recruiting the soluble for of their constituting proteins. The resulting protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are responsible for a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob, Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington diseases. In addition, there are increasing evidences supporting the inter-cellular trafficking of these <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, meaning that they are "transmissible" between cells. There are also evidences that brain homogenates from individuals developing Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases propagate the disease in recipient model animals in a manner similar to brain extracts of patients developing Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease. Thus, the propagation of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> from cell to cell may be a generic phenomenon that contributes to the evolution of neurodegenerative diseases, which has important consequences on human health issues. Moreover, although the distribution of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> is characteristic for each disease, new evidences indicate the possibility of overlaps and crosstalk between the different disorders. Despite the increasing evidences that support prion or prion-like propagation of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, there are many unanswered questions regarding the mechanisms of toxicity and this is a field of intensive research nowadays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21819042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21819042"><span>Impact of virus <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> on inactivation by peracetic acid and implications for other disinfectants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mattle, Michael J; Crouzy, Benoit; Brennecke, Moritz; Wigginton, Krista R; Perona, Paolo; Kohn, Tamar</p> <p>2011-09-15</p> <p>Viruses in wastewater and natural environments are often present as <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. The disinfectant dose required for their inactivation, however, is typically determined with dispersed viruses. This study investigates how <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> <span class="hlt">affects</span> virus inactivation by chemical disinfectants. Bacteriophage MS2 was <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> by lowering the solution pH, and <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> were inactivated by peracetic acid (PAA). <span class="hlt">Aggregates</span> were redispersed before enumeration to obtain the residual number of individual infectious viruses. In contrast to enumerating whole <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, this approach allowed an assessment of disinfection efficiency which remains applicable even if the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> disperse in post-treatment environments. Inactivation kinetics were determined as a function of <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size (dispersed, 0.55 and 0.90 μm radius) and PAA concentration (5-103 mg/L). <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> reduced the apparent inactivation rate constants 2-6 fold. The larger the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> and the higher the PAA concentration, the more pronounced the inhibitory effect of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> on disinfection. A reaction-diffusion based model was developed to interpret the experimental results, and to predict inactivation rates for additional <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> sizes and disinfectants. The model showed that the inhibitory effect of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> arises from consumption of the disinfectant within the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>, but that diffusion of the disinfectant into the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> is not a rate-limiting factor. <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> therefore has a large inhibitory effect if highly reactive disinfectants are used, whereas inactivation by mild disinfectants is less <span class="hlt">affected</span>. Our results suggest that mild disinfectants should be used for the treatment of water containing viral <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27758972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27758972"><span>Implication of alcohol consumption on <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> wellbeing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parackal, Mathew; Parackal, Sherly</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The effects of drinking alcohol extend beyond the individuals concerned to the wider community. While there is recognition of such a global implication, currently no study has quantified the impact of alcohol consumption on <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> wellbeing. This study aims to address this gap and attempts to investigate the impact of various levels of alcohol consumption on <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> happiness. The study was carried out on a random selection of participants ( n = 1,817) drawn from the 3Di consumer panel, comprising over 170,000 New Zealanders aged 18 and above. Using a subjective happiness scale (SHS) in conjunction with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), investigation was carried out to find whether drinking behaviour <span class="hlt">affected</span> <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> happiness. SHS and AUDIT scores were negatively correlated and the strength of the correlation increased with the intensity of problematic drinking. Regression analysis showed that the beta coefficient was positive for the low-risk (.074) and negative for the high-risk (-.081) category, suggesting approaches to intervene with the growing problem of alcohol consumption in modern societies. Measurements of happiness can explain the global implication of alcohol in wellbeing terms. The findings of this study indicated that low-risk drinkers <span class="hlt">affected</span> <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> happiness positively, whereas high-risk drinkers <span class="hlt">affected</span> <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> happiness negatively. While the latter observation is not new, the former raises the need to promote moderation in drinking alcohol for the common good of everyone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20026454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20026454"><span>Generational differences in registered nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LeVasseur, Sandra A; Wang, Chen-Yen; Mathews, Barbara; Boland, Mary</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The chronic nature of the nursing workforce shortage in the United States is a continuing concern. As the nationwide gap between supply and demand grows, it remains unknown what impact <span class="hlt">turnover</span> will have on nursing, access to care, and efforts to improve quality and safety of health care. It also remains unclear whether the recent <span class="hlt">turnover</span> trends among new graduate registered nurses differ from past generational cohorts of new nurses. The aims of this study were to identify the reasons why registered nurses <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by generational cohort (Veterans, Baby Boomers, and GenXMs) and to compare the length of time nurses were employed in their first five nursing positions by generational cohort. The findings suggest the three generational cohorts displayed similar reasons for leaving nursing positions with relocation, career advancement, and personal/family reasons reported most frequently. Except for the first nursing position, significant generational effects were found in the length of time Veterans, Baby Boomer, and GenXMs stayed employed in their nursing positions. It remains unknown why the GenXMs displayed a significantly shorter length of employment time in their second, third, fourth, and fifth nursing positions. The decline in length of employment time displayed in both the Baby Boomers and GenXMs may be an issue of concern requiring future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24323582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24323582"><span>Quantitative analysis of protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nelson, Clark J; Li, Lei; Millar, A Harvey</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Proteins are constantly being synthesised and degraded as plant cells age and as plants grow, develop and adapt the proteome. Given that plants develop through a series of events from germination to fruiting and even undertake whole organ senescence, an understanding of protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> as a fundamental part of this process in plants is essential. Both synthesis and degradation processes are spatially separated in a cell across its compartmented structure. The majority of protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, while synthesis of specific components occurs inside plastids and mitochondria. Degradation of proteins occurs in both the cytosol, through the action of the plant proteasome, and in organelles and lytic structures through different protease classes. Tracking the specific synthesis and degradation rate of individual proteins can be undertaken using stable isotope feeding and the ability of peptide MS to track labelled peptide fractions over time. Mathematical modelling can be used to follow the isotope signature of newly synthesised protein as it accumulates and natural abundance proteins as they are lost through degradation. Different technical and biological constraints govern the potential for the use of (13)C, (15)N, (2)H and (18)O for these experiments in complete labelling and partial labelling strategies. Future development of quantitative protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> analysis will involve analysis of protein populations in complexes and subcellular compartments, assessing the effect of PTMs and integrating <span class="hlt">turnover</span> studies into wider system biology study of plants. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16431096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16431096"><span>Lightweight <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> made from sewage sludge and incinerated ash.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiou, Ing-Jia; Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Ho; Lin, Ya-Ting</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this study, sewage sludge ash (SSA), with similar characteristics to expansive clay, was used as the principal material and sewage sludge (SS) as the admixture to sinter lightweight <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> and to study the influences of raw material composition on pelletising, sintering effect and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> properties. Results showed that both SS and SSA could be sintered to produce synthetic <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> individually or mixed. Increasing the amount of SS would decrease the pelletising ratio. Under the consideration of energy saving, the mixture of SSA was better for sintering normal weight <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>. On the contrary, the mixture that added 20-30% of SS was more adequate to make lightweight <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. Adding SS would enhance the oxidation-reduction reaction and lower the bulk density and sintering temperature of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> to save energy. Sintering temperature <span class="hlt">affected</span> the properties of sewage sludge ash lightweight <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> (SSALA) more than retention period did. Prolonging the retention period could improve bloating effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031236','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031236"><span>Forest <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Using a global database, we found that forest <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates (the average of tree mortality and recruitment rates) parallel broad-scale patterns of net primary productivity. First, forest <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was higher in tropical than in temperate forests. Second, as recently demonstrated by others, Amazonian forest <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was higher on fertile than infertile soils. Third, within temperate latitudes, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was highest in angiosperm forests, intermediate in mixed forests, and lowest in gymnosperm forests. Finally, within a single forest physiognomic type, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> declined sharply with elevation (hence with temperature). These patterns of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in populations of trees are broadly similar to the patterns of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in populations of plant organs (leaves and roots) found in other studies. Our findings suggest a link between forest mass balance and the population dynamics of trees, and have implications for understanding and predicting the effects of environmental changes on forest structure and terrestrial carbon dynamics. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27399987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27399987"><span>Systemic and local collagen <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in hernia patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henriksen, Nadia A</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Hernia formation is a multifactorial disease involving important endogenous factors possibly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by exogenous factors. Alterations in collagen composition seem to contribute to abdominal wall hernia formation, possibly related to increased collagen breakdown. The collagen composition appears altered in fascial tissue but also in skin biopsies, suggesting that the collagen alterations are systemic. More pronounced collagen alterations are found in patients with hernia recurrences. Hypothetically, primary inguinal hernias are formed due to a systemic predisposition to altered connective tissue, whereas impaired healing influences on the development of incisional hernias and hernia recurrences. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the collagen <span class="hlt">turnover</span> systemically and locally in patients with primary inguinal hernia, multiple hernias and incisional hernia. In a systematic literature review, a total of 55 original articles were reviewed evaluating connective tissue alterations in patients with abdominal wall hernias. Patients with inguinal and incisional hernias exhibit a decreased type I to III collagen ratio in fascia and skin biopsies with the most pronounced alterations found in patients with direct inguinal hernia and hernia recurrence. An increased level of MMP-2 was reported in patients with inguinal hernias. In a nationwide study from the Danish Hernia Database, 92,283 patients with an inguinal hernia repair were identified from January 1998 until June 2010. A total of 843 patients were also registered with a ventral hernia repair. Direct (OR = 1.28 [95% C.I. 1.08-1.51]) and recurrent (OR = 1.76 [95% C.I. 1.39-2.23]) inguinal hernia repairs were significantly associated with ventral hernia repair compared to indirect inguinal hernia repair after adjustment for gender, age and surgical approach. In a multivariable subgroup analysis, direct and recurrent inguinal hernia repair were associated with primary ventral hernia surgery, whereas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3234744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3234744"><span>Fibronectin <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> and Assembly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> and the unfolding of III2 played a role in <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and assembly. PMID:21949131</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22154040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22154040"><span>Treatment staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in organizations implementing evidence-based practices: <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates and their association with client outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Modisette, Kathryn C; Ihnes, Pamela C; Godley, Susan H</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>High staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has been described as a problem for the substance use disorder treatment field. This assertion is based primarily on the assumption that staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> adversely impacts treatment delivery and effectiveness. This assumption, however, has not been empirically tested. In this study, we computed annualized rates of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for treatment staff (N = 249) participating in an evidence-based practice implementation initiative and examined the association between organizational-level rates of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and client-level outcomes. Annualized rates of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were 31% for clinicians and 19% for clinical supervisors. In addition, multilevel analyses did not reveal the expected relationship between staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and poorer client-level outcomes. Rather, organizational-level rates of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were found to have a significant positive association with two measures of treatment effectiveness: less involvement in illegal activity and lower social risk. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3268938','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3268938"><span>Treatment staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in organizations implementing evidence-based practices: <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> rates and their association with client outcomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.; Modisette, Kathryn C.; Ihnes, Pamela C.; Godley, Susan H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>High staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has been described as a problem for the substance use disorder treatment field. This assertion is based primarily on the assumption that staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> adversely impacts treatment delivery and effectiveness. This assumption, however, has not been empirically tested. In this study, we computed annualized rates of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for treatment staff (n=249) participating in an evidence-based practice implementation initiative and examined the association between organizational-level rates of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and client-level outcomes. Annualized rates of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were 31% for clinicians and 19% for clinical supervisors. Additionally, multilevel analyses did not reveal the expected relationship between staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and poorer client-level outcomes. Rather, organizational-level rates of staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were found to have a significant positive association with two measures of treatment effectiveness: less involvement in illegal activity and lower social risk. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:22154040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653028"><span>[New approved markers of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for osteoporosis in Japan].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miki, Takami; Masaki, Hideki</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Various markers of bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are already under clinical use in Japan, and mostly for clinical investigation in some countries. Standard values including ranges and variations are summarized in the previous edition of the guideline. The information of additional new markers adapted by government is summarized including clinical features in the new edition 2012. Among the new markers, the methods for measurement for TRACP-5b and ucOC are developed in Japan. As P1NP and TRACP-5b levels are not <span class="hlt">affected</span> by meals, biological variations are smaller compared with other markers. ucOC is unique because it is to evaluate vitamin K insufficiency for bone. New bone markers adapted in the Japanese guideline 2012 will facilitate clinicians to utilize of metabolic markers of bone for osteoporosis treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EL.....8958003V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EL.....8958003V"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of messenger RNA: Polysome statistics beyond the steady state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valleriani, A.; Ignatova, Z.; Nagar, A.; Lipowsky, R.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The interplay between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> or degradation and ribosome loading of messenger RNA (mRNA) is studied theoretically using a stochastic model that is motivated by recent experimental results. Random mRNA degradation <span class="hlt">affects</span> the statistics of polysomes, i.e., the statistics of the number of ribosomes per mRNA as extracted from cells. Since ribosome loading of newly created mRNA chains requires some time to reach steady state, a fraction of the extracted mRNA/ribosome complexes does not represent steady state conditions. As a consequence, the mean ribosome density obtained from the extracted complexes is found to be inversely proportional to the mRNA length. On the other hand, the ribosome density profile shows an exponential decrease along the mRNA for prokaryotes and becomes uniform in eukaryotic cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5764304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5764304"><span>Sectoral shifts and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> unemployment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Loungani, P.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks <span class="hlt">affect</span> both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20853945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20853945"><span>Dynamic aspects of voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: an integrated approach to curvilinearity in the performance-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> relationship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Becker, William J; Cropanzano, Russell</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Previous research pertaining to job performance and voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has been guided by 2 distinct theoretical perspectives. First, the push-pull model proposes that there is a quadratic or curvilinear relationship existing between these 2 variables. Second, the unfolding model of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> posits that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is a dynamic process and that a downward performance change may increase the likelihood of organizational separation. Drawing on decision theory, we propose and test an integrative framework. This approach incorporates both of these earlier models. Specifically, we argue that individuals are most likely to voluntarily exit when they are below-average performers who are also experiencing a downward performance change. Furthermore, the interaction between this downward change and performance partially accounts for the curvilinear relationship proposed by the push-pull model. Findings from a longitudinal field study supported this integrative theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/34849','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/34849"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of intra- and extra-<span class="hlt">aggregate</span> organic matter at the silt-size scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>I. Virto; C. Moni; C. Swanston; C. Chenu</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Temperate silty soils are especially sensitive to organic matter losses associated to some agricultural management systems. Long-term preservation of organic C in these soils has been demonstrated to occur mainly in the silt- and clay-size fractions, although our knowledge about the mechanisms through which it happens remains unclear. Although organic matter in such...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1162311','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1162311"><span>Phosphatidylinositol <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Suppression by low-density lipoproteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hui, David Y.; Harmony, Judith A. K.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Low-density (LD) lipoproteins inhibit phytohaemagglutinin-enhanced <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of phosphatidylinositol in human peripheral lymphocytes. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> was assessed by 32P incorporation into phospholipids and by loss of 32P from [32P]phosphatidylinositol. Inhibition of lipid <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by LD lipoproteins is not the result of a change in the amount of phytohaemagglutinin required for maximum cellular response. Neither phytohaemagglutinin nor LD lipoproteins influence 32P incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine during the first 60min after mitogenic challenge. The extent of inhibition of phosphatidylinositol <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by LD lipoproteins depends on the concentration of LD lipoproteins present in the incubation medium: 50% of maximum inhibition occurs at a low-density-lipoprotein protein concentration of 33μg/ml and maximum inhibition occurs at low-density-lipoprotein protein concentrations above 100μg/ml. Phytohaemagglutinin stimulates 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol phosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. However, LD lipoproteins abolish 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol without <span class="hlt">affecting</span> incorporation into phosphatidylinositol phosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. The ability of LD lipoproteins to inhibit phytohaemagglutinin-induced phosphatidylinositol <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is mimicked by EGTA. Furthermore, inhibition of LD lipoproteins by phytohaemagglutinin-induced 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol correlates directly with inhibition by LD lipoproteins of Ca2+ accumulation. These results suggest that Ca2+ accumulation and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of phosphatidylinositol are coupled responses in lymphocytes challenged by mitogens. The step in phosphatidylinositol metabolism that is sensitive to LD lipoproteins and, by inference, that is coupled to Ca2+ accumulation is release of [32P]phosphoinositol from phosphatidylinositol. PMID:6796039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911701V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911701V"><span>Microbially-driven soil <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasilyeva, Nadezda; Vladimirov, Artem; Matveev, Sergey; Smirnov, Alexander; Tyrtyshnikov, Eugene; Shein, Evgeny</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We propose a novel approach to mathematical modelling of soil <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure formation. The model is self-consistent and describes physical process of soil particles <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>/fragmentation as a result of organic matter micro-biochemical cycle. The model consists of two parts, first part describes biochemical cycle and is formulated as a system of chemical kinetic equations. The second part describes soil particles <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and fragmentation and is formulated as Smoluchowski equation, with coefficients dependent on the chemical composition, obtained by solving the first part of the model. The presented model allows observation of a complex <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure development starting from a simple system of homogeneous mineral particles, organic matter solution and inoculant of microorganisms. With the help of numerical simulations we study fundamental mechanisms leading to multimodality of soil micro-<span class="hlt">aggregates</span> size distributions and how it is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by soil organic matter content. As an example, the model allows further consideration of soil physical occlusion effect on organic matter decomposition rates in soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JApSp..81.1068L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JApSp..81.1068L"><span>Influence of Phenylalanine on Carotenoid <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, L.; Ni, X.; Luo, X.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The carotenoids lutein and β-carotene form, in 1:1 ethanol-water mixtures H-<span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, of different strengths. The effects of phenylalanine on these <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> were recorded by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and Raman spectra. The H-<span class="hlt">aggregate</span> of lutein was characterized by a large 78 nm blue shift in the absorption spectra, confirming the strong coupling between hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. The 15 nm blue shift in the β-carotene mixture also indicates that it was assembled by weak coupling between polyenes. After adding phenylalanine, the reducing absorption strength of the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of lutein and reappearance of vibrational substructure indicate that the hydroxyl and amino groups of phenylalanine may coordinate to lutein and disaggregate the H-<span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. However, phenylalanine had no effect on <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of β-carotene. The Raman spectra show three bands of carotenoids whose intensities decreased with increasing phenylalanine concentration. The frequency of ν1 corresponding to the length of the conjugated region was more sensitive to the solution of lutein. This coordination of phenylalanine to lutein could increase the length of the conjugated region. In addition, phenylalanine significantly <span class="hlt">affected</span> the excited electronic states of carotenoids, which were crucial in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll a in vivo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559925"><span>Protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> as an antibiotic design strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bednarska, Natalia G; van Eldere, Johan; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ganesan, Ashok; Ramakers, Meine; Vogel, Isabel; Baatsen, Pieter; Staes, An; Goethals, Marc; Hammarström, Per; Nilsson, K Peter R; Gevaert, Kris; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Taking advantage of the xenobiotic nature of bacterial infections, we tested whether the cytotoxicity of protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> can be targeted to bacterial pathogens without <span class="hlt">affecting</span> their mammalian hosts. In particular, we examined if peptides encoding <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>-prone sequence segments of bacterial proteins can display antimicrobial activity by initiating toxic protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in bacteria, but not in mammalian cells. Unbiased in vitro screening of <span class="hlt">aggregating</span> peptide sequences from bacterial genomes lead to the identification of several peptides that are strongly bactericidal against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Upon parenteral administration in vivo, the peptides cured mice from bacterial sepsis without apparent toxic side effects as judged from histological and hematological evaluation. We found that the peptides enter and accumulate in the bacterial cytosol where they cause <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of bacterial polypeptides. Although the precise chain of events that leads to cell death remains to be elucidated, the ability to tap into <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>-prone sequences of bacterial proteomes to elicit antimicrobial activity represents a rich and unexplored chemical space to be mined in search of novel therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5334643','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5334643"><span>Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin <span class="hlt">aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes <span class="hlt">affects</span> their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. PMID:28255164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743669G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743669G"><span>Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin <span class="hlt">aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes <span class="hlt">affects</span> their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo..tmp...18H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo..tmp...18H"><span>Observing Convective <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Convective self-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span> may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span> simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5350H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5350H"><span>Observing convective <span class="hlt">aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holloway, Christopher; Wing, Allison; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Turner, David; Zuidema, Paquita</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Convective self-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span> was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span> may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-<span class="hlt">aggregation</span> simulation with square geometry has too broad a distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...744563K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...744563K"><span>Partitioning of red blood cell <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> in bifurcating microscale flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, however, recent studies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are present throughout the microvasculature, <span class="hlt">affecting</span> cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-<span class="hlt">aggregating</span> and <span class="hlt">aggregating</span> human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> sizes were determined using image processing. The mean <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5355999','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5355999"><span>Partitioning of red blood cell <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> in bifurcating microscale flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, however, recent studies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are present throughout the microvasculature, <span class="hlt">affecting</span> cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-<span class="hlt">aggregating</span> and <span class="hlt">aggregating</span> human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> sizes were determined using image processing. The mean <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance. PMID:28303921</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=time+AND+lags&pg=3&id=EJ831545','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=time+AND+lags&pg=3&id=EJ831545"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> unemployment may <span class="hlt">affect</span> individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=unemployment&pg=3&id=EJ831545','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=unemployment&pg=3&id=EJ831545"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> unemployment may <span class="hlt">affect</span> individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53G..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53G..06T"><span>Carbon <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and Dynamics from Biochemically Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Throckmorton, H.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M.; Horwath, W. R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Microorganisms represent an important source of actively cycling carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems, yet little is known of the fate or stability of microbial C in soils or the relative importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing C stabilization. This project utilized uniformly 13C-labeled, biochemically diverse, non-living microbial residues including fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria Gm+, and bacteria Gm- as substrates in a reciprocal transplant experiment in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico. Microbes were isolated from each site, grown with 13C media, autoclaved and lypholyzed, and non-living residues were added back to soils at each site. The temperate and tropical soils were analyzed over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. Microbial C <span class="hlt">turnover</span> differed substantially between the two sites, with microbial C levels stabilizing at 35% of initial input C after 12 months in the temperate site, while in Puerto Rico microbial C does not to begin to stabilize until about 16 months at less than 10% of initial input C. Physical fractionation of soils indicate that, despite the substantial difference in microbial C <span class="hlt">turnover</span> between the two sites, microbial C <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the fraction occluded within <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and in the fraction associated with mineral surfaces did not differ between the two sites; the only physical fraction where microbial C <span class="hlt">turnover</span> differed between the two sites was the light fraction, which is unassociated with the mineral matrix. These results underline the importance of the soil mineral matrix for protecting soil organic matter from mineralization. Although microbial groups did not differ in their relative partitioning among soil physical fractions, there was some evidence for slower overall decomposition of bacteria Gm+ and fungi relative to bacteria Gm- and actinomycetes; however, the observed effect was not substantial. Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS results suggest there are some differences in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20947218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20947218"><span>Technology meets <span class="hlt">aggregate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, C.; Swan, C.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/175122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/175122"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of xanthoma cholesterol in hyperlipoproteinemia patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharyya, A K; Connor, W E; Mausolf, F A; Flatt, A D</p> <p>1976-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of xanthoma cholesterol was measured in 9 hyperlipidemic and one normocholesterolemic patients. Sequential biopsies of the xanthomas were obtained 13 to 364 days after the administration of isotopic cholesterol and were then analyzed for cholesterol specific activity. A total of 34 xanthomas of 3 different types - 10 tendon xanthomas, 3 tuberous xanthomas, and 21 xanthelasmas - comprised the material for analysis. The cholesterol specific activity ratio of tendron xanthomas to that of the plasma varied from 11 per cent at 21 days to a maximum of 543 per cent at 122 days after the intravenous administration of isotopic cholesterol. This ratio declined to 426 per cent at 182 days and was still 131 per cent at 364 days. Similarly, the cholesterol specific activity of xanthelasmas increased gradually. In most instances, the xanthelasma cholesterol attained isotopic equilibration with plasma cholesterol by about 50 days but varied from patient to patient (minimum time, 46 days and maximum time, 91 days). The cholesterol content of xanthomas ranged from 10.7 to 197.0 mg per gram of dry weight of the tissue. Sixty-one to 87 per cent of the total xanthoma cholesterol was esterified. No other sterols were identified in these xanthomas. Thus, the cholesterol of 3 types of xanthoma readily attained isotopic equilibration with the plasma cholesterol which suggested total exchangeability of cholesterol between plasma and xanthomas. The uptake of cholesterol by the xanthomas from plasma was rapid considering the large mass of cholesterol in the lesions. The <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of xanthoma cholesterol was intermediate between that of the rapidly exchangeable pool and of the slowly exchangeable pool of body cholesterol. Comparison of these results with those obtained in human advanced atheroma suggest that the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of xanthoma cholesterol and atheroma cholesterol are quite different.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5442606','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5442606"><span>Platelet <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Predicts Outcome after Coronary Intervention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iliev, Liana; Bruno, Veronika; Rohla, Miklos; Egger, Florian; Weiss, Thomas W.; Hübl, Wolfgang; Willheim, Martin; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Summary Elevated platelet <span class="hlt">turnover</span> contributes to high platelet reactivity. High platelet reactivity after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of platelet <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and function with regard to MACE after PCI with stent implantation. In this prospective observational study, 486 consecutive patients after PCI on aspirin and clopidogrel were included to determine platelet <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (mean platelet volume (MPV), reticulated platelet fraction (RPF)) and platelet function (multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-phosphorylation (VASP-P) assay). At six-months follow-up, MACE occurred in 10.7 % of patients. RPF (odds ratio [OR]=1.173 (95% confidence interval [CI 95 %] 1.040–1.324), p=0.009) and MPV (OR=1.459 (CI 95 % 1.059–2.008), p=0.021) were univariable predictors of MACE, whereas VASP-P (OR=1.016 (CI 95 % 1.000–1.032), p=0.052) and MEA (OR=0.999 (CI 95 % 0.980–1.017), p=0.895) failed to predict MACE. RPF remained the only platelet variable independently associated with MACE. The best model to predict MACE included: troponin I (OR=1.007 (CI 95 % 1.002–1.012), p=0.009), RPF (OR=1.136 (CI 95 % 1.001–1.288), p=0.048), CRP (OR=1.008 (CI 95 % 1.001–1.014), p=0.023) and history of myocardial infarction (OR=2.039 (CI 95 % 1.093–3.806), p=0.025). RPF (OR=1.211 (CI 95 % 1.042–1.406), p=0.012) was also independently associated with in-hospital bleedings. In conclusion, RPF as index of platelet <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is an independent predictor of MACE and bleeding events in PCI patients on dual antiplatelet therapy. Since RPF can reliably be quantified along with routine haemograms, RPF might easily be applied in the setting of cardiovascular risk prediction. PMID:28229159</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262549"><span>The impact of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among respiratory care practitioners in a health care system: frequency and associated costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stoller, J K; Orens, D K; Kester, L</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>Retention of respiratory therapists (RTs) is a desired institutional goal that reflects department loyalty and RTs' satisfaction. When RTs leave a department, services are disrupted and new therapists must undergo orientation and training, which requires time and expense. Despite the widely shared goal of minimal <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, neither the annual rate nor the associated expense of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> for RTs has been described. Determine the rate of RT <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and the costs related to training new staff members. The Cleveland Clinic Health System is composed of 9 participating hospitals, which range from small, community-based institutions to large, tertiary care institutions. To elicit information about annual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among RTs throughout the system, we conducted a survey of key personnel in each of the hospitals' respiratory therapy departments. To calculate the costs of training, we reviewed the training schedule for an RT joining the Respiratory Therapy Section at the Cleveland Clinic Hospital. Cost estimates reflect the duration of training by various supervisory RTs, their respective wages (including benefit costs), and educational materials used in training and orientation. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> rates ranged from 3% to 18% per year. Five of the 8 institutions from which rates were available reported rates greater than 8% per year. The rate of annual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> correlated significantly with the ratio of hospital beds to RT staff (Pearson r = 0.784, r(2) = 0.61, p = 0.02). The cost of training an RT at the Cleveland Clinic Hospital totaled $3,447.11. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> among respiratory therapists poses a substantial problem because of its frequency and expense. Greater attention to issues <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and to enhancing retention of RTs is warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16648695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16648695"><span>Organizational commitment and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of nursing home administrators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castle, Nicholas G</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this investigation, the associations between organizational commitment (OC), intent-to-<span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of a large sample of nursing home administrators (NHAs) are examined. Data used come from a mail survey, from which 632 responses were received from the NHAs (response rate = 63%). The one-year <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate of NHAs was 39 percent, and in almost all cases (87%) these NHAs had also exhibited low OC scores. The intent-to-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> results show thinking about quitting comes before searching for a new position, which in turn both comes before the intention to quit. Multivariate analyses show work overload has a strong and robust association with both intent-to-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of NHAs, and may indicate that NHAs are leaving their positions because they are understaffed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20411878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20411878"><span>Mentor program boosts new nurses' satisfaction and lowers <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fox, Kathy C</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>In 2004, the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate among first-year registered nurses (RNs) at St. Francis Hospital and Health Centers had mushroomed to 31%. Based on research, in 2006, the hospital embarked on a journey to implement an RN mentor program to improve satisfaction and reduce <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. A pilot program was initiated, including 12 RN mentors and 12 RN protégés from select nursing units. The results showed a 0% <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate during the 1-year pilot program. Based on these findings, the mentor program was expanded to include RNs working in inpatient nursing units and surgery and emergency departments. Each year, the RN <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate has decreased. In 2009, the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate was 10.3%. Because of the success of the program, it has been expanded in scope to include other professionals experiencing high <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in targeted departments, including radiological technicians, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and physical therapists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhyD...38..154G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhyD...38..154G"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregates</span>, broccoli and cauliflower</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940861','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940861"><span>Dynamics of Adipocyte <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Spalding, K; Arner, E; Westermark, P; Bernard, S; Buchholz, B; Bergmann, O; Blomqvist, L; Hoffstedt, J; Naslund, E; Britton, T; Concha, H; Hassan, M; Ryden, M; Frisen, J; Arner, P</p> <p>2007-07-16</p> <p>Obesity is increasing in an epidemic fashion in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells is thought to be most important. We show that adipocyte number is a major determinant for the fat mass in adults. However, the number of fat cells stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese and even under extreme conditions, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. To establish the dynamics within the stable population of adipocytes in adults, we have measured adipocyte <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by analyzing the integration of {sup 14}C derived from nuclear bomb tests in genomic DNA. Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index. Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number that is independent of metabolic profile in adulthood. The high <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21707675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21707675"><span>Nitrogen <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in soil and global change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ollivier, Julien; Töwe, Stefanie; Bannert, Andrea; Hai, Brigitte; Kastl, Eva-Maria; Meyer, Annabel; Su, Ming Xia; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Nitrogen management in soils has been considered as key to the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and a protection of major ecosystem services. However, the microorganisms driving processes like nitrification, denitrification, N-fixation and mineralization are highly influenced by changing climatic conditions, intensification of agriculture and the application of new chemicals to a so far unknown extent. In this review, the current knowledge concerning the influence of selected scenarios of global change on the abundance, diversity and activity of microorganisms involved in nitrogen <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, notably in agricultural and grassland soils, is summarized and linked to the corresponding processes. In this context, data are presented on nitrogen-cycling processes and the corresponding microbial key players during ecosystem development and changes in functional diversity patterns during shifts in land use. Furthermore, the impact of increased temperature, carbon dioxide and changes in precipitation regimes on microbial nitrogen <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is discussed. Finally, some examples of the effects of pesticides and antibiotics after application to soil for selected processes of nitrogen transformation are also shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5485508','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5485508"><span>Relationships between Bone <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and Energy Metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>It is well established that diabetes can be detrimental to bone health, and its chronic complications have been associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, there is growing evidence that the skeleton plays a key role in a whole-organism approach to physiology. The hypothesis that bone may be involved in the regulation of physiological functions, such as insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism, has been suggested. Given the roles of insulin, adipokines, and osteocalcin in these pathways, the need for a more integrative conceptual approach to physiology is emphasized. Recent findings suggest that bone plays an important role in regulating intermediary metabolism, being possibly both a target of diabetic complications and a potential pathophysiologic factor in the disease itself. Understanding the relationships between bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and glucose metabolism is important in order to develop treatments that might reestablish energy metabolism and bone health. This review describes new insights relating bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and energy metabolism that have been reported in the literature. PMID:28695134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10270679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10270679"><span>Strategies for adapting to high rates of employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mowday, R T</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>For many organizations facing high rates of employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, strategies for increasing employee retention may not be practical because employees leave for reasons beyond the control of management or the costs of reducing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> exceed the benefits to be derived. In this situation managers need to consider strategies that can minimize or buffer the organization from the negative consequences that often follow from <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Strategies organizations can use to adapt to uncontrollably high employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates are presented in this article. In addition, suggestions are made for how managers should make choices among the alternative strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761014','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761014"><span>Chicory increases acetate <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, but not propionate and butyrate peripheral <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pouteau, Etienne; Rochat, Florence; Jann, Alfred; Meirim, Isabelle; Sanchez-Garcia, Jose-Luis; Ornstein, Kurt; German, Bruce; Ballèvre, Olivier</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Chicory roots are rich in inulin that is degraded into SCFA in the caecum and colon. Whole-body SCFA metabolism was investigated in rats during food deprivation and postprandial states. After 22 h of food deprivation, sixteen rats received an IV injection of radioactive 14C-labelled SCFA. The volume of distribution and the fractional clearance rate of SCFA were 0.25-0.27 litres/kg and 5.4-5.9 %/min, respectively. The half-life in the first extracellular rapidly decaying compartment was between 0.9 and 1.4 min. After 22 h of food deprivation, another seventeen rats received a primed continuous IV infusion of 13C-labelled SCFA for 2 h. Isotope enrichment (13C) of SCFA was determined in peripheral arterial blood by MS. Peripheral acetate, propionate and butyrate <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates were 29, 4 and 0.3 micromol/kg per min respectively. Following 4 weeks of treatment with chicory root or control diets, eighteen fed rats received a primed continuous IV infusion of 13C-labelled SCFA for 2 h. Intestinal degradation of dietary chicory lowered caecal pH, enhanced caecal and colonic weights, caecal SCFA concentrations and breath H2. The diet with chicory supplementation enhanced peripheral acetate <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by 25 % (P = 0.017) concomitant with an increase in plasma acetate concentration. There were no changes in propionate or butyrate <span class="hlt">turnovers</span>. In conclusion, by setting up a multi-tracer approach to simultaneously assess the <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> of acetate, propionate and butyrate it was demonstrated that a chronic chicory-rich diet significantly increases peripheral acetate <span class="hlt">turnover</span> but not that of propionate or butyrate in rats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24417282','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24417282"><span>A multilevel investigation on nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention: the cross-level role of leader-member exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Leiter, Michael P</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>To analyse nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention from the unit by using multilevel approach, examining at the individual level, the relationships between job characteristics, job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention, and at the group level the role of leader-member exchange. Research on nursing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has given little attention to the effects of multilevel factors. <span class="hlt">Aggregated</span> data of 935 nurses nested within 74 teams of four Italian hospitals were collected in 2009 via a self-administered questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modelling showed that job satisfaction mediated the relationship between job characteristics and intention to leave at the individual level. At the unit level, leader-member exchange was directly linked to intention to leave. Furthermore, cross-level interaction revealed that leader-member exchange moderated the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction. This study supported previous research in single-level <span class="hlt">turnover</span> studies concerning the key role of job satisfaction, providing evidence that job characteristics are important in creating motivating and satisfying jobs. At the unit-level, leader-member exchange offers an approach to understand the role of unit-specific conditions created by leaders on nurses' workplace wellbeing. This study showed that it is important for nursing managers to recognise the relevance of implementing management practices that foster healthy workplaces centred on high-quality nurse-supervisor relationships. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463891"><span>Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage <span class="hlt">turnovers</span>. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> and thus <span class="hlt">affect</span> N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19305685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19305685"><span>The impact of implementing managed competition on home care workers' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> decisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Denton, Margaret; Zeytinoglu, Isik Urla; Davies, Sharon; Hunter, Danielle</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the question: Did the implementation of managed competition in Ontario increase <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in home care agencies? This question is addressed through a case study analysis of the impacts of tendering on the exiting home care labour force from three non-profit home care agencies during the period 1997 to 2001 in a mid-sized city in Ontario. These agencies provided 85% of the market share in 1996. Findings showed that 52% of the nurses and personal support workers (PSWs) left their agency over the five-year period. Analysis of the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> data showed a temporal association between the implementation of managed competition and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Additional support for the argument that the implementation of managed competition increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is provided through analysis of a questionnaire sent to nurses and personal support workers who had left their agency during this period. Respondents indicated dissatisfaction with their pay, hours of work, benefits, heavy workload and lack of support from their supervisors/managers (all factors <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the marketization of the home care sector) as reasons for leaving. Of those employed, only one-quarter remained in home care; most of those remaining were working in other healthcare fields such as hospitals and long-term care institutions. However, about one-third of employed PSWs were no longer working in the healthcare field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370741"><span>The impact of organisational factors on horizontal bullying and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions in the nursing workplace.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blackstock, Sheila; Harlos, Karen; Macleod, Martha L P; Hardy, Cindy L</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>To examine the impact of organisational factors on bullying among peers (i.e. horizontal) and its effect on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions among Canadian registered nurses (RNs). Bullying among nurses is an international problem. Few studies have examined factors specific to nursing work environments that may increase exposure to bullying. An Australian model of nurse bullying was tested among Canadian registered nurse coworkers using a web-based survey (n = 103). Three factors - misuse of organisational processes/procedures, organisational tolerance and reward of bullying, and informal organisational alliances - were examined as predictors of horizontal bullying, which in turn was examined as a predictor of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions. The construct validity of model measures was explored. Informal organisational alliances and misuse of organisational processes/procedures predicted increased horizontal bullying that, in turn, predicted increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions. Construct validity of model measures was supported. Negative informal alliances and misuse of organisational processes are antecedents to bullying, which adversely <span class="hlt">affects</span> employment relationship stability. The results suggest that reforming flawed organisational processes that contribute to registered nurses' bullying experiences may help to reduce chronically high <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Nurse leaders and managers need to create workplace processes that foster positive networks, fairness and respect through more transparent and accountable practices. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4604521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4604521"><span>Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage <span class="hlt">turnovers</span>. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB <span class="hlt">turnovers</span> and thus <span class="hlt">affect</span> N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27322030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27322030"><span>Job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent among hospital social workers in the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pugh, Greg L</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Feelings of job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions among social workers <span class="hlt">affect</span> work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NW....101.1027F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NW....101.1027F"><span>Ichthyosaurs from the French Rhaetian indicate a severe <span class="hlt">turnover</span> across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, Valentin; Cappetta, Henri; Vincent, Peggy; Garcia, Géraldine; Goolaerts, Stijn; Martin, Jeremy E.; Roggero, Daniel; Valentin, Xavier</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe <span class="hlt">turnover</span> near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event <span class="hlt">affected</span> ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian-earliest Jurassic interval, for the lack of a more precise scenario. The iconic whale-sized shastasaurid ichthyosaurs are regarded as early victims of this <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, disappearing by the middle Norian. Here we evaluate the pattern of this <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among ichthyosaurs by analysing the faunal record of two Rhaetian localities. One locality is Autun, eastern France; we rediscovered in this material the holotypes or partial `type' series of Rachitrema pellati, Actiosaurus gaudryi, Ichthyosaurus rheticus, Ichthyosaurus carinatus and Plesiosaurus bibractensis; a revised taxonomic scheme is proposed. The second assemblage comes from a new locality: Cuers, southeastern France. Both these assemblages provide several lines of evidence for the presence of shastasaurid-like ichthyosaurs in the Rhaetian of Europe. These occurrences suggest that both the demise of shastasaurids and the sudden radiation of neoichthyosaurians occurred within a short time window; this <span class="hlt">turnover</span> appears not only more abrupt but also more complex than previously postulated and adds a new facet of the end-Triassic mass extinction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16162070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16162070"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> intentions and voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: the moderating roles of self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, David G; Weeks, Kelly P; Moffitt, Karen R</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>This article explores moderators of the relationship between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> behavior to better explain why some employees translate intentions into behavior and other employees do not. Individual differences in self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion were examined. Results indicate that self-monitoring and risk aversion moderate the intentions-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> link. Specifically, the relationship between <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is stronger for low self-monitors and those lower in risk aversion. Locus of control moderated the relationship in 1 of 2 samples such that the relationship was stronger for those with an internal locus of control. Proactive personality, however, did not directly moderate the relationship between intentions and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> behaviors. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045452','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045452"><span>Individual Preferences and Social Interactions Determine the <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> of Woodlice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Devigne, Cédric; Broly, Pierre; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background The <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of woodlice in dark and moist places is considered an adaptation to land life and most studies are focused on its functionality or on the behavioural mechanisms related to the individual's response to abiotic factors. Until now, no clear experimental demonstration was available about <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> resulting from inter-attraction between conspecifics. Methodology/Main Findings We present the dynamics of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, not previously described in detail in literature, as being independent of the experimental conditions: homogeneous and heterogeneous environments with identical or different shelters. Indeed whatever these conditions, the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is very quick. In less than 10 minutes more than 50% of woodlice were <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> in several small groups in the homogeneous environment or under shelters in the heterogeneous environment. After this fast <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, woodlice progressively moved into a single <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> or under one shelter. Conclusions/Significance Here we show for the first time that <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in woodlice implies a strong social component and results from a trade-off between individual preferences and inter-attraction between individuals. Moreover, our results reveal that the response to the heterogeneities <span class="hlt">affects</span> only the location of the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and not the level of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, and demonstrate the strong inter-attraction between conspecifics which can outweigh individual preferences. This inter-attraction can lead to situations that could seem sub-optimal. PMID:21364761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012mss..confERI08N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012mss..confERI08N"><span>Pyridine <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> in Helium Nanodroplets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nieto, Pablo; Poerschke, Torsten; Habig, Daniel; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Pyridine crystals show the unusual property of isotopic polymorphism. Experimentally it has been observed that deuterated pyridine crystals exist in two phases while non-deuterated pyridine does not show a phase transition. Therefore, although isotopic substitution is the smallest possible modification of a molecule it greatly <span class="hlt">affects</span> the stability of pyridine crystals. A possible experimental approach in order to understand this striking effect might be the study of pyridine <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> for small clusters. By embedding the clusters in helium nanodroplets the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> can be stabilized and studied by means of Infrared Depletion Spectroscopy. Pyridine oligomers were investigated in the C-H asymmetric vibration region (2980-3100 cm-1) using this experimental technique. The number of molecules for the clusters responsibles for each band were determined by means of pick-up curves as well as mass sensitive depletion spectra. Furthermore, the intensity dependence of the different bands on applying a dc electric field was studied. The assignment of the different structures for pyridine clusters on the basis of these measurements were also carried out. S. Crawford et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 48, 755 (2009).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4691S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4691S"><span>Does thermophoresis reduce <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> stability?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sachs, Eyal; Sarah, Pariente</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Thermophoresis is mass flow driven by a thermal gradient. As a result of Seebeck effect and Soret effect, colloids can move from the hot to the cold region or vice versa, depending on the electrolyte composition and on the particle size. This migration of colloids can weaken <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. The effect of raindrop temperatures on runoff generation and erosion on clayey soil was investigated in sprinkling experiments with a laboratory rotating disk rain simulator. The experiments were applied to Rhodoxeralt (Terra Rossa) soil with two pre-prepared moisture contents: hygroscopic and field capacity. For each moisture content three rainfall temperatures were applied: 2, 20, and 35°C. Erosion was generally lower in the pre-wetted soil than in the dry soil (12.5 and 24.4 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain,respectively). Whereas there was no significant effect of raindrop temperature on the dry soil the soil that was pre-moistened to field capacity was <span class="hlt">affected</span> by rainwater temperature: runoff and erosion were high when the temperature difference between rainfall and soil surface was high, sediment yields were 13.9, 5.2, and 18.3 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain, for rain temperature of 2, 20, and 35 °C, respectively. It is reasonable to conclude that thermophoresis caused by thermal gradients within the soil solution reduces the stability of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and then increase the soil losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhyA..304..211S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhyA..304..211S"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spirito, M. De; Chiappini, R.; Bassi, F. Andreasi; Stasio, E. Di; Giardina, B.; Arcovito, G.</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> kinetics and of the final macromolecular structure of the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius Rg and the fractal dimension Dm of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> mechanism could be described using the universal reaction-limited cluster-cluster <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> (RLCCA) theory, at longest times from the beginning of the process, the RLCCA theory fails and a restructuring of clusters is observed together with an increase of the cluster fractal dimension Dm up to a value Dm∼3. The time tn, at which the restructuring takes place, and the final cluster size can be modulated by varying the quenching temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6357851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6357851"><span>Protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, nitrogen balance and rehabilitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fern, E B; Waterlow, J C</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Not many studies have been done on protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> during recovery from malnutrition. Some relevant information can, however, be obtained from measurements on normal growing animals, since rehabilitation and normal growth have in common a rapid rate of net protein synthesis. The key question is the extent to which net gain in protein results from an increase in synthesis or a decrease in breakdown or both. Different studies have used different methods, and all methods for measuring protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> have some disadvantages and sources of error. It is important to bear this in mind in evaluating the results. Consequently, part of this paper will be devoted to questions of methodology. Whole body protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> has been measured in children recovering from severe malnutrition. During the phase of rapid catch-up growth the rate of protein synthesis is increased. As might be expected, it increases linearly with the rate of weight gain. At the same time there is a smaller increase in the rate of protein breakdown. The resultant of these two processes is that, over and above the basal rate of protein synthesis, 1.4 grams of protein have to be synthesized for 1 gram to be laid down. Very similar results have been obtained in rapidly growing young pigs. Experimental studies on muscle growth in general confirm the conclusion that, at least in muscle, rapid growth is associated with rapid rates of protein breakdown as well as of synthesis. This has been shown in muscles of young growing rats, as well as in muscles in which hypertrophy has been induced by stretch or other stimuli. In contrast, the evidence suggests that rapid growth involves a fall in the rate of protein degradation. The magnitude of the nitrogen balance under any conditions is determined by the difference between synthesis and breakdown. In the absence of any storage of amino acids, this must be the same as the difference between intake and excretion (S - B = I - E). A question of great interest is whether</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARV10011C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARV10011C"><span>Reversible <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span> of Albumin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colby, Ralph H.; Oates, Katherine M. N.; Krause, Wendy E.; Jones, Ronald L.</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We explore the interactions in synovial fluid involving the polyelectrolyte sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) and plasma proteins in their native state (albumin and globulins). Rheological measurements on synovial fluid show it to be highly viscoelastic and also rheopectic (stress increases with time in steady shear). Equilibrium dialysis confirms the findings of Ogston and Dubin that there is no association between NaHA and albumin at physiological pH and salt. What we find instead is a reversible <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of albumin, with an association energy of order 3kT and commensurate association lifetime of order microseconds. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs are shown to prevent this reversible <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. The implications of these findings for synovial fluid and blood rheology are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3166500','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3166500"><span>Tracking protein <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bartz, Jason C; Nilsson, K Peter R</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Amyloid fibrils share a structural motif consisting of highly ordered β-sheets aligned perpendicular to the fibril axis.1, 2 At each fibril end, β-sheets provide a template for recruiting and converting monomers.3 Different amyloid fibrils often co-occur in the same individual, yet whether a protein <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> aids or inhibits the assembly of a heterologous protein is unclear. In prion disease, diverse prion <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structures, known as strains, are thought to be the basis of disparate disease phenotypes in the same species expressing identical prion protein sequences.4–7 Here we explore the interactions reported to occur when two distinct prion strains occur together in the central nervous system. PMID:21597336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630085','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630085"><span>Zooplankton <span class="hlt">Aggregations</span> Near Sills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-09-30</p> <p>frequency echo-sounder system. This data were supplemented with multi-net (BIONESS) trawls, bongo nets, and otter trawls (operated by D. Mackas and group...side. The general composition of the zooplankton <span class="hlt">aggregations</span> can be deduced from the relative levels of the three echo-sounder frequencies; krill ...Nov. 20th, 2002. Krill layer is evident at 66 – 90 m, coincident with BIONESS trawl through the region. 3 Figure 2 shows a comparison between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7035D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7035D"><span>Response of microbial extracellular enzyme activities and r- vs. K- selected microorganisms to elevated atmospheric CO2 depends on soil <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorodnikov, Maxim; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Kuzyakov, Yakov</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Increased belowground carbon (C) transfer by plant roots under elevated atmospheric CO2 and the contrasting environment in soil macro- and microaggregates could <span class="hlt">affect</span> properties of the microbial community in the rhizosphere. We evaluated the effect of 5 years of elevated CO2 (550 ppm) on four extracellular enzymes: ß-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase along with the contribution of fast- (r-strategists) and slow-growing microorganisms (K-strategists) in soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. We fractionated the bulk soil from the ambient and elevated CO2 treatments of FACE-Hohenheim (Stuttgart) into large macro- (>2 mm), small macro- (0.25-2.00 mm), and microaggregates (<0.25 mm) using a modified dry sieving. Microbial biomass (C-mic by SIR), the maximal specific growth rate (µ), growing microbial biomass (GMB) and lag-period (t-lag) were estimated by the kinetics of CO2 emission from bulk soil and <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> amended with glucose and nutrients. In the bulk soil and isolated <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> before and after activation with glucose, the actual and the potential enzyme activities were measured. Although C-org and C-mic as well as the activities of ß-glucosidase, phosphatase, and sulfatase were unaffected in bulk soil and in <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>-size classes by elevated CO2, significant changes were observed in potential enzyme production after substrate amendment. After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. In addition, µ values were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2 for bulk soil, small macroaggregates, and microaggregates. Based on changes in µ, GMB, and lag-period, we conclude that elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulated the r-selected microorganisms, especially in soil microaggregates. In contrast, significantly higher chitinase activity in bulk soil and in large macroaggregates under elevated CO2 revealed an increased contribution of fungi to <span class="hlt">turnover</span> processes. We conclude that quantitative and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4715930','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4715930"><span>Protein <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> during in vitro Tissue Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Qiyao; Chang, Zhen; Oliveira, Gisele; Xiong, Maiyer; Smith, Lloyd M.; Frey, Brian L.; Welham, Nathan V.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Repopulating acellular biological scaffolds with phenotypically appropriate cells is a promising approach for regenerating functional tissues and organs. Under this tissue engineering paradigm, reseeded cells are expected to remodel the scaffold by active protein synthesis and degradation; however, the rate and extent of this remodeling remain largely unknown. Here, we present a technique to measure dynamic proteome changes during in vitro remodeling of decellularized tissue by reseeded cells, using vocal fold mucosa as the model system. Decellularization and recellularization were optimized, and a stable isotope labeling strategy was developed to differentiate remnant proteins constituting the original scaffold from proteins newly synthesized by reseeded cells. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of matrix and cellular proteins and the effects of cell-scaffold interaction were elucidated. This technique sheds new light on in vitro tissue remodeling and the process of tissue regeneration, and is readily applicable to other tissue and organ systems. PMID:26724458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811818R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811818R"><span>Carbon Use Efficiency and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> of Microbial Communities: Concepts and Emerging Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richter, Andreas; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Klaus, Karoline; Mooshammer, Maria; Spohn, Marie; Walker, Tom; Wanek, Wolfgang; Birgit, Wild</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> labelled water into microbial DNA to estimate gross growth rates and measurements of microbial respiration. We will present the method and demonstrate first results that show that CUE estimates by this technique are considerably lower than estimates by the 13C approach and in the range predicted by thermodynamic considerations. We will further demonstrate the applicability of the method by showing results of a long-term nutrient deficiency experiment, demonstrating that CUE positively responded to nitrogen fertilisation, but not to fertilisation with phosphorus or potassium; microbial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates were not <span class="hlt">affected</span>. Results from a natural warming experiment and a field drought experiment also demonstrate that CUE of heterotrophic microbial communities was <span class="hlt">affected</span> by temperature but not by drought and that microbial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> can be <span class="hlt">affected</span> independently from CUE by climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESRv..109...44M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESRv..109...44M"><span>Fire effects on soil <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerdà, A.; Arcenegui, V.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Fire can <span class="hlt">affect</span> soil properties depending on a number of factors including fire severity and soil type. <span class="hlt">Aggregate</span> stability (AS) refers to soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. Many authors consider soil <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> to be a parameter reflecting soil health, as it depends on chemical, physical and biological factors. The response of AS to forest fires is complex, since it depends on how fire has <span class="hlt">affected</span> other related properties such as organic matter content, soil microbiology, water repellency and soil mineralogy. Opinions differ concerning the effect of fire on AS. Some authors have observed a decrease in AS in soils <span class="hlt">affected</span> by intense wildfire or severe laboratory heating. However, others have reported increases. We provide an up to date review of the research on this topic and an analysis of the causes for the different effects observed. The implications for soil system functioning and for the hydrology of the <span class="hlt">affected</span> areas are also discussed. Generally, low severity fires do not produce notable changes in AS, although in some cases an increase has been observed and attributed to increased water repellency. In contrast, high severity fires can induce important changes in this property, but with different effects depending on the type of soil <span class="hlt">affected</span>. The patterns observed can vary from a disaggregation as a consequence of the organic matter destruction, to a strong <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> if a recrystallization of some minerals such as Fe and Al oxyhydroxides occurs when they are present in sufficient quantities in the soil, after exposure to high temperatures. Because of the complexity of the different possible effects and reasons for the potential changes in the fire-<span class="hlt">affected</span> soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, the inclusion of other parameters in the studies is necessary to understand the results. The suggested parameters to include in the examination of AS are: soil organic matter, microbial biomass, water repellency, texture, <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size distribution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.604a2009H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.604a2009H"><span>Proteins <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and human diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Chin-Kun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. For example, AD is considered to be related to <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. We used a lattice model to study the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26703248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26703248"><span><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> rates in microorganisms by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and pulse-chase analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stopka, Sylwia A; Mansour, Tarek R; Shrestha, Bindesh; Maréchal, Éric; Falconet, Denis; Vertes, Akos</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Biochemical processes rely on elaborate networks containing thousands of compounds participating in thousands of reaction. Rapid <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of diverse metabolites and lipids in an organism is an essential part of homeostasis. It <span class="hlt">affects</span> energy production and storage, two important processes utilized in bioengineering. Conventional approaches to simultaneously quantify a large number of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates in biological systems are currently not feasible. Here we show that pulse-chase analysis followed by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) enable the simultaneous and rapid determination of metabolic <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. The incorporation of ion mobility separation (IMS) allowed an additional dimension of analysis, i.e., the detection and identification of isotopologs based on their collision cross sections. We demonstrated these capabilities by determining metabolite, lipid, and peptide <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the photosynthetic green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the presence of (15)N-labeled ammonium chloride as the main nitrogen source. Following the reversal of isotope patterns in the chase phase by LAESI-IMS-MS revealed the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates and half-lives for biochemical species with a wide range of natural concentrations, e.g., chlorophyll metabolites, lipids, and peptides. For example, the half-lives of lyso-DGTS(16:0) and DGTS(18:3/16:0), t1/2 = 43.6 ± 4.5 h and 47.6 ± 2.2 h, respectively, provided insight into lipid synthesis and degradation in this organism. Within the same experiment, half-lives for chlorophyll a, t1/2 = 24.1 ± 2.2 h, and a 2.8 kDa peptide, t1/2 = 10.4 ± 3.6 h, were also determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22768119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22768119"><span>Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in temperate grasslands in northern China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species <span class="hlt">turnover</span> underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to <span class="hlt">affect</span> species richness and species <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=014&id=EJ1129163','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=014&id=EJ1129163"><span>Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adnot, Melinda; Dee, Thomas; Katz, Veronica; Wyckoff, James</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In practice, teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> appears to have negative effects on school quality as measured by student performance. However, some simulations suggest that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> can instead have large positive effects under a policy regime in which low-performing teachers can be accurately identified and replaced with more effective teachers. This study…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22textile+industry%22&pg=2&id=EJ600652','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22textile+industry%22&pg=2&id=EJ600652"><span>How Multiple Interventions Influenced Employee <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: A Case Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hatcher, Timothy</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A 3-year study of 46 textile industry workers identified causes of employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (supervision, training, organizational communication) using performance analysis. A study of multiple interventions based on the analysis resulted in changes in orientation procedures, organizational leadership, and climate, reducing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by 24%. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446293"><span>Creating a nursing residency: decrease <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and increase clinical competence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Welding, Nicole M</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>New graduates are the largest source of registered nurses available for recruitment, and graduates are expected to transition quickly into professional practice. Stress of this transition can lead to high <span class="hlt">turnover</span> within the first year. The design and goals of a graduate nurse residency program to increase competence, leadership, and job satisfaction, and ultimately decrease <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=training+AND+development+AND+employees&id=EJ1106239','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=training+AND+development+AND+employees&id=EJ1106239"><span>The Link between Training Satisfaction, Work Engagement and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the casual relationship between training satisfaction, work engagement (WE) and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention and the mediating role of WE between training satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 409 oil and gas professionals using an email survey…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Personnel+AND+Psychology&pg=4&id=EJ836787','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Personnel+AND+Psychology&pg=4&id=EJ836787"><span>Re-Examining the Relationship between Age and Voluntary <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In their quantitative review of the literature, Healy, Lehman, and McDaniel [Healy, M. C., Lehman, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (1995). Age and voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: A quantitative review. "Personnel Psychology, 48", 335-345] concluded that age is only weakly related to voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (average r = -0.08). However, with the significant changes in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=job+AND+analysis+AND+measures&pg=5&id=EJ1025850','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=job+AND+analysis+AND+measures&pg=5&id=EJ1025850"><span>Predicting <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span>; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was validated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED088836.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED088836.pdf"><span>Analysis of the Educational Personnel System: IV. Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keeler, Emmett B.</p> <p></p> <p>This report attempts to predict the rates of teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the 1970s, which teachers will leave the profession, and what the effects of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> will be on the educational personnel system. The overall termination rate has varied from six to 11 percent over the last 15 years. An analysis of recent changes in the teaching profession is used…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+causes&pg=7&id=EJ600652','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+causes&pg=7&id=EJ600652"><span>How Multiple Interventions Influenced Employee <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>: A Case Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hatcher, Timothy</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A 3-year study of 46 textile industry workers identified causes of employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (supervision, training, organizational communication) using performance analysis. A study of multiple interventions based on the analysis resulted in changes in orientation procedures, organizational leadership, and climate, reducing <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by 24%. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oscar+AND+wide&id=EJ742725','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oscar+AND+wide&id=EJ742725"><span>Organizational Characteristics Associated with Staff <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Nursing Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Castle, Nicholas G.; Engberg, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The association between certified nurse aide, licensed practical nurse, and registered nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and the organizational characteristics of nursing homes are examined. Design and Methods: Hypotheses for eight organizational characteristics are examined (staffing levels, top management <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, resident case mix, facility quality,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lehman&id=EJ836787','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lehman&id=EJ836787"><span>Re-Examining the Relationship between Age and Voluntary <span class="hlt">Turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In their quantitative review of the literature, Healy, Lehman, and McDaniel [Healy, M. C., Lehman, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (1995). Age and voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: A quantitative review. "Personnel Psychology, 48", 335-345] concluded that age is only weakly related to voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> (average r = -0.08). However, with the significant changes in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=leave+AND+system&pg=7&id=EJ1129163','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=leave+AND+system&pg=7&id=EJ1129163"><span>Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adnot, Melinda; Dee, Thomas; Katz, Veronica; Wyckoff, James</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In practice, teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> appears to have negative effects on school quality as measured by student performance. However, some simulations suggest that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> can instead have large positive effects under a policy regime in which low-performing teachers can be accurately identified and replaced with more effective teachers. This study…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=training+AND+development+AND+reduce+AND+turnover&id=EJ814155','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=training+AND+development+AND+reduce+AND+turnover&id=EJ814155"><span>Voluntary <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and Women Administrators in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jo, Victoria H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A salient characteristic about the U.S. workforce is the continual process of voluntary employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, which can be problematic for employers who invest a substantial amount of time and money in recruiting and training employees. This paper discusses the effects of workplace policies and practices on the voluntary <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of women…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+satisfaction+AND+importance&id=EJ1106239','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+satisfaction+AND+importance&id=EJ1106239"><span>The Link between Training Satisfaction, Work Engagement and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the casual relationship between training satisfaction, work engagement (WE) and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention and the mediating role of WE between training satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 409 oil and gas professionals using an email survey…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED513944.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED513944.pdf"><span>Estimating Cause: Teacher <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and School Effectiveness in Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is investigate issues related to within-school teacher supply and school-specific teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> within the state of Michigan using state administrative data on Michigan's teaching force. This paper 1) investigates the key predictors of teacher <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and mobility, 2) develops a profile of schools that are likely to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+nursing+AND+home&pg=7&id=EJ742725','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+nursing+AND+home&pg=7&id=EJ742725"><span>Organizational Characteristics Associated with Staff <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Nursing Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Castle, Nicholas G.; Engberg, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The association between certified nurse aide, licensed practical nurse, and registered nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and the organizational characteristics of nursing homes are examined. Design and Methods: Hypotheses for eight organizational characteristics are examined (staffing levels, top management <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, resident case mix, facility quality,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28125259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28125259"><span>One hundred years of employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> theory and research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hom, Peter W; Lee, Thomas W; Shaw, Jason D; Hausknecht, John P</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We review seminal publications on employee <span class="hlt">turnover</span> during the 100-year existence of the Journal of Applied Psychology. Along with classic articles from this journal, we expand our review to include other publications that yielded key theoretical and methodological contributions to the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> literature. We first describe how the earliest papers examined practical methods for <span class="hlt">turnover</span> reduction or control and then explain how theory development and testing began in the mid-20th century and dominated the academic literature until the turn of the century. We then track 21st century interest in the psychology of staying (rather than leaving) and attitudinal trajectories in predicting <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Finally, we discuss the rising scholarship on collective <span class="hlt">turnover</span> given the centrality of human capital flight to practitioners and to the field of human resource management strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/709413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/709413"><span>Relationship between analgesia and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of brain biogenic amines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bensemana, D; Gascon, A L</p> <p>1978-10-01</p> <p>The analgesic activity of morphine, delta9THC, and sodium salicylate was studied concomitantly with changes in brainstem and cortex <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5HT). The results show that a correlation exists between the presence of analgesia and the increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates of the three biogenic amines. Morphine and sodium salicylate induced analgesia is accompanied by an increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate of all three biogenic amines; delta9THC-induced analgesia is accompanied by an increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate of DA and 5HT only. There is, however, no consistent relationship between the degree of analgesia and the degree of change in the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates. The existence of the endogenous morphine-like substances, endorphines, may explain why morphine analgesia is distinct from that of delta9THC and sodium salicylate. The possible relationship between this morphine-like substance and biogenic amines is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25151031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25151031"><span>The effects of improved metabolic risk factors on bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers after 12 weeks of simvastatin treatment with or without exercise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Jun; Boyle, Leryn J; Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Fletcher, Justin A; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Emerging evidence supports an association between metabolic risk factors and bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Statins and exercise independently improve metabolic risk factors; however whether improvements in metabolic risk factor <span class="hlt">affects</span> bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between metabolic risk factors and bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>; and 2) determine if improvements in metabolic risk factors after 12 weeks of statin treatment, exercise or the combination <span class="hlt">affect</span> bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Fifty participants with ≥2 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics were randomly assigned to one of three groups: statin (STAT: simvastatin, 40 mg/day), exercise (EX: brisk walking and/or slow jogging, 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week), or the combination (STAT+EX). Body composition and whole body bone mineral density were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum markers of bone formation (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP; osteocalcin, OC), resorption (C-terminal peptide of type I collagen, CTX) and metabolic risk factors were determined. Two-factor (time, group) repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine changes of metabolic risk factors and bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. General linear models were used to determine the effect of pre-treatment metabolic risk factors on post-treatment bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> marker outcomes. Participants with ≥4 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics had lower pre-treatment OC than those with 3 or fewer. OC was negatively correlated with glucose, and CTX was positively correlated with cholesterol. STAT or STAT+EX lowered total and LDL cholesterol. The OC to CTX ratio decreased in all groups with no other significant changes in bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Higher pre-treatment insulin or body fat predicted a greater CTX reduction and a greater BAP/CTX increase. Metabolic risk factors were negatively associated with bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers. Short-term statin treatment with or without exercise lowered cholesterol and all treatments had a small</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Turnover+AND+PERSONAL&pg=4&id=ED550046','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Turnover+AND+PERSONAL&pg=4&id=ED550046"><span>Causes of Job <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in the Public School Superintendency: An Explanatory Analysis in the Western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Melver, Toby A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine the factors that <span class="hlt">affect</span> public school superintendent <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in five western states. An explanatory theory was developed to cover all of the possible variables and show the relationship between those variables. The questions that guided this research study were: (1) What environmental…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=law&pg=4&id=EJ1082254','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=law&pg=4&id=EJ1082254"><span>Teacher Satisfaction and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Charter Schools: Examining the Variations and Possibilities for Collective Bargaining in State Laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Torres, A. Chris; Oluwole, Joseph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Charter schools see as many as one in four teachers leave annually, and recent evidence attributes much of this <span class="hlt">turnover</span> to provisions <span class="hlt">affected</span> by collective bargaining processes and state laws such as salary, benefits, job security, and working hours. There have been many recent efforts to improve teacher voice in charter schools (Kahlenberg…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=citizenship+AND+behavior&id=EJ1103274','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=citizenship+AND+behavior&id=EJ1103274"><span>The Role of Organizational Learning Culture and Psychological Empowerment in Reducing <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intention and Enhancing Citizenship Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Islam, Talat; Khan, Mubbsher Munawar; Bukhari, Fida Hussain</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), <span class="hlt">affective</span> commitment (AC), organizational citizenship behavior and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was undertaken via a questionnaire conducted among Malay-Chinese working in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acs&id=EJ1103274','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acs&id=EJ1103274"><span>The Role of Organizational Learning Culture and Psychological Empowerment in Reducing <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> Intention and Enhancing Citizenship Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Islam, Talat; Khan, Mubbsher Munawar; Bukhari, Fida Hussain</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), <span class="hlt">affective</span> commitment (AC), organizational citizenship behavior and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was undertaken via a questionnaire conducted among Malay-Chinese working in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=evidence+AND+law&pg=2&id=EJ1082254','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=evidence+AND+law&pg=2&id=EJ1082254"><span>Teacher Satisfaction and <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Charter Schools: Examining the Variations and Possibilities for Collective Bargaining in State Laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Torres, A. Chris; Oluwole, Joseph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Charter schools see as many as one in four teachers leave annually, and recent evidence attributes much of this <span class="hlt">turnover</span> to provisions <span class="hlt">affected</span> by collective bargaining processes and state laws such as salary, benefits, job security, and working hours. There have been many recent efforts to improve teacher voice in charter schools (Kahlenberg…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/48599','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/48599"><span>Initial <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates of two standard wood substrates following land-use change in subalpine ecosystems in the Swiss Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Anita C. Risch; Martin F. Jurgensen; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Martin Schutz</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Forest cover has increased in mountainous areas of Europe over the past decades because of the abandonment of agricultural areas (land-use change). For this reason, understanding how land-use change <span class="hlt">affects</span> carbon (C) source-sink strength is of great importance. However, most studies have assessed mountainous systems C stocks, and less is known about C <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+governance&pg=5&id=ED550046','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+governance&pg=5&id=ED550046"><span>Causes of Job <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in the Public School Superintendency: An Explanatory Analysis in the Western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Melver, Toby A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine the factors that <span class="hlt">affect</span> public school superintendent <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in five western states. An explanatory theory was developed to cover all of the possible variables and show the relationship between those variables. The questions that guided this research study were: (1) What environmental…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4506548','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4506548"><span>High-Resolution Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging of Zeolite <span class="hlt">Aggregates</span> within Real-Life Fluid Catalytic Cracking Particles**</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ristanović, Zoran; Kerssens, Marleen M; Kubarev, Alexey V; Hendriks, Frank C; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Weckhuysen, Bert M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a major process in oil refineries to produce gasoline and base chemicals from crude oil fractions. The spatial distribution and acidity of zeolite <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> embedded within the 50–150 μm-sized FCC spheres heavily influence their catalytic performance. Single-molecule fluorescence-based imaging methods, namely nanometer accuracy by stochastic chemical reactions (NASCA) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) were used to study the catalytic activity of sub-micrometer zeolite ZSM-5 domains within real-life FCC catalyst particles. The formation of fluorescent product molecules taking place at Brønsted acid sites was monitored with single <span class="hlt">turnover</span> sensitivity and high spatiotemporal resolution, providing detailed insight in dispersion and catalytic activity of zeolite ZSM-5 <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. The results point towards substantial differences in <span class="hlt">turnover</span> frequencies between the zeolite <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, revealing significant intraparticle heterogeneities in Brønsted reactivity. PMID:25504139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1388247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1388247"><span>Inhibition of histamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> by 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and 5-hydroxytryptophan in the mouse and rat brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oishi, R; Itoh, Y; Saeki, K</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists on histamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in mouse and rat brains were examined. The histamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate was estimated from the accumulation of tele-methylhistamine 90 min after i.p. injection of pargyline (65 mg/kg). In whole mouse brains, the histamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was significantly inhibited by the 5-HT1A agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (greater than 0.5 mg/kg) and buspirone (greater than 2 mg/kg) injected s.c. 10 min before pargyline treatment. 5-hydroxytryptophan (20 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited histamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Injections of the 5-HT1B agonist m-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (10 and 20 mg/kg) or the 5-HT2 agonist (1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (1, 2 and 5 mg/kg), however, did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> histamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The inhibitory effect of 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg) on histamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was significantly antagonized (by 40%) by pindolol (20 mg/kg) and slightly antagonized (by 29%) by spiperone (10 mg/kg), while methysergide (20 mg/kg) and ketanserin (10 mg/kg) demonstrated no antagonistic effects. 8-OH-DPAT (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) also showed an inhibiting effect on histamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in various regions of rat brains. Although the extent of inhibition was slightly larger in the striatum and cerebral cortex, there was no marked regional difference. These results suggest that histaminergic activity in the brain is regulated by 5-HT1A receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507787"><span>Increased cytoplasm viscosity hampers <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> polar segregation in Escherichia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Samuel M D; Neeli-Venkata, Ramakanth; Goncalves, Nadia S M; Santinha, João A; Martins, Leonardo; Tran, Huy; Mäkelä, Jarno; Gupta, Abhishekh; Barandas, Marilia; Häkkinen, Antti; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Fonseca, José M; Ribeiro, Andre S</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In Escherichia coli, under optimal conditions, protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> associated with cellular aging are excluded from midcell by the nucleoid. We study the functionality of this process under sub-optimal temperatures from population and time lapse images of individual cells and <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and nucleoids within. We show that, as temperature decreases, <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> become homogeneously distributed and uncorrelated with nucleoid size and location. We present evidence that this is due to increased cytoplasm viscosity, which weakens the anisotropy in <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> displacements at the nucleoid borders that is responsible for their preference for polar localisation. Next, we show that in plasmolysed cells, which have increased cytoplasm viscosity, <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are also not preferentially located at the poles. Finally, we show that the inability of cells with increased viscosity to exclude <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> from midcell results in enhanced <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> concentration in between the nucleoids in cells close to dividing. This weakens the asymmetries in <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> numbers between sister cells of subsequent generations required for rejuvenating cell lineages. We conclude that the process of exclusion of protein <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> from midcell is not immune to stress conditions <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the cytoplasm viscosity. The findings contribute to our understanding of E. coli's internal organisation and functioning, and its fragility to stressful conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9436E..0XT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9436E..0XT"><span>Determination of the dynamic elastic constants of recycled <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> concrete</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsoumani, A. A.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nowadays, construction and demolition waste constitutes a major portion of the total solid waste production in the world. Due to both environmental and economical reasons, an increasing interest concerning the use of recycled <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> to replace <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> from natural sources is generated. This paper presents an investigation on the properties of recycled <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> concrete. Concrete mixes are prepared using recycled <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> at a substitution level between 0 and 100% of the total coarse <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>. The influence of this replacement on strengthened concrete's properties is being investigated. The properties estimated are: density and dynamic modulus of elasticity at the age of both 7 and 28 days. Also, flexural strength of 28 days specimens is estimated. The determination of the dynamic elastic modulus was made using the ultrasonic pulse velocity method. The results reveal that the existence of recycled <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> <span class="hlt">affects</span> the properties of concrete negatively; however, in low levels of substitution the influence of using recycled <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> is almost negligible. Concluding, the controlled use of recycled <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> in concrete production may help solve a vital environmental issue apart from being a solution to the problem of inadequate concrete <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2937083','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2937083"><span>How Serious of a Problem is Staff <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> in Substance Abuse Treatment? A Longitudinal Study of Actual <span class="hlt">Turnover</span>1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eby, Lillian T.; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate is cited as being anywhere between 19 and 50 percent (Johnson & Roman, 2002; Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Knudsen et al., 2003; McLellan et al., 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking <span class="hlt">turnover</span> longitudinally using organizational <span class="hlt">turnover</span> data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a two year time span (2008–2009). The annual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups the majority of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the field of substance abuse treatment. PMID:20675097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20675097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20675097"><span>How serious of a problem is staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in substance abuse treatment? A longitudinal study of actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eby, Lillian T; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate is cited as being anywhere between 19% and 50% (J.A. Johnson & P.M. Roman, 2002; S.L. Gallon, R.M. Gabriel, J.R.W. Knudsen, 2003; H.K. Knudsen, J.A. Johnson, & P.M. Roman, 2003; A.T. McLellan, D. Carise, & H.D. Kleber, 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking <span class="hlt">turnover</span> longitudinally using organizational <span class="hlt">turnover</span> data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a 2-year time span (2008-2009). The annual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups, the majority of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for <span class="hlt">turnover</span> were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the field of substance abuse treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..583Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..583Q"><span>Relationships between <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> size classes and SOC content using <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> settling velocity measurements in interrill areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quijano, Laura; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Navas, Ana</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> stability is one of the main factors of soil physics and structure. Formation and stabilization of soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> facilitates soil carbon sequestration and reduces the susceptibility of soil to erosion. The gain or loss of C in agricultural systems is largely influenced by <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>-associated soil organic carbon that <span class="hlt">affects</span> the settling velocity and C content of soils. Settling velocity measurements are useful to provide direct information on soil <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> size distribution that can be used as indicators of the potential soil erodibility. This study aims to analyze the effect of settling velocity on soil <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> dynamics and the relationships between the particle size distributions and the associated carbon in a cultivated field of typical Mediterranean agroecosystems in mountain landscapes. Calcisol topsoil samples (n=10) were collected in an interrill area within the field at two contrasting slope positions (i.e. upslope and downslope). Furthermore, a total of ten Calcisol soil samples were collected in an adjacent area under forest vegetation cover and stable conditions. According to Stokes's Law, the fine soil fraction <2 mm was fractionated into five velocity settling classes: > 0.045, 0.045-0.015, 0.015-0.003, 0.003-0.001 and < 0.001 m s-1 using a settling tube procedure followed by the analysis of the SOC content of each settling size classes. The results evidenced the inverse correlation between grain size and SOC content, smaller and lighter settling size classes were enriched in SOC and the effect of cultivation on soil <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> by the lower proportion of macroaggregates compared to forest soils. Moreover, it was found a preferential transport of fine particles from upslope to downslope during interrill erosion processes. In this study, settling velocity measurements provide a useful tool for assessing changes in soil <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> under different land uses and for identifying the relationship between <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> size classes and SOC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816632K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816632K"><span>Do chemical gradients within soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> reflect plant/soil interactions?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krüger, Jaane; Hallas, Till; Kinsch, Lena; Stahr, Simon; Prietzel, Jörg; Lang, Friederike</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As roots and hyphae often accumulate at the surface of soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, their formation and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> might be related to the bioavailability especially of immobile nutrients like phosphorus. Several methods have been developed to obtain specific samples from <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> surfaces and <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> cores and thus to investigate differences between <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> shell and core. However, these methods are often complex and time-consuming; therefore most common methods of soil analysis neglect the distribution of nutrients within <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and yield bulk soil concentrations. We developed a new sequential <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> peeling method to analyze the distribution of different nutrients within soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> (4-20 mm) from four forest sites (Germany) differing in concentrations of easily available mineral P. <span class="hlt">Aggregates</span> from three soil depths (Ah, BwAh, Bw) were isolated, air-dried, and peeled with a sieving machine performing four sieving levels with increasing sieving intensity. This procedure was repeated in quadruplicate, and fractions of the same sample and sieving level were pooled. Carbon and N concentration, citric acid-extractable PO4 and P, as well as total element concentrations (P, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe) were analyzed. Additionally, synchrotron-based P K-edge XANES spectroscopy was applied on selected samples to detect P speciation changes within the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. The results reveal for most samples a significantly higher C and N concentration at the surface compared to the interior of the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. Carbon and N gradients get more pronounced with increasing soil depth and decreasing P status of study sites. This might be explained by lower <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates of subsoil horizons and intense bioturbation on P-rich sites. This assumption is also confirmed by concentrations of citric acid-extractable PO4 and P: gradients within <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> are getting more pronounced with increasing soil depth and decreasing P status. However, the direction of these gradients is site</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24206422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24206422"><span>Modulation of the gelation efficiency of fibrillar and spherical <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> by means of thiolation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Munialo, Claire D; de Jongh, Harmen H J; Broersen, Kerensa; van der Linden, Erik; Martin, Anneke H</p> <p>2013-11-27</p> <p>Fibrillar and spherical <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> were prepared from whey protein isolate (WPI). These <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> were thiolated to a substantial degree to observe any impact on functionality. Sulfur-containing groups were introduced on these <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> which could be converted to thiol groups by deblocking. Changes on a molecular and microstructural level were studied using tryptophan fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. The average size (nm) of spherical <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> increased from 38 to 68 nm (blocked variant) and 106 nm (deblocked variant) after thiolation, whereas the structure of fibrillar <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> was not <span class="hlt">affected</span>. Subsequently, gels containing these different <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> were prepared. Rheological measurements showed that thiolation decreased the gelation concentration and increased gel strength for both WPI fibrillar and spherical <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. This effect was more pronounced upon thiolation of preformed fibrillar <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. The findings suggest that thiolation at a protein <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> level is a promising strategy to increase gelation efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18386919','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18386919"><span>Differences in the effects of solution additives on heat- and refolding-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamada, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ryouta; Noguchi, Takumi; Shiraki, Kentaro</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Although a number of low-molecular-weight additives have been developed to suppress protein <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, it is unclear whether these <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> suppressors <span class="hlt">affect</span> various <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> processes in the same manner. In this study, we evaluated the differences in the effect of solution additives on heat- and refolding-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in the presence of guanidine (Gdn), arginine (Arg), and spermidine (Spd), and the comparable analysis showed the following differences: (i) Gdn did not suppress thermal <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> but increased the yield of oxidative refolding. (ii) Spd showed the highest effect for heat-induced <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> suppression among tested compounds, although it promoted <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in oxidative refolding. (iii) Arg was effective for both <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> processes. Lysozyme solubility assay and thermal unfolding experiment showed that Spd was preferentially excluded from native lysozyme and Arg and Gdn solubilized the model state of intermediates during oxidative refolding. This preference of additives to protein surfaces is the cause of the different effect on <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> suppression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371090"><span>Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions, <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and withdrawal behavior: a meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Podsakoff, Nathan P; LePine, Jeffery A; LePine, Marcie A</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>In this article, a 2-dimensional work stressor framework is used to explain inconsistencies in past research with respect to stressor relationships with retention-related criteria. Results of meta-analyses of 183 independent samples indicated that whereas hindrance stressors had dysfunctional relationships with these criteria (negative relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and positive relationships with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions, <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, and withdrawal behavior), relationships with challenge stressors were generally the opposite (positive relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negative relationships with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>). Results also suggested that the differential relationships between challenge stressors and hindrance stressors and the more distal criteria (withdrawal behavior and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>) were due, in part, to the mediating effects of job attitudes. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=61448','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=61448"><span>Ultrastructure of acetylcholine receptor <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> parallels mechanisms of <span class="hlt">aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kunkel, Dennis D; Lee, Lara K; Stollberg, Jes</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Background Acetylcholine receptors become <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> at the developing neuromuscular synapse shortly after contact by a motorneuron in one of the earliest manifestations of synaptic development. While a major physiological signal for receptor <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> (agrin) is known, the mechanism(s) by which muscle cells respond to this and other stimuli have yet to be worked out in detail. The question of mechanism is addressed in the present study via a quantitative examination of ultrastructural receptor arrangement within <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. Results In receptor rich cell membranes resulting from stimulation by agrin or laminin, or in control membrane showing spontaneous receptor <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>, receptors were found to be closer to neighboring receptors than would be expected at random. This indicates that <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> proceeds heterogeneously: nanoaggregates, too small for detection in the light microscope, underlie developing microaggregates of receptors in all three cases. In contrast, the structural arrangement of receptors within nanoaggregates was found to depend on the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> stimulus. In laminin induced nanoaggregates receptors were found to be arranged in an unstructured manner, in contrast to the hexagonal array of about 10 nm spacing found for agrin induced nanoaggregates. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> displayed an intermediate amount of order, and this was found to be due to two distinct population of nanoaggregates. Conclusions The observations support earlier studies indicating that mechanisms by which agrin and laminin-1 induced receptor <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> form are distinct and, for the first time, relate mechanisms underlying spontaneous <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> formation to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> structure. PMID:11749670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270787"><span>COSMIC DUST <span class="hlt">AGGREGATION</span> WITH STOCHASTIC CHARGING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.; Shotorban, Babak</p> <p>2013-10-20</p> <p>The coagulation of cosmic dust grains is a fundamental process which takes place in astrophysical environments, such as presolar nebulae and circumstellar and protoplanetary disks. Cosmic dust grains can become charged through interaction with their plasma environment or other processes, and the resultant electrostatic force between dust grains can strongly <span class="hlt">affect</span> their coagulation rate. Since ions and electrons are collected on the surface of the dust grain at random time intervals, the electrical charge of a dust grain experiences stochastic fluctuations. In this study, a set of stochastic differential equations is developed to model these fluctuations over the surface of an irregularly shaped <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>. Then, employing the data produced, the influence of the charge fluctuations on the coagulation process and the physical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> formed is examined. It is shown that dust with small charges (due to the small size of the dust grains or a tenuous plasma environment) is <span class="hlt">affected</span> most strongly.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903757','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903757"><span>Job satisfaction and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention among Iraqi doctors--a descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali Jadoo, Saad Ahmed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Dastan, Ilker; Tawfeeq, Ruqiya Subhi; Mustafa, Mustafa Ali; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; AlDubai, Sami Abdo Radman</p> <p>2015-04-19</p> <p>During the last two decades, the Iraqi human resources for health was exposed to an unprecedented <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of trained and experienced medical professionals. This study aimed to explore prominent factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions among Iraqi doctors. A descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out among 576 doctors across 20 hospitals in Iraq using multistage sampling technique. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, work characteristics, the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale, and one question on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Descriptive and bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify significant factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions. More than one half of Iraqi doctors (55.2%) were actively seeking alternative employment. Factors associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions among doctors were low job satisfaction score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.99), aged 40 years old or less (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.75), being male (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.54, 7.03), being single (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.61, 9.75), being threatened (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.80, 6.69), internally displaced (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.57), having a perception of unsafe medical practice (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.86, 9.21), working more than 40 h per week, (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.27, 4.03), disagreement with the way manager handles staff (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.03), being non-specialist, (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.08, 7.13), and being employed in the government sector only (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.82). The high-<span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention among Iraqi doctors is significantly associated with working and security conditions. An urgent and effective strategy is required to prevent doctors' exodus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711827F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711827F"><span>Short-term <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of soil organic matter after tillage proven by Pyrolysis-field ionization MS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiedler, Sebastian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Leinweber, Peter; Glatzel, Stephan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Knowledge about the composition and the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) is crucial to the fertility of agricultural soils. Even short-term changes of SOM are of fundamental importance. Tillage changes the decomposition and the mineralisation of SOM. By disrupting macroaggregates, tillage induces an increased <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and hampers the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> of SOM. As a consequence, mineralisation of SOM is stimulated which may imply an additional efflux of CO2 and N2O from soil. Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) has been developed as a key method for SOM research. This powerful analytical tool allows a rapid, global and objective determination of the majority of chemical compound classes and is an appropriate method for the analysis of even small differences of biogeochemical matters. Hence, Py-FIMS may allow for a precise detection of the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of SOM and the involved compounds that are <span class="hlt">affected</span> by tillage in the short-term. Py-FIMS measurements along with the determination of the CO2 and N2O effluxes from soil after tillage at the same site may give new insights into the compounds of SOM which are mineralised and consequently contribute to fundamental processes such as respiration, nitrification and denitrification. We applied Py-FIMS to soil samples from a stagnic Luvisol taken before and after tillage from a harvested maize field in Northern Germany. The samples were taken from two treatments amended with mineral fertiliser (MF) and biogas residues (BR), respectively, and also from an unfertilised control (UC). Tillage was conducted by disc harrowing, followed by mouldboard ploughing up to 30 cm. Simultaneously the soil efflux of CO2 and N2O was measured with a dynamic chamber technique. Before tillage, the mass spectra showed distinct differences in the relative ion intensities: the BR treatment showed much more volatilised matter during pyrolysis indicating an increased amount of SOM. Furthermore, in this treatment, the proportions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21878334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21878334"><span>Effects of sex steroids on indices of protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss) white muscle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cleveland, Beth M; Weber, Gregory M</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Effects of 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and proteolytic gene expression were determined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary myocytes and white muscle tissue. E2 reduced rates of protein synthesis and increased rates of protein degradation in primary myocytes by 45% and 27%, respectively. DHT reduced rates of protein synthesis by 27%. Testosterone did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> protein synthesis and neither testosterone nor DHT <span class="hlt">affected</span> rates of protein degradation. Single injections of E2 increased expression of ubiquitin ligase genes fbxo32, fbxo25, and murf1, and the proteasome subunit psmd6 by 24h after injection. Within the cathepsin-lysosome pathway, E2 increased expression of cathepsins ctsd and ctsl, as well as autophagy-related genes atg4b and lc3b. Additionally, E2 injection up-regulated the expression of casp3 and casp9 caspase genes. Incubation of primary myocytes with E2 also increased expression of ubiquitin ligase genes. Therefore, catabolic effects of E2 on protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> result in part from E2-induced increases in proteolytic gene expression directly in muscle. Injection of testosterone increased milli-calpain (capn2) and casp3 expression, and DHT increased ctsd expression in vivo, whereas both androgens up-regulated fbxo32 expression in primary myocytes. These results suggest that effects of androgens on protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in muscle are not driven primarily by direct effects of these hormones in this tissue. Published by Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25228986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25228986"><span>Establishing reference intervals for bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers in healthy postmenopausal women in a nonfasting state.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gossiel, Fatma; Finigan, Judith; Jacques, Richard; Reid, David; Felsenberg, D; Roux, Christian; Glueer, Claus; Eastell, Richard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In order to interpret bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span> markers (BTMs), we need to establish healthy reference intervals. It is difficult to establish reference intervals for older women because they commonly suffer from diseases or take medications that <span class="hlt">affect</span> bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify diseases and drugs that have a substantial effect on BTMs; (2) to establish reference intervals for premenopausal and postmenopausal women; and (3) to examine the effects of other factors on BTMs in healthy postmenopausal women. We studied women aged 30-39 years (n=258) and women aged 55-79 years (n=2419) from a five-European centre population-based study. We obtained a nonfasting serum and second morning void urine samples at a single baseline visit. BTMs were measured using automated immunoassay analysers. BTMs were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency and chronic kidney disease. Three or more BTMs were higher in women who were osteoporotic and at least two BTMs were lower in women who were oestrogen replete, taking osteoporosis treatments or having diseases known to <span class="hlt">affect</span> bone <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. These were used as exclusion criteria for selecting the populations for the reference intervals. The reference intervals for BTMs were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Levels of BTMs were not dependent on geographical location and increased with age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......201L"><span>Making Graphene Resist <span class="hlt">Aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, Jiayan</p> <p></p> <p>Graphene-based sheets have stimulated great interest in many scientific disciplines and shown promise for wide potential applications. Among various ways of creating single atomic layer carbon sheets, a promising route for bulk production is to first chemically exfoliate graphite powders to graphene oxide (GO) sheets, followed by reduction to form chemically modified graphene (CMG). Due to the strong van der Waals attraction between graphene sheets, CMG tends to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span>. The restacking of sheets is largely uncontrollable and irreversible, thus it reduces their processability and compromises properties such as accessible surface area. Strategies based on colloidal chemistry have been applied to keep CMG dispersed in solvents by introducing electrostatic repulsion to overcome the van der Waals attraction or adding spacers to increase the inter-sheet spacing. In this dissertation, two very different ideas that can prevent CMG <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> without extensively modifying the material or introducing foreign spacer materials are introduced. The van der Waals potential decreases with reduced overlapping area between sheets. For CMG, reducing the lateral dimension from micrometer to nanometer scale should greatly enhance their colloidal stability with additional advantages of increased charge density and decreased probability to interact. The enhanced colloidal stability of GO and CMG nanocolloids makes them especially promising for spectroscopy based bio-sensing applications. For potential applications in a compact bulk solid form, the sheets were converted into paper-ball like structure using capillary compression in evaporating aerosol droplets. The crumpled graphene balls are stabilized by locally folded pi-pi stacked ridges, and do not unfold or collapse during common processing steps. They can tightly pack without greatly reducing the surface area. This form of graphene leads to scalable performance in energy storage. For example, planer sheets tend to <span class="hlt">aggregate</span> and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964003','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964003"><span>Storage and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of organic matter in soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.</p> <p>2008-07-15</p> <p>Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which <span class="hlt">affect</span> plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy <span class="hlt">affect</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1998/c1176/c1176.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1998/c1176/c1176.html"><span><span class="hlt">Aggregates</span> from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the level of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.458.3786J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.458.3786J"><span>Numerical calculations of spectral <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and synchrotron self-absorption in CSS and GPS radio sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeyakumar, S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The dependence of the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> frequency on the linear size is presented for a sample of Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum and Compact Steep Spectrum radio sources derived from complete samples. The dependence of the luminosity of the emission at the peak frequency with the linear size and the peak frequency is also presented for the galaxies in the sample. The luminosity of the smaller sources evolve strongly with the linear size. Optical depth effects have been included to the 3D model for the radio source of Kaiser to study the spectral <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Using this model, the observed trend can be explained by synchrotron self-absorption. The observed trend in the peak-frequency-linear-size plane is not <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the luminosity evolution of the sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22040261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22040261"><span>National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>: a study across 21 countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures <span class="hlt">affect</span> PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22040944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22040944"><span>A study of relationship between job stress, quality of working life and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention among hospital employees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Ferlie, Ewan; Rosenberg, Duska</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Job stress is a serious threat to the quality of working life (QWL) of health-care employees and can cause hostility, aggression, absenteeism and <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, as well as reduced productivity. In addition, job stress among employees <span class="hlt">affects</span> the quality of health-care services. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the relationships between job stress and QWL of employees, and their impact on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention at Isfahan hospitals, Iran. The study employed a cross-sectional research design. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from hospital employees. Overall, 26% of employees graded their job stress high. The major sources of stress were inadequate pay, inequality at work, too much work, staff shortage, lack of recognition and promotion prospects, time pressure, lack of job security and lack of management support. An inverse relationship was found between job stress and QWL among hospital employees. The most important predictor of QWL was disturbance handling, followed by job proud, job security and job stress. Finally, while QWL was negatively associated with <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions, job stress was positively related to employees' intention to quit. Since job stress has a strong correlation with employee QWL and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention, it is very important to apply the right human resources policies to increase employees' QWL and decrease subsequent <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. This study invites further research to explore, implement and evaluate intervention strategies for prevention of occupational stress and improvement in QWL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689952"><span>Effects of Activating Mutations on EGFR Cellular Protein <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> and Amino Acid Recycling Determined Using SILAC Mass Spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greig, Michael J; Niessen, Sherry; Weinrich, Scott L; Feng, Jun Li; Shi, Manli; Johnson, Ted O</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Rapid mutations of proteins that are targeted in cancer therapy often lead to drug resistance. Often, the mutation directly <span class="hlt">affects</span> a drug's binding site, effectively blocking binding of the drug, but these mutations can have other effects such as changing the protein <span class="hlt">turnover</span> half-life. Utilizing SILAC MS, we measured the cellular <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates of an important non-small cell lung cancer target, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Wild-type (WT) EGFR, EGFR with a single activating mutant (Del 746-750 or L858R), and the drug-resistant double mutant (L858R/T790M) EGFR were analyzed. In non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, EGFR <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates ranged from 28 hours in A431 cells (WT) to 7.5 hours in the PC-9 cells (Del 746-750 mutant). The measurement of EGFR <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate in PC-9 cells dosed with irreversible inhibitors has additional complexity due to inhibitor effects on cell viability and results were reported as a range. Finally, essential amino acid recycling (K and R) was measured in different cell lines. The recycling was different in each cell line, but the overall inclusion of the effect of amino acid recycling on calculating EGFR <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates resulted in a 10-20% reduction in rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11204548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11204548"><span>Dielectric approach to investigation of erythrocyte <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. II. Kinetics of erythrocyte <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>-disaggregation in quiescent and flowing blood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pribush, A; Meiselman, H J; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A method based on dielectric properties of dispersed systems was applied to investigate the kinetics of RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> and the break-up of the <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. Experimentally, this method consists of measuring the capacitance at a frequency in the beginning of the beta-dispersion. Two experimental protocols were used to investigate the <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> process. In the first case, blood samples were fully dispersed and then the flow was decreased or stopped to promote RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span>. It was found that the initial phases of RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> are not <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the shear rate. This finding indicates that RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> is a slow coagulation process. In the second case, RBCs <span class="hlt">aggregated</span> under flow conditions at different shear rates and after the capacitance reached plateau levels, the flow was ceased. The steady-state capacitance of the quiescent blood and the kinetics of RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> after stoppage of shearing depend on the prior shear rate. To clarify the reasons for this effect, the kinetics of the disaggregation process was studied. In these experiments, time courses of the capacitance were recorded under different flow conditions and then a higher shear stress was applied to break up RBC <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. It was found that the kinetics of the disaggregation process depend on both the prior and current shear stresses. Results obtained in this study and their analysis show that the kinetics of RBC <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> in stasis consists of two consecutive phases: At the onset, red blood cells interact face-to-face to form linear <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> and then, after an accumulation of an appropriate concentration of these <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>, branched rouleaux are formed via reactions of ends of the linear rouleaux with sides of other rouleaux (face-to-side interactions). Branching points are broken by low shear stresses whereas dispersion of the linear rouleaux requires significantly higher energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012481"><span>Staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rollins, Angela L; Salyers, Michelle P; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> across all observations was 30.0%. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates did not change over time. Most ACT staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates were comparable or better than other <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates reported in the mental health and substance abuse literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2888664','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2888664"><span>Staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rollins, Angela L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> across all observations was 30.0%. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates did not change over time. Most ACT staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates were comparable or better than other <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates reported in the mental health and substance abuse literature. PMID:20012481</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25087326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25087326"><span>Understanding the factors that determine registered nurses' <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osuji, Joseph; Uzoka, Faith-Michael; Aladi, Flora; El-Hussein, Mohammed</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turnover</span> among registered nurses (RNs) produces a negative impact on the health outcomes of any health care organization. It is also recognized universally as a problem in the nursing profession. Little is known about the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intentions and career orientations of RNs working in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of and to advance the discussion on the <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of nursing professionals. The study population consisted of RNs employed in the five major hospitals in Calgary. There were 193 surveys returned, representing a response rate of 77.2%. The results show that age and education have a negative effect on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Education was found to have a significant negative effect on career satisfaction but not on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Length of service has a significant negative effect on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Role ambiguity has significant highly negative effect on career satisfaction. Growth opportunity and supervisor support have a very significant positive effect on job satisfaction, career satisfaction, and organizational commitment. External career opportunities and organizational commitment do not seem to have a significant effect on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention. Career satisfaction, on the other hand, had negative significant effects on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> intention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16452285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16452285"><span>Organizational characteristics associated with staff <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in nursing homes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castle, Nicholas G; Engberg, John</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The association between certified nurse aide, licensed practical nurse, and registered nurse <span class="hlt">turnover</span> and the organizational characteristics of nursing homes are examined. Hypotheses for eight organizational characteristics are examined (staffing levels, top management <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, resident case mix, facility quality, ownership, chain membership, size, and Medicaid census), using Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting (known as OSCAR) data. <span class="hlt">Turnover</span> information came from primary data collected from 854 facilities in six states (Missouri, Texas, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey). The 1-year <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates were 56.4%, 39.7%, and 35.8% for certified nurse aides, licensed practical nurses, and registered nurses, respectively. The results consistently show that, for all caregivers, lower staffing levels, lower quality, for-profit ownership, and higher bed size are associated with higher <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. Some differences also are found for different levels of <span class="hlt">turnover</span>, but there are few differences among types of nursing staff. Given that <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rates are problematic, this study gives us a better understanding of the phenomenon and at the same time helps us further understand the wide variation that is known to exist between nursing homes, based on their organizational characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=383740','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=383740"><span>Morphine and endorphins modulate dopamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in rat median eminence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deyo, S N; Swift, R M; Miller, R J</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The is evidence that some of the actions of both endogenous and exogenous opioids (e.g., stimulation of prolactin release) are mediated by interaction with catecholaminergic systems. Morphine (1.67, 5, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally) altered dopamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> as measured by the alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine method in the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The <span class="hlt">turnover</span> rate of dopamine was reduced in the median eminence and frontal cortex but accelerated in the neostriatum. In the frontal cortex all doses were effective in decreasing dopamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span>; however, in the median eminence the lowest dose of morphine did not significantly alter dopamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. All three doses accelerated dopamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> in the neostriatum. Naloxone effectively reversed the effects of morphine at all doses in all brain areas, whereas it had no effect on <span class="hlt">turnover</span> when given alone. In the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex, intraventricular injection of [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin (25 micrograms) or beta-endorphin (15 micrograms) produced the same effects on dopamine <span class="hlt">turnover</span> as morphine. The actions of these peptides were blocked by naloxone. It is hypothesized that opiates and opioid peptides increase prolactin release by reducing the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic system. PMID:288082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2921608','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2921608"><span>N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreas development but required for β-cell granule <span class="hlt">turnover</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johansson, Jenny K; Voss, Ulrikke; Kesavan, Gokul; Kostetskii, Igor; Wierup, Nils; Radice, Glenn L.; Semb, Henrik</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summary The cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules mediates adhesive interactions that are required for the formation and maintenance of tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that N-cadherin, which is required for numerous morphogenetic processes, is expressed in the pancreatic epithelium at E9.5, but later becomes restricted to endocrine <span class="hlt">aggregates</span> in mice. To study the role of N-cadherin during pancreas formation and function we generated a tissue specific knockout of N-cadherin in the early pancreatic epithelium by inter-crossing N-cadherin-floxed mice with Pdx1Cre mice. Analysis of pancreas-specific ablation of N-cadherin demonstrates that N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreatic development, but required for β-cell granule <span class="hlt">turnover</span>. The number of insulin secretory granules is significantly reduced in N-cadherin-deficient β-cells, and as a consequence insulin secretion is decreased. PMID:20533404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5462535','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5462535"><span>Taurine and platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.</p> <p>1986-03-01</p> <p>Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet <span class="hlt">aggregation</span> since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9532M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9532M"><span>Soil carbon stabilization and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> at alley-cropping systems, Eastern Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Medinski, T.; Freese, D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Alley-cropping system is seen as a viable land-use practice for mitigation of greenhouse gas CO2, energy-wood production and soil carbon sequestration. The extent to which carbon is stored in soil varies between ecosystems, and depends on tree species, soil types and on the extent of physical protection of carbon within soil <span class="hlt">aggregates</span>. This study investigates soil carbon sequestration at alley-cropping systems presented by alleys of fast growing tree species (black locust and poplar) and maize, in Brandenburg, Eastern Germany. Carbon accumulation and <span class="hlt">turnover</span> are assessed by measuring carbon fractions differing in decomposition rates. For this purpose soil samples were fractionated into labile and recalcitrant soil-size fractions by wet-sieving: macro (>250 µm), micro (53-250 µm) and clay + silt (<53 µm), followed by determination of organic carbon and nitrogen by gas-chromatography. Soil samples were also analysed for the total C&N content, cold-water extractable OC, and microbial C. Litter decomposition was evaluated by litter bags experiment. Soil CO2 flux was measured by LiCor automated device LI-8100A. No differences for the total and stable (clay+silt, <53 µm) carbon fraction were observed between treatment. While cold water-extractable carbon was significantly higher at maize alley compared to black locust alley. This may indicate faster <span class="hlt">turnover</span> of organic matter at maize alley due to tillage, which influenced greater incorporation of plant residues into the soil, greater soil respiration and microbial activity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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