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Sample records for affect athletic performance

  1. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  2. Internal Challenges Affecting Academic Performance of Student-Athletes in Ghanaian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apaak, Daniel; Sarpong, Emmanuel Osei

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined internal challenges affecting academic performance of student-athletes in Ghanaian public universities, using a descriptive survey research design. Proportionate random sampling technique was employed to select Three Hundred and Thirty-Two (332) respondents for the study. The instrument used in gathering data for the study was…

  3. Nutrition and athletic performance

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is ... al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ...

  4. Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter Hudson

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to help athletic coaches and trainers gain a better understanding of what happens during sleep and how sleep can affect performance, outlining three practical suggestions for helping athletes improve their sleep quality (identify and obtain the amount of sleep one needs, keep a regular sleep schedule, and create an optimal…

  5. Genetic influence on athletic performance

    PubMed Central

    Guth, Lisa M.; Roth, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing literature on the genetics of athletic performance, with particular consideration for the relevance to young athletes. Recent findings Two gene variants, ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X, have been consistently associated with endurance (ACE I/I) and power-related (ACTN3 R/R) performance, though neither can be considered predictive. The role of genetic variation in injury risk and outcomes is more sparsely studied, but genetic testing for injury susceptibility could be beneficial in protecting young athletes from serious injury. Little information on the association of genetic variation with athletic performance in young athletes is available; however, genetic testing is becoming more popular as a means of talent identification. Despite this increase in the use of such testing, evidence is lacking for the usefulness of genetic testing over traditional talent selection techniques in predicting athletic ability, and careful consideration should be given to the ethical issues surrounding such testing in children. Summary A favorable genetic profile, when combined with an optimal training environment, is important for elite athletic performance; however, few genes are consistently associated with elite athletic performance, and none are linked strongly enough to warrant their use in predicting athletic success. PMID:24240283

  6. Verbal Instructions Acutely Affect Drop Vertical Jump Biomechanics--Implications for Athletic Performance and Injury Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Khuu, Steven; Musalem, Lindsay L; Beach, Tyson A C

    2015-10-01

    Biomechanical quantities acquired during the drop vertical jump (DVJ) are used in the assessment of athletic performance and injury risk. The objective was to examine the impact of different verbal instructions on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic variables commonly included in such assessments. Ten men and 10 women from local varsity and club volleyball, basketball, figure skating, and track and field teams volunteered to participate. The athletes performed DVJs after given instructions to minimize ground contact time (CT), maximize jump height (HT), and synchronously extend the lower extremity joints (EX). Between the CT, HT, and EX conditions, body segment and joint angles were compared together with characteristics of vertical ground reaction force (GRF), whole-body power output, stiffness, and center-of-mass displacement time histories. Verbal instructions were found to influence nearly all of the spatiotemporal, body segment and joint kinematic, and kinetic variables that were statistically analyzed. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that athletic performance indices (e.g., jump height, power output, vertical stiffness, and reactive strength index) and lower extremity injury risk markers (e.g., peak vertical GRF and frontal plane knee angle) were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between the CT, HT, and EX conditions. The findings of this study suggest that verbal instructions should be controlled and/or clearly documented when using the DVJ to assess athletic performance potential and injury risk. Moreover, practitioners who devise performance enhancement and injury prevention strategies based on DVJ assessments are advised to consider that "coaching" or "cueing" during the task execution could impact conclusions drawn. PMID:26398699

  7. Rapid body mass loss affects erythropoiesis and hemolysis but does not impair aerobic performance in combat athletes.

    PubMed

    Reljic, D; Feist, J; Jost, J; Kieser, M; Friedmann-Bette, B

    2016-05-01

    Rapid body mass loss (RBML) before competition was found to decrease hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) in elite boxers. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this observation. Fourteen well-trained combat athletes who reduced body mass before competitions (weight loss group, WLG) and 14 combat athletes who did not practice RBML (control group, CON) were tested during an ordinary training period (t-1), 1-2 days before an official competition (after 5-7 days RBML in WLG, t-2), and after a post-competition period (t-3). In WLG, body mass (-5.5%, range: 2.9-6.8 kg) and Hbmass (-4.1%) were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced after RBML and were still decreased by 1.6% (P < 0.05) and 2.6% (P < 0.001) at t-3 compared with t-1. After RBML, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, haptoglobin, triiodothyronine (FT3 ), and free androgen index (FAI) were decreased compared with t-1 and t-3. An increase occurred in ferritin and bilirubin. Peak treadmill-running performance and VO2peak did not change significantly, but performance at 4-mmol lactate threshold was higher after RBML (P < 0.05). In CON, no significant changes were found in any parameter. Apparently, the significant decrease in Hbmass after RBML in combat athletes was caused by impaired erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis without significant impact on aerobic performance capacity. PMID:25916419

  8. Nutrition and athletic performance

    MedlinePlus

    ... best for the first hour. Switching to an energy drink after the first hour will help you get ... in an unnatural way can have negative health effects. It is important to set realistic body weight goals. Young athletes who are trying to lose weight should work ...

  9. Improving the Academic Performance of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rosemary

    1986-01-01

    The new higher standards required of entering collegiate athletes will not immediately create change in the performance and attitudes of student athletes. Academic performance of student athletes can be enhanced through the development of a comprehensive program fusing the relationship between athletics and academics. (MD)

  10. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Negro, M; Giardina, S; Marzani, B; Marzatico, F

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1980's there has been high interest in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by sports nutrition scientists. The metabolism of BCAA is involved in some specific biochemical muscle processes and many studies have been carried out to understand whether sports performance can be enhanced by a BCAA supplementