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Sample records for affect animal productivity

  1. Cold stress as it affects animal production.

    PubMed

    Young, B A

    1981-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of all livestock in North America are raised in regions where the mean January temperature is below 0 C. The effects of cold conditions on productivity and efficiency of feed conversion by swine, dairy and beef cattle are reviewed. Swine are rather cold-susceptible and are therefore usually kept in heated housing when raised in colder regions. Lactating or fattening cattle are extremely cold-hardy and rarely experience climatic conditions below their lower critical temperature. Despite the absence of a challenge to homothermy in cattle, there are marked seasonal fluctuations in the cattle's level and efficiency of production which probably arise from hormonal and adaptive changes occurring as a consequence of mild cold stress. Primary among these changes are an increase resting metabolic rate, and hence an increased energy requirement for maintenance, and an increased rate of passage of digesta, which results in reduced digestive efficiency. With cold there is stimulation of appetite, which may partially counteract the reduced level of production but not the reduced efficiency of utilization of dietary energy. PMID:7240034

  2. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Veneman, Jolien B.; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J.; Faulkner, Catherine L.; Moorby, Jon M.; Perdok, Hink B.; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; P<0.02) and increased hydrogen (P<0.03) emissions in both experiments. Furthermore, the effect of nitrate on gaseous emissions was accompanied by an increased rumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/ g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations. PMID:26509835

  3. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  4. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

    2007-01-01

    It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species. PMID:18077254

  5. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  6. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans. PMID:22158981

  7. Bacteriophage therapy in animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns over the consequences of bacterial resistance to antibiotics with the use of antibiotics in animal production have led to an increase in research on alternatives to antibiotics. Bacteriophages kill bacteria, are natural, safe, plentiful, self replicating, self limiting, can be used to spec...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RESULTING FROM UNCONFINED ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines and evaluates current knowledge related to environmental effects of unconfined animal production. Animal species directly addressed include cattle, sheep, and hogs. All available date indicate that pollutant yields from pasture and rangeland operations are no...

  9. Enhancing animal welfare by creating opportunities for positive affective engagement.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    In line with an increasing emphasis on promoting positive welfare states in animals, this review extends previous accounts of how recent affective neuroscience observations may be used to identify and then to encourage animals to engage in reward-motivated behaviours. The terms affective states or affects are used to mean the subjective experiences, feelings or emotions that may motivate animals to behave in goal-directed ways and which may accompany success or failure to achieve those goals. These motivational affects may be positive, experienced as rewarding or pleasurable, or negative, experienced as aversive or punishing. There are two overall types: homeostasis-related negative affects that reflect an animal's internal physiological state, and situation-related positive or negative affects that reflect an animal's perception of its external circumstances. The major emphasis is on positive situation-related affects, in particular those that are potentially associated with exploration, feeding and animal-to-animal affiliative behaviours. The review introduces the new concept of positive affective engagement which represents the experience animals may have when they actively respond to motivations to engage in rewarding behaviours, and it incorporates all associated affects that are positive. For example, it would represent a state of engaged aliveness that may attend an animal's goal-directed, energised exploration of and interactions with a stimulus-rich environment. It also represents some states of equally energised, highly focused predatory stalking by carnivores or the focused and engaged foraging by herbivores when they are grazing in natural environments where food sources are abundant. Positive affective engagement may also be anticipated to accompany some aspects of reciprocated affiliative interactions between animals, the dedicated maternal nurturing and care of young, the joyfulness of rough-and-tumble play, and the eroticism and orgasmic pleasures

  10. [Aspects of animal welfare in livestock production].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    2000-12-01

    The modern consumer is increasingly concerned about the welfare of farm animals which are kept in intensive systems on specialised farms where the health and well-being is almost completely dependent on the will, ability and care of the farmer. Further demands related to animal production are consumer health (quality and safety of food products), the protection of the environment and cheap food. The currently used husbandry systems are man made and emphasise automation which requires permanent critical observation of the welfare of the animals. Ethological indicators are equally important as health and performance to evaluate keeping systems. Future animal farming will be influenced by new technologies such as electronic animal identification and milking robots, and more important by biotechnology and genome analysis. Veterinary surgeons and farmers have to co-operate on the basis of scientifically sound animal welfare schemes which help to protect our farm animals in modern and intensive livestock production systems. PMID:11155522

  11. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  12. Emergent Properties of Patch Shapes Affect Edge Permeability to Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nams, Vilis O.

    2011-01-01

    Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1) find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2) generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight). When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance. PMID:21747965

  13. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated

  14. Automation in Animal Housing and Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive, controlled environment animal production began modestly in the mid-20th century as poultry were brought indoors. While mankind had utilized structures to provide shelter for their animals for centuries, the availability of relatively inexpensive energy and the electrification of rural are...

  15. Review of human-animal interactions and their impact on animal productivity and welfare

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Humans and animals are in regular and at times close contact in modern intensive farming systems. The quality of human-animal interactions can have a profound impact on the productivity and welfare of farm animals. Interactions by humans may be neutral, positive or negative in nature. Regular pleasant contact with humans may result in desirable alterations in the physiology, behaviour, health and productivity of farm animals. On the contrary, animals that were subjected to aversive human contact were highly fearful of humans and their growth and reproductive performance could be compromised. Farm animals are particularly sensitive to human stimulation that occurs early in life, while many systems of the animals are still developing. This may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify their genetic potential. The question as to how human contact can have a positive impact on responses to stressors, and productivity is not well understood. Recent work in our laboratory suggested that pleasant human contact may alter ability to tolerate various stressors through enhanced heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression. The induction of hsp is often associated with increased tolerance to environmental stressors and disease resistance in animals. The attitude and consequent behaviour of stockpeople affect the animals’ fear of human which eventually influence animals’ productivity and welfare. Other than attitude and behaviour, technical skills, knowledge, job motivation, commitment and job satisfaction are prerequisites for high job performance. PMID:23855920

  16. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tewksbury, Joshua, J.; Levey, Douglas, J.; Haddad, Nick, M.; Sargent, Sarah; Orrock, John, L.; Weldon, Aimee; Danielson, Brent, J.; Brinkerhoff, Jory; Damschen, Ellen, I.; Townsend, Patricia

    2002-10-01

    Tewksbury, J.J., D.J. Levey, N.M. Haddad, S. Sargent, J.L. Orrock, A. Weldon, B.J. Danielson, J. Brinkerhoff, E.I. Damschen, and P. Townsend. 2002. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes. PNAS 99(20):12923-12926. Among the most popular strategies for maintaining populations of both plants and animals in fragmented landscapes is to connect isolated patches with thin strips of habitat, called corridors. Corridors are thought to increase the exchange of individuals between habitat patches, promoting genetic exchange and reducing population fluctuations. Empirical studies addressing the effects of corridors have either been small in scale or have ignored confounding effects of increased habitat area created by the presence of a corridor. These methodological difficulties, coupled with a paucity of studies examining the effects of corridors on plants and plant-animal interactions, have sparked debate over the purported value of corridors in conservation planning. We report results of a large-scale experiment that directly address this debate. We demonstrate that corridors not only increase the exchange of animals between patches, but also facilitate two key plant-animal interactions: pollination and seed dispersal. Our results show that the beneficial effects of corridors extend beyond the area they add, and suggest that increased plant and animal movement through corridors will have positive impacts on plant populations and community interactions in fragmented landscapes.

  17. Impact of Genomics on Animal Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this review is to describe the impact of the use of molecular markers in animal production. Advances in genomics have been due to the availability of genomic sequence and molecular markers. Several types of molecular markers have been developed. The most commonly used are microsatel...

  18. Animating platelet production adds physiological context

    PubMed Central

    Thon, Jonathan N.; Kitterman, Alice C.; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Animating complex biological processes contextualizes them within their underlying physiology, identifies gaps in our mechanistic understanding, affirms the importance of continued research, and provides a bridge between academic scientists and the general public. Here, two videos illustrate the clinical value of and translate state-of-the-art research in platelet production. PMID:23953478

  19. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production.

    PubMed

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G

    2008-02-01

    Livestock and poultry producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. In response, producers often implement practices beyond those required for regulatory compliance to meet consumer demands. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production where high-fiber diets increase methane emissions compared with grain feeding practices in confinement. Grazing systems can contribute to nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater in some areas of the world where grazing is the predominant land use. Similarly, hoop housing for sows, an alternative to indoor gestation crates, can increase the risk of nutrient leaching into soil and groundwater. Direct air emissions may also increase with unconfined animal production as a result of less opportunity to trap and treat emissions, as well as the result of increased cage space and greater surface area per mass of excreta. Coupling welfare-friendly and organic production practices may require greater nutrient inputs to reach the same production end point, resulting in less efficient nutrient use and greater losses to the environment. Dual systems might additionally increase environmental contamination by pathogens. When swine are housed in welfare-friendly huts, Salmonella may cycle more freely between swine and their environment; however, population numbers of pathogenic bacteria may not be different between the indoor and outdoor systems evaluated. Alternatively, these dual purpose systems may reduce antibiotic and hormonal releases to the environment. Finally, intensity of resource use may be different under welfare-friendly and organic practices. In most situations, welfare-friendly production will require more land area per animal or per unit of product. Energy inputs into such systems, from feed production to rearing to product

  20. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  1. Behavioural phenotype affects social interactions in an animal network

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Thomas W; Samanta, Madhumita; Lindström, Jan; Royle, Nick J

    2008-01-01

    Animal social networks can be extremely complex and are characterized by highly non-random interactions between group members. However, very little is known about the underlying factors affecting interaction preferences, and hence network structure. One possibility is that behavioural differences between individuals, such as how bold or shy they are, can affect the frequency and distribution of their interactions within a network. We tested this using individually marked three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and found that bold individuals had fewer overall interactions than shy fish, but tended to distribute their interactions more evenly across all group members. Shy fish, on the other hand, tended to associate preferentially with a small number of other group members, leading to a highly skewed distribution of interactions. This was mediated by the reduced tendency of shy fish to move to a new location within the tank when they were interacting with another individual; bold fish showed no such tendency and were equally likely to move irrespective of whether they were interacting or not. The results show that animal social network structure can be affected by the behavioural composition of group members and have important implications for understanding the spread of information and disease in social groups. PMID:18647713

  2. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases – many shared across species – and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes. PMID:24427146

  3. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases - many shared across species - and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes. PMID:24427146

  4. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K. B.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8-2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on these

  5. The transgenic animal platform for biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, L R; Meade, H; Lazzarotto, C R; Martins, L T; Tavares, K C; Bertolini, M; Murray, J D

    2016-06-01

    The recombinant production of therapeutic proteins for human diseases is currently the largest source of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. The market growth has been the driving force on efforts for the development of new therapeutic proteins, in which transgenesis emerges as key component. The use of the transgenic animal platform offers attractive possibilities, residing on the low production costs allied to high productivity and quality of the recombinant proteins. Although many strategies have evolved over the past decades for the generation of transgenic founders, transgenesis in livestock animals generally faces some challenges, mainly due to random transgene integration and control over transgene copy number. But new developments in gene editing with CRISPR/Cas system promises to revolutionize the field for its simplicity and high efficiency. In addition, for the final approval of any given recombinant protein for animal or human use, the production and characterization of bioreactor founders and expression patterns and functionality of the proteins are technical part of the process, which also requires regulatory and administrative decisions, with a large emphasis on biosafety. The approval of two mammary gland-derived recombinant proteins for commercial and clinical use has boosted the interest for more efficient, safer and economic ways to generate transgenic founders to meet the increasing demand for biomedical proteins worldwide. PMID:26820414

  6. 7 CFR 3201.89 - Animal cleaning products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal cleaning products. 3201.89 Section 3201.89... Designated Items § 3201.89 Animal cleaning products. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean, condition, or remove substances from animal hair or other parts of an animal. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  7. 7 CFR 3201.89 - Animal cleaning products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal cleaning products. 3201.89 Section 3201.89... Designated Items § 3201.89 Animal cleaning products. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean, condition, or remove substances from animal hair or other parts of an animal. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  8. Affective components of the human-animal relationship in animal husbandry: development and validation of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Jocelyne; Cousson-Gélie, Florence; Dantzer, Robert

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the main dimensions of the human-animal relationship in animal husbandry and to test the hypothesis of a coherent system linking attitudes and feelings. A second objective was to assess interindividual differences which could be linked to socioenvironmental or personal factors. The 26-item questionnaire was administered to 197 animal farmers (143 men, 54 women, 3.8% under 25 years old, 45.2% under 40 years, 44.2% under 60 years and 7.1% over 60 years). To include even farmers not in the official agricultural registries, we used a random selection procedure. A principal component analysis of responses followed by varimax rotation yielded two factors accounting for 30.7% of the total variance, a Friendship factor and a Power relationship factor. Significant differences on the Friendship factor were observed between groups by sex of farmers, education, size of the production system, and region of production. There were also differences on the Power relationship factor between groups by age and education. These results validate a questionnaire with 21 items, allowing measurement of positive and negative affects of farmers towards their animals. PMID:15460383

  9. Production of pharmaceutical proteins by transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2009-03-01

    Proteins started being used as pharmaceuticals in the 1920s with insulin extracted from pig pancreas. In the early 1980s, human insulin was prepared in recombinant bacteria and it is now used by all patients suffering from diabetes. Several other proteins and particularly human growth hormone are also prepared from bacteria. This success was limited by the fact that bacteria cannot synthesize complex proteins such as monoclonal antibodies or coagulation blood factors which must be matured by post-translational modifications to be active or stable in vivo. These modifications include mainly folding, cleavage, subunit association, gamma-carboxylation and glycosylation. They can be fully achieved only in mammalian cells which can be cultured in fermentors at an industrial scale or used in living animals. Several transgenic animal species can produce recombinant proteins but presently two systems started being implemented. The first is milk from farm transgenic mammals which has been studied for 20 years and which allowed a protein, human antithrombin III, to receive the agreement from EMEA (European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) to be put on the market in 2006. The second system is chicken egg white which recently became more attractive after essential improvement of the methods used to generate transgenic birds. Two monoclonal antibodies and human interferon-beta 1a could be recovered from chicken egg white. A broad variety of recombinant proteins were produced experimentally by these systems and a few others. This includes monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, blood factors, hormones, growth factors, cytokines, enzymes, milk proteins, collagen, fibrinogen and others. Although these tools have not yet been optimized and are still being improved, a new era in the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins was initiated in 1987 and became a reality in 2006. In the present review, the efficiency of the different animal systems to produce

  10. Krill Products: An Overview of Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Lena; Johnsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Many animal studies have been performed with krill oil (KO) and this review aims to summarize their findings and give insight into the mechanism of action of KO. Animal models that have been used in studies with KO include obesity, depression, myocardial infarction, chronic low-grade and ulcerative inflammation and are described in detail. Moreover, studies with KO in the form of krill powder (KP) and krill protein concentrate (KPC) as a mix of lipids and proteins are mentioned and compared to the effects of KO. In addition, differences in tissue uptake of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when delivered in either phospholipid or triglyceride form, are addressed and the differential impact the delivery form has on gene expression profiles is explained. In our outlook, we try to highlight the potential of KO and KP supplementation in clinical settings and discuss health segments that have a high potential of showing krill product specific health benefits and warrant further clinical investigations. PMID:25961320

  11. Krill products: an overview of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Burri, Lena; Johnsen, Line

    2015-05-01

    Many animal studies have been performed with krill oil (KO) and this review aims to summarize their findings and give insight into the mechanism of action of KO. Animal models that have been used in studies with KO include obesity, depression, myocardial infarction, chronic low-grade and ulcerative inflammation and are described in detail. Moreover, studies with KO in the form of krill powder (KP) and krill protein concentrate (KPC) as a mix of lipids and proteins are mentioned and compared to the effects of KO. In addition, differences in tissue uptake of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when delivered in either phospholipid or triglyceride form, are addressed and the differential impact the delivery form has on gene expression profiles is explained. In our outlook, we try to highlight the potential of KO and KP supplementation in clinical settings and discuss health segments that have a high potential of showing krill product specific health benefits and warrant further clinical investigations. PMID:25961320

  12. Mammary stem cells: expansion and animal productivity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Identification and characterization of mammary stem cells and progenitor cells from dairy animals is important in the understanding of mammogenesis, tissue turnover, lactation persistency and regenerative therapy. It has been realized by many investigators that altered lactation, long dry periods (non-milking period between two consecutive lactation cycles), abrupt cessation of lactation (common in water buffaloes) and disease conditions like mastitis, greatly reduce milk yield thus render huge financial losses within the dairy sector. Cellular manipulation of specialized cell types within the mammary gland, called mammary stem cells (MaSCs)/progenitor cells, might provide potential solutions to these problems and may improve milk production. In addition, MaSCs/progenitor cells could be used in regenerative therapy against tissue damage caused by mastitis. This review discusses methods of MaSC/progenitor cell manipulation and their mechanisms in bovine and caprine animals. Author believes that intervention of MaSCs/progenitor cells could lessen the huge financial losses to the dairy industry globally. PMID:25057352

  13. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as ‘rewards’ and ‘punishments’ in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher

  14. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    PubMed

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  15. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  16. Introduction to Animal Products. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to animal products. The curriculum contains the following six lessons: (1) importance of animal products; (2) beef; (3) pork; (4) lamb and mutton; (5) poultry products; and (6) dairy products. The instructor guide includes the following: objectives,…

  17. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes. PMID:26231503

  18. Can Computer Animations Affect College Biology Students' Conceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Brecheisen, Dorothy M.; Hynek, Brian M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether viewing computer animations representing the process of diffusion and osmosis affects students' conceptions. Discusses the difficulties of implementing computer animations in the classroom. (Contains 27 references.) (YDS)

  19. Linking live animals and products: traceability.

    PubMed

    Britt, A G; Bell, C M; Evers, K; Paskin, R

    2013-08-01

    It is rarely possible to successfully contain an outbreak of an infectious animal disease, or to respond effectively to a chemical residue incident, without the use of a system for identifying and tracking animals. The linking of animals at the time they are slaughtered--through the use of identification devices or marks and accompanying movement documentation--with the meat produced from their carcasses, adds further value from the perspective of consumer safety. Over the past decade, animal identification technology has become more sophisticated and affordable. The development of the Internet and mobile communication tools, complemented bythe expanded capacity of computers and associated data management applications, has added a new dimension to the ability of Competent Authorities and industry to track animals and the food they produce for disease control, food safety and commercial purposes. PMID:24547660

  20. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. PMID:18311558

  1. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    PubMed

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities. PMID:17303064

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals, animal food products and companion animals in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tao; Tian, Wei; He, Liu; Huang, Xian-Hui; Sun, Yong-Xue; Deng, Yu-Ting; Sun, Yan; Lv, Dian-Hong; Wu, Cong-Ming; Huang, Liang-Zong; Shen, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2010-11-20

    One thousand and thirty Escherichia coli isolates from food animals, animals-derived foods, and companion animals between 2007 and 2008 in Southern China were used to investigate their antimicrobial susceptibility to 14 different antimicrobials by the standard agar dilution method. More than 70% of isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, and ampicillin. In general, resistance was less frequent in companion animal isolates vs food animals isolates, but cephalosporin and amikacin resistance was more frequent in companion animal isolates, 42.6% to 56.2% vs 14.1% to 24.3%, and 28.5% vs 18.8%, respectively, which was most likely due to the common use of these antimicrobials as treatment in pet animals. Fluoroquinolones resistance was high in all animal isolates (>50%). Food products showed lowest resistance among isolates from these three resources. PFGE analysis indicated that a majority of multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates showed unique, unrelated PFGE profiles and were unlikely to be the spread of a specific clone. This study provides useful information about the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from animals and food products in China and provided evidence of the linkage of the use of antimicrobials in animals and its selection of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates. The data from this study further warns the prudent use of antimicrobials in food and pet animals to reduce the risks of transmission of antimicrobial resistance zoonotic pathogen to humans. PMID:20605690

  3. Solanum malacoxylon: a toxic plant which affects animal calcium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Boland, R L

    1988-12-01

    The "enteque seco" is a disease of calcinosis, i.e., pathological deposition of calcium phosphate in soft tissues, which occurs in grazing cattle in Argentina and is of considerable economic importance. The ingestion of leaves of Solanum malacoxylon has been identified as the cause of the disease. Hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia and mineralization of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems are usually seen in bovines or experimental animals exposed to this plant. The symptoms of the disease resemble those of vitamin D intoxication. In agreement with these observations, a glycoside derivative of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D in animals, has been identified as the toxic principle of S. malacoxylon. Glycoside conjugates of its precursors, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3, may also be present. Recent studies indicate that the plant factor is modified in the rumen of bovines through cleavage of the glycosidic linkage and further conversion of the released 1,25(OH)2D3 to a more polar metabolite, possibly 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3. Excess free 1,25(OH)2D3 may alter extracellular and intracellular Ca homeostasis in intoxicated animals through a receptor-mediated mechanism and activation of membrane Ca channels. In addition, 1,24,25(OH)3D3 may potentiate the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on intestinal Ca transport. PMID:3077267

  4. The importance of animal cognition in agricultural animal production systems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S E; Stricklin, W R

    1991-12-01

    To describe and then fulfill agricultural animals' needs, we must learn more about their fundamental psychological and behavioral processes. How does this animal feel? Is that animal suffering? Will we ever be able to know these things? Scientists specializing in animal cognition say that there are numerous problems but that they can be overcome. Recognition by scientists of the notion of animal awareness has been increasing in recent years, because of the work of Griffin and others. Feeling, thinking, remembering, and imagining are cognitive processes that are factors in the economic and humane production of agricultural animals. It has been observed that the animal welfare debate depends on two controversial questions: Do animals have subjective feelings? If they do, can we find indicators that reveal them? Here, indirect behavioral analysis approaches must be taken. Moreover, the linear additivity of several stressor effects on a variety of animal traits suggests that some single phenomenon is acting as a "clearinghouse" for many or all of the stresses acting on an animal at any given time, and this phenomenon might be psychological stress. Specific situations animals may encounter in agricultural production settings are discussed with respect to the animals' subjective feelings. PMID:1808193

  5. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  6. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  7. Bioaerosols associated with animal production operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air emissions from animal housing and manure management operations include a complex mixture of biological, microbial, and inorganic particulates along with odorous volatile compounds. This report highlights the state of current issues, technical knowledge, and remaining challenges to be addressed i...

  8. Animate Affects: Censorship, Reckless Pedagogies, and Beautiful Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccolini, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that affect bears a potent teaching capacity. To do so, it explores the intensities that built around a student-teacher's dismissal from a US school placement. In this incident, the topic of homophobia in a poetry lesson elicited a buzz among students that enacted a pedagogy that exceeded the speaking subject. It was these…

  9. Does lunisolar gravitational tide affect the activity of animals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.

    2010-12-01

    Multiyear time series obtained by the continuous instrumental monitoring of the electrical activity (EA) of weakly electric fish Gnathonemus leopoldianus and the motor activity (MA) of the freshwater catfish Hoplosternum thoracatum and the cockroach Blaberus craniifer are compared to the parameters of the lunisolar gravitational tide. These curves are observed to be very similar for a large number of time intervals. However, a more detailed analysis shows this to be only a superficial resemblance caused by the closeness of the periods of diurnal and semidiurnal rhythms of bioindicator activity (the dominant rhythms in EA and MA patterns) and the periods of main gravitational tidal waves. It is concluded that the lunisolar gravitational tide has no significant effect on animal behavior in our experiment.

  10. [Problems and outlook for production of land animals].

    PubMed

    Coleou, J

    1996-11-01

    Some people look at a decreasing demand for animal products in the near future. Today, the diagnosis is that the availability in animal protein are very low in many countries. And we must help to improve the efficiency of animal systems in different parts of the world for cutting out the disparities and preventing the negative effects of the tremendous demographic growth. We worry to observe, during the last decades, a higher development of granivorous species (pigs and poultry) against herbivorous ones (cattle, horses...). For the future, we can take support of the spectacular development in knowledge of all sectors of animal production. But we must keep interest for training generalists in the field of animal sciences, able to make innovations in animal systems. There is a large diversity for conceiving new strategies in animal production. The main limiting factor will be the biomass resources as feeds for producing animal foods: oil meals and other feeds with high protein content seem to be the more strategies because the world production is now 27 kg per capita and the demand in developed countries near 100 kg. Animal systems could be aggressive for environment. Some examples show a dangerous relationship between a higher density of animals, mainly with granivorous fed with imported feedstuffs, and increasing nitrate content in the subterranean water. But the risk can and must be controlled. PMID:9138758

  11. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The demand for organically grown, animal derived produce is increasing due to a growing desire for consumer products that have minimal chemical inputs and high animal welfare standards. Evaluation of the scientific literature suggests that a major challenge facing organic animal production systems is the management and treatment of health-related issues. However, implementation of effective management practices can help organic animal producers achieve and maintain high standards of health and welfare, which is necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. Abstract The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. PMID:26479750

  12. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedbalova, M.; Jandova, A.; Dohnalova, A.

    2011-12-01

    A specific kind of intracellular organelles, the mitochondria, is the place of metabolic energy production by oxidative mechanism. We used cell mediated immunity method for verification of the energy metabolism (ATP production). The antigen (immunological functional RNA) was obtained from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) and prepared by the high pressure gel chromatography (HPGC). We have studied the immunological adaptability of LDH viral antigen in 62 pigs (12 parents and 50 piglings). Exitus of piglings was in case of positive imunological response on LDV. The statement results from a comparison of the relative frequency of an incidence of identical findings in male piglets and sows and from identical findings in female piglets and pigs. The efficient elaboration and utilization of energy in cell may be damaged by the changes of energy production systems and also by long-term parasitary depletion of ATP energy. Biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms. Biophysical processes are also involved in the transfer of information and its processing for making decisions and providing control, which are important parts of biological activity. These experimental results were used for the same study in human.

  13. Antibiotic resistance—consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738

  14. Impact of the endophyte on animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum L.) is widely utilized for forage in the eastern half of the USA. The grass is productive and persistent under low management; whish is attributed to alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects most tall fescue plants. Unfortua...

  15. Environmental impacts of antibiotic use in the animal production industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are routinely used in the livestock industry to treat and prevent disease. At subtherapeutic concentrations, antibiotics can select for resistant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of production animals, providing a potential reservoir for dissemination of drug resistant bacteria int...

  16. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal products and materials; movement and handling. 94.15 Section 94.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  17. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal products and materials; movement and handling. 94.15 Section 94.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  18. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  19. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  20. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  1. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  2. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  3. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  4. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...

  5. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  6. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics. 113.53 Section 113.53 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  7. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics. 113.53 Section 113.53 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  8. Farm animal well-being and intensive production systems.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J C

    1995-09-01

    Animal welfare, or well-being, is a social issue with ethical, scientific, political, and aesthetic properties. Answering questions about the welfare of animals requires scientific definition, assessment, solutions, and public acceptance. With respect to the actual well-being of the animal, most issues are centered on how the animal "feels" when managed within a specific level of confinement, during special agricultural practices (e.g., tail docking, beak trimming, etc.) and handling. Questions of this nature may require exploration of animal cognition, motivation, perception, and emotional states in addition to more commonly recognized indicators of well-being. Several general approaches have emerged for solving problems concerning animal well-being in intensive production systems: environmental, genetic, and therapeutic. Environmental approaches involve modifying existing systems to accommodate specific welfare concerns or development of alternative systems. Genetic approaches involve changing the behavioral and (or) physiological nature of the animal to reduce or eliminate behaviors that are undesirable within intensive system. Therapeutic approaches of a physical (tail docking, beak trimming) and physiological (drug and nutritional therapy) nature bring both concern and promise with regard to the reduction of confinement stress. Finally, the recent focus on commodity quality assurance programs may indirectly provide benefits for animal well-being. Although research in the area of animal well-being will provide important information for better animal management, handling, care, and the physical design of intensive production systems there is still some uncertainty regarding public acceptance. The aesthetics of modern intensive production systems may have as much to do with public acceptance as with science. PMID:8582867

  9. The use of marine products in animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal feeds represent a growing market for the nutrient rich by-products of marine fish and seafood processing. Fishmeal is one product obtained from fisheries that was traditionally used as a low-cost source of protein to supplement pig and poultry feeds. Fishmeal typically contains over 50 wt% cr...

  10. Applications of the thermography in the animal production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeiro, Carlos; Vizcaino, Elena; Morales, Joaquín.; Manso, Alberto; Díaz, Immaculada; Montalvo, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Infrared thermography is a working technology for over decades, which have been applied mainly in the buildings. We want to move this use to the animal production in order to help us to detect problems of energy efficiency in the facilities preventing, for example, the animal's welfare. In animal production it is necessary to provide a suitable microclimate according to age and production stage of the animals. This microclimate is achieved in the facilities through the environment modification artificially, providing an appropriate comfort for the animals. Many of the problems detected in farms are related to a poor environmental management and control. This is where infrared thermography becomes an essential diagnostic tool to detect failures in the facilities that will be related with health and performance of the animals. The use of this technology in energy audits for buildings, facilities, etc. is becoming more frequent, enabling the technician to easily detect and assess the temperature and energy losses, and it can be used as a support to draft reports and to transmit the situation to the owner in a visual format. In this way, both will be able to decide what improvements are required. Until now, there was not an appropriate technology with affordable prices and easy to manage enough in order to allow the use of the thermography like a routine tool for the diagnostic of these problems, but currently there are some solutions which are starting to appear on the market to meet the requirements needed by the industry.

  11. Animal welfare towards sustainability in pork meat production.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Antonio; Fàbrega, Emma; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Dalmau, Antoni

    2015-11-01

    Animal welfare is an important pillar of sustainability in meat production and is associated with other aspects of this concept, such as animal health, productivity, food safety, food quality and efficiency from a cost of production perspective. These interactions are present at all stages of the production cycle, from the beginning of the animals' farm life until their slaughter. On farm, some of the main welfare issues are related to neonatal mortality and low level of sensory input, which are likely to engender stereotypes and injurious behaviours, such as tail-biting. Pre-slaughter handling refers to the interaction between humans and animals prior to and during transport and at slaughter. Strategies to reduce pre-slaughter stress will benefit carcass and meat quality, being the training of stockpeople one of the most cost-effective policies to improve animal welfare. These strategies include also the implementation of standard monitoring procedures to detect signs of consciousness after stunning, before sticking and during bleeding until death occurs. PMID:26013042

  12. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as…

  13. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  14. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  15. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  16. [Gas and particle emissions from housing in animal production].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    1995-07-01

    Animal agriculture is increasingly regarded as a source of pollutants such as gases, odours and particulates which may be both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of pollutants emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) present the greatest risk to the environment. The gases and particulates are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored excreta, from animal feed, from litter and from the animals themselves. Total NH3 emissions from animal production in Germany are estimated as approximately 750,000 t/a. It is calculated that the average of which is higher than the average "critical loads" for most natural habitats. However, there is still a shortage of satisfactory information on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated animal houses. NH3 has a direct effect on the trees in the vicinity of animal houses and is also transported long distances through the air contributing to eutrophication and acidification of water and soil. This frequently results in changes in plant ecology, hence reducing plant diversity. CH4 and N2O contribute to the "greenhouse effect". Emissions of CH4 from animal husbandry in Germany are estimated at about 1.5 Mt/a. This corresponds to 0.2% of the assumed global emission from all sources. There is still little knowledge about the quantities of N2O released from agricultural animals. The concentration of airborne microorganisms in livestock housing is between some 100 and several 1000 per liter of air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8591757

  17. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. PMID:27130540

  18. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency--clinical course and laboratory findings in eight affected animals.

    PubMed

    Müller, K E; Bernadina, W E; Kalsbeek, H C; Hoek, A; Rutten, V P; Wentink, G H

    1994-03-01

    The clinical course of Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) in eight Holstein Friesian cattle is described. Affected animals were presented with a history of poor thriving and recurrent bacterial infections. Five of these animals had to be killed because of severe respiratory disease shortly after admittance. Three affected animals survived calfhood only as a result of frequent antibacterial treatments. At one year of age, failure to thrive and stunted growth were still evident, but infections requiring antibiotic treatments occurred only sporadically. Clinical manifestations of BLAD were found in the digestive system (gingivitis, periodontitis, alveolar periostitis, diarrhoea), the respiratory system and the skin (impaired wound healing, chronic dermatitis). A leukocytosis based on a mature neutrophilia, which persisted during infection-free periods, was observed in all animals. Granulocytes were substantially deficient of beta 2-integrin expression on their membranes. Anaemia, which was noted in four animals, may be related to the Anaemia of Inflammatory Disease Complex (AID). The serum total protein content increased with time and was associated with elevated gamma-globulin levels. We suggest that, at a certain age, animals affected with BLAD are able to cope with environmental agents due to compensatory mechanisms of the immune system. PMID:8009815

  19. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency--clinical course and laboratory findings in eight affected animals.

    PubMed

    Müller, K E; Bernadina, W E; Kalsbeek, H C; Hoek, A; Rutten, V P; Wentink, G H

    1994-07-01

    The clinical course of Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) in eight Holstein Friesian cattle is described. Affected animals were presented with a history of poor thriving and recurrent bacterial infections. Five of these animals had to be killed because of severe respiratory disease shortly after admittance. Three affected animals survived calfhood only as a result of frequent antibacterial treatments. At one year of age, failure to thrive and stunted growth were still evident, but infections requiring antibiotic treatments occurred only sporadically. Clinical manifestations of BLAD were found in the digestive system (gingivitis, periodontitis, alveolar periostitis, diarrhoea), the respiratory system and the skin (impaired wound healing, chronic dermatitis). A leukocytosis based on a mature neutrophilia, which persisted during infection-free periods, was observed in all animals. Granulocytes were substantially deficient of beta 2-integrin expression on their membranes. Anaemia, which was noted in four animals, may be related to the Anaemia of Inflammatory Disease Complex (AID). The serum total protein content increased with time and was associated with elevated gamma-globulin levels. We suggest that, at a certain age, animals affected with BLAD are able to cope with environmental agents due to compensatory mechanisms of the immune system. PMID:7985357

  20. 78 FR 75570 - Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Federal Register of April 13, 2012 (77 FR 22327), FDA published the notice of availability for a draft... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal... entitled ``New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered in or on Medicated...

  1. Anthropogenic pollutants – an insidious threat to animal health and productivity?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Humans have always polluted their environment and, to an extent, the associated adverse consequences have increased in parallel with the global population. However, in recent decades, entirely novel compounds have been created, for multiple purposes, and some of these have become ubiquitous, damaging pollutants, which interfere with fundamental physiological processes in all animal species, disrupting reproductive and other functions. Understanding of the actions of these chemicals is poor but it is recognised that they can act additively, at low concentrations, and that animals at early stages of development are particularly sensitive to their effects. All species, including domestic and wild animals and humans, can be affected. Thus, there are potential adverse implications of exposure for farm and companion animal productivity and health, and associated economic implications. While anthropogenic pollutants exert subtle, but important, adverse effects on animal health and productivity, these should be weighed against the benefits associated with the use of these compounds, particularly in relation to food production and short-term determinants of animal health. However, it is suggested that it may be necessary to regulate future production and use of some of these compounds in order to ensure long term sustainability of production systems.

  2. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. PMID:26807698

  3. Biometeorology and animal protein production: the case of arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, M. K.

    1991-09-01

    To meet the food demands of the ever-increasing world population, man's only major future land bank is the arid lands. However, their exploitation has been limited and constitutes a major challenge to many scientific disciplines. Under the present conditions of hunger and/or malnutrition, a large-scale expansion in food production is not to be expected. Hence, it is imperative that in any development programme for arid lands, malnutrition, in general, and a deficiency of animal proteins, in particular, should be considered. Major advancements have been made, but much remains to be learned and implemented. Improvement of native farm animals should be the first step in increasing the availability of animal proteins. This may be achieved by an educational programme to enhance management, housing, food intake, etc. Then a breeding programme selecting for high productivity can be pursued. After eliciting the maximum return from the present livestock, attention should be directed to domesticating wild ungulates and/or introducing highly productive temperature-zone breeds for upgrading the local animals. Additionally, new potential and unconventional sources of animal proteins must be explored. Aquaculture, in particular, has the potential of producing large quantities of lowercost protein-rich food. Available evidence in arid regions of the developed countries, i.e. USA and Australia, promises favourable results in our efforts toward increasing the production of animal protein. By innovative methods and long-term planning, such successes can be adapted and transferred to other regions of the world, with the aim of gradually lessening the present state of malnutrition and hunger.

  4. Using phosphorus recovered from animal manure in cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled environment studies suggested that phosphate recovered from animal manures is an effective fertilizer for crop production when it is mixed in the soil. We conducted this research to evaluate phosphate recovered from swine wastewater as a fertilizer for no-till cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L...

  5. Are emotionally attached companion animal caregivers conscientious and neurotic? Factors that affect the human-companion animal relationship.

    PubMed

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership. PMID:25517173

  6. Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen loss in animal production requires whole-farm management. Reduced loss from one farm component is easily negated in another if all components are not equally well managed. Animal excretion of manure N can be decreased by improving the balance of protein or amino acids fed to that required by individual animals or animal groups or by improving production efficiency. Management to increase milk, meat, or egg production normally improves efficiency by reducing the maintenance protein required per unit of production. Large losses of manure nitrogen occur through the ammonia and nitrous oxide that are emitted into the atmosphere and the nitrate leached into groundwater. Up to half of the excreted nitrogen is lost from the housing facility, but this loss can be decreased through frequent manure removal and by avoiding deep litter systems and feedlots. Techniques such as acid treatment of manure, scrubbing of ventilation air, and floor designs for separating feces and urine substantially reduce ammonia emissions, but these practices are often impractical or uneconomical for general use. Manure storage units improve nutrient utilization by allowing better timing of nutrient application with crop needs. At least 70% of the nitrogen entering anaerobic lagoons is typically lost, but a less than 10% loss can be maintained using slurry storage with a natural crust or other cover, or by drying poultry manure to at least 50% dry matter. Irrigation and surface spreading of manure without soil incorporation often ensures the loss of all remaining nonorganic nitrogen (typically, 20 to 40% of remaining nitrogen). Rapid incorporation and shallow injection methods decrease this loss by at least 50%, and deep injection into the soil essentially eliminates this loss. For grazing animals, excessive loss can be avoided by not overstocking pastures and avoiding late fall and winter grazing. Reducing emissions between the animal and the soil can lead to greater leaching

  7. Toward a cross-species neuroscientific understanding of the affective mind: do animals have emotional feelings?

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-06-01

    Do we need to consider mental processes in our analysis of brain functions in other animals? Obviously we do, if such BrainMind functions exist in the animals we wish to understand. If so, how do we proceed, while still retaining materialistic-mechanistic perspectives? This essay outlines the historical forces that led to emotional feelings in animals being marginalized in behavioristic scientific discussions of why animals behave the way they do, and why mental constructs are generally disregarded in modern neuroscientific analyses. The roots of this problem go back to Cartesian dualism and the attempt of 19th century physician-scientists to ground a new type of medical curriculum on a completely materialistic approach to body functions. Thereby all vitalistic principles were discarded from the lexicon of science, and subjective experience in animals was put in that category and discarded as an invalid approach to animal behavior. This led to forms of rigid operationalism during the era of behaviorism and subsequently ruthless reductionism in brain research, leaving little room for mentalistic concepts such as emotional feelings in animal research. However, modern studies of the brain clearly indicate that artificially induced arousals of emotional networks, as with localized electrical and chemical brain stimulation, can serve as "rewards" and "punishments" in various learning tasks. This strongly indicates that animal brains elaborate various experienced states, with those having affective contents being easiest to study rigorously. However, in approaching emotional feelings empirically we must pay special attention to the difficulties and vagaries of human language and evolutionary levels of control in the brain. We need distinct nomenclatures from primary (unconditioned phenomenal experiences) to tertiary (reflective) levels of mind. The scientific pursuit of affective brain processes in other mammals can now reveal general BrainMind principles that also apply

  8. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2011].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, I U

    2012-10-17

    In 2011, three newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. Two of these new products represent different drug classes of antibiotics, the polypeptide antibiotic Bacitracin (Bacivet™) and the macrolide antibiotic Clorsulon (Levatum®). The third product represents an anticestodal antiparasitic (Tildipirosin, Zuprevo®). Furthermore, three established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients were modified to allow their application for additional species. Thus the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate is now additionally authorised for turkeys and both the macrolide antibiotic Tilmicosin and the anticoccidial drug Toltrazuril are currently available for sheep. Additionally, two veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as a veterinary drug for horses and food producing animals with a resourceful new combination of active pharmaceutical ingredients have recently been released. PMID:23076759

  9. Utility and importance of animal data in drug product labels.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Information on the use and safety of medicines to assist prescription by healthcare professionals occurs in drug labels (Summary of Product Characteristics in Europe and Package Insert in the USA). Animal data (notably genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity and/or repeat dose toxicity testing) comprise an important component of the information (having a vital role in giving assurance that an extensive safety assessment for the medicinal product has occurred) and regulatory guidance is available to help inform on its input into drug labels. However, an evaluation of animal data for the 27 new drugs approved in the USA in 2013 (and the same drugs if available in Europe) shows great variability in detail and level of information presented within and across regions and/or the possibility of confusion on interpretation of some of the presented animal study findings. It is concluded that it may be time to revisit what animal data are presented in drug product labels (although bearing in mind current regional regulatory guidance requirements), not only to allow within and across region consistency on information given but to present it in a way that fully assists healthcare professions when prescribing a medicine. PMID:24928564

  10. Factors Which Affect Students' Attitudes towards the Use of Living Animals in Learning Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Moshe; Tamir, Pinchas

    1981-01-01

    Identifies factors which affect students' attitudes toward the use of animals in research and in learning biology. Responses of students (N=577) in grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 to questionnaires were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance by grade level and sex. Results and implications are discussed. (CS)

  11. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    PubMed

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology. PMID:10764063

  12. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2015].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Ilka Ute

    2016-06-16

    In 2015, four newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food-producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. These were the bisphosphonate Clodronic Acid (Osphos®), the 5-hydroxytryptamine (2A) receptor antagonist Ketanserin (Vulketan®), the aminoglycoside antibiotic Paromomycin (Parofor®) and the antibiotic Thiamphenicol (TAF Spray®) from the fenicole group. With Chlorphenamine, a temporary not available active ingredient was reapproved in a new drug. Furthermore, three veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as one product with a new strength and two products with a new combination of active pharmaceutical ingredients have been launched. PMID:27223124

  13. 9 CFR 94.11 - Restrictions on importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM... animal products from specified regions. (a) The meat of ruminants or swine, and other animal...

  14. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  15. Parameters Affecting Solvent Production by Clostridium pasteurianum

    PubMed Central

    Dabrock, Birgit; Bahl, Hubert; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol. PMID:16348691

  16. 75 FR 55676 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 520, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chloramphenicol; Lincomycin.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal...

  17. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 556, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing...

  18. Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Lacey; Norwood, F Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the premium they extract exceeds the corresponding increase in cost. To better understand the relationship between animal welfare and production costs under different farm systems, this study investigates 4 stylized hog production systems. The results show that increasing animal welfare for all hogs in the United States will increase retail pork prices by a maximum of 2% for a small welfare increase and 5% for a large welfare increase. The cost of banning gestation crates measured by this study is lower than the consumer willingness-to-pay from other studies. PMID:21191844

  19. Prospects from agroecology and industrial ecology for animal production in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Dumont, B; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Jouven, M; Thomas, M; Tichit, M

    2013-06-01

    Agroecology and industrial ecology can be viewed as complementary means for reducing the environmental footprint of animal farming systems: agroecology mainly by stimulating natural processes to reduce inputs, and industrial ecology by closing system loops, thereby reducing demand for raw materials, lowering pollution and saving on waste treatment. Surprisingly, animal farming systems have so far been ignored in most agroecological thinking. On the basis of a study by Altieri, who identified the key ecological processes to be optimized, we propose five principles for the design of sustainable animal production systems: (i) adopting management practices aiming to improve animal health, (ii) decreasing the inputs needed for production, (iii) decreasing pollution by optimizing the metabolic functioning of farming systems, (iv) enhancing diversity within animal production systems to strengthen their resilience and (v) preserving biological diversity in agroecosystems by adapting management practices. We then discuss how these different principles combine to generate environmental, social and economic performance in six animal production systems (ruminants, pigs, rabbits and aquaculture) covering a long gradient of intensification. The two principles concerning economy of inputs and reduction of pollution emerged in nearly all the case studies, a finding that can be explained by the economic and regulatory constraints affecting animal production. Integrated management of animal health was seldom mobilized, as alternatives to chemical drugs have only recently been investigated, and the results are not yet transferable to farming practices. A number of ecological functions and ecosystem services (recycling of nutrients, forage yield, pollination, resistance to weed invasion, etc.) are closely linked to biodiversity, and their persistence depends largely on maintaining biological diversity in agroecosystems. We conclude that the development of such ecology

  20. Sperm cells as vectors in the production of transgenic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.M.

    1993-04-28

    Transgenic animals are used in industry and in biomedical research in order to provide in vivo experimental model systems. Sperm cells have been reported used as vectors in the production of transgenic animals before, however no approach has of yet proven to be successful. Fertilizing eggs with genetically modified sperm would be advantageous in that sperm are readily accessible and stable, and eggs can be fertilized by modified sperm cells in vivo. Recent elucidations regarding the unique manner of DNA packaging in sperm chromatin by protamines has provided us with the insight for developing a method of introducing foreign DNA into sperm which is likely to succeed where others have failed. We have developed a method for mimicking the in vivo system of sperm chromatin toroid subunits in vitro, concentrating these toroids, and fluorescent visualization. Our present work concerns development of a method to successfully deliver DNA across the cell membranes and into the nucleus.

  1. Experiments on Analysing Voice Production: Excised (Human, Animal) and In Vivo (Animal) Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Döllinger, Michael; Kobler, James; Berry, David A.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Luegmair, Georg; Bohr, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on human and on animal excised specimens as well as in vivo animal preparations are so far the most realistic approaches to simulate the in vivo process of human phonation. These experiments do not have the disadvantage of limited space within the neck and enable studies of the actual organ necessary for phonation, i.e., the larynx. The studies additionally allow the analysis of flow, vocal fold dynamics, and resulting acoustics in relation to well-defined laryngeal alterations. Purpose of Review This paper provides an overview of the applications and usefulness of excised (human/animal) specimen and in vivo animal experiments in voice research. These experiments have enabled visualization and analysis of dehydration effects, vocal fold scarring, bifurcation and chaotic vibrations, three-dimensional vibrations, aerodynamic effects, and mucosal wave propagation along the medial surface. Quantitative data will be shown to give an overview of measured laryngeal parameter values. As yet, a full understanding of all existing interactions in voice production has not been achieved, and thus, where possible, we try to indicate areas needing further study. Recent Findings A further motivation behind this review is to highlight recent findings and technologies related to the study of vocal fold dynamics and its applications. For example, studies of interactions between vocal tract airflow and generation of acoustics have recently shown that airflow superior to the glottis is governed by not only vocal fold dynamics but also by subglottal and supraglottal structures. In addition, promising new methods to investigate kinematics and dynamics have been reported recently, including dynamic optical coherence tomography, X-ray stroboscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction with laser projection systems. Finally, we touch on the relevance of vocal fold dynamics to clinical laryngology and to clinically-oriented research. PMID:26581597

  2. Pollution by animal production in The Netherlands: solutions.

    PubMed

    Voorburg, J H

    1991-09-01

    Provided that the application rates of manure do not exceed the crop uptake of nutrients, pollution by animal production is mainly caused by nitrogenous substances. Applying manure outside the growing season causes pollution of groundwater and surface water due to leaching and runoff. In regions with a high livestock density, the evaporation of ammonia has a serious impact on the environment. It contributes to acidification and causes a nutrient imbalance in natural vegetation. The prevention of nutrient losses from manure is unprofitable. The environmental impact is not caused by the individual farmer but is a result of the sum of activities in a region. This means that legislation is necessary to impose limits in order to arrive at production without pollution. Within this framework, the farmer should optimise the utilisation of minerals from manure by more efficient animal nutrition and better handling of the manure. One of the most difficult problems is the prevention of ammonia evaporation. A reduction of these losses generally also has a favourable effect on odour emissions. A new development is the processing of manure surpluses into a dried manure of sufficient quality to compete on the fertiliser market. As is usually the case with pollution control, these measures raise the costs of livestock production. PMID:1782422

  3. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( < 20% RH) at 293 K. Optical properties and the AMS spectra were measured for toluene-derived SOM after ammonia exposure at varied RHs. The results suggest that the production of light-absorbing nitrogen-containing compounds from multiphase reactions with ammonia was kinetically limited in the glassy organic matrix, which otherwise produce brown carbon. The results of this study have significant implications for production and optical properties of brown carbon in urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  4. Pre-analytical factors affecting the results of laboratory blood analyses in farm animal veterinary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Humann-Ziehank, E; Ganter, M

    2012-07-01

    The quality of the laboratory diagnostic approach in farm animals can be severely affected by pre-analytical factors of variation. They induce increase/decrease of biochemical and hematological analyte concentrations and, as a consequence, they may cause unsuitable conclusions and decisions for animal health management and research projects. The pre-analytical period covers the preparation of sampling, the sampling procedure itself, as well as all specimen handling until the beginning of the specific laboratory analysis. Pre-analytical factors may have either an animal-related or a technique-related background. Animal-related factors cover daytime/season, meals/fasting, age, gender, altitude, drugs/anesthesia, physical exercise/stress or coinfection. Technique-related factors are the choice of the tube including serum v. plasma, effects of anticoagulants/gel separators, the anticoagulant/blood ratio, the blood collection procedure itself, specimen handling, contamination, labeling, storage and serum/plasma separation, transportation of the specimen, as well as sample preparation before analysis in the laboratory. It is essential to have proper knowledge about the importance and source of pre-analytical factors to alter the entire diagnostic process. Utmost efforts should be made to minimize controllable factors. Analytical results have to be evaluated with care considering that pre-analytical factors of variation are possible causes of misinterpretation. PMID:23031472

  5. Natural Vitamin D Content in Animal Products1

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Alexandra; Walther, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Humans derive most vitamin D from the action of sunlight in their skin. However, in view of the current Western lifestyle with most daily activities taking place indoors, sun exposure is often not sufficient for adequate vitamin D production. For this reason, dietary intake is also of great importance. Animal foodstuffs (e.g., fish, meat, offal, egg, dairy) are the main sources for naturally occurring cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3). This paper therefore aims to provide an up-to-date overview of vitamin D-3 content in various animal foods. The focus lies on the natural vitamin D-3 content because there are many countries in which foods are not regularly fortified with vitamin D. The published data show that the highest values of vitamin D are found in fish and especially in fish liver, but offal also provides considerable amounts of vitamin D. The content in muscle meat is generally much lower. Vitamin D concentrations in egg yolks range between the values for meat and offal. If milk and dairy products are not fortified, they are normally low in vitamin D, with the exception of butter because of its high fat content. However, as recommendations for vitamin D intake have recently been increased considerably, it is difficult to cover the requirements solely by foodstuffs. PMID:23858093

  6. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  7. Impacts of Cereal Ergot in Food Animal Production.

    PubMed

    Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total), reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and rye, favoring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements that may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids, including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety, and genotype. Considerable animal-to-animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors, such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome. PMID:26942186

  8. Impacts of Cereal Ergot in Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total), reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and rye, favoring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements that may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids, including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety, and genotype. Considerable animal-to-animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors, such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome. PMID:26942186

  9. The cross-mammalian neurophenomenology of primal emotional affects: From animal feelings to human therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-06-01

    The neural correlates of human emotions are easy to harvest. In contrast, the neural constitution of emotional feelings in humans has resisted systematic scientific analysis. This review summarizes how preclinical affective neuroscience initiatives are making progress in decoding the neural nature of such feelings in animal brains. This has been achieved by studying the rewarding and punishing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcortical emotional networks (labeled SEEING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY systems) that evoke distinct emotion action patterns, as well as rewarding and punishing effects in animals. The implications of this knowledge for development of new psychiatric interventions, especially depression, are discussed. Three new antidepressive therapeutics arising from this work are briefly noted: 1) DBS of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in humans, 2) reduction of psychological pain that may arise from excessive PANIC arousal, and 3) facilitation of social joy through the study of social play in rats The overall argument is that we may more readily develop new psychiatric interventions through preclinical models if we take animal emotional feelings seriously, as opposed to just behavioral changes, as targets for development of new treatments. PMID:26876723

  10. Obesity, public health, and the consumption of animal products.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Partly in response to rising rates of obesity, many governments have published healthy eating advice. Focusing on health advice related to the consumption of animal products (APs), I argue that the individualistic paradigm that prevails must be replaced by a radically new approach that emphasizes the duty of all human beings to restrict their negative "Global Health Impacts" (GHIs). If they take human rights seriously, many governments from nations with relatively large negative GHIs-including the Australian example provided here-must develop strategies to reduce their citizens' negative GHIs. As the negative GHIs associated with the consumption of many APs are excessive, it is my view that many governments ought to adopt a qualified ban on the consumption of APs. PMID:23288438

  11. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products

    SciTech Connect

    Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2003-06-02

    Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

  12. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  13. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An analysis of meat, egg, and milk production encompasses not only the direct rearing and slaughtering of animals, but also grain and fertilizer production for animal feed, waste storage and disposal, water use, and energy expenditures on farms and in transporting feed and finished animal products, among other key impacts of the production process as a whole. Conclusions Immediate and far-reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical and timely if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated. PMID:18470284

  14. Water for animal products: a blind spot in water policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-09-01

    We know from land, energy and climate studies that the livestock sector plays a substantial role in deforestation, biodiversity loss and climate change. More recently it has become clear that livestock also significantly contributes to humanity’s water footprint, water pollution and water scarcity. Jalava et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 9 074016) show that considerable water savings can be achieved by reducing the fraction of animal products in our diet. The findings are in line with a few earlier studies on water use in relation to diets. As yet, this insight has not been taken forward in national water policies, which focus on ‘sustainable production’ rather than ‘sustainable consumption’. Most studies and practical efforts focus on increasing water-use efficiency in crop production (more crop per drop) and feed conversion efficiency in the livestock sector (more meat with less feed). Water-use efficiency in the food system as a whole (more nutritional value per drop) remains a blind spot.

  15. Metabolic differences in temperamental Brahman cattle can affect productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors may adversely affect the growth and productivity of livestock. These include stressors associated with management practices, such as weaning, handling relative to transportation, and vaccination, that can modulate growth through the production of stress-related hormones (i.e., cortisol,...

  16. Essential veterinary education in the cultural, political and biological complexities of international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brown, C C

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation has changed the veterinary profession in many ways and academic institutes may need to re-tool to help future professionals deal with the changes in a successful and productive way. The remarkably expanded and expanding volume of trade and traffic in animals and animal products means that to be effective veterinarians must grasp some of the complexities inherent in this trade. Being able to engage productively in cross-cultural dialogue will be important in negotiations over livestock shipments and also within the context of the delivery of medical services to companion animals in societies that are becoming increasingly diverse. Understanding the political landscapes that influence trade decisions will help to expedite agreements and facilitate the transfer of goods and materials that involve animal health. Disease emergence will continue to occur, and an awareness of the factors responsible and the response measures to undertake will help to contain any damage. PMID:20128459

  17. Behavioral factors affecting exposure potential for household cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, D C; Small, M J; Davidson, C I; Fischhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral experiments were performed on 342 subjects to determine whether behavior, which could affect the level of personal exposure, is exhibited in response to odors and labels which are commonly used for household chemicals. Potential for exposure was assessed by having subjects perform cleaning tasks presented as a product preference test, and noting the amount of cleaning product used, the time taken to complete the cleaning task, the product preference, and the exhibition of avoidance behavior. Product odor was found to affect product preference in the study with the pleasant odored product being preferred to the neutral and unpleasant products. Product odor was also found to influence the amount of product used; less of the odored products was used compared to the neutral product. The experiment also found that very few of the subjects in the study read the product labels, precluding analysis of the effect of such labels on product use. A postexperiment questionnaire on household cleaning product purchasing and use was administered to participants. The results indicate that significant gender differences exist. Women in the sample reported more frequent purchase and use of cleaning products resulting in an estimated potential exposure 40% greater than for the men in the sample. This finding is somewhat countered by the fact that women more frequently reported exposure avoidance behavior, such as using gloves. Additional significant gender differences were found in the stated importance of product qualities, such as odor and environmental quality. This study suggests the need for further research, in a more realistic use setting, on the impact of public education, labels, and product odor on preference, use, and exposure for different types of consumer products. PMID:9306234

  18. 9 CFR 94.11 - Restrictions on importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and..., HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions. (a) The meat of ruminants or swine,...

  19. Why are some animal populations unaffected or positively affected by roads?

    PubMed

    Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2013-11-01

    In reviews on effects of roads on animal population abundance we found that most effects are negative; however, there are also many neutral and positive responses [Fahrig and Rytwinski (Ecol Soc 14:21, 2009; Rytwinski and Fahrig (Biol Conserv 147:87-98, 2012)]. Here we use an individual-based simulation model to: (1) confirm predictions from the existing literature of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to negative effects of roads on animal population abundance, and (2) improve prediction of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to neutral and positive effects of roads on animal population abundance. Simulations represented a typical situation in which road mitigation is contemplated, i.e. rural landscapes containing a relatively low density (up to 1.86 km/km(2)) of high-traffic roads, with continuous habitat between the roads. In these landscapes, the simulations predict that populations of species with small territories and movement ranges, and high reproductive rates, i.e. many small mammals and birds, should not be reduced by roads. Contrary to previous suggestions, the results also predict that populations of species that obtain a resource from roads (e.g. vultures) do not increase with increasing road density. In addition, our simulations support the predation release hypothesis for positive road effects on prey (both small- and large-bodied prey), whereby abundance of a prey species increased with increasing road density due to reduced predation by generalist road-affected predators. The simulations also predict an optimal road density for the large-bodied prey species if it avoids roads or traffic emissions. Overall, the simulation results suggest that in rural landscapes containing high-traffic roads, there are many species for which road mitigation may not be necessary; mitigation efforts should be tailored to the species that show negative population responses to roads

  20. Testing the embodied account of object naming: a concurrent motor task affects naming artifacts and animals.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Heath E; White, Nicole; McMullen, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Embodied theories of object representation propose that the same neural networks are involved in encoding and retrieving object knowledge. In the present study, we investigated whether motor programs play a causal role in the retrieval of object names. Participants performed an object-naming task while squeezing a sponge with either their right or left hand. The objects were artifacts (e.g. hammer) or animals (e.g. giraffe) and were presented in an orientation that favored a grasp or not. We hypothesized that, if activation of motor programs is necessary to retrieve object knowledge, then concurrent motor activity would interfere with naming manipulable artifacts but not non-manipulable animals. In Experiment 1, we observed naming interference for all objects oriented towards the occupied hand. In Experiment 2, we presented the objects in more 'canonical orientations'. Participants named all objects more quickly when they were oriented towards the occupied hand. Together, these interference/facilitation effects suggest that concurrent motor activity affects naming for both categories. These results also suggest that picture-plane orientation interacts with an attentional bias that is elicited by the objects and their relationship to the occupied hand. These results may be more parsimoniously accounted for by a domain-general attentional effect, constraining the embodied theory of object representations. We suggest that researchers should scrutinize attentional accounts of other embodied cognitive effects. PMID:24291119

  1. Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons in an Animal Model of Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Deats, Sean P.; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Light has profound effects on mood regulation as exemplified in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and the therapeutic benefits of light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD. Following housing conditions of either 12:12hr Dim Light:Dark (DLD) or 8:16hr Short Photoperiod (SP), which mimic the lower light intensity or short day-length of winter, respectively, grass rats exhibit an increase in depression-like behavior compared to those housed in a 12:12hr Bright Light:Dark (BLD) condition. Furthermore, we revealed that the orexinergic system is involved in mediating the effects of light on mood and anxiety. To explore other potential neural substrates involved in the depressive phenotype, the present study examined hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) and somatostatin (SST) neurons in the brains of grass rats housed in DLD, SP and BLD. Using immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SST, we found that the number of TH- and SST-ir cells in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the DLD and SP groups compared to the BLD group. We also found that treating BLD animals with a selective orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 significantly reduced the number of hypothalamic TH-ir cells. The present study suggests that the hypothalamic DA neurons are sensitive to daytime light deficiency and are regulated by an orexinergic pathway. The results support the hypothesis that the orexinergic pathways mediate the effects of light on other neuronal systems that collectively contribute to light-dependent changes in the affective state. PMID:26116821

  2. Stress and affective disorders: animal models elucidating the molecular basis of neuroendocrine-behavior interactions.

    PubMed

    Touma, C

    2011-05-01

    Profound dysfunctions in several neuroendocrine systems have been described in patients suffering from affective disorders such as major depression. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these functional alterations, animal models including mice genetically modified by either direct gene-targeting or by selective breeding approaches have been used exceedingly, revealing valuable insights into neuroendocrine pathways conserved between rodents and men. This review focuses on altered function and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, including its involvement in emotionality and stress responsiveness. In this context, the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and disturbances in glucocorticoid receptor signaling seem to be of central importance. However, changes in the expression and release patterns of vasopressin, dopamine and serotonin have also been shown to contribute to variation in emotionality, stress coping, cognitive functions and social behaviors. Affective disorders show a high degree of complexity, involving a multitude of molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral alterations as well as an intense gene-environment interaction, making it difficult to dissociate the primary causes from secondary consequences of the disease. Thus, interdisciplinary research, as applied in the emerging field of systems biology, involving adequate animal models and combined methodologies can significantly contribute to our understanding regarding the transmission of genetic predispositions into clinically relevant endophenotypes. It is only with deep insight into the mechanisms by which the stress hormone systems are regulated that novel treatment strategies and promising targets for therapeutic interventions can be developed in the future. Such in-depth understanding is ultimately essential to realizing our goal of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:21544741

  3. The Voice of Emotion across Species: How Do Human Listeners Recognize Animals' Affective States?

    PubMed Central

    Scheumann, Marina; Hasting, Anna S.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener) versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context). Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew). Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence) or affiliative (positive emotional valence) context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms. PMID:24621604

  4. 37 CFR 1.778 - Calculation of patent term extension for an animal drug product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period for an animal drug will be determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Under 35 U.S... extension for an animal drug product. 1.778 Section 1.778 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... patent term extension for an animal drug product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750...

  5. 37 CFR 1.778 - Calculation of patent term extension for an animal drug product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period for an animal drug will be determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Under 35 U.S... extension for an animal drug product. 1.778 Section 1.778 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... patent term extension for an animal drug product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750...

  6. 37 CFR 1.778 - Calculation of patent term extension for an animal drug product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... period for an animal drug will be determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Under 35 U.S... extension for an animal drug product. 1.778 Section 1.778 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... patent term extension for an animal drug product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750...

  7. 37 CFR 1.778 - Calculation of patent term extension for an animal drug product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... period for an animal drug will be determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Under 35 U.S... extension for an animal drug product. 1.778 Section 1.778 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... patent term extension for an animal drug product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750...

  8. 37 CFR 1.778 - Calculation of patent term extension for an animal drug product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period for an animal drug will be determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Under 35 U.S... extension for an animal drug product. 1.778 Section 1.778 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... patent term extension for an animal drug product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750...

  9. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

    2009-03-01

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain. PMID:19200625

  10. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  11. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  12. Rewards, aversions and affect in adolescence: Emerging convergences across laboratory animal and human data

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent transition is associated with increases in reward- and sensation-seeking, peer-directed social interactions, and risk-taking, with exploratory use of alcohol and other drugs often beginning at this time. These age-related behaviors may have biological roots embedded in the evolutionary past, with similar adolescent-typical characteristics evident across a variety of mammalian species. Drawing across human behavioral and fMRI data and studies conducting in laboratory animals, this review examines processing of rewards, aversions, and affect in adolescence. Evidence for both hyper- and hypo-reactivity during adolescence in the processing of rewards is reviewed, along with possible contributors to these differences. Indications of sometimes heightened reward reactivity during adolescence are contrasted with frequent attenuations in adolescent sensitivity to aversive stimuli. At the same time, adolescents appear particularly prone to becoming emotionally aroused, especially in social contexts. Emerging evidence hints that exaggerated adolescent reactivity in reward and affective systems may be promoted in part by unusual strong cross-reactivity between these systems during adolescence. Such age-related propensities may promote adolescent risk taking, especially in social and exciting contexts, and contribute to adolescent-typical propensities to attach greater benefit and less cost to risky behaviors such as alcohol and drug use than individuals at other ages. PMID:21918675

  13. Vocal performance affects metabolic rate in dolphins: implications for animals communicating in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-06-01

    Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats. PMID:25852069

  14. Zoonotic transfer of pathogens from animals to farm products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food animals contain a microbial population that lives on and within them, but this commensal microbial population can be penetrated by foodborne pathogenic bacteria that live asymptomatically in the animal. Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacte...

  15. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to...

  16. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to...

  17. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to...

  18. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to...

  19. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to...

  20. Presence of nitrate NO 3 a ects animal production, photocalysis is a possible solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba-Molina, Heli; Barba-Ortega, J.; Joya, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Farmers and ranchers depend on the successful combination of livestock and crops. However, they have lost in the production by nitrate pollution. Nitrate poisoning in cattle is caused by the consumption of an excessive amount of nitrate or nitrite from grazing or water. Both humans and livestock can be affected. It would appear that well fertilised pasture seems to take up nitrogen from the soil and store it as nitrate in the leaf. Climatic conditions, favour the uptake of nitrate. Nitrate poisoning is a noninfectious disease condition that affects domestic ruminants. It is a serious problem, often resulting in the death of many animals. When nitrogen fertilizers are used to enrich soils, nitrates may be carried by rain, irrigation and other surface waters through the soil into ground water. Human and animal wastes can also contribute to nitrate contamination of ground water. A possible method to decontaminate polluted water by nitrates is with methods of fabrication of zero valent iron nanoparticles (FeNps) are found to affect their efficiency in nitrate removal from water.

  1. 9 CFR 352.13 - Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.13 Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. This shall be... other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. 352.13......

  2. 9 CFR 352.13 - Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.13 Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. This shall be... other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. 352.13......

  3. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs...

  4. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs...

  5. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  6. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  7. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  8. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  9. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  10. Methane Production from Catalytic Wet Gasification of Animal Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigates the technical and economical viability of a proprietary catalytic wet gasification process in treating animal wastewater, capturing nutrients, destroying pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) and estrogens, and producing methane. This study reviews and analyzes physicoc...

  11. Stress and immunity: Implications on animal health and production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout their production cycle, domestic livestock experience various stressors and varying magnitudes of stress that inhibit health and productivity. As researchers have continued to explore the complex interactions between stress and production parameters such as growth, reproduction, and healt...

  12. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is not subjected to heat sterilization or other sterilization methods acceptable to Animal and Plant... animal origin which is not subjected to heat sterilization, used to prepare a biological product shall be... animal origin which is not subjected to heat sterilization of other sterilization methods acceptable...

  13. 77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... concerns regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance in human and animal bacterial pathogens when... those products consistent with FDA's GFI 209, ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial... of a final guidance entitled ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in...

  14. Agent-patient similarity affects sentence structure in language production: evidence from subject omissions in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-01-01

    Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:25278915

  15. Agent-patient similarity affects sentence structure in language production: evidence from subject omissions in Mandarin

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:25278915

  16. Animal Meal: Production and Determination in Feedstuffs and the Origin of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Heinz

    This contribution examines what animal meal is, how it is produced in rendering plants, and means of investigating feedstuff constituents. In addition to animal meal, numerous other products of animal origin are also on the market (e.g., blood meal, bone meal, feather meal, gelatin). Constituents of animal origin can be detected in feedstuffs by microscopy, but determining the animal species from which the constituents are derived, as required by law in Germany, requires methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. We consider the problem of trace contamination being introduced accidentally during the production of ruminants' feedstuffs containing constituents of animal origin. The future of animal meal is discussed together with alternatives for disposing of animal carcasses and slaughtery offal, i.e., composting and incineration.

  17. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-12-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong-to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling. PMID:26869838

  18. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong—to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling. PMID:26869838

  19. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2010].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, I U

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, three new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food-producing animals. These were gamithromycin (Zactran®), a new macrolide antibiotic, Monepantel (Zolvix®), a broad spectrum anthelmintic with a novel mechanism, and Pergolide (Prascend®), the first dopamine receptor agonist for animals. Two substances have been approved for additional species. The tetracycline antibiotic doxycycline is now also authorized for turkeys and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug firocoxib from the group of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is now available for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation and two drugs, which are interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:22167083

  20. Animal Nutrition and the Environment: Examples from Dairy Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The on-going trend of consolidation and intensification of animal agriculture requires a greater dependence on purchased feed. Increases in livestock numbers and feed imports may result in the excretion of manure nutrients that can surpass the recycling capacity of local land, air, and water resou...

  1. Production of Computer Animated Movies for Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elberg, H. H.

    A detailed account is given in this paper of the procedures and the equipment used in producing six computer-animated instructional movies. First, the sequence of events were described in a script, which, together with the analytical expressions that were dealt with, formed the basis of a program. Then, the program was run on a computer and the…

  2. Utilization and environmental management of residues from intensive animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manures are traditional sources of nutrients in agriculture. Under proper management, manures provide nutrients to soil, reducing or eliminating the use of commercial fertilizers, as well as organic carbon that improves soil physical properties and soil health. However, excessive application ...

  3. Animal Productivity and Health Responses to Hind-Gut Acidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the large intestine of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, and/or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates to the large intestine, hind-gut ac...

  4. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals...

  5. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals...

  6. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals...

  7. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K.; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. PMID:26203001

  8. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-08-01

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. PMID:26203001

  9. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, “How does burnout affect physician productivity?” Methods A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. Results The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between

  10. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-01

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients. PMID:25979518

  11. The animal-human interface and infectious disease in industrial food animal production: rethinking biosecurity and biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; Leibler, Jessica H; Price, Lance B; Otte, Joachim M; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Tiensin, T; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Understanding interactions between animals and humans is critical in preventing outbreaks of zoonotic disease. This is particularly important for avian influenza. Food animal production has been transformed since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Poultry and swine production have changed from small-scale methods to industrial-scale operations. There is substantial evidence of pathogen movement between and among these industrial facilities, release to the external environment, and exposure to farm workers, which challenges the assumption that modern poultry production is more biosecure and biocontained as compared with backyard or small holder operations in preventing introduction and release of pathogens. An analysis of data from the Thai government investigation in 2004 indicates that the odds of H5N1 outbreaks and infections were significantly higher in large-scale commercial poultry operations as compared with backyard flocks. These data suggest that successful strategies to prevent or mitigate the emergence of pandemic avian influenza must consider risk factors specific to modern industrialized food animal production. PMID:19006971

  12. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals. PMID:26775851

  13. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

  14. The European Market for Animal-Friendly Products in a Societal Context

    PubMed Central

    Ingenbleek, Paul T. M.; Harvey, David; Ilieski, Vlatko; Immink, Victor M.; de Roest, Kees; Schmid, Otto

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. Although many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare, economic productivity of the chain remains an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. The European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society. Abstract This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. On the basis of qualitative data gathered in the context of the European EconWelfare project, the differences across eight European countries are studied. The findings suggest that, given international trade barriers that prevent an improvement of animal welfare through legislation, many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare. Economic productivity of the chain remains, however, an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. With the help of a deeper conceptual understanding of willingness to pay for animal welfare, the paper finds that the European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and that the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society. PMID:26479535

  15. [Production of rabies vaccine in animal diploid cells].

    PubMed

    Lucas, G; Reculard, P; Adamowicz, P; Vacher, B; Prunet, P

    1982-01-01

    Modalities for production of inactivated rabies vaccine derived from diploid hamster cell cultures are reported. The inactivated concentrated virus, purified by zonal centrifugation, is utilised for the preparation of vaccines destinated to carnivores, either in the form of monovalent vaccine or associated with distemper and canine contagious hepatitis vaccines. The inactivated concentrated virus is utilised for the preparation of bovine vaccine. The procedure is compatible with industrial production. The results concerning safety and potency tests of the experimental lots are presented. PMID:7128072

  16. Aspergillus oryzae nrtA affects kojic acid production.

    PubMed

    Sano, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed the role of the nitrate transporter-encoding gene (nrtA) of Aspergillus oryzae by gene disruption. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that homologous recombination occurred at the resident nrtA locus. Real-time PCR showed that the nrtA gene was strongly inducible by NaNO3. The nrtA disruptant did not exhibit normal growth when nitrate was available as the sole nitrogen source. These results indicate that NrtA is essential for nitrate uptake in A. oryzae. Kojic acid (KA) production was inhibited by the addition of a small amount of sodium nitrate. The nrtA-disrupted strain was deficient in the uptake of nitrate. As a result, KA production in this strain was not considerably affected by the presence of nitrate. PMID:27108780

  17. [Effect of increasing the omega-3 fatty acid in the diets of animals on the animal products consumed by humans].

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    As shown by huge amount of assays in human as well as in animal models, w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important role in the development and maintenance of different organs, primarily the brain, and could be useful in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and, as proposed recently, some psychiatric, dermatological or rheumatological disorders. For ALA, the major and cheapest source for human is rapeseed oil (canola oil), and walnut "noix de Grenoble" oil). The actual goal is first to identify which foods are naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, and, second, to determine the true impact of the formulations (enriched in w-3 fatty acids) in chows used on farms and breeding centres on the nutritional value of the products and thus their effect on the health of consumers, thanks to quantities of either ALA, or EPA or DHA or both. This concern fish (in proportion of their lipid content, mainly mackerel, salmon, sardine and herring), eggs (wildly naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, both ALA and DHA, or from laying hen fed ALA from linseed or rapeseed), meat from birds, mammals (from the highest concentration : rabbit, then pig and monogastrics, then polygastrics such as beef, mutton and goat) \\; in butter, milk, dairy products, cheese (all naturally poor in w-3 fatty acids)... Indeed, the nature of fatty acids of reserve triglycerides (found in more or less large amounts depending on the anatomical localisation, that is to say the butcher's cuts) can vary mainly as a function of the food received by the animal. EPA and DHA are mainly present in animal's products. The impact (qualitative and quantitative) of alterations in the lipid composition of animal foods on the nutritional value of derived products (in terms of EPA and DHA content) eaten by humans are more important in single-stomach animals than multi-stomach animals (due to their hydrogenating intestinal bacteria). The intestinal physiology of birds results in the

  18. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Leeman, W R; Van Den Berg, K J; Houben, G F

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data concerning feed contaminant concentrations, feeding periods, residue levels in animal products, and other parameters were gathered and recorded. For each case a 'transfer factor', which was defined as the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an animal product to the concentration of the chemical in animal feed, was calculated. Scientifically founded transfer factors were calculated and analysed for groups of chemicals based on their contaminant classes or physicochemical properties. These database-derived transfer factors enable a more accurate risk assessment in the case of a feed contamination, and enable rapid risk management decision-making and/or intervention. PMID:17164211

  19. Phonological overlap affects lexical selection during sentence production.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, T Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

    2012-09-01

    Theories of lexical production differ in whether they allow phonological processes to affect lexical selection directly. Whereas some accounts, such as interactive activation accounts, predict (weak) early effects of phonological processes during lexical selection via feedback connections, strictly serial architectures do not make this prediction. We present evidence from lexical selection during unscripted sentence production that lexical selection is affected by the phonological form of recently produced words. In a video description experiment, participants described scenes that were compatible with several near-meaning-equivalent verbs. We found that speakers were less likely than expected by chance to select a verb form that would result in phonological onset overlap with the subject of the sentence. Additional evidence from the distribution of disfluencies immediately preceding the verb argues that this effect is due to early effects on lexical selection, rather than later corrective processes, such as self-monitoring. Taken together, these findings support accounts that allow early feedback from phonological processes to word-level nodes, even during lexical selection. PMID:22468803

  20. 76 FR 11330 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Bartkowiak, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug... Moines, IA 50322. BANMINTH Premix (pyrantel tartrate). Truow Nutrition, Inc., 1590 Todd Farm Dr., Elgin... Five NADAs by Truow Nutrition, Inc. NADA No. product 21 CFR section affected (sponsor drug...

  1. Potential contribution of genomics and biotechnology in animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objective of the book chapter is to define the potential contribution of genomics in livestock production in Latin American countries. A brief description on what is genomics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS) is provided. Genomics has been rapidly adopte...

  2. Gut health: The new paradigm in food animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern livestock and poultry operations have undergone dramatic changes in production practices over the last 50 years. Genetic selections for high growth rates and reproductive traits as well as improved management techniques and dietary requirements have led to increased performance standards in ...

  3. Reducing foodborne pathogen persistence and transmission in animal production environments: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest strategies to reduce zoonotic pathogens in food animals are important components of the farm-to-table food safety continuum. The problem is complex; there are multiple pathogens of concern, multiple animal species under different production and management systems, and a variety of source...

  4. Thermochemical conversion technologies for production of renewable energy and value-added char from animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the USA and many other countries have undergone extensive expansions and consolidations for the last few decades. This shift in animal production agriculture toward fewer, but larger operations has created serious environmental concerns in recycling and ...

  5. Cognitive and Affective Benefits of an Animated Pedagogical Agent for Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunhee; Clark, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the use of an animated pedagogical agent (agent) with an electronic arrow and voice narration (arrow and voice) in a multimedia learning environment where 74 college level English as a Second Language (ESL) students learned English relative clauses. No significant differences in learning or performance were found between the…

  6. Affective Realism of Animated Films in the Development of Simulation-Based Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Fors, Uno; Ramberg, Robert; Ziemke, Tom; Backlund, Per; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on comparing real actors based scenarios and animated characters based scenarios with respect to their similarity in evoking psychophysiological activity for certain events by measuring galvanic skin response (GSR). In the experiment, one group (n = 11) watched the real actors' film whereas another group (n…

  7. Knowledge, Affection and Basic Attitudes Toward Animals in American Society. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.

    This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…

  8. Lamotrigine positively affects the development of psychiatric comorbidity in epileptic animals, while psychiatric comorbidity aggravates seizures.

    PubMed

    Russo, Emilio; Chimirri, Serafina; Aiello, Rossana; De Fazio, Salvatore; Leo, Antonio; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Marra, Rosario; Labate, Angelo; De Fazio, Pasquale; Citraro, Rita; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-08-01

    Several clinical and preclinical studies have focused on the relationship between epilepsy and psychological disturbances. Although behavior in some experimental models of epilepsy has been studied, only few of them can be considered as models of epilepsy and mood disorder comorbidity. Since several models of epilepsy or psychiatric disorders are already available, we wondered whether a mixture of the two could experimentally represent a valid alternative to study such comorbidity. Here, we present a possible experimental protocol to study drug effects and physiopathogenesis of psychiatric comorbidity in epileptic animals. Pentylentetrazol-kindled animals were subjected to the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure; furthermore, we tested the effects of chronic lamotrigine treatment on the development of comorbidity. We found that epileptic-depressed animals showed more pronounced behavioral alterations in comparison to other mice groups, indicating that kindled animals develop more pronounced CMS-induced behavioral alterations than nonepileptic mice; lamotrigine was able to prevent the development of comorbidities such as anxiety, depression-like behavior, and memory impairment. PMID:23773980

  9. Cats on the Couch: The Experimental Production of Animal Neurosis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Argument In the 1940s-50s, one of the most central questions in psychological research related to the nature of neurosis. In the final years of the Second World War and the following decade, neurosis became one of the most prominent psychiatric disorders, afflicting a high proportion of military casualties and veterans. The condition became central to the concerns of several psychological fields, from psychoanalysis to Pavlovian psychology. This paper reconstructs the efforts of Chicago psychiatrist Jules Masserman to study neurosis in the laboratory during the 1940s and 1950s. Masserman used Pavlovian techniques in a bid to subject this central psychoanalytic subject to disciplined scientific experimentation. More generally, his project was an effort to bolster the legitimacy of psychoanalysis as a human science by articulating a convergence of psychoanalytic categories across multiple species. Masserman sought to orchestrate a convergence of psychological knowledge between fields that were often taken to be irreconcilable. A central focus of this paper is the role of moving images in this project, not only as a means of recording experimental data but also as a rhetorical device. The paper argues that for Masserman film played an important role in enabling scientific observers (and then subsequent viewers) to see agency and emotion in the animals they observed. PMID:26903373

  10. Estimating farm-gate ammonia emissions from major animal production systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Zhu, Gaodi; Roelcke, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production in China are an important contributor to the global NH3 budget. In this study, by estimating total nitrogen (N) intake based on herd structures and excreted N, a mass balance model was used to estimate NH3 losses from animal housing and manure storage facilities of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broiler and layer productions within animal farm gate and their corresponding NH3 emission intensities on the basis of animal products, N and protein in animal products. In 2009, NH3 emissions from pigs, layers, beef and dairy cattle and broiler production systems in China were 1.23, 0.52, 0.24, 0.21 and 0.09 million tons, respectively. The NH3 emission intensities were 26.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of pork, 28.1 g NH3-N kg-1 of layer eggs, 39.4 g NH3-N kg-1 of beef meat, 6.0 g NH3-N kg-1 of dairy milk and 4.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of chicken meat, or 1260 (pigs), 1514 (layers), 1297 (beef), 1107 (dairy) and 123 g NH3-N (broilers) kg-1 N in animal products. Of the sectors of NH3 emission, manure storage facilities and farmyard manure (FYM) in animal housing were the major contributors to the total NH3 emissions except for layers; housing emissions from slurry were also major contributors for dairy and pig production.

  11. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (p<0.05) in commercial feeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (p<0.05) when animal and fish were integrated together. PMID:18622714

  12. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface

  13. Animal Use and Lessons Learned in the U.S. High Production Volume Chemicals Challenge Program

    PubMed Central

    Manuppello, Joseph R.; Willett, Catherine E.; Sandler, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1998, the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program was developed to address the perceived gap in basic hazard information for the 2,800 chemicals produced or imported into the United States in quantities of ≥ 1 million pounds per year. Health and environmental effects data obtained from either existing information or through new vertebrate animal testing were voluntarily submitted by chemical companies (sponsors) to the U.S. EPA. Despite the potential for extensive animal testing, animal welfare guidelines were not provided until after the start of the program. Objectives: We evaluated compliance with the animal welfare principles that arose from an agreement reached between the U.S. EPA and animal protection organizations and tracked the HPV program’s use of animals for testing. Discussion: Under a worst-case scenario, the HPV program had the potential to consume 3.5 million animals in new testing. After application of animal-saving measures, approximately 127,000 were actually used. Categorization of chemicals based on similar structure–activity and application of read-across, along with use of existing test data, were the most effective means of reducing animal testing. However, animal-saving measures were inconsistently used by both sponsors and the U.S. EPA. Conclusions: Lessons learned from the HPV program can be applied to future programs to minimize animal testing and promote more human-relevant chemical risk assessment. PMID:23033452

  14. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live organisms. Safeguards as herein provided shall be established by the research investigator or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals administered experimental biological products or... Regulations). (c) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the research investigator or...

  15. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live organisms. Safeguards as herein provided shall be established by the research investigator or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals administered experimental biological products or... Regulations). (c) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the research investigator or...

  16. To eat or not to eat. A comparison of current and former animal product limiters.

    PubMed

    Haverstock, Katie; Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2012-06-01

    In this exploratory study, we compared current and former pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans on a number of variables including the motivations for their food choices. Participants were recruited via online message boards as well as through snowball sampling. Of the 247 participants, 196 were currently limiting animal products and 51 were former animal product limiters. Current limiters were more likely to have made a gradual rather than abrupt transition to animal product limitation and were more likely to have joined a vegetarian or vegan group than former limiters. Furthermore, current limiters indicated that their eating pattern was a part of their self identity. These findings shed light on the differences among current and former vegans and vegetarians and can inform individuals interested in promoting animal product limitation for health or ethical reasons. PMID:22387715

  17. Glycosaminoglycan concentrations in horse plasma and serum. Differences with other animal species and identification of affecting factors.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, A M; Vinci, R; Panzera, M; Ferlazzo, A; Calatroni, A

    1991-01-01

    1. The measured values of acid glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration in plasma or in serum show significant differences between trained and untrained horses and among sedentary horses and other animal species (cattle, rabbit, sheep). 2. Diurnal variations in serum GAG levels are reported (cattle), and changes in plasma GAG concentrations after road transport (horses) and in late pregnancy (mares, cows), while sex, age and breed do not affect them. PMID:1782758

  18. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Andrew B; Franc, Benjamin L; Gullberg, Grant T; Hasegawa, Bruce H

    2009-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  19. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  20. Using data collected for production or economic purposes to research production animal welfare: an epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Cate; Haley, Charles; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert; Sunstrum, Janet; Richardson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologists use the analyses of large data sets collected for production or economic purposes to research production nonhuman animal welfare issues in the commercial setting. This approach is particularly useful if the welfare issue is rare or hard to reproduce. However, to ensure the information is accurate, it is essential to carefully validate these data. The study used economic data to research in-transit deaths of finishing pigs. The most appropriate model to fit the distribution of the outcome must be selected. A negative binomial model fit these data because the prevalence was low and most lots of pigs had no deaths. The study used hierarchical dummy variables to identify thresholds of temperature and humidity above which in-transit losses increased. Multiple variable modeling provides the foundation for the strength of epidemiological research. The model identifies the association between each factor and the outcome after controlling for the other factors in the model. The study evaluated confounding and interaction. Bias may be introduced when data are limited to one farm system, one abattoir, or one season. Census data enable us to understand the entire industry. PMID:19319713

  1. Online advertisement: how are visual strategies affected by the distance and the animation of banners?

    PubMed

    Pasqualotti, Léa; Baccino, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Most of studies about online advertisements have indicated that they have a negative impact on users' cognitive processes, especially when they include colorful or animated banners and when they are close to the text to be read. In the present study we assessed the effects of two advertisements features-distance from the text and the animation-on visual strategies during a word-search task and a reading-for-comprehension task using Web-like pages. We hypothesized that the closer the advertisement was to the target text, the more cognitive processing difficulties it would cause. We also hypothesized that (1) animated banners would be more disruptive than static advertisements and (2) banners would have more effect on word-search performance than reading-for-comprehension performance. We used an automatic classifier to assess variations in use of Scanning and Reading visual strategies during task performance. The results showed that the effect of dynamic and static advertisements on visual strategies varies according to the task. Fixation duration indicated that the closest advertisements slowed down information processing but there was no difference between the intermediate (40 pixel) and far (80 pixel) distance conditions. Our findings suggest that advertisements have a negative impact on users' performance mostly when a lots of cognitive resources are required as for reading-for-comprehension. PMID:24672501

  2. Application of statistical process control charts to monitor changes in animal production systems.

    PubMed

    De Vries, A; Reneau, J K

    2010-04-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of monitoring, controlling, and improving a process through statistical analysis. An important SPC tool is the control chart, which can be used to detect changes in production processes, including animal production systems, with a statistical level of confidence. This paper introduces the philosophy and types of control charts, design and performance issues, and provides a review of control chart applications in animal production systems found in the literature from 1977 to 2009. Primarily Shewhart and cumulative sum control charts have been described in animal production systems, with examples found in poultry, swine, dairy, and beef production systems. Examples include monitoring of growth, disease incidence, water intake, milk production, and reproductive performance. Most applications describe charting outcome variables, but more examples of control charts applied to input variables are needed, such as compliance to protocols, feeding practice, diet composition, and environmental factors. Common challenges for applications in animal production systems are the identification of the best statistical model for the common cause variability, grouping of data, selection of type of control chart, the cost of false alarms and lack of signals, and difficulty identifying the special causes when a change is signaled. Nevertheless, carefully constructed control charts are powerful methods to monitor animal production systems. Control charts might also supplement randomized controlled trials. PMID:20081080

  3. Modelling H-3 and C-14 transfer to farm animals and their products

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Beresford, N; Crout, N; Peterson, R; Takeda, H

    2006-06-23

    The radionuclides {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H may both be released from nuclear facilities. These radionuclides differ from most others in that they are isotopes of macro-elements which form the basis of animal tissues, feed and, in the case of {sup 3}H, water. There are few published values describing the transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C from feed to animal derived food products. Approaches are described which enable the prediction of {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H transfer parameter values from readily available information on the stable H or C concentration of animal feeds, tissues and milk, water turnover rates, and feed intakes and digestibilities. It is recommended that the concentration ratio between feed and animal product activity concentrations be used as it is less variable than the transfer coefficient (ratio between radionuclide activity concentration in animal milk or tissue to the daily intake of a radionuclide).

  4. Bacterial proteases: production, isolation and utilization in animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Michalík, I; Szabová, E; Poláková, A; Urminská, D

    1997-01-01

    Under conditions of submerged fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis strain L-3 in 15-L MBR-Schulzer bioreactor, the maximum production of proteolytic enzymes was achieved in the nutrient medium which contained 1% milk powder, 0.3% yeast autolysate, 0.5% corn starch and malt (20 ml per 100 ml of the medium). The preparation obtained of extracellular alkaline bacterial Ser-protease of the subtilisin type is characterized by optimum pH 9.8-10.2 good up to a temperature stability (65 degrees C) and has molecular weight cca of 26 kDa. The use of chemical mutagens (HNO2, 5-bromouracil) has enabled to select new strains (L-3N and L-3U) whose protease activity is 1.8-2.2 times higher as compared to the original Bacillus licheniformis strain L-3. The addition of these enzymes to the fodder has a positive effect on the retention of nitrogen substances. PMID:9505358

  5. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  6. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  7. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  8. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object's size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object's bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 122 - Criteria for Determining a Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) C Appendix C to Part 122 Protection of Environment... Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) A hatchery, fish farm, or other facility is a concentrated aquatic animal production facility for purposes of § 122.24 if it contains, grows, or...

  10. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concentrated aquatic animal production... § 122.24 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Permit requirement. Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities, as defined in...

  11. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Concentrated aquatic animal production... § 122.24 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Permit requirement. Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities, as defined in...

  12. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  13. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  14. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  15. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  16. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  17. Online advertisement: how are visual strategies affected by the distance and the animation of banners?

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualotti, Léa; Baccino, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Most of studies about online advertisements have indicated that they have a negative impact on users' cognitive processes, especially when they include colorful or animated banners and when they are close to the text to be read. In the present study we assessed the effects of two advertisements features—distance from the text and the animation—on visual strategies during a word-search task and a reading-for-comprehension task using Web-like pages. We hypothesized that the closer the advertisement was to the target text, the more cognitive processing difficulties it would cause. We also hypothesized that (1) animated banners would be more disruptive than static advertisements and (2) banners would have more effect on word-search performance than reading-for-comprehension performance. We used an automatic classifier to assess variations in use of Scanning and Reading visual strategies during task performance. The results showed that the effect of dynamic and static advertisements on visual strategies varies according to the task. Fixation duration indicated that the closest advertisements slowed down information processing but there was no difference between the intermediate (40 pixel) and far (80 pixel) distance conditions. Our findings suggest that advertisements have a negative impact on users' performance mostly when a lots of cognitive resources are required as for reading-for-comprehension. PMID:24672501

  18. Proximity to forest edge does not affect crop production despite pollen limitation

    PubMed Central

    Chacoff, Natacha P; Aizen, Marcelo A; Aschero, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    A decline in pollination function has been linked to agriculture expansion and intensification. In northwest Argentina, pollinator visits to grapefruit, a self-compatible but pollinator-dependent crop, decline by approximately 50% at 1 km from forest edges. We evaluated whether this decrease in visitation also reduces the pollination service in this crop. We analysed the quantity and quality of pollen deposited on stigmas, and associated limitation of fruit production at increasing distances (edge: 10, 100, 500 and 1000 m) from the remnants of Yungas forest. We also examined the quantitative and qualitative efficiency of honeybees as pollen vectors. Pollen receipt and pollen tubes in styles decreased with increasing distance from forest edge; however, this decline did not affect fruit production. Supplementation of natural pollen with self- and cross-pollen revealed that both pollen quantity and quality limited fruit production. Despite pollen limitation, honeybees cannot raise fruit production because they often do not deposit sufficient high-quality pollen per visit to elicit fruit development. However, declines in visitation frequency well below seven visits during a flower's lifespan could decrease production beyond current yields. In this context, the preservation of forest remnants, which act as pollinator sources, could contribute to resilience in crop production. Like wild plants, pollen limitation of the yield among animal-pollinated crops may be common and indicative not only of pollinator scarcity, but also of poor pollination quality, whereby pollinator efficiency, rather than just abundance, can play a broader role than previously appreciated. PMID:18230596

  19. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. Methods We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions’ U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Results Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences

  20. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed...

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF EXPOSURE TO DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN ANIMAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental consequences of exposure to disinfection by-products in animal models
    Sid Hunter, Michael Narotsky, James Andrews
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed by the reaction of disinf...

  2. Selected examples of dispersal of arthropods associated with agricultural crop and animal production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The economic importance of arthropods in agricultural production systems and the possibilities of using dispersal behavior to develop and manipulate control are examined. Examples of long and short distance dispersal of economic insect pests and beneficial species from cool season host reservoirs and overwintering sites are presented. Significant dispersal of these species often occurring during crop and animal production is discussed.

  3. RECOVERY OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM ANIMAL WASTES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this report was to identify and summarize by-product-from-animal-wastes-recovery processes from the current literature. By-product recovery processes are distinguishable from wastes reuse and recycle processes by the formation of a chemically or physically ...

  4. The Role of Breeding and Genetics in Animal Production Improvement in the Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rendel, Jan

    1974-01-01

    Availability of animal protein for human consumption is very low in the developing countries mainly because of low productivity of existing livestock; ways and means to improve productivity through breeding are discussed and some basic issues requiring further research pointed out. PMID:17248670

  5. Specialty Animal Production Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1806.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

    This curriculum guide was developed to aid vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in Louisiana in improving their instruction and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain skills and knowledge in the production of nontraditional specialty animals. The guide covers the techniques of production, management, care, and marketing of…

  6. Animal Slurry Acidification Affects Particle Size Distribution and Improves Separation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, I; Pociask, M; Coutinho, J; Fangueiro, D

    2016-05-01

    Solid-liquid separation is performed to improve slurry management, and acidification of the slurry is used to reduce ammonia emissions. Acidification is known to affect slurry characteristics, and we hypothesized that it may affect mechanical separation. Our objective in this study was to assess the effects of slurry acidification on particle size distribution and separation efficiency. Two types of slurry, aged pig and fresh dairy, and two different acidification additives, sulfuric acid and aluminum sulfate (alum), were studied. We found that acidification with sulfuric acid promoted phosphorus (P) solubilization for both slurries, but no change was observed with alum. More ammonium was found in the acidified dairy slurry compared with raw dairy slurry, but no difference was found in aged pig slurry. Acidification before separation increased the proportion of the solid fraction in the slurries, and the effect was significantly higher with alum. When alum was used to acidify the slurries, the proportion of particles larger than 100 μm increased significantly, as did the P concentration in this particle size range. The efficiency of P separation increased markedly in both slurries when alum was used, with the removal to the solid fraction of the dairy slurry being almost complete (90%). Because the priority in mechanical separation is to increase the P content in the solid fraction, the use of alum before centrifugation may be the most suitable option for enhancing its nutrient content. We conclude that separation efficiency and particle size distribution are significantly affected by acidification, but the extent of the effects depends on slurry type and on the type of additive used for acidification. PMID:27136179

  7. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  8. Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products - implications for long-term climate targets.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, C; Hedenus, F; Wirsenius, S; Sonesson, U

    2013-02-01

    To analyse trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and consumption of animal products in Sweden, life cycle emissions were calculated for the average production of pork, chicken meat, beef, dairy and eggs in 1990 and 2005. The calculated average emissions were used together with food consumption statistics and literature data on imported products to estimate trends in per capita emissions from animal food consumption. Total life cycle emissions from the Swedish livestock production were around 8.5 Mt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 1990 and emissions decreased to 7.3 Mt CO2e in 2005 (14% reduction). Around two-thirds of the emission cut was explained by more efficient production (less GHG emission per product unit) and one-third was due to a reduced animal production. The average GHG emissions per product unit until the farm-gate were reduced by 20% for dairy, 15% for pork and 23% for chicken meat, unchanged for eggs and increased by 10% for beef. A larger share of the average beef was produced from suckler cows in cow-calf systems in 2005 due to the decreasing dairy cow herd, which explains the increased emissions for the average beef in 2005. The overall emission cuts from the livestock sector were a result of several measures taken in farm production, for example increased milk yield per cow, lowered use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers in grasslands, reduced losses of ammonia from manure and a switch to biofuels for heating in chicken houses. In contrast to production, total GHG emissions from the Swedish consumption of animal products increased by around 22% between 1990 and 2005. This was explained by strong growth in meat consumption based mainly on imports, where growth in beef consumption especially was responsible for most emission increase over the 15-year period. Swedish GHG emissions caused by consumption of animal products reached around 1.1 t CO2e per capita in 2005. The emission cuts necessary for meeting a global temperature

  9. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  10. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches.

    PubMed

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  11. 78 FR 52430 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Quali-Tech Products, Inc.; Bambermycins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Animal Drug Applications; Quali- Tech Products, Inc.; Bambermycins; Pyrantel; Tylosin; Virginiamycin... (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the withdrawal of approval of four new animal... provided in the regulatory text of this document, the animal drug regulations are amended to reflect...

  12. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice. PMID:26682899

  13. Land-based production of animal protein: impacts, efficiency, and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cross, H Russell

    2014-11-01

    Land-based production of high-quality protein by livestock and poultry plays an important role in improving human nutrition, growth, and health, as well as economical and social developments worldwide. With exponential growth of the global population and marked rises in meat consumption per capita, demands for animal-source protein are expected to increase by 72% between 2013 and 2050. This raises concerns about the sustainability and environmental impacts of animal agriculture. An attractive solution to meeting the increasing needs for animal products and mitigating undesired effects of agricultural practices is to enhance the efficiency of animal growth, reproduction, and lactation. Breeding techniques may help achieve this goal, but have only met with limited success. A promising, mechanism-based approach is to optimize the proportion and amounts of amino acids in diets for maximizing whole-body protein synthesis and feed efficiency. Improvements in farm animal productivity will not only decrease the contamination of soils, groundwater, and air by excessive manure, but will also help sustain animal agriculture to produce high-quality protein for the expanding population in the face of diminishing resources. PMID:25376888

  14. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  15. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  17. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  18. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  19. Emotions, affects and the production of social life.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick J

    2015-06-01

    While many aspects of social life possess an emotional component, sociology needs to explore explicitly the part emotions play in producing the social world and human history. This paper turns away from individualistic and anthropocentric emphases upon the experience of feelings and emotions, attending instead to an exploration of flows of 'affect' (meaning simply a capacity to affect or be affected) between bodies, things, social institutions and abstractions. It establishes a materialist sociology of affects that acknowledges emotions as a part, but only a part, of a more generalized affective flow that produces bodies and the social world. From this perspective, emotions are not a peculiarly remarkable outcome of the confluence of biology and culture, but part of a continuum of affectivity that links human bodies to their physical and social environment. This enhances sociological understanding of the part emotions play in shaping actions and capacities in many settings of sociological concern. PMID:25788237

  20. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  1. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  2. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  3. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  4. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  5. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  6. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. PMID:25151441

  7. Co-ordinated interdisciplinary efforts on research in animal production and health.

    PubMed

    Houe, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS) concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL), the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV) and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL). CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision support tools

  8. Contribution of animal studies to evaluate the similarity of biosimilars to reference products.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Peter J K; Ebbers, Hans C; Kooijman, Marlous; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Moors, Ellen H M; Schellekens, Huub

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) was the first region to establish a regulatory framework for biosimilars, in which animal studies are required to confirm similarity to a reference product. However, animal studies described in European public assessment reports (EPARs) or marketing authorization applications (MAAs) did not identify clinically or toxicologically relevant differences despite differences in quality, suggesting that animal studies lack the sensitivity to confirm biosimilarity. Scientific advice provided learning opportunities to evolve existing guidance. Altogether, the data support a step-wise approach to develop biosimilars that focuses on quality and clinical efficacy of biosimilar. This approach might be more effective and does not necessarily require animal studies, which is also reflected in new EU draft guidance. PMID:25463036

  9. Knowledge of Repetitions Range Affects Force Production in Trained Females

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Israel; Aboodarda, Saied J.; Basset, Fabien A.; Behm, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies have examined pacing strategies with cyclical activities (running and cycling). It has been demonstrated that males employ different pacing strategies during repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) dependent upon a known endpoint. Since different fatiguing mechanisms have been identified between the genders, it is not known if females use comparable pacing strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine if informing female subjects regarding the number of MVCs to perform would affect force and electromyography (EMG). Twenty well-trained females completed 3 fatiguing protocols in a randomized order. In the control condition participants were informed they would perform twelve MVCs and then actually completed twelve. In the unknown condition they were not told how many MVCs to perform but were stopped after twelve. In the deception condition they were initially informed to perform 6 MVCs, but after the 6th MVC they were asked to perform a few more MVCs and were stopped after twelve. During the first 6 MVCs, forces in the deception condition were greater compared to the unknown (p = 0.021, ES = 0.65, 5%) and control (p = 0.022, ES = 0.42, 3%) conditions. No differences were found between conditions in the last 6 MVCs. A main effect for repetitions showed force deficits during the first 6 MVCs (p = 0.000, ES = 1.81, 13%) and last 6 MVCs (p = 0.05, ES = 0.34, 3%). No differences were found between conditions in biceps and triceps EMG. However, EMG decreased during the first 6 MVCs for biceps (p = 0.001, ES = 1.0, 14%) and triceps (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76, 14%) across conditions. No differences were found in the last 6 MVCs. The anticipation of performing fewer MVCs led to increased force, whereas no endpoint led to decreased force production. Key points Pacing strategies occur during repeated (fatiguing) MVCs as a function of end point expectations. Females use similar pacing strategies as previously published results with males. Without a known

  10. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. 1230.608 Section 1230.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. 1230.608 Section 1230.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  12. Chapter 5: Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in animal production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this publication is to develop methods to quantify greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from U.S. agriculture and forestry. This chapter provides guidance for reporting GHG emissions from animal production systems. In particular, it focuses on methods for estimating emissions from beef cat...

  13. CONTROL OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION ORDERS: THE STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    Odors emanating from animal production facilities are the primary environmental cause for complaint resulting in great corrective expense and, in many instances, facility closure. The current state-of-the-art of odor control technology ranges from intensive waste management and g...

  14. Environmental footprints of beef production at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska were determined to quantify improvements achieved over the past 40 years. Relevant information for MARC operations was gathered and used to represent their production system with the...

  15. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. 1230.608 Section 1230.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  16. ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-products
    Authors & affiliations:
    Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

  17. GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

  18. Improvements in animal productivity and health with a total aerobic manure management system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management using second generation technology on air and water quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health. The technology is a lower cost, second generation treatment system develop...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. 1230.608 Section 1230.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  20. 79 FR 67174 - DSM Nutritional Products; Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Ethoxyquin; Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-11-12

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of an environmental assessment filed by DSM Nutritional Products in support of their petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of ethoxyquin in vitamin D formulations, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, used in animal...

  1. Efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures: chicken litter; swine solids; and swine solids blended with rye grass. Eight to 19 liters of dried manures were used as feedstocks for the skid-mounted pyrolysis ste...

  2. Use of Gamagrass as Hay or Silage in animal Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of native grasses to improve wildlife habitat is receiving consideration by conservation and wildlife interests. The potential use of native grasses in animal production systems, and particularly as conserved forage, has received little attention. Two experiments in each of 2 yr were condu...

  3. Factors affecting yield and safety of protein production from cassava by Cephalosporium eichhorniae

    SciTech Connect

    Mikami, Y.; Gregory, K.F.; Levadoux, W.L.; Balagopalan, C.; Whitwill, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of C. eichhorniae 152 (ATCC 38255) affecting protein production from cassava carbohydrate, for use as an animal feed, were studied. This strain is a true thermophile, showing optimum growth at 45-47 degrees, maximum protein yield at 45 degrees, and no growth at 25 degrees. It has an optimum pH of approximately 3.8 and is obligately acidophilic, being unable to sustain growth at pH of more than or equal to 6.0 in a liquid medium, or pH of more than or equal to 7.0 on solid media. The optimum growth conditions of pH 3.8 and 45 degrees were strongly inhibitive to potential contaminants. It rapidly hydrolyzed cassava starch. It did not utilize sucrose, but approximately 16% of the small sucrose component of cassava was chemically hydrolyzed during the process. Growth with cassava meal (50 g/l) was complete in approximately 20 h, yielding 22.5 g/l (dry biomass), containing 41% crude protein (48-50% crude protein in the mycelium) and 31% true protein (7.0 g/l). Resting and germinating spores (10 to the power of 6 - 10 to the power of 8 per animal) injected by various routes into normal and gamma-irradiated 6-week-old mice and 7-day-old chickens failed to initiate infections.

  4. Scenarios of animal waste production and fertilizer use and associated ammonia emission for the developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, A. F.; Van Der Hoek, K. W.

    Livestock production and the use of synthetic fertilizer are responsible for about half of the global emission of NH 3. Depending on the animal category between 10 and 36% of the N in animal excreta is lost as NH 3. The current annual NH 3 emission in developing countries of 15 million ton N accounts for 2/3 of the global emission from animal excreta. In addition, 7.2 million tons NH 3N of synthetic N fertilizers are lost as NH 3 in developing countries. This is 80% of the global NH 3 emission from synthetic fertilizer's use. Along with human population increase and economic growth, livestock production in developing countries may even increase by a factor of 3 between now and 2025. The net result of rapid increase of livestock production combined with higher efficiency is an increase in NH 3 emissions of only 60% from 15 to 24 million tons NH 3N between 1990 and 2025 in developing countries. Livestock production is an important consumer of feedstuffs, mainly cereals, thereby inducing additional demand for synthetic fertilizers. Despite the projected major increase of synthetic fertilizer use from 42 to 106 million ton N between 1990 and 2025, the NH 3 loss in developing countries may decrease if a shift towards other fertilizer types, that are less vulnerable to NH 3 volatilization, is realized. According to the scenario, the total emission of NH 3 associated with food production in developing countries will increase from 22 to 30 million ton N yr -1 between 1990 and 2025. Although the NH 3 emission increases more slowly than food production, in particular, animal production may show geographic concentration in certain regions, which may lead to high local emission densities and associated environmental problems.

  5. Occupational health and safety aspects of animal handling in dairy production.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Hagevoort, G Robert; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Douphrate, David I; Pinzke, Stefan; Grandin, Temple

    2013-01-01

    Livestock handling in dairy production is associated with a number of health and safety issues. A large number of fatal and nonfatal injuries still occur when handling livestock. The many animal handling tasks on a dairy farm include moving cattle between different locations, vaccination, administration of medication, hoof care, artificial insemination, ear tagging, milking, and loading onto trucks. There are particular problems with bulls, which continue to cause considerable numbers of injuries and fatalities in dairy production. In order to reduce the number of injuries during animal handling on dairy farms, it is important to understand the key factors in human-animal interactions. These include handler attitudes and behavior, animal behavior, and fear in cows. Care when in close proximity to the animal is the key for safe handling, including knowledge of the flight zone, and use of the right types of tools and suitable restraint equipment. Thus, in order to create safe working conditions during livestock handling, it is important to provide handlers with adequate training and to establish sound safety management procedures on the farm. PMID:23844794

  6. The Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Laboratory Animals. The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 35.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, P P; Hendriksen, C F; de Leeuw, W A; Carat, F; Delahaut, P; Fischer, R; Halder, M; Hanly, W C; Hartinger, J; Hau, J; Lindblad, E B; Nicklas, W; Outschoorn, I M; Stewart-Tull, D E

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the thirty-fifth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organisation of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward (1). This joint ECVAM/FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations) workshop on The Immunisation of Laboratory Animals for the Production of Polyclonal Antibodies was held in Utrecht (The Netherlands), on 20-22 March 1998, under the co-chairmanship of Coenraad Hendriksen (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) and Wim de Leeuw (Inspectorate for Health Protection, The Netherlands). The participants, all experts in the fields of immunology, laboratory animal science, or regulation, came from universities, industry and regulatory bodies. The aims of the workshop were: a) to discuss and evaluate current immunisation procedures for the production of polyclonal antibodies (including route of injection, animal species and adjuvant ); and b) to draft recommendations and guidelines to improve the immunisation procedures, with regard both to animal welfare and to the optimisation of immunisation protocols. This report summarises the outcome of the discussions and includes

  7. A brave new animal for a brave new world: The British Laboratory Animals Bureau and the constitution of international standards of laboratory animal production and use, circa 1947-1968.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2010-03-01

    In 1947 the Medical Research Council of Britain established the Laboratory Animals Bureau in order to develop national standards of animal production that would enable commercial producers better to provide for the needs of laboratory animal users. Under the directorship of William Lane-Petter, the bureau expanded well beyond this remit, pioneering a new discipline of "laboratory animal science" and becoming internationally known as a producer of pathogenically and genetically standardized laboratory animals. The work of this organization, later renamed the Laboratory Animals Centre, and of Lane-Petter did much to systematize worldwide standards for laboratory animal production and provision--for example, by prompting the formation of the International Committee on Laboratory Animals. This essay reconstructs how the bureau became an internationally recognized center of expertise and argues that standardization discourses within science are inherently internationalizing. It traces the dynamic co-constitution of standard laboratory animals alongside that of the identities of the users, producers, and regulators of laboratory animals. This process is shown to have brought into being a transnational community with shared conceptual understandings and material practices grounded in the materiality of the laboratory animal, conceived as an instrumental technology. PMID:20575490

  8. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

  9. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  10. Statistical Frequency in Perception Affects Children's Lexical Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richtsmeier, Peter T.; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Children's early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent…

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with Ralstonia eutropha from low quality waste animal fats.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Jahns, Stefan; Koenig, Steven; Bock, Martina C E; Brigham, Christopher J; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-11-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters considered as alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Ralstonia eutropha is a model organism for PHA production. Utilizing industrially rendered waste animal fats as inexpensive carbon feedstocks for PHA production is demonstrated here. An emulsification strategy, without any mechanical or chemical pre-treatment, was developed to increase the bioavailability of solid, poorly-consumable fats. Wild type R. eutropha strain H16 produced 79-82% (w/w) polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) when cultivated on various fats. A productivity of 0.3g PHB/(L × h) with a total PHB production of 24 g/L was achieved using tallow as carbon source. Using a recombinant strain of R. eutropha that produces poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(HB-co-HHx)], 49-72% (w/w) of PHA per CDW with a HHx content of 16-27 mol% were produced in shaking flask experiments. The recombinant strain was grown on waste animal fat of the lowest quality available at lab fermenter scale, resulting in 45 g/L CDW with 60% (w/w) PHA per CDW and a productivity of 0.4 g PHA/(L × h). The final HHx content of the polymer was 19 mol%. The use of low quality waste animal fats as an inexpensive carbon feedstock exhibits a high potential to accelerate the commercialization of PHAs. PMID:26428087

  12. Important Regulatory Aspects in the Receipt of Animal Products by Food Services.

    PubMed

    de Mesquita, Marizete Oliveira; de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins; Cesar Tondo, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current legislation and rules in Brazil that involve quality assurance of animal products during food service reception. Published federal legislation and technical regulations were verified to present a broad general approach to raw material reception. Food service determinations included specifications of the criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers, verifying the transport system, reception area requirements, and inspecting raw material. For product approval, the packaging, labeling, and temperature should be evaluated. However, periodic microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory support assessment analyses are not required for receiving animal products. For the safety of the raw material, it was concluded that the largest impacts came from the regulation and supervision of the food sector provider because of the challenges of food service and a lack of requirements to use more complex evaluation methods during the reception of raw materials. PMID:25875352

  13. Estimation of potassium and magnesium flows in animal production in Dianchi Lake basin, China.

    PubMed

    Amachika, Yuta; Anzai, Hiroki; Wang, Lin; Oishi, Kazato; Irbis, Chagan; Li, Kunzhi; Kumagai, Hajime; Inamura, Tatsuya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate and evaluate potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) budgets and flows of animal production in the basin of Dianchi Lake, China. Feed sampling and farmer interviews were conducted in field surveys. The supplies of K and Mg from local and external feeds and the retention, production and excretion of animals were calculated individually for dairy cows, fattening pigs, breeding sows, and broilers and laying hens. The K and Mg flows on a regional level were estimated using the individual budgets. At the individual level, in dairy cattle, the K and Mg supplied from local feeds accounted for large parts of the total nutrient intakes, whereas in the other animal categories most of the K and Mg in the feeds depended on external resources. Our findings also suggested that excessive Mg intake resulted in high Mg excretion and low use efficiency in dairy cattle and fattening pigs. At the regional level, the K and Mg amounts of manure produced and applied in the area (K: 339 and Mg: 143 t/year) exceeded those used as local feeds. Our results imply the animal production potentially increased the K and Mg loads in the regional agriculture system. PMID:26420449

  14. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.

    PubMed

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance. PMID:20578647

  15. Dietary Maillard reaction products and their fermented products reduce cardiovascular risk in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Park, M R; Lee, K W; Kim, S H; Kim, Y

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) and MRP fermented by lactic acid bacteria on antioxidants and their enhancement of cardiovascular health in ICR mouse and rat models. In previous in vitro studies, the selected lactic acid bacteria were shown to significantly affect the activity of MRP. The expression of genes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) related to antioxidant activity was upregulated by Maillard-reacted sodium caseinate (cMRP), and cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) synergistically increased the expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase when compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. Bleeding time, the assay for determination of antithrombotic activity, was significantly prolonged by Maillard-reacted whey protein concentration (wMRP) and wMRP fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri H10 (F-wMRP), similar to the bleeding time of the aspirin group (positive control). In addition, the acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced mice overcame severe body paralysis or death in both the wMRP and the F-wMRP groups. In the serum-level experiment, cMRP and F-cMRP significantly reduced the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglycerides but had only a slight effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase also declined in the cMRP and F-cMRP intake groups compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. In particular, F-cMRP showed the highest reducing effects on triglycerides, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Moreover, the expression of cholesterol-related genes in the F-cMRP group demonstrated greater effects than for the cMRP group in the level of cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and low-density lipoprotein receptors compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. The protective role of cMRP and F-cMRP in the high

  16. Medicinal and other products and human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    The report in March 1996 of 10 human cases of a novel from of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United Kingdom, and its possible link to the agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), raises many questions about the safety of animal-derived products and by-products entering the food chain or being used in medicine. This Memorandum updates the preventive measures put forward in 1991 to minimize the risks associated with the use of bovine-derived materials in medicinal products and medical devices. PMID:9509622

  17. Hormone Use in Food Animal Production: Assessing Potential Dietary Exposures and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Nachman, Keeve E; Smith, Tyler J S

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of hormones in breast cancer etiology, following reports that heightened levels of endogenous hormones and exposure to exogenous hormones and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals through food and the environment are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Seven hormone drugs (testosterone propionate, trenbolone acetate, estradiol, zeranol, progesterone, melengestrol acetate, and bovine somatotropin) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food animals. There is concern that these drugs or their biologically active metabolites may accumulate in edible tissues, potentially increasing the risk of exposure for consumers. To date, the potential for human exposure to residues of these compounds in animal products, as well as the risks that may result from this exposure, is poorly understood. In this paper, we discuss the existing scientific evidence examining the toxicological significance of exposure to hormones used in food animal production in relation to breast cancer risk. Through a discussion of U.S. federal regulatory programs and the primary literature, we interpret the state of surveillance for residues of hormone drugs in animal products and discuss trends in meat consumption in relation to the potential for hormone exposure. Given the lack of chronic bioassays of oral toxicity of the seven hormone compounds in the public literature and the limitations of existing residue surveillance programs, it is not currently possible to provide a quantitative characterization of risks that result from the use of hormonal drugs in food animal production, complicating our understanding of the role of dietary hormone exposure in the population burden of breast cancer. PMID:26231238

  18. Transpiration affects soil CO2 production in a dry grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, János; Fóti, Szilvia; Pintér, Krisztina; Burri, Susanne; Eugster, Werner; Papp, Marianna; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Although soil CO2 efflux can be highly variable on the diel time scale, it is often measured during daytime only. However, to get a full understanding of soil CO2 efflux and its impact on carbon cycle processes, looking at diurnal processes is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how diel variation in soil CO2 efflux from a dry, sandy grassland in Hungary depends on variations in potential drivers, such as gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In order to reach this goal, we combined measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes by eddy covariance, soil chambers and soil CO2 gradient system. Surface CO2 fluxes were partitioned into the three CO2 production components originating from the three soil layers to clarify the timing and the source of the CO2 within the top 50 cm of the soil. CO2 production rates during the growing season were higher during nighttime than during daytime. This diel course was not only driven by soil temperature and soil moisture, but also by ET. This was shown by changes of ET causing a hysteresis loop in the diel response of CO2 production to soil temperature. CO2 production was coupled to soil temperature at night and during midday (12-14 h), when ET remained relatively constant. However, when ET was changing over time, CO2 production was decoupled from soil temperature. In order to disentangle these effects, we carried out time-lag analyses between CO2 production and efflux residuals after having subtracted the main effects of soil temperature and soil water content from measured CO2 fluxes. The results showed a strong negative correlation between ET rates and residuals of soil CO2 production, and a less strong, but still significantly time-lagged positive correlation between GPP and residuals of soil CO2 production. Thus, we could show that there is a rapid negative response of soil CO2 production rates to transpiration (suggesting CO2 transport in the xylem stream) and a delayed positive response to GPP

  19. Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

  20. 76 FR 16533 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 65565) amending the animal drug regulations. The October 26, 2010, final rule amended the... CFR part 558 continues to read as follows: Authority: 21 U.S.C. 360b, 371. Sec. 558.530 0 2. In Sec... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related...

  1. Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem

    PubMed Central

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

    2013-01-01

    One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

  2. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal... guidance for industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... availability of a draft guidance for industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal ] Drug...

  3. Non-feed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for industrial microorganism fe...

  4. The fermentative production of L-lysine as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Kircher, M; Pfefferle, W

    2001-04-01

    A new and innovative process for the biotechnological production of L-lysine is presented, exemplified here by the fermentative production of the feed additive Biolys60. The novel feature of this product is that the entire manufacturing concept, i.e. the production strain, the raw materials, all process stages and the product specifications have been systematically tailored for optimal environmental compatibility and for minimum resource depletion and waste. The process completely dispenses with the need to discharge residual and waste material and reduces the handling of hazardous materials to a minimum. Since only a few process stages are involved, the method is economical to use and investment outlay is reduced. The process, which also leads to a higher grade product, is thus highly attractive in both ecological and economical terms. By boosting the nutrient value of the plant-based feedstuffs, the product itself makes an cost-effective contribution towards a more sustainable form of animal feeding and by reducing nitrogen emission levels promotes a more environmentally compatible form of animal husbandry. PMID:11233822

  5. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat.

    PubMed

    Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino

    2016-01-01

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones. PMID:25708407

  6. Production of Chlorella biomass enriched by selenium and its use in animal nutrition: a review.

    PubMed

    Doucha, Jirí; Lívanský, Karel; Kotrbácek, Václav; Zachleder, Vilém

    2009-07-01

    Feedstuffs are routinely supplemented with various selenium sources, where organic forms of Se are more bio-available and less toxic than the inorganic forms (selenites, selenates). When the algae are exposed to environmental Se in the form of selenite, they are able as other microorganisms to incorporate the element to different levels, depending on the algae species. Technology of heterotrophic fed-batch cultivation of the microalga Chlorella enriched by organically bound Se was developed, where the cultivation proceeds in fermentors on aerated and mixed nutrient solution with urea as a nitrogen and glucose as a carbon and energy source. High volumetric productivity and high cell concentrations (about 70-100 g Chlorella dry mass l(-1)) can be attained if nutrients and oxygen are adequately supplied. Addition of a small quantity of a new selenoprotein source-spray-dried Se-Chlorella biomass to the diet of farm animals had better effects on specific physiological and physical parameters of animals than selenite salt and was comparable with Se yeast added to the diet. This review introduces the importance of selenium for humans and animals, methods of Se determination, heterotrophic production of selenium-enriched Chlorella biomass in a fed-batch culture regime on organic carbon, and use of the biomass in animal nutrition. PMID:19533119

  7. Cultural practices in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) affect weed seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Billions of dollars are lost annually due to weeds or weed control, but weeds persist. Successful weed management systems must reduce weed populations. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if cotton row spacing has an impact on weed growth and seed production and 2) evaluate the infl...

  8. Does breed of ram affect ewe and lamb productivity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic use of breed diversity in terminal crossbreeding systems can improve the efficiency of commercial lamb production. Data from controlled research should be used to select the genetic line or lines of rams to use in terminal crossbreeding systems. Thus, research is underway at the USDA, ARS...

  9. How Soil Roughness Affects Runoff and Sediment Production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of soil surface roughness on runoff and sediment production have not been clearly quantified, mostly due to the lack of a logical separation between geometric (i.e., surface microtopography) and process (i.e., runoff generation, soil detachment by raindrop and runoff) scales. In this resea...

  10. Sex of littermate twin affects lifetime ewe productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ewe productivity is synonymous with annual litter-weight weaned (LWW) per ewe exposed to rams for breeding, and LWW is largely a function of number of lambs born (NLB) and weaned (NLW). Selecting for LWW should increase litter size and numbers of ewe-ram co-twins. Thus, we used historical records to...

  11. [Recording the lesions in slaughter animals for quality assurance in meat production].

    PubMed

    Blaha, T

    1994-07-01

    Pathologic-anatomic lesions of lungs, pleura, pericard and liver in slaughter pigs, which can be assigned to the farm of origin, are well suited as indicator for the herd health. The paper demonstrates a code for quantifying the lesions in single animals as well as a code for quantifying the health status of the herds the pigs come from. When used in the framework of integrated quality assurance systems (IQS) for the pork production, slaughter checks and their feed back to the farmer will lead to a gradual improvement of the health status of fattening herds, since it is expected that farmers who are informed about major lacks in their herd health will ask for veterinary consultation. In general, the implementation of IQS from "conception to consumption" will enlarge the importance of the veterinary profession within the production chain for food of animal origin. PMID:7924960

  12. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-04-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country.

  13. A review of the global prevalence, molecular epidemiology and economics of cystic echinococcosis in production animals.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Guillermo A; Carmena, David

    2013-02-18

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important and widespread zoonotic infection caused by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. The disease represents a serious animal health concern in many rural areas of the world, causing important economic losses derived from decreased productivity and viscera condemnation in livestock species. In this review we aim to provide a comprehensive overview on recent research progress in the epidemiology of CE in production animals from a global perspective. Particular attention has been paid to the discussion of the extent and significance of recent molecular epidemiologic data. The financial burden associated to CE on the livestock industry has also been addressed. Data presented are expected to improve our current understanding of the parasite's geographical distribution, transmission, host range, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and genotype frequencies. This information should be also valuable for the design and implementation of more efficient control strategies against CE. PMID:23084536

  14. Bacterial Community Affects Toxin Production by Gymnodinium catenatum

    PubMed Central

    Albinsson, Maria E.; Negri, Andrew P.; Blackburn, Susan I.; Bolch, Christopher J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum grows in association with a complex marine bacterial community that is both essential for growth and can alter culture growth dynamics. Using a bacterial community replacement approach, we examined the intracellular PST content, production rate, and profile of G. catenatum cultures grown with bacterial communities of differing complexity and composition. Clonal offspring were established from surface-sterilized resting cysts (produced by sexual crosses of strain GCDE06 and strain GCLV01) and grown with: 1) complex bacterial communities derived from each of the two parent cultures; 2) simplified bacterial communities composed of the G. catenatum-associated bacteria Marinobacter sp. strain DG879 or Alcanivorax sp. strain DG881; 3) a complex bacterial community associated with an untreated, unsterilized sexual cross of the parents. Toxin content (STX-equivalent per cell) of clonal offspring (134–197 fmol STX cell−1) was similar to the parent cultures (169–206 fmol STX cell−1), however cultures grown with single bacterial types contained less toxin (134–146 fmol STX cell−1) than offspring or parent cultures grown with more complex mixed bacterial communities (152–176 fmol STX cell−1). Specific toxin production rate (fmol STX day−1) was strongly correlated with culture growth rate. Net toxin production rate (fmol STX cell−1 day−1) did not differ among treatments, however, mean net toxin production rate of offspring was 8-fold lower than the parent cultures, suggesting that completion of the sexual lifecycle in laboratory cultures leads to reduced toxin production. The PST profiles of offspring cultures were most similar to parent GCDE06 with the exception of cultures grown with Marinobacter sp. DG879 which produced higher proportions of dcGTX2+3 and GC1+2, and lower proportions of C1+2 and C3+4. Our data demonstrate that the bacterial community can alter

  15. The FRIABLE1 Gene Product Affects Cell Adhesion in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Neumetzler, Lutz; Humphrey, Tania; Lumba, Shelley; Snyder, Stephen; Yeats, Trevor H.; Usadel, Björn; Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Patel, Jignasha; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Persson, Staffan; Bonetta, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1), was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246). Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion. PMID:22916179

  16. [Multiresidue determination of quinolones in animal and fishery products by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Chonan, Takao; Fujimoto, Toru; Inoue, Maki; Tazawa, Teijiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    A simple and rapid multiresidue method was developed for the determination of twelve quinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, orbifloxacin, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin) in muscle, liver, chicken eggs, milk, prawn and rainbow trout. The quinolones were extracted from a sample with acetonitrile-water (95 : 5). A fifth part of the filtered extract was diluted with water to keep the acetonitrile ratio at ca. 60%, and passed through a C18 mini-column. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, and the residues were dissolved in methanol-water (30 : 70) for HPLC analysis. The quinolones were separated on a Inertsil ODS-3V column (4.6 mm i.d.x250 mm) with a gradient system of 0.1% phosphoric acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, with fluorescence detection.No interfering peak was found on the chromatograms of animal and fishery products, except for milk. The recoveries of the quinolones were over 60% from the animal and fishery products fortified at 0.1 microg/g, and the quantification limits of the quinolones were 0.005 microg/g. This proposed method was found to be effective and suitable for the screening of the quinolones in animal and fishery products. PMID:18633210

  17. 78 FR 52535 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Quali-Tech Products, Inc.; Bambermycins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... four new animal drug applications (NADAs) held by Quali-Tech Products, Inc., at the sponsor's request... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Quali- Tech Products, Inc.; Bambermycins; Pyrantel; Tylosin; Virginiamycin AGENCY: Food and...

  18. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.24 Section 122.24 Protection of... § 122.24 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs,...

  19. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.24 Section 122.24 Protection of... § 122.24 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs,...

  20. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.24 Section 122.24 Protection of... § 122.24 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs,...

  1. Does thalidomide affect IL-2 response and production?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L P; Schlegel, P G; Baker, J; Chen, Y; Chao, N J

    1995-08-01

    The exact mechanism of immunosuppression by thalidomide is poorly understood. A common denominator in the pathogenesis of graft-vs.-host disease, graft rejection, reactional lepromatous leprosy, and autoimmune disorders modulated by thalidomide is the activation of T lymphocytes culminating in the synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors, and the induction of proliferation. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on the production of IL-2 by the human leukemia cell line Jurkat through induction of IL-2 gene enhancer activity and through the presence of IL-2 in supernatants. beta-galactosidase activity, encoded by a reporter lac z construct and controlled by a transcription factor in thalidomide-treated PMA- and ionomycin-stimulated Jurkat cells, was similar (97 +/- 1.33%; p > 0.1) to non-thalidomide-treated controls at all drug concentrations tested. IL-2 enhancer-driven beta-galactose activity of thalidomide-treated and stimulated cells was also similar to that of untreated controls (p > 0.2). The IL-2 production of activated nontransfected Jurkat cells was gauged by using the IL-2-dependent cell line HT-2 as a readout and by ELISA. Jurkat cells were subcloned by limiting dilution. Bulk cultures and three subclones (J.5.2.5., J.5.2.9., and J.5.3.8.) were assayed at 6, 12, and 24 hours after PHA/PMA-induced stimulation. No inhibitory effect on the IL-2 production by thalidomide could be detected at any of the drug concentrations tested (5-30 micrograms/mL), whereas 10 to 100 ng/mL of cyclosporine inhibited the IL-2 production by 95 to 100%. In addition, we observed neither inhibition of IL-2-dependent proliferation of HT-2 nor inhibition of PHA-induced proliferation of peripheral mononuclear cells by thalidomide at all drug concentrations used (5-30 micrograms/mL). These results do not support the possibility of a modulatory effect on the immune response by thalidomide via IL-2 production and IL-2 response. PMID:7635184

  2. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

  3. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wuest, Samuel Elias; Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-05-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  4. Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2013-09-01

    Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts. PMID:23747712

  5. Passive immunisation, an old idea revisited: Basic principles and application to modern animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-06-01

    Immunisation by administration of antibodies (immunoglobulins) has been known for more than one hundred years as a very efficient means of obtaining immediate, short-lived protection against infection and/or against the disease-causing effects of toxins from microbial pathogens and from other sources. Thus, due to its rapid action, passive immunisation is often used to treat disease caused by infection and/or toxin exposure. However immunoglobulins may also be administered prior to exposure to infection and/or toxin, although they will not provide long-lasting protection as is seen with active immunisation (vaccination) in which an immunological memory is established by controlled exposure of the host to the pathogen in question. With multi-factorial infectious diseases in production animals, especially those that have proven hard to control by vaccination, the potential of passive immunisation remains big. This review highlights a number of examples on the use of passive immunisation for the control of infectious disease in the modern production of a range of animals, including pigs, cattle, sheep, goat, poultry and fish. Special emphasis is given on the enablement of passive immunisation strategies in these production systems through low cost and ease of use as well as on the sources, composition and purity of immunoglobulin preparations used and their benefits as compared to current measures, including vaccination (also comprising maternal vaccination), antibiotics and feed additives such as spray-dried plasma. It is concluded that provided highly efficient, relatively low-price immunoglobulin products are available, passive immunisation has a clear role in the modern animal production sector as a means of controlling infectious diseases, importantly with a very low risk of causing development of bacterial resistance, thus constituting a real and widely applicable alternative to antibiotics. PMID:27185263

  6. Forty research issues for the redesign of animal production systems in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Dumont, B; González-García, E; Thomas, M; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Ducrot, C; Dourmad, J Y; Tichit, M

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology offers a scientific and operational framework for redesigning animal production systems (APS) so that they better cope with the coming challenges. Grounded in the stimulation and valorization of natural processes to reduce inputs and pollutions in agroecosystems, it opens a challenging research agenda for the animal science community. In this paper, we identify key research issues that define this agenda. We first stress the need to assess animal robustness by measurable traits, to analyze trade-offs between production and adaptation traits at within-breed and between-breed level, and to better understand how group selection, epigenetics and animal learning shape performance. Second, we propose research on the nutritive value of alternative feed resources, including the environmental impacts of producing these resources and their associated non-provisioning services. Third, we look at how the design of APS based on agroecological principles valorizes interactions between system components and promotes biological diversity at multiple scales to increase system resilience. Addressing such challenges requires a collection of theories and models (concept-knowledge theory, viability theory, companion modeling, etc.). Acknowledging the ecology of contexts and analyzing the rationales behind traditional small-scale systems will increase our understanding of mechanisms contributing to the success or failure of agroecological practices and systems. Fourth, the large-scale development of agroecological products will require analysis of resistance to change among farmers and other actors in the food chain. Certifications and market-based incentives could be an important lever for the expansion of agroecological alternatives in APS. Finally, we question the suitability of current agriculture extension services and public funding mechanisms for scaling-up agroecological practices and systems. PMID:24871266

  7. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  9. Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

  10. 9 CFR 71.3 - Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited. 71.3 Section 71.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  11. 9 CFR 71.3 - Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited. 71.3 Section 71.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  12. How hollow melanosomes affect iridescent colour production in birds.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Chad M; Bitton, Pierre-Paul; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2013-09-22

    Developmental constraints and trade-offs can limit diversity, but organisms have repeatedly evolved morphological innovations that overcome these limits by expanding the range and functionality of traits. Iridescent colours in birds are commonly produced by melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) organized into nanostructured arrays within feather barbules. Variation in array type (e.g. multilayers and photonic crystals, PCs) is known to have remarkable effects on plumage colour, but the optical consequences of variation in melanosome shape remain poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of spectrophotometric, experimental and theoretical methods to test how melanosome hollowness--a morphological innovation largely restricted to birds--affects feather colour. Optical analyses of hexagonal close-packed arrays of hollow melanosomes in two species, wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and violet-backed starlings (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster), indicated that they function as two-dimensional PCs. Incorporation of a larger dataset and optical modelling showed that, compared with solid melanosomes, hollow melanosomes allow birds to produce distinct colours with the same energetically favourable, close-packed configurations. These data suggest that a morphological novelty has, at least in part, allowed birds to achieve their vast morphological and colour diversity. PMID:23902909

  13. Development of a Salmonella cross-protective vaccine for food animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Heithoff, Douglas M; House, John K; Thomson, Peter C; Mahan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is associated with increased Salmonella exposure, transmission, animal disease, and contamination of food and water supplies. Modified live Salmonella enterica vaccines that lack a functional DNA adenine methylase (Dam) confer cross-protection to a diversity of salmonellae in experimental models of murine, avian, ovine, and bovine models of salmonellosis. However, the commercial success of any vaccine is dependent upon the therapeutic index, the ratio of safety/efficacy. Herein, secondary virulence-attenuating mutations targeted to genes involved in intracellular and/or systemic survival were introduced into Salmonella dam vaccines to screen for vaccine candidates that were safe in the animal and the environment, while maintaining the capacity to confer cross-protective immunity to pathogenic salmonellae serotypes. Salmonella dam mgtC, dam sifA, and dam spvB vaccine strains exhibited significantly improved vaccine safety as evidenced by the failure to give rise to virulent revertants during the infective process, contrary to the parental Salmonella dam vaccine. Further, these vaccines exhibited a low grade persistence in host tissues that was associated with reduced vaccine shedding, reduced environmental persistence, and induction of cross-protective immunity to pathogenic serotypes derived from infected livestock. These data indicate that Salmonella dam double mutant vaccines are suitable for commercial applications against salmonellosis in livestock production systems. Reducing pre-harvest salmonellae load through vaccination will promote the health and productivity of livestock and reduce contamination of livestock-derived food products, while enhancing overall food safety. PMID:25448106

  14. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals

    PubMed Central

    Broom, D. M.; Galindo, F. A.; Murgueitio, E.

    2013-01-01

    What is the future for livestock agriculture in the world? Consumers have concerns about sustainability but many widely used livestock production methods do not satisfy consumers' requirements for a sustainable system. However, production can be sustainable, occurring in environments that: supply the needs of the animals resulting in good welfare, allow coexistence with a wide diversity of organisms native to the area, minimize carbon footprint and provide a fair lifestyle for the people working there. Conservation need not just involve tiny islands of natural vegetation in a barren world of agriculture, as there can be great increases in biodiversity in farmed areas. Herbivores, especially ruminants that consume materials inedible by humans, are important for human food in the future. However, their diet should not be just ground-level plants. Silvopastoral systems, pastures with shrubs and trees as well as herbage, are described which are normally more productive than pasture alone. When compared with widely used livestock production systems, silvopastoral systems can provide efficient feed conversion, higher biodiversity, enhanced connectivity between habitat patches and better animal welfare, so they can replace existing systems in many parts of the world and should be further developed. PMID:24068362

  15. Estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products used as animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A veterinarian observed a reduction in embryo transfer success rates on beef and dairy farms in Minnesota, which were both feeding sugar beet by-products. Beet tailings and pelleted post-extraction beet pulp, associated with the affected farms were analyzed for estrogenicity by E-Screen (proliferati...

  16. Clinorotation affects morphology and ethylene production in soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Peterson, B. V.; Guikema, J. A.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight influences growth, morphology and metabolism in etiolated germinating soybean. To determine if clinorotation will similarly impact these processes, we conducted ground-based studies in conjunction with two space experiment opportunities. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were planted within BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) canisters and grown for seven days at 20 degrees C under clinorotation (1 rpm) conditions or in a stationary upright mode. Gas samples were taken daily and plants were harvested after seven days for measurement of growth and morphology. Compared to the stationary upright controls, plants exposed to clinorotation exhibited increased root length (125% greater) and fresh weight (42% greater), whereas shoot length and fresh weight decreased by 33% and 16% respectively. Plants grown under clinorotation produced twice as much ethylene as the stationary controls. Seedlings treated with triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin transport inhibitor, under clinorotation produced 50% less ethylene than the untreated control subjected to the same gravity treatment, whereas a treatment with 2,4-D increased ethylene by five-fold in the clinorotated plants. These data suggest that slow clinorotation influences biomass partitioning and ethylene production in etiolated soybean plants.

  17. 75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... medicated article was voluntarily withdrawn (60 FR 37651, July 21, 1995) and approved conditions of use for... NADA 45-738, were removed (60 FR 39847, July 21, 1995). At this time, the tolerances for residues of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 556 and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and...

  18. Efforts to slacken antibiotic resistance: Labeling meat products from animals raised without antibiotics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    As bacteria and diseases spread due to climatic change, greater amounts of antibiotics will be used thereby exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. To help slacken the development of resistant bacteria, the medical community is attempting to reduce unnecessary and excessive usage of antibiotics. One of the targets is the use of antibiotics for enhancing animal growth and promoting feed efficiency in the production of food animals. While governments can adopt regulations prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals and strategies to reduce antibiotic usage, another idea is to publicize when antibiotics are used in food animal production by allowing labeled meat products. This paper builds upon existing labeling and marketing efforts in the United States to show how a government can develop a verified antibiotic-free labeling program that would allow consumers to purchase meat products from animals that had never received antibiotics. PMID:27236477

  19. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Zijderveld, S M; Fonken, B; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J; Perdok, H B; Fokkink, W; Newbold, J R

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when

  20. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. PMID:25466683

  1. Quantifying the transfer of radionuclides to food products from domestic farm animals.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

    2009-09-01

    Databases have been compiled to derive parameter values relevant to the transfer of radionuclides from feedstuffs to domestic animal products to provide a revision to the IAEA Handbook on transfer parameters TRS 364. Significant new data inputs have been incorporated into the databases from an extensive review of Russian language information and inclusion of data published since the early 1990s. Fractional gastrointestinal absorption in adult ruminants presented in the revised handbook are generally similar to those recommended for adult humans by the ICRP. Transfer coefficient values are presented in the handbook for a range of radionuclides to farm animal products. For most animal products, transfer coefficient values for elements additional to those in TRS 364 are provided although many data gaps remain. Transfer coefficients generally vary between species with larger species having lower values than smaller species. It has been suggested that the difference is partly due to the inclusion of dietary dry matter intake in the estimation of transfer coefficient and that whilst dietary intake increases with size nutrient concentrations do not. An alternative approach to quantifying transfer by using concentration ratios (CR), which do not consider dietary intake, has been evaluated. CR values compiled for the handbook vary considerably less between species than transfer coefficient values. The advantage of the CR approach is that values derived for one species could be applied to species for which there are no data. However, transfer coefficients will continue to be used as few studies currently report CR values or give data from which they can be estimated. PMID:19362760

  2. Factors affecting mammary tumor incidence in chlorotriazine-treated female rats: hormonal properties, dosage, and animal strain.

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, J C; Tennant, M K; Wetzel, L T; Breckenridge, C B; Stevens, J T

    1994-01-01

    Chlorotriazines are widely used in agriculture as broadleaf herbicides. The compounds specifically inhibit photosynthesis, and, as such, display little interaction with animal systems. However, a 24-month feeding study with atrazine (ATR) revealed a significant dose-related increase of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Because numerous studies indicated that ATR had a low mutagenic and oncogenic potential, it was decided to test a hypothesis that the herbicide possessed endocrine activity. Among tests for estrogenic action, oral dosing of ATR up to 300 mg/kg did not stimulate uterine weight of ovariectomized rats. However, ATR administration did reduce estrogen-stimulated uterine weight gain. Further evidence of inhibition came from measures of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into uterine DNA of ATR-treated immature rats. Again, no intrinsic estrogenic activity was observed up to a 300-mg/kg dose. In vitro, ATR competed poorly against estradiol binding to cytosolic receptors, with an approximate IC50 of 10(-5) M. Atrazine administration to SD and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats for 12 months, up to 400 ppm in food, was correlated with significant alterations of estrous cycling activity; but there was a divergent strain response. SD rats showed an increased number of days in vaginal estrus, increased plasma estradiol, and decreased plasma progesterone by 9 to 12 months of treatment. F-344 rats did not demonstrate treatment-related affects. A study of ultrastructure in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of female SD rats that were fed diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), an ATR metabolite, suggested that age-associated glial pathology was enhanced by treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 8. PMID:7737039

  3. Computer generated animation and movie production at LARC: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. L.; Matthews, C. G.; Vonofenheim, W. H.; Randall, D. P.; Jones, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    The process of producing computer generated 16mm movies using the MOVIE.BYU software package developed by Brigham Young University and the currently available hardware technology at the Langley Research Center is described. A general overview relates the procedures to a specific application. Details are provided which describe the data used, preparation of a storyboard, key frame generation, the actual animation, title generation, filming, and processing/developing the final product. Problems encountered in each of these areas are identified. Both hardware and software problems are discussed along with proposed solutions and recommendations.

  4. Mucin production by human colonic carcinoma cells correlates with their metastatic potential in animal models of colon cancer metastasis.

    PubMed Central

    Bresalier, R S; Niv, Y; Byrd, J C; Duh, Q Y; Toribara, N W; Rockwell, R W; Dahiya, R; Kim, Y S

    1991-01-01

    Patients with mucinous colorectal cancers characteristically present with advanced disease, however, the relationship between mucin production by colon cancer cells and their metastatic potential remains unclear. We therefore sought to define the relationship between mucin production by human colon cancer cells and metastatic ability by employing animal models of colon cancer metastasis. LS LiM 6, a colon carcinoma cell line with high liver metastasizing ability during cecal growth in nude mice produced twofold more metabolically labeled intracellular mucin and secreted four- to fivefold more mucin into the culture medium compared to poorly metastatic parental line LS174T. This was accompanied by a similar elevation in poly(A)+ RNA detected by blot hybridization with a human intestinal mucin cDNA probe, and increases in mucin core carbohydrate antigens determined immunohistochemically. Variants of LS174T selected for high (HM 7) or low (LM 12) mucin synthesizing capacity also yielded metastases after cecal growth and colonized the liver after splenic-portal injection in proportion to their ability to produce mucin. Inhibition of mucin glycosylation by the arylglycoside benzyl-alpha-N-acetyl-galactosamine greatly reduced liver colonization after splenic-portal injection of the tumor cells. These data suggest that mucin production by human colon cancer cells correlates with their metastatic potential and affects their ability to colonize the liver in experimental model systems. Images PMID:1999484

  5. Storybook-Induced Arousal and Preschoolers' Empathic Understanding of Negative Affect in Self, Others, and Animals in Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Preschool children listened to a children's storybook about an animal character, with reading being terminated prior to, or after, problem resolution. The children's empathic understanding of how the animal character felt was assessed, and they were then asked to draw, with strength of pressure on the page (as evident on attached carbon copies)…

  6. Crisis management and recovery from the damage to the laboratory animal production facility due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Charles River Laboratories Japan produces laboratory animals, mainly mice and rats. In its history, we have experienced many crises such as mass food poisoning of staff and contamination of animals. However, we overcame these crises, accomplishing our corporate missions to secure steady supply of healthy animals. Under such circumstances, in 2008, we faced an unprecedented crisis involving a novel influenza possibly becoming pandemic. Therefore, we prepared a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to avoid the worst case scenario. Fortunately, the novel influenza did not develop into a pandemic and no major problems occurred in production of our laboratory animals. In March 2011, our Tsukuba Breeding Center was struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Many cages fell from racks, and consequently, 14,000 mice and rats were euthanized. Moreover, this animal production facility experienced not only blackouts and water outage but also various maintenance problems. After triage of the animals, almost half of the animals kept were eventually lost. However, we recovered and resumed shipment of animals two weeks after the disaster by utilizing the CMP and BCP we initially created as a countermeasure against novel influenza. After two months, our production volume returned to normal except for two strains. I sincerely hope this review, which highlights our experience and related issues, will be a useful resource in regard to crisis management for people who are engaged in laboratory animal care and use. PMID:22293667

  7. Co-Speech Gesture Production in an Animation-Narration Task by Bilinguals: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oi, Misato; Saito, Hirofumi; Li, Zongfeng; Zhao, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    To examine the neural mechanism of co-speech gesture production, we measured brain activity of bilinguals during an animation-narration task using near-infrared spectroscopy. The task of the participants was to watch two stories via an animated cartoon, and then narrate the contents in their first language (Ll) and second language (L2),…

  8. 19 CFR 10.71 - Purebred animals; bond for production of evidence; deposit of estimated duties; stipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production of evidence; deposit of estimated duties; stipulation. (a) The animal may be released from Customs... in letter form if such declaration was not filed at the time of entry. The release of the animal from... the United States with one or more dogs or cats and with the required certificates of pedigree...

  9. 19 CFR 10.71 - Purebred animals; bond for production of evidence; deposit of estimated duties; stipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production of evidence; deposit of estimated duties; stipulation. (a) The animal may be released from Customs... in letter form if such declaration was not filed at the time of entry. The release of the animal from... the United States with one or more dogs or cats and with the required certificates of pedigree...

  10. USDA-Kentucky Report: Forage-Animal Production Research Unit (FAPRU) Investigations: Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Forage-Animal Production Research Unit is involved in several research projects addressing the problem of Tall Fescue toxicosis. This is a toxic situation in grazing cattle and other animals as they consume tall fescue grass which is infected with a fungus. Cattle will grow poorly and in sever...

  11. Protein quality of various raw and rendered by-product meals commonly incorporated into companion animal diets.

    PubMed

    Cramer, K R; Greenwood, M W; Moritz, J S; Beyer, R S; Parsons, C M

    2007-12-01

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the protein quality of various raw and rendered animal by-product meals commonly used in companion animal diets. Six freeze-dried raw animal meals (beef lungs, pork lungs, sheep lungs, pork livers, oceanfish, chicken necks) and 3 rendered animal meals (lamb meal, regular ash poultry by-product meal, and low ash poultry by-product meal) were fed in chick assays to determine Lys and TSAA bioavailability, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and net protein ratio (NPR). Each experimental diet was offered to 4 replicates of 5 chicks per pen in all growth assays. Furthermore, each animal by-product meal was fed to mature White Leghorn roosters for determination of true AA digestibility. All freeze-dried, raw animal meals were offered to 5 replicate roosters, and all rendered animal meals were offered to 4 replicate roosters. Most raw animal meals exhibited moderate to high protein quality. Lysine bio-availabilities ranged from 86 to 107% and 70 to 99% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Bio-availability of TSAA ranged from 64 to 99% and 61 to 78% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The PER values ranged from 2.83 to 4.03 and 2.01 to 3.34 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The NPR values ranged from 3.83 to 4.8 and 3.05 to 4.12 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Despite a numeric increase in NPR vs. PER values, the overall ranking of animal meals remained similar. Lamb meal had the poorest PER and NPR values, and pork lungs had the greatest values. Total essential AA digestibility and total AA digestibility ranged from 93.6 to 96.7 and 90.3 to 95.5%, respectively, for raw animal meals and 84.0 to 87.7 and 79.2 to 84.8%, respectively, for rendered animal meals. Rendered animal meals generally had lower protein quality than raw animal meals, with lamb meal consistently having the poorest protein quality and pork livers having the greatest protein quality. PMID:17609474

  12. Environmental contamination of chromium in agricultural and animal products near a chromate industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khasim, D.I. ); Kumar, N.V.N.; Hussain, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    India is one of the largest leather exporting countries. Accordingly the important raw material required for leather tanning, namely sodium dichromate production, has also been boosted in some states of India. Investigations on irrigation reservoirs, irrigation wells and soil revealed high level contamination of chromium. There was no effluent treatment plant installed and effluents stored in earthen lagoons without cement lining caused contamination of underground aquafers. There is little information on the biomagnification and movement of toxic chromate compounds from the contaminated soil and water resources into the components of the foodchain which might ultimately reach humans. Hence an analysis of chromium was carried out in some commercial plants cultivated in these areas and also in some animal products and foods like milk and fishes.

  13. Nutritional strategies to combat Salmonella in mono-gastric food animal production.

    PubMed

    Berge, A C; Wierup, M

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils

  14. Validation and recommendation of methods to measure biogas production potential of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Triolo, J M; Cu, T T T; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg(-1) VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  15. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    PubMed Central

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L.; Sommer, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg−1 VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  16. The Pig PeptideAtlas: A resource for systems biology in animal production and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Hesselager, Marianne O; Codrea, Marius C; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W; Bennike, Tue B; Stensballe, Allan; Bundgaard, Louise; Moritz, Robert L; Bendixen, Emøke

    2016-02-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM assays, which are equally important for progress in research that supports farm animal production and veterinary health, as for developing pig models with relevance to human health research. PMID:26699206

  17. High-level production of animal-free recombinant transferrin from saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal-free recombinant proteins provide a safe and effective alternative to tissue or serum-derived products for both therapeutic and biomanufacturing applications. While recombinant insulin and albumin already exist to replace their human counterparts in cell culture media, until recently there has been no equivalent for serum transferrin. Results The first microbial system for the high-level secretion of a recombinant transferrin (rTf) has been developed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originally engineered for the commercial production of recombinant human albumin (Novozymes' Recombumin® USP-NF) and albumin fusion proteins (Novozymes' albufuse®). A full-length non-N-linked glycosylated rTf was secreted at levels around ten-fold higher than from commonly used laboratory strains. Modification of the yeast 2 μm-based expression vector to allow overexpression of the ER chaperone, protein disulphide isomerase, further increased the secretion of rTf approximately twelve-fold in high cell density fermentation. The rTf produced was functionally equivalent to plasma-derived transferrin. Conclusions A Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system has enabled the cGMP manufacture of an animal-free rTf for industrial cell culture application without the risk of prion and viral contamination, and provides a high-quality platform for the development of transferrin-based therapeutics. PMID:21083917

  18. The Pig PeptideAtlas: a resource for systems biology in animal production and biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Hesselager, Marianne O.; Codrea, Marius C.; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W.; Bennike, Tue B.; Stensballe, Allan; Bundgaard, Louise; Moritz, Robert L.; Bendixen, Emøke

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system wide observations, and cross species observational studies, but pigs have so far been underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within the veterinary proteomics domain, and this manuscript demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM assays, which are equally important for progress in research that supports farm animal production and veterinary health, as for developing pig models with relevance to human health research. PMID:26699206

  19. Monitoring wood shaving litter and animal products for polychlorophenols residues, Ontario, Canada 1978-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Stonefield, K.I.; Luyken, H.

    1988-03-01

    Timber is extensively treated with the wood preservative pesticides collectively called the polychlorophenols (PxCP) which include tri-(T3CP), tetra-(T4CP), and pentachlorophenol (P5CP). These treatments are intended to protect lumber against the attacks of wood eating or boring insects and the wood decaying and staining fungi. Wood shavings are a by-product of the lumber industry that have been utilized widely in agriculture for many years as a major bedding litter for poultry, swine, and cattle and a minor litter for other domestic animals. Complaints were lodged within the Province of Ontario of off-flavors in locally produced poultry meat. Many local poultry producers reported having difficulties with (1) the fertility of their breeding flocks and (2) the ineffectiveness of vaccines among poultry raised on wood shavings but which disappeared when raised on cereal straw. An Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food service was offered whereby producers could have their wood shavings analyzed and receive guidance on the advisability of use. This paper reports on this service started in 1978 for wood shavings, and on a follow-up monitoring program to determine residues of PxCP in domestic animal products.

  20. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  1. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  2. 76 FR 17776 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... CFR section affected (sponsor's Sponsor (established name of drug) drug labeler code) Roche Vitamins...., Roche Vitamins, Inc., Waterloo Mills Co., and Wendt Laboratories, Inc., are no longer the sponsors of an... Vitamins, Inc.'', ``Waterloo Mills Co.'', and ``Wendt Laboratories, Inc.''; and in the table in...

  3. Heat and moisture production of growing-finishing gilts as affected by environmental temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat and moisture production (HMP) values are used to size ventilation fans in animal housing. The HMP values that are currently published in the ASABE (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers) standards were from data collected in the early 1950. This study is one of a series of...

  4. Heat and moisture production of growing-finishing barrows as affected by environmental temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat and moisture production measurements were completed on barrows over the normal weight range of 60 to 120 kg and a temperature range of 16 to 32°C. All measurements were based on a 21-hr period and adjusted to a 24-hr base. Animals were acclimated to treatment temperatures for 2 weeks, and the...

  5. Past and future climate patterns affecting temperate, sub-tropical and tropical horticultural crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial horticultural crop production will be impacted by climate change effects on temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Horticultural crop value is derived from both the quantity and the quality of the harvested product; both of which are affected ...

  6. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of degradation products of refrigerants in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ema, Makoto; Naya, Masato; Yoshida, Kikuo; Nagaosa, Ryuichi

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the results of animal studies on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of the degradation products of refrigerants, including trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbonyl fluoride (CF), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and formic acid (FA). Excessive CO(2) in the atmosphere is testicular and reproductive toxic, embryolethal, developmentally neurotoxic and teratogenic in experimental animals. As for CO, maternal exposure causes prenatal and postnatal lethality and growth retardation, skeletal variations, cardiomegaly, blood biochemical, immunological and postnatal behavioral changes, and neurological impairment in offspring of several species. Very early studies of CO in rats and guinea pigs reported fetal malformations in exposed dams. The results of toxicological studies on sodium fluoride (NaF) were used to obtain insight into the toxicity of CF and HF, because CF is rapidly hydrolyzed in contact with water yielding CO(2) and HF, and NaF is similar in kinetics and dynamics to HF. Increased fetal skeletal variation, but not malformation, was noted after the maternal administration of NaF. Rat multiple-generation studies revealed that NaF caused retarded ossification and degenerative changes in the lung and kidney in offspring. There is a lack of information about the toxicity of TFA and FA. PMID:19755147

  7. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  8. Analysis of Tetracyclines in Medicated Feed for Food Animal Production by HPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Gavilán, Rosa Elvira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Martín-Gómez, Yolanda; Vázquez-Belda, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of medicated feed is a common practice in animal food production to improve animal health. Tetracyclines and β-Lactams are the groups that are most frequently added to this type of feed. The measurement of the concentration of the analytes in these types of samples is sometimes due to the matrix characteristic, and manufacturers are demanding fast, precise and reproducible methods. A rapid confirmatory method based on a simple extraction protocol using acidified methanol and followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer for the quantification of four tetracyclines in feed is presented. Validation was performed following the guidelines of Decision 2002/657/EC. Results indicated that the four tetracyclines can be identified and quantified in a concentration range between 50 and 500 mg/kg with recoveries between 84% and 109% and RSD for precision under reproducible conditions between 12% and 16%. Satisfactory results were also obtained with interlaboratory studies and by comparing the method with an HPLC-Fluorescent method. PMID:27025516

  9. Impact of production strategies and animal performance on economic values of dairy sheep traits.

    PubMed

    Krupová, Z; Wolfová, M; Krupa, E; Oravcová, M; Daňo, J; Huba, J; Polák, P

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a sensitivity analysis on the impact of various production strategies and performance levels on the relative economic values (REVs) of traits in dairy sheep. A bio-economic model implemented in the program package ECOWEIGHT was used to simulate the profit function for a semi-extensive production system with the Slovak multi-purpose breed Improved Valachian and to calculate the REV of 14 production and functional traits. The following production strategies were analysed: differing proportions of milk processed to cheese, customary weaning and early weaning of lambs with immediate sale or sale after artificial rearing, seasonal lambing in winter and aseasonal lambing in autumn. Results of the sensitivity analysis are presented in detail for the four economically most important traits: 150 days milk yield, conception rate of ewes, litter size and ewe productive lifetime. Impacts of the differences in the mean value of each of these four traits on REVs of all other traits were also examined. Simulated changes in the production circumstances had a higher impact on the REV for milk yield than on REVs of the other traits investigated. The proportion of milk processed to cheese, weaning management strategy for lambs and level of milk yield were the main factors influencing the REV of milk yield. The REVs for conception rate of ewes were highly sensitive to the current mean level of the trait. The REV of ewe productive lifetime was most sensitive to variation in ewe conception rate, and the REV of litter size was most affected by weaning strategy for lambs. On the basis of the results of sensitivity analyses, it is recommended that economic values of traits for the overall breeding objective for dairy sheep be calculated as the weighted average of the economic values obtained for the most common production strategies of Slovak dairy sheep farms and that economic values be adjusted after substantial changes in performance levels

  10. Peculiarities of production technology and properties of natural animal alpha-interferon preparations.

    PubMed

    Kishko, Ia H

    1999-01-01

    Principally new biotechnology of production of natural animal alpha-IFNs was created. Normative technical documentation on industrial production of these preparations was transmitted to the plants of Ukraine for their industrial obtaining. The peculiarity of proposed technology consists in usage of non-traditional raw-material--lymphoid organs and tissues (perhaps spleen), and also in introduction of coinduction into industrial cycle with the help of camizole (compound of phenilimidazothiazole family) which increased the output of final product by 3-8 times. Obtained preparations were tested in vitro and in vivo experiments. As it was shown in both cases bactericidal and absorbed activity of monocytes and neutrophils increased by 2-5 times, antibody genesis sharply increased after immunization of pigs and calves by colibacteriosis vaccine: titers were higher by 3-8 times (comparatively with control), especially two month after revaccination, but they were more stable too. Fractions of 12 and 18 kDa responsible for antibacterial and antitoxic activity respectively were found in non-purified preparations of alpha-IFNs. PMID:10441967

  11. Toxic metals in food products originating from locally reared animals in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, A.; Al-Rashdan, A.; Al-Awadhi, A.; Mahgoub, B.; Al-Amiri, H.

    1996-12-31

    The toxicity of certain heavy metals such as Pb, Hg and Cd is well documented. The effect of environmental pollution on contamination of foods and on their safety for human consumption is a serious global public concern, and data on this subject have been reported by several investigators. Since traces of heavy metals are found in almost every food commodity, an estimation of the intake of food contaminants is essential and differs considerably from country to country. In Kuwait, data are not available on the levels of toxic metals in foods consumed by the various age groups nor are there any Kuwaiti standards at present on the permissible limits of these metals in various food commodities. Hence, the dietary intake of these elements cannot be determined accurately. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of certain toxic metals in locally produced animal products. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. [Analysis of spinosad in animal and fishery products by LC-MS].

    PubMed

    Ueno, Eiji; Ohno, Haruka; Watanabe, Minae; Oshima, Harumi; Mikami, Eiichi; Nemoto, Satoru; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the determination of spinosyn A and spinosyn D, the active ingredients of spinosad, in animal and fishery products by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The sample was homogenized with 1 mol/L dipotassium hydrogenphosphate aqueous solution and extracted with acetone-n-hexane under mildly alkaline conditions. After n-hexane-acetonitrile partitioning using an EXtrelut(®) column, the extract was cleaned up on a tandem SAX/PSA mini-column, and examined by means of fragmenter-voltage-switching ESI-SIM mode LC-MS. Mean recoveries (n=5) of spinosyn A and spinosyn D from eleven kinds of fortified samples at the analyte concentration of 0.01 µg/g and 0.05 µg/g ranged from 76.1% to 93.8% (RSD≤8.7%) and from 75.1% to 104.1% (RSD≤8.6%), respectively. PMID:22200799

  13. Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. PMID:25376887

  14. The use of hexacyanoferrates in different forms to reduce radiocaesium contamination of animal products in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ratnikov, A N; Vasiliev, A V; Alexakhin, R M; Krasnova, E G; Pasternak, A D; Howard, B J; Hove, K; Strand, P

    1998-11-10

    Hexacyanoferrates have been identified as highly effective radiocaesium binders which effectively reduce radiocaesium uptake and transfer to milk and meat. In Russia a hexacyanoferrate called ferrocyn has been produced for use as a countermeasure. In 1989-1992, experiments were undertaken in Russia to study the effectiveness of four different ferrocyn materials as 137Cs binders, their potential toxicity, effect on production rates of cow milk, effect on animal health and ease of implementation in routine agricultural practice. Four different ferrocyn delivery forms have been used: 98% pure powder, sustained release rumen boli (15% ferrocyn), salt licks (10% ferrocyn) and sawdust with 10% ferrocyn adsorbed (bifege). In initial experiments with different cows, sheep and pigs these four ferrocyn materials were effective in reducing radiocaesium transfer to animal products. Daily administration of ferrocyn powder at a rate of 3-5 g per cow reduced 137Cs transfer by up to 90% in milk. One single administration of three boli per cow (containing 30 g ferrocyn per boli) reduced 137Cs transfer by 50-75% for a period of 2 months. Salt licks containing 10% ferrocyn (0.22 kg ferrocyn per 2.2 kg briquette provided once) reduced transfer of 137Cs up to twofold for up to 10 days whilst bifege, given at a rate of 30-60 g day-1 (3-6 g day-1 ferrocyn), reduced 137Cs transfer by 90-95%. However, large-scale application of these ferrocyn materials on collective and private farms in agricultural trials in 1994 resulted in a lower effectiveness. Therefore, in 1996 a comparative assessment of the application of the four ferrocyn forms was made under carefully controlled conditions. The results fully validated the previous experimental data, and showed the importance of meeting recommended procedures for treatment, particularly when hexacyanoferrates are administered on a day-to-day basis. PMID:9861734

  15. How to assess the mutagenic potential of cosmetic products without animal tests?

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter

    2009-08-01

    Animal experiments (in vivo tests) currently play a key role in genotoxicity testing. Results from in vivo tests are, in many cases, decisive for the assessment of a mutagenic potential of a test compound. The Seventh Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive will, however, ban the European marketing of cosmetic/personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal experiments. If genotoxicity testing is solely based on the currently established in vitro tests, the attrition rate for chemicals used in cosmetic products will greatly increase due to irrelevant positive in vitro test results. There is urgent need for new and/or improved in vitro genotoxicity tests and for modified test strategies. Test strategies should consider all available information on chemistry of the test substance/the chemical class (e.g. SAR, metabolic activation and dermal adsorption). Test protocols for in vitro genotoxicity tests should be sensitive and robust enough to ensure that negative results can be accepted with confidence. It should be excluded that positive in vitro test results are due to high cytotoxicity or secondary genotoxic effects which may be thresholded and/or only occur under in vitro test conditions. Consequently, further research is needed to establish the nature of thresholds in in vitro assays and to determine the potential for incorporation of mode of action data into future risk assessments. New/improved tests have to be established and validated, considering the use of (metabolically competent) primary (skin) cells, 3D skin models and cells with defined capacity for metabolic activation (e.g. genetically engineered cell lines). The sensitivity and specificity of new and improved genotoxicity tests has to be determined by testing a battery of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals. New or adapted international guidelines will be needed for these tests. The establishment of such a new genotoxicity testing strategy will take time and the

  16. Production of arabitol from glycerol: strain screening and study of factors affecting production yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycerol is a major byproduct from biodiesel production, and developing new uses for glycerol is imperative to overall economics and sustainability of the biodiesel industry. With the aim of producing xylitol and/or arabitol as the value-added products from glycerol, 214 yeast strains, many osmotole...

  17. Mass cultivation of microalgae on animal wastewater: a sequential two-stage cultivation process for energy crop and omega-3-rich animal feed production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Mohr, Michael; Du, Zhenyi; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-09-01

    In this study, 97 microalgal strains purchased from algae bank and 50 microalgal strains isolated from local waters in Minnesota were screened for their adaptability growing on a 20-fold diluted digested swine manure wastewater (DSMW). A pool of candidate strains well adapted to the DSMW was established through a high-throughput screening process. Two top-performing facultative heterotrophic strains with high growth rate (0.536 day(-1) for UMN 271 and 0.433 day(-1) for UMN 231) and one strain with high omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid (EPA, 3.75 % of total fatty acids for UMN 231) were selected. Subsequently, a sequential two-stage mixo-photoautotrophic culture strategy was developed for biofuel and animal feed production as well as simultaneous swine wastewater treatment using above two strains. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 2.03 g/L and 23.0 %, and 0.83 g/L and 19.0 % for UMN 271 and UMN 231, respectively. The maximal nutrient removals for total phosphorus and ammonia after second-stage cultivation were 100 and 89.46 %, respectively. The experiments showed that this sequential two-stage cultivation process has great potential for economically viable and environmentally friendly production of both renewable biofuel and high-value animal feed and at the same time for animal wastewater treatment. PMID:22798164

  18. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  20. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  1. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for tire production affected sources? 63.5994 Section 63.5994 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5994 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources? (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5997 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for tire production affected sources? 63.5994 Section 63.5994 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5994 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources? (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5997 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected...

  12. Ongoing evaluation of sources and factors affecting emissions from engineered wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.L.; Martin, C.B.; Sheldon, L.S.; Baskir, J.N.; Howard, E.M.

    1998-09-01

    The paper describes an ongoing evaluation of sources and factors affecting emissions from engineered wood products. It summarizes early results from emissions testing of engineered wood products. These tests have shown the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the alcohol, aldehyde/ketone, ester, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon, monoterpene, sesquiterpene, indene, and alkyl ether chemical families from engineered wood samples. This information will be used to target pollution prevention approaches, such as alternate materials and production technologies for raw board and engineered wood products, for reducing VOC emissions.

  13. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  14. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    PubMed

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  15. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptome analyses reveal finishing forage affects metabolic pathways related to beef quality and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, José A; He, Yanghua; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Jianan; Erdman, Richard A; Sonstegard, Tad S; Song, Jiuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Beef represents a major dietary component and source of protein in many countries. With an increasing demand for beef, the industry is currently undergoing changes towards naturally produced beef. However, the true differences between the feeding systems, especially the biochemical and nutritional aspects, are still unclear. Using transcriptome and metabolome profiles, we identified biological pathways related to the differences between grass- and grain-fed Angus steers. In the latissimus dorsi muscle, we have recognized 241 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.1). The metabolome examinations of muscle and blood revealed 163 and 179 altered compounds in each tissue (P < 0.05), respectively. Accordingly, alterations in glucose metabolism, divergences in free fatty acids and carnitine conjugated lipid levels, and altered β-oxidation have been observed. The anti-inflammatory n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are enriched in grass finished beef, while higher levels of n6 PUFAs in grain finished animals may promote inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, grass-fed animals produce tender beef with lower total fat and a higher omega3/omega6 ratio than grain-fed ones, which could potentially benefit consumer health. Most importantly, blood cortisol levels strongly indicate that grass-fed animals may experience less stress than the grain-fed individuals. These results will provide deeper insights into the merits and mechanisms of muscle development. PMID:27185157

  16. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptome analyses reveal finishing forage affects metabolic pathways related to beef quality and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José A.; He, Yanghua; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Jianan; Erdman, Richard A.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Song, Jiuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Beef represents a major dietary component and source of protein in many countries. With an increasing demand for beef, the industry is currently undergoing changes towards naturally produced beef. However, the true differences between the feeding systems, especially the biochemical and nutritional aspects, are still unclear. Using transcriptome and metabolome profiles, we identified biological pathways related to the differences between grass- and grain-fed Angus steers. In the latissimus dorsi muscle, we have recognized 241 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.1). The metabolome examinations of muscle and blood revealed 163 and 179 altered compounds in each tissue (P < 0.05), respectively. Accordingly, alterations in glucose metabolism, divergences in free fatty acids and carnitine conjugated lipid levels, and altered β-oxidation have been observed. The anti-inflammatory n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are enriched in grass finished beef, while higher levels of n6 PUFAs in grain finished animals may promote inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, grass-fed animals produce tender beef with lower total fat and a higher omega3/omega6 ratio than grain-fed ones, which could potentially benefit consumer health. Most importantly, blood cortisol levels strongly indicate that grass-fed animals may experience less stress than the grain-fed individuals. These results will provide deeper insights into the merits and mechanisms of muscle development. PMID:27185157

  17. Preparation of a Chicken scFv to Analyze Gentamicin Residue in Animal Derived Food Products.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui; He, Jinxin; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoying; Du, Enqi; Li, Xinping

    2016-04-01

    Chicken is an ideal model for simplified recombinant antibody library generation. It has been rarely been reported to apply chicken single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) in immunoassays for the detection of antibiotic and chemical contaminants in animal food products. In this study, the scFvs (S-1 and S-5) were isolated from a phage display library derived from a hyperimmunized chicken. The checker board titration revealed that the optimum concentrations of S-1 and S-5 were 0.78 μg/mL and 0.44 μg/mL respectively, to obtain OD450 around 1.0 at 5 μg/mL of Gent-OVA coating concentration. Both S-1 and S-5 exhibited negligible cross reactivity with kanamycin and amikacin. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of S-1 and S-5 were 12.418 ng/mL and 14.674 ng/mL respectively. In the indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA), the limits of detection for S-1 and S-5 were 0.147 ng/mL and 0.219 ng/mL respectively. The mean recovery for Gent ranged from 60.91% to 118.09% with no more than 10.35% relative standard deviation (RSD) between the intra-assay and the inter-assay. These results indicate the chicken scFv based ic-ELISA method is suitable for the detection of Gent residue in animal derived edible tissues and milk. PMID:26980703

  18. A guided search genetic algorithm using mined rules for optimal affective product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Chris K. Y.; Kwong, C. K.; Chan, Kit Yan; Jiang, H.

    2014-08-01

    Affective design is an important aspect of new product development, especially for consumer products, to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. It can help companies to develop new products that can better satisfy the emotional needs of customers. However, product designers usually encounter difficulties in determining the optimal settings of the design attributes for affective design. In this article, a novel guided search genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to determine the optimal design attribute settings for affective design. The optimization model formulated based on the proposed approach applied constraints and guided search operators, which were formulated based on mined rules, to guide the GA search and to achieve desirable solutions. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the proposed approach and validate its effectiveness. Validation tests were conducted, and the results show that the guided search GA approach outperforms the GA approach without the guided search strategy in terms of GA convergence and computational time. In addition, the guided search optimization model is capable of improving GA to generate good solutions for affective design.

  19. Topical Products for Human Hair Regeneration: A Comparative Study on an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Orasan, Meda Sandra; Coneac, Andrei; Muresan, Adriana; Mihu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background Hair loss and hair growth is the subject of tremendous amount of research. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of three chemical treatments used in humans for hair loss, using a rat model of hair regrowth. The products tested were 2% minoxidil, Hairgrow (Dar-Al-Dawa Pharma), Aminexil, Dercos (Vichy Laboratoires), and Kerium, Anti-chute (La Roche-Posay). Methods Thirty-two adult female Wistar-Bratislava rats were assigned to 4 groups. Two rectangular areas (2×4 cm) were shaved on either sides of the mid dorsal line (left side - control; right side - test area). Group I was treated topically with 2% minoxidil, group II with Aminexil, and group III with Kerium. Each rat received 0.3 ml of substance applied topically to the shaved dorsal skin every day for 28 days. Rats in group IV served as sham controls receiving no treatment. Hair regrowth was evaluated by trichoscopy (with a dermatoscope), grown hair weight (from a surface area of 1 cm2), and histopathological examination for skin thickness, follicle count, and percentage of anagen induction (morphometric assessment). Results Treatment with 2% minoxidil significantly induced hair regrowth as assessed by trichoscopy, hair weight examination, and morphometric evaluation. Hair weight examination and morphometric assessment demonstrated the lowest hair growth effect with Aminexil among the tested products. Treatment with Kerium was found to significantly induce hair regrowth (p<0.05 as compared to the control group). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that hair regrowth efficacy of products recommended for human use is not similar when tested on an animal model. PMID:26848220

  20. Proteomics and the search for welfare and stress biomarkers in animal production in the one-health context.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ramell, A; de Almeida, A M; Cristobal, S; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Bassols, A

    2016-06-21

    Stress and welfare are important factors in animal production in the context of growing production optimization and scrutiny by the general public. In a context in which animal and human health are intertwined aspects of the one-health concept it is of utmost importance to define the markers of stress and welfare. These are important tools for producers, retailers, regulatory agents and ultimately consumers to effectively monitor and assess the welfare state of production animals. Proteomics is the science that studies the proteins existing in a given tissue or fluid. In this review we address this topic by showing clear examples where proteomics has been used to study stress-induced changes at various levels. We adopt a multi-species (cattle, swine, small ruminants, poultry, fish and shellfish) approach under the effect of various stress inducers (handling, transport, management, nutritional, thermal and exposure to pollutants) clearly demonstrating how proteomics and systems biology are key elements to the study of stress and welfare in farm animals and powerful tools for animal welfare, health and productivity. PMID:26931796

  1. Feline Foamy Virus Adversely Affects Feline Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture and Expansion: Implications for Animal Model Development

    PubMed Central

    Kol, Amir; Murphy, Brian; Walker, Naomi J.; Wood, Joshua A.; Clark, Kaitlin; Verstraete, Frank J.M.; Borjesson, Dori L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for various immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders due to their potent immunomodulatory and trophic properties. Naturally occurring diseases in large animal species may serve as surrogate animal models of human disease, as they may better reflect the complex genetic, environmental, and physiologic variation present in outbred populations. We work with naturally occurring diseases in large animal species to better understand how MSCs work and to facilitate optimal translation of MSC-based therapies. We are investigating the use of MSC therapy for a chronic oral inflammatory disease in cats. During our efforts to expand fat-derived feline MSCs (fMSCs), we observed that∼50% of the cell lines developed giant foamy multinucleated cells in later passages. These morphologic alterations were associated with proliferation arrest. We hypothesized that the cytopathic effects were caused by infection with a retrovirus, feline foamy virus (FFV). Using transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro assays, we determined that syncytial cell formation and proliferation arrest in fMSCs were caused by FFV strains that were highly homologous to previously reported FFV strains. We determined that the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir, may be used to support ex vivo expansion and salvage of FFV-infected fMSC lines. MSC lines derived from specific pathogen-free cats do not appear to be infected with FFV and may be a source of allogeneic fMSCs for clinical application. FFV infection of fMSC lines may hinder large-scale expansion of autologous MSC for therapeutic use in feline patients. PMID:25404388

  2. Purple Nutsedge Tuber Productivity as Affected by Organic Mulches in a Watermelon Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Isabela, Puerto Rico, to determine the tuber productivity of the weed purple nutsedge (PN) and the yield of ‘Crimson Sweet' watermelon when grown with or without organic soil bed mulches [hays of millet (Pennisetum glaucum), nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), sunnhemp (Crotalaria...

  3. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai Brent Auvermann Saqib Mukhtar Sergio C. Capareda Cady Engler Wyatte Harman J.N. Reddy, Robert DeOtte David B. Parker Dr. B.A. Stewart

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  6. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  7. Active compounds in Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products which promote blood circulation via inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tzen, Jason Tc; Chen, Ronald Jy; Chung, Tse-Yu; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Nan-Hei

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cardiac glycosides for congestive heart failure lies in their reversible inhibition on Na+, K+-ATPase located in human myocardium. Several steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides have been found in many Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products conventionally used to promote blood circulation. They are putatively responsible for the therapeutic effect of those medicinal products via the same mechanism of inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase. Inhibitory potency on Na+, K+-ATPase by ginsenosides, one of the identified steroid-like compounds, is significantly affected by sugar attachment that might cause steric hindrance of their binding to Na+, K+-ATPase. Ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides, substantially inhibit Na+, K+-ATPase. However, their inhibitory potency is abolished when sugar moieties are linked to the C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid-like structure. In contrast, no appreciable contents of steroid-like compounds are found in danshen, a well-known Chinese herb traditionally regarded as an effective medicine promoting blood circulation. Instead, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB), the major soluble ingredient in danshen, is assumed to be responsible for the therapeutic effect by inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase in a manner comparable to cardiac glycosides. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB against ischemic stroke were accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model. Whether the neuroprotection is also triggered by inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase remains to be investigated. Molecular modeling suggests that cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB presumably bind to the same extracellular pocket of the Na+, K+-ATPase alpha subunit. PMID:20438664

  8. Biosecurity aspects and pathogen inactivation in acidified high risk animal by-products.

    PubMed

    Vinnerås, Björn; Samuelson, Annika; Emmoth, Eva; Nyberg, Karin A; Albihn, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of formic acid addition to ground high risk animal by-products (ABP 1) in terms of stabilization and pathogen inactivation and to evaluate the biosecurity risk connected with the ABP 1 based combustion fuel Biomal. Laboratory studies were performed on the persistence of Salmonella Typhimurium, Bacillus cereus spores, porcine herpes virus, avian influenza virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, equine rhinitis A virus and porcine parvovirus in Biomal at different storage times. It was shown that Salmonella and enveloped viruses were inactivated within 1 day (24 h). Bacillus cereus spores were not reduced during 147 days and the non-enveloped virus porcine parvovirus was still detected after 168 days of storage. The conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that transmission of some highly contagious diseases such as foot-and-mouth-disease, swine vesicular disease and egg drop syndrome, caused by non-enveloped viruses, may follow accidental leakages of Biomal. In addition, there is a risk of transmission of the diseases anthrax and black leg, caused by sporulating bacteria. PMID:22506709

  9. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in swine: implications for animal production and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Astiz, S; Ovilo, C; Lopez-Bote, C J; Torres-Rovira, L; Barbero, A; Ayuso, M; Garcia-Contreras, C; Vazquez-Gomez, M

    2016-07-01

    The concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) addresses, from a large set of epidemiological evidences in human beings and translational studies in animal models, both the importance of genetic predisposition and the determinant role of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on adult morphomics and homeostasis. Compelling evidences suggest that both overnutrition and undernutrition may modify the intrauterine environment of the conceptus and may alter the expression of its genome and therefore its phenotype during prenatal and postnatal life. In fact, the DOHaD concept is an extreme shift in the vision of the factors conditioning adult phenotype and supposes a drastic change from a gene-centric perspective, only modified by lifestyle and nutritional strategies during juvenile development and adulthood, to a more holistic approach in which environmental, parental, and prenatal conditions are strongly determining postnatal development and homeostasis. The implications of DOHaD are profound in all the mammalian species and the present review summarizes current knowledge on causes and consequences of DOHaD in pigs, both for meat production and as a well-recognized model for biomedicine research. PMID:27238437

  10. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation. PMID:25443987

  11. Factors that Affect Student Motivation in a Dairy Products Elective Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Baraem; Hayes, Kirby

    2005-01-01

    Student motivation is influenced by instructional approach. Motivation is a function of initiating and sustaining goal-directed behavior. The objective of this study was to identify factors (positive and negative) that affect motivation in a junior-level dairy products elective course. Student attitudes were surveyed each year half-way through the…

  12. 75 FR 50033 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-- Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

  13. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  14. Exploration of Lexical-Semantic Factors Affecting Stress Production in Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether lexical frequency, semantic knowledge, or sentence context affect children's production of primary stress in derived words with stress-changing suffixes (e.g., "-ity"). Method: Thirty children (M[subscript age] = 9;1 [years;months]) produced a limited set of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) derived…

  15. Demographic and Academic Factors Affecting Research Productivity at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, D.; Zewotir, T.; Murray, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research output affects both the strength and funding of universities. Accordingly university academic staff members are under pressure to be active and productive in research. Though all academics have research interest, all are not producing research output which is accredited by the Department of Education (DOE). We analyzed the demographic and…

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission Limits for Tire Cord...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5986, you must comply with the...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source Emissions must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at... tire cord production affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds... Table 16 to this subpart must not exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... source Emissions must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at... tire cord production affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds... Table 16 to this subpart must not exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of...

  19. Antimicrobials in animal production: usage and practices among livestock farmers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Fabusoro, Eniola; Majasan, Ademola Adetokunbo; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have proven to be important for sustainable livestock production by their use as growth promoters and in the control of animal infections. However, injudicious use of antimicrobials could accelerate the emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains with attendant socioeconomic and public health issues. This work assessed antimicrobial usage in animal production with emphasis on usage and practices by livestock producers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Data on antimicrobial usage were collected through interviews, questionnaire and focus group discussions. Four hundred and fifty-four farmers in 11 communities within 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria were sampled in a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study showed that antimicrobial agents were widely distributed, readily accessible and commonly used in animal production. Fluoroquinolones and other critically important antimicrobials for human medicine were widely used in animals as prophylactics. Potentially harmful antimicrobials including furazolidones and chloramphenicol already banned for use in humans and animals were freely marketed and used in livestock production. Most of the respondents believed that veterinarians should be responsible for the administration of antimicrobials to animals, but in practice, they buy and administer antimicrobials without consulting veterinary professionals. It was observed that the ready availability of antimicrobial agents promoted the use of antimicrobials in livestock production and may encourage non-adherence to hygienic principles and management laxity in farm operations. The non-involvement of veterinary professionals and laboratory investigations in disease diagnosis prior to antimicrobial use could lead to improper usage that contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains. Responsible antimicrobial stewardship and strict regulations are vital to prolonging the benefits derivable from

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten, Brent W. Auvermann, Saqib Mukhtar, Sergio Caperada Cady R. Engler, Wyatte Harman Reddy JN Robert Deotte

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  1. Ranking of Nellore animals in cattle championships: genetic parameters and correlations with production traits.

    PubMed

    Simielli Filho, E A; Mercadante, M E Z; Ii Vasconcelos Silva, J A; Josahkian, L A

    2014-01-01

    Records of 17,141 Nellore cattle participating in cattle championships, born from 1994-2009, were used to estimate genetic parameters between animal rank in cattle championships, evaluated from weaning to 36 months of age as repeated traits, and growth, fertility, and carcass traits, evaluated at 365 days of age as single traits. Two traits were defined for animal rank in cattle championships: value 1 was attributed to animals ranked from 1st to 3rd place within the age category, and value 0 was assigned to the remaining animals (TOP3). Value 1 was attributed to animals ranked from 1st to 5th place within the age category and value 0 was assigned to the remaining animals (TOP5). The (co)variance components were estimated based on Bayesian inference under a 2-trait threshold-linear animal model. The posterior means of heritability estimated for TOP3 and TOP5 were 0.182 ± 0.010 and 0.260 ± 0.012, respectively, and their repeatabilities were 0.341 ± 0.007 and 0.400 ± 0.007, respectively. High-ranking animals generally presented higher breeding values for body weight, height, body length, and heart girth. The phenotypic correlations indicate that judges of cattle championships primarily rank animals based on weight and heart girth. PMID:25117330

  2. Safety evaluations under the proposed US Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013: animal use and cost estimates.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jean; Rovida, Costanca

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first 10 years of testing under the Act could evaluate, at most, about 50% of ingredients used in cosmetics. Testing during this period would cost about $ 1.7-$ 9 billion and 1-11.5 million animals. By test year 10, alternative, high-throughput test methods under development are expected to be available, replacing animal testing and allowing rapid evaluation of all ingredients. Given the high cost in dollars and animal lives of the first 10 years for only about half of ingredients, a better choice may be to accelerate development of high-throughput methods. This would allow evaluation of 100% of cosmetic ingredients before year 10 at lower cost and without animal testing. PMID:24468774

  3. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and <2% ash content. The results show that it is possible to develop a nonfeed application for rendered animal protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds. PMID:22010831

  4. Vaccination Method Affects Immune Response and Bacterial Growth but Not Protection in the Salmonella Typhimurium Animal Model of Typhoid

    PubMed Central

    Kinnear, Clare L.; Strugnell, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding immune responses elicited by vaccines, together with immune responses required for protection, is fundamental to designing effective vaccines and immunisation programs. This study examines the effects of the route of administration of a live attenuated vaccine on its interactions with, and stimulation of, the murine immune system as well as its ability to increase survival and provide protection from colonisation by a virulent challenge strain. We assess the effect of administration method using the murine model for typhoid, where animals are infected with S. Typhimurium. Mice were vaccinated either intravenously or orally with the same live attenuated S. Typhimurium strain and data were collected on vaccine strain growth, shedding and stimulation of antibodies and cytokines. Following vaccination, mice were challenged with a virulent strain of S. Typhimurium and the protection conferred by the different vaccination routes was measured in terms of challenge suppression and animal survival. The main difference in immune stimulation found in this study was the development of a secretory IgA response in orally-vaccinated mice, which was absent in IV vaccinated mice. While both strains showed similar protection in terms of challenge suppression in systemic organs (spleen and liver) as well as survival, they differed in terms of challenge suppression of virulent pathogens in gut-associated organs. This difference in gut colonisation presents important questions around the ability of vaccines to prevent shedding and transmission. These findings demonstrate that while protection conferred by two vaccines can appear to be the same, the mechanisms controlling the protection can differ and have important implications for infection dynamics within a population. PMID:26509599

  5. Alternatives to antibiotics: a symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are one of the most important medical discoveries of the 20th century and will remain an essential tool for treating animal and human diseases in the 21st century. However, antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens and concerns over their prudent use in animals has garnered global...

  6. PROBIOTICS AND THEIR USE IN FOOD ANIMAL PRODUCTION: A NOVEL EXPLANATION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term probiotics has historically been used to describe the delivery of live microbes to humans and animals benefiting the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. The term now encompass the delivery of complex preparations of bacteria to animals early in their life to help in the pre...

  7. 77 FR 9528 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Register of November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72617), codifying a method of detection for residues of n-methyl-2....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72617), FDA... CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and containers,...

  8. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  9. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  10. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  11. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  12. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  13. Integrating policies for the management of animal genetic resources with demand for livestock products and environmental sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognition of the need to conserve animal genetic resources comes at a time when the global livestock sector faces significant challenges in meeting the growing demand for livestock products and the mitigation of negative environmental impacts caused by livestock. Outside of the U.S. it would seem ...

  14. Multi-omic data integration and analysis using systems genomics approaches: methods and applications in animal production, health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kogelman, Lisette J A; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, there has been a remarkable development of high-throughput omics (HTO) technologies such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics across all facets of biology. This has spearheaded the progress of the systems biology era, including applications on animal production and health traits. However, notwithstanding these new HTO technologies, there remains an emerging challenge in data analysis. On the one hand, different HTO technologies judged on their own merit are appropriate for the identification of disease-causing genes, biomarkers for prevention and drug targets for the treatment of diseases and for individualized genomic predictions of performance or disease risks. On the other hand, integration of multi-omic data and joint modelling and analyses are very powerful and accurate to understand the systems biology of healthy and sustainable production of animals. We present an overview of current and emerging HTO technologies each with a focus on their applications in animal and veterinary sciences before introducing an integrative systems genomics framework for analysing and integrating multi-omic data towards improved animal production, health and welfare. We conclude that there are big challenges in multi-omic data integration, modelling and systems-level analyses, particularly with the fast emerging HTO technologies. We highlight existing and emerging systems genomics approaches and discuss how they contribute to our understanding of the biology of complex traits or diseases and holistic improvement of production performance, disease resistance and welfare. PMID:27130220

  15. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  16. Use of animal waste and flue gas desulfurized gypsum to improve forage production on reclaimed mine soil in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reclaimed mine soils amended with flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum may tolerate higher levels of animal manure, and would therefore be more productive in the long-term. Studies were conducted in respread soil during the first year of land reclamation at Red Hills Mine, a surface lignite mine in no...

  17. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  18. Phonological similarity affects production of gestures, even in the absence of overt speech

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Göksun, Tilbe; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Does phonological similarity affect gesture production in the absence of speech?Participants produced gestures from pictures with no words presented or spoken.Same pictures and gestures but different training labels were used.Phonologically similar labels led to more errors in subsequent gestures.Thus, phonological similarity affects gesture production in the absence of speech. Are manual gestures affected by inner speech? This study tested the hypothesis that phonological form influences gesture by investigating whether phonological similarity between words that describe motion gestures creates interference for production of those gestures in the absence of overt speech. Participants learned to respond to a picture of a bottle by gesturing to open the bottle's cap, and to a picture of long hair by gesturing to twirl the hair. In one condition, the gestures were introduced with phonologically-similar labels “twist” and “twirl” (similar condition), while in the other condition, they were introduced with phonologically-dissimilar labels “unscrew” and “twirl” (dissimilar condition). During the actual experiment, labels were not produced and participants only gestured by looking at pictures. In both conditions, participants also gestured to a control pair that was used as a baseline. Participants made significantly more errors on gestures in the similar than dissimilar condition after correction for baseline differences. This finding shows the influence of phonology on gesture production in the absence of overt speech and poses new constraints on the locus of the interaction between language and gesture systems. PMID:26441724

  19. Phonological similarity affects production of gestures, even in the absence of overt speech.

    PubMed

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Göksun, Tilbe; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Does phonological similarity affect gesture production in the absence of speech?Participants produced gestures from pictures with no words presented or spoken.Same pictures and gestures but different training labels were used.Phonologically similar labels led to more errors in subsequent gestures.Thus, phonological similarity affects gesture production in the absence of speech. Are manual gestures affected by inner speech? This study tested the hypothesis that phonological form influences gesture by investigating whether phonological similarity between words that describe motion gestures creates interference for production of those gestures in the absence of overt speech. Participants learned to respond to a picture of a bottle by gesturing to open the bottle's cap, and to a picture of long hair by gesturing to twirl the hair. In one condition, the gestures were introduced with phonologically-similar labels "twist" and "twirl" (similar condition), while in the other condition, they were introduced with phonologically-dissimilar labels "unscrew" and "twirl" (dissimilar condition). During the actual experiment, labels were not produced and participants only gestured by looking at pictures. In both conditions, participants also gestured to a control pair that was used as a baseline. Participants made significantly more errors on gestures in the similar than dissimilar condition after correction for baseline differences. This finding shows the influence of phonology on gesture production in the absence of overt speech and poses new constraints on the locus of the interaction between language and gesture systems. PMID:26441724

  20. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins. PMID:25479353

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  9. Forensic DNA Barcoding and Bio-Response Studies of Animal Horn Products Used in Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu M.; Peng, Cheng; Dong, Xiao P.; Chen, Shi L.; Sun, Li G.; Xiao, Xiao H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal horns (AHs) have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens). Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli). We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding) of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response) can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance between the

  10. ONO-2506 inhibits spike–wave discharges in a genetic animal model without affecting traditional convulsive tests via gliotransmission regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamura, Satoshi; Hoshikawa, Masamitsu; Dai, Kato; Saito, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Noboru; Niwa, Osamu; Okada, Motohiro

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Anticonvulsants have been developed according to the traditional neurotransmission imbalance hypothesis. However, the anticonvulsive pharmacotherapy currently available remains unsatisfactory. To develop new antiepileptic drugs with novel antiepileptic mechanisms, we have tested the antiepileptic actions of ONO-2506, a glial modulating agent, and its effects on tripartite synaptic transmission. Experimental Approach Dose-dependent effects of ONO-2506 on maximal-electroshock seizure (MES), pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure (PTZ) and epileptic discharge were determined in a genetic model of absence epilepsy in mice (Cacna1atm2Nobs/tm2Nobs strain). Antiepileptic mechanisms of ONO-2506 were analysed by examining the interaction between ONO-2506 and transmission-modulating toxins (tetanus toxin, fluorocitrate, tetrodotoxin) on release of l-glutamate, d-serine, GABA and kynurenic acid in the medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of freely moving rats using microdialysis and primary cultured rat astrocytes. Key Results ONO-2506 inhibited spontaneous epileptic discharges in Cacna1atm2Nobs/tm2Nobs mice without affecting MES or PTZ. Given systemically, ONO-2506 increased basal release of GABA and kynurenic acid in the mPFC through activation of both neuronal and glial exocytosis, but inhibited depolarization-induced releases of all transmitters. ONO-2506 increased basal glial release of kynurenic acid without affecting those of l-glutamate, d-serine or GABA. However, ONO-2506 inhibited AMPA-induced releases of l-glutamate, d-serine, GABA and kynurenic acid. Conclusions and Implications ONO-2506 did not affect traditional convulsive tests but markedly inhibited epileptic phenomena in the genetic epilepsy mouse model. ONO-2506 enhanced release of inhibitory neuro- and gliotransmitters during the resting stage and inhibited tripartite transmission during the hyperactive stage. The results suggest that ONO-2506 is a novel potential glial-targeting antiepileptic

  11. Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

  12. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  14. Feeder layer- and animal product-free culture of neonatal foreskin keratinocytes: improved performance, usability, quality and safety.

    PubMed

    De Corte, Peter; Verween, Gunther; Verbeken, Gilbert; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; De Coninck, Arlette; Roseeuw, Diane; Vanderkelen, Alain; Kets, Eric; Haddow, David; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2012-03-01

    Since 1987, keratinocytes have been cultured at the Queen Astrid Military Hospital. These keratinocytes have been used routinely as auto and allografts on more than 1,000 patients, primarily to accelerate the healing of burns and chronic wounds. Initially the method of Rheinwald and Green was used to prepare cultured epithelial autografts, starting from skin samples from burn patients and using animal-derived feeder layers and media containing animal-derived products. More recently we systematically optimised our production system to accommodate scientific advances and legal changes. An important step was the removal of the mouse fibroblast feeder layer from the cell culture system. Thereafter we introduced neonatal foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) as source of cultured epithelial allografts, which significantly increased the consistency and the reliability of our cell production. NFK master and working cell banks were established, which were extensively screened and characterised. An ISO 9001 certified Quality Management System (QMS) governs all aspects of testing, validation and traceability. Finally, as far as possible, animal components were systematically removed from the cell culture environment. Today, quality controlled allograft production batches are routine and, due to efficient cryopreservation, stocks are created for off-the-shelf use. These optimisations have significantly increased the performance, usability, quality and safety of our allografts. This paper describes, in detail, our current cryopreserved allograft production process. PMID:21394485

  15. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... in vitamin D formulations, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , used in animal food. DATES: Submit... for the safe use of ethoxyquin as a chemical preservative in vitamin D formulations, including...

  16. What is the form of the productivity-animal-species-richness relationship? A critical review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cusens, Jarrod; Wright, Shane D; McBride, Paul D; Gillman, Len N

    2012-10-01

    The nature of the relationship between productivity and species richness has remained controversial for at least two decades. Recently authors have favored the suggestion that the form of this relationship is highly variable and scale dependent. However, this conclusion is not universally accepted. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of animal productivity-species-richness relationships (PSRR) in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Initially, 374 separate cases from 273 published studies were identified as potential tests of the animal PSRR. After critically assessing each study, 115 cases were accepted as robust tests of the relationship, and of these 95 had data available for formal meta-analysis. Contrary to expectation, we found no support for the form of the relationship being scale dependent; positive relationships predominated at all scales (geographical extents and grains). Furthermore, positive relationships were the most common form of the animal PSRR in both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and among vertebrates, invertebrates, homeotherms and poikilotherms. Therefore, our results also contrast with previous reviews that suggest no particular form of the PSRR is predominant. We demonstrate that the method used for classifying the form of PSRRs is critical to the result and that previous reviews may have been too liberal toward classifying the form of relationships as unimodal. The tendency for positive relationships between productivity and species richness across diverse animal taxa has important implications for understanding the mechanisms behind the latitudinal gradient in species richness. PMID:23185885

  17. Factors affecting waterfowl breeding density and productivity estimates in the Northeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Ringelman, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    During 1977-79, information useful for making breeding pair and brood surveys was obtained while studying black duck (Anas rubripes) habitat selection and productivity in south-central Maine. Surveys should be initiated in relation to sunrise and sunset time. Morning versus evening counts, familiarity with the survey area, wetland dynamics of the study area, wetland surface water area, and allotment of relative survey effort are discussed as they affect the conduct and results of brood surveys.

  18. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  19. Assessment, modeling and optimization of parameters affecting the formation of disinfection by-products in water.

    PubMed

    Gougoutsa, Chrysa; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Zacharis, Constantinos K; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on (a) the development of a screening methodology, in order to determine the main experimental variables affecting chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in water during chlorination experiments and (b) the application of a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) for the mathematical description and optimization of DBP formation. Chlorine dose and total organic carbon (TOC) were proven to be the main factors affecting the formation of total chlorinated DBPs, while chlorine dose and bromide concentration were the main parameters affecting the total brominated THMs. Longer contact time promoted a rise in chlorinated DBPs' concentration even in the presence of a minimal amount of organic matter. A maximum production of chlorinated DBPs was observed under a medium TOC value and it reduced at high TOC concentrations, possibly due to the competitive production of brominated THMs. The highest concentrations of chlorinated THMs were observed at chlorine dose 10 mg L(-1) and TOC 5.5 mg L(-1). The formation of brominated DBPs is possible even with a minimum amount of NaOCl in the presence of high concentration of bromide ions. Brominated DBPs were observed in maximum concentrations using 8 mg L(-1) of chlorine in the presence of 300 μg L(-1) bromides. PMID:27178297

  20. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  1. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector. PMID:27215411

  2. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  3. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis affects biosurfactant production and cell attachment to hydrocarbons in Pseudomonas sp. KA-08.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Carla; Catone, Mariela V; López, Nancy I; Raiger Iustman, Laura J

    2014-06-01

    Stressful conditions prevailing in hydrocarbon-contaminated sites influence the diversity, distribution, and activities of microorganisms. Oil bioremediation agents should develop special characteristics to cope with these environments like surfactant production and cellular affinity to hydrocarbons. Additionally, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation was proven to improve tolerance to stressful conditions. Pseudomonas sp. KA-08 was isolated from a chronic oil-contaminated environment, it is highly tolerant to xylene, and it is able to accumulate PHA and to produce surfactant compounds that lower the water surface tension (ST) as well as bioemulsifiers. In this work, we studied the effect of the capability to accumulate PHAs on biosurfactant production and microbial attachment to hydrocarbons (MATH). Our results showed that PHA synthesis capability has a favorable effect in the production of compounds which affect the ST but not on the production of bioemulsifiers. On the other hand, PHA accumulation affects cellular affinity to xylene. MATH analysis showed that a PHA-negative mutant increased its affinity to xylene compared with the wild-type strain. This result was also observed in Pseudomonas putida GPp104 (a PHA(-) mutant), suggesting that this effect could be generalized to other Pseudomonas strains. PMID:24519857

  4. Effect of dietary protein content on animal production and blood metabolites of dairy cows during lactation.

    PubMed

    Law, R A; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J; Wylie, A R G; Mayne, C S

    2009-03-01

    Ninety autumn-calving Holstein dairy cows [45 primiparous and 45 multiparous (mean parity, 3.1)] were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations: 173, 144, or 114 g of CP/kg of DM, from calving until d 150 of lactation. On d 151, half of the animals in each treatment were allocated an alternative dietary protein concentration. Half of the animals receiving 114 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 144 g of CP/kg of DM; half of the animals receiving 144 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 173 g of CP/kg of DM; and half of the animals receiving 173 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 144 g of CP/kg of DM, with the remaining animals staying on their original treatment. This resulted in 6 treatments in the mid to late lactation period: 114/114, 144/144, 173/173, 114/144, 144/173, and 173/144 g of CP/kg of DM. An increase in dietary CP concentration significantly increased milk, fat, and protein yield in early lactation (d 1 to 150). Dry matter intake was also increased with increased dietary protein concentration; however, this was not significant between 144 and 173 g of CP/kg of DM. Increased dietary CP significantly increased plasma urea, albumin, and total protein concentrations but had no significant effect on NEFA, leptin, or IGF-1 concentrations. Decreasing the dietary CP concentration in mid-late lactation (d 151 to 305) from 173 to 144 g/kg of DM had no significant effect on milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk fat and protein yield, compared with animals that remained on 173 g of CP/kg of DM throughout lactation. Increasing dietary CP concentration from 144 to 173 g/kg of DM significantly increased dry matter intake compared with animals that remained on the 144 g of CP/kg of DM throughout lactation. There were no significant dietary treatment effects on live weight or body condition score change throughout the experiment. Results of this study indicate that high protein diets (up to 173 g of CP/kg of DM) improved feed intake and animal performance in early lactation

  5. Production of human lactoferrin and lysozyme in the milk of transgenic dairy animals: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering, which was first developed in the 1980s, allows for specific additions to animals' genomes that are not possible through conventional breeding. Using genetic engineering to improve agricultural animals was first suggested when the technology was in the early stages of development by Palmiter et al. (Nature 300:611-615, 1982). One of the first agricultural applications identified was generating transgenic dairy animals that could produce altered or novel proteins in their milk. Human milk contains high levels of antimicrobial proteins that are found in low concentrations in the milk of ruminants, including the antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme. Lactoferrin and lysozyme are both part of the innate immune system and are secreted in tears, mucus, and throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to their antimicrobial properties and abundance in human milk, multiple lines of transgenic dairy animals that produce either human lactoferrin or human lysozyme have been developed. The focus of this review is to catalogue the different lines of genetically engineered dairy animals that produce either recombinant lactoferrin or lysozyme that have been generated over the years as well as compare the wealth of research that has been done on the in vitro and in vivo effects of the milk they produce. While recent advances including the development of CRISPRs and TALENs have removed many of the technical barriers to predictable and efficient genetic engineering in agricultural species, there are still many political and regulatory hurdles before genetic engineering can be used in agriculture. It is important to consider the substantial amount of work that has been done thus far on well established lines of genetically engineered animals evaluating both the animals themselves and the products they yield to identify the most effective path forward for future research and acceptance of this technology. PMID:26059245

  6. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  7. A review on factors affecting microcystins production by algae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Pinfei; Jia, Peili; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Xincheng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa have become a global environmental issue in recent years. As a consequence of eutrophication, microcystins have become widely disseminated in drinking water sources, seriously impairing drinking water quality. This review focuses on the relationship between microcystins synthesis and physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors that are significant in controlling their production. Light intensity and temperature are the more important physical factors, and in many cases, an optimum level for these two factors has been observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key chemical factors causing frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms and microcystins production. The absorption of nutrients and metabolic activities of algae are affected by different concentrations and forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to variations in microcystins production Metal ions and emerging pollutants are other significant chemical factors, whose comprehensive impact is still being studied. Algae can also interact with biological agents like predators and competitors in aquatic environments, and such interactions are suggested to promote MCs production and release. This review further highlights areas that require further research in order to gain a better understanding of microcystins production. It provides a theoretical basis for the control of microcystins production and releasing into aquatic environments. PMID:26874538

  8. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  9. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  10. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    PubMed

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production. PMID:26690090

  11. Herbage production, nutritive value, and animal productivity within hardwood silvopasture, open and mixed pasture systems in Appalachia, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for livestock food products are projected to increase dramatically through 2050. Increased livestock production capacity on marginal lands will be critical to meeting demand. A 5-year research effort was undertaken to evaluate lamb and sward productivity within open and hardwood silvopasture ...

  12. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  13. Production of value-added chars and activated carbons from animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States has a strong agricultural foundation that leaves behind large quantities of animal wastes. In the United States, an estimated 9 billion broilers, 256 million turkeys, 62 million pigs and 97 million dairy cows were produced in 2006 producing 5 times the waste of the U.S. human popu...

  14. Animal Well-Being in Small Poultry Flocks: Improving bird health and product quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer interest in farm animal welfare is increasing and, while there is little legislation, voluntary welfare assurance programs exist; however, most small poultry producers do not participate in these programs. Raising birds in small flocks has some inherent welfare advantages, such as ample sp...

  15. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS... is not subjected to heat sterilization or other sterilization methods acceptable to Animal and Plant... prescribed in § 113.51. (2) At least 3.75 ml or 15 percent of the ingredient shall be used in the...

  16. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS... is not subjected to heat sterilization or other sterilization methods acceptable to Animal and Plant... prescribed in § 113.51. (2) At least 3.75 ml or 15 percent of the ingredient shall be used in the...

  17. Biofuel production from catalytic thermochemical conversion of animal manure and biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the research is to identify suitable catalysts to convert animal manure-based and biomass-based synthesis gas (syngas) to liquid biofuels such as mixed alcohols and hydrocarbons. Two pathways of catalytically converting syngas are investigated: (1)a two-step process involving the in...

  18. COASTAL AND TIFTON 44' BERMUDAGRASS AVAILABILITY ON ANIMAL AND PASTURE PRODUCTIVITY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid cultivars of bermudagrass are a major feed source for ruminants across the Southeastern USA. This 4-yr experiment compared animal and pasture performance of ‘Coastal’ and ‘Tifton 44’ Bermudagrasses [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] over three canopy heights designated as short (5.8 cm), medium (...

  19. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  20. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for...

  1. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission...

  4. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  5. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for...

  7. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  8. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  9. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  11. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  12. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  13. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for...

  16. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  17. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission...

  20. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5996, you...

  1. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission...

  3. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  5. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  6. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5996, you...

  7. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  9. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  10. [Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and its application in the determination for the quality of animal feed and products].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Meng, Qing-Xiang; Ren, Li-Ping; Yang, Jian-Song

    2010-06-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been the most rapidly developing and noticeable spectrographic analytical technique in recent years. The determining principle and progresses of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy are presented briefly. It mainly includes the progresses in pre-processing technique and analyzing model of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two pre-processing techniques, including differential coefficient-dealt with technique, the signal-smoothing technique, and four analyzing models of near-infrared spectroscopy, including the multiplied lined regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and artificial nerve network (ANN). The application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the first time. The investigation of reviewed papers shows that the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy is widely applied in feed analysis and animal products analysis because of its rapidness, non-destruction and non-pollution. The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been used to determine the feed common ingredient, such as dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and so on, micro-components including amino acid, vitamin, and noxious components, and to determine the physical and chemical properties of animal products which including egg, mutton, beef and pork. Details of the analytical characteristics of feed and animal products described in the reviewed papers are given. New trends and limits to the application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in these fields are also discussed. PMID:20707134

  11. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills. PMID:21777495

  12. Do non-native plant species affect the shape of productivity-diversity relationships?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, J.M.; Cleland, E.E.; Horner-Devine, M. C.; Fleishman, E.; Bowles, C.; Smith, M.D.; Carney, K.; Emery, S.; Gramling, J.; Vandermast, D.B.; Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between ecosystem processes and species richness is an active area of research and speculation. Both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted in numerous ecosystems. One finding of these studies is that the shape of the relationship between productivity and species richness varies considerably among ecosystems and at different spatial scales, though little is known about the relative importance of physical and biological mechanisms causing this variation. Moreover, despite widespread concern about changes in species' global distributions, it remains unclear if and how such large-scale changes may affect this relationship. We present a new conceptual model of how invasive species might modulate relationships between primary production and species richness. We tested this model using long-term data on relationships between aboveground net primary production and species richness in six North American terrestrial ecosystems. We show that primary production and abundance of non-native species are both significant predictors of species richness, though we fail to detect effects of invasion extent on the shapes of the relationship between species richness and primary production.

  13. Nuclear DNA content affects the productivity of conifer forests by altering hydraulic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Josu; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    Predictions of future global climate rely on feedbacks between terrestrial vegetation and the global carbon cycle, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still being discussed. One of the key knowledge gaps lies on the scaling of cellular processes to the ecosystem level. Here we examine whether an under-explored plant trait, inter-specific variation in the bulk amount of DNA in unreplicated somatic cells (2C DNA content), can explain inter-specific variation in the maximum productivity of conifer forests. We expected 2C DNA content to be negatively related to conifer productivity because: 1) it is positively correlated with cell volume (which, in turn, potentially affects structural features such as leaf mass area, a strong predictor of photosynthetic capacity); 2) it is positively correlated with stomatal size (with larger stomata leading to lower overall stomatal conductance and, by extension, lower CO2 uptake); and 3) larger genome sizes may reduce P availability in RNA (which has been hypothesized to slow growth). We present the results of regression and independent contrasts in different monospecific forests encompassing a 52º latitudinal gradient, each being dominated by 1 of 35 different conifer species. Contrary to expectations, we observed a positive correlation between genome size and maximum Gross Primary Productivity (R2 = 0.47) and also between genome size maximum tree height (R2 = 0.27). This correlation was apparently driven by the effects of genome size on stem hydraulics, since 2C DNA was positively correlated with wood density (R2 = 0.40) and also with resistance to cavitation (P50, R2 = 0.28). That is, increased genome sizes have a positive effect on the productivity of conifer forests by affecting the vascular tissues to increase their capacity for water transport. Our results shed a new light on the evolution of the vascular system of conifer forests and how they affect ecosystem productivity, and indicate the potential to

  14. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pighin, Dario; Pazos, Adriana; Chamorro, Verónica; Paschetta, Fernanda; Cunzolo, Sebastián; Godoy, Fernanda; Messina, Valeria; Pordomingo, Anibal; Grigioni, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina's actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security. PMID:26989765

  15. By-products from seafood processing for aquaculture and animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska fish processing by-products can be used to make fertilizer and other products; however, most of the fish by-products produced in large shore-side fish processing operations are used to make fish meal and fish oil. Primary uses of fish meals and oils are as aquaculture feed ingredient for fish...

  16. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies. PMID:27066237

  17. Greenhouse gas life cycle assessment of products arising from the rendering of mammalian animal byproducts in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Angel D; Humphries, Andrea C; Woodgate, Stephen L; Wilkinson, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Animal byproducts (ABP) are unavoidable byproduct of meat production that are categorized under EU legislation into category 1, 2, and 3 materials, which are normally treated by rendering. Rendering is a thermal process that produces rendered fat and protein. Heat is provided from the combustion of natural gas and self-produced rendered fat. The main objectives of the study were (i) to assess energy intensity in the UK rendering industry, and (ii) to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of mammalian rendered products using life cycle assessment. Thermal energy requirements were 2646 and 1357 kJ/kg, whereas electricity requirements were 260 and 375 kJ/kg for category 1 and 3 ABP respectively. Fossil CO(2) emissions were -0.77 and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg category 1 and 3 mammalian rendered fat respectively and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg processed animal protein. These were low relative to vegetable products such as palm oil and soya bean meal because (i) ABP were considered wastes that do not incur the environmental burden of their production, and (ii) the rendering process produces biofuels that can be used to generate energy that can be used to offset the use of fossil fuels in other systems. PMID:22129062

  18. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data. PMID:26687285

  19. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data. PMID:26687285

  20. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048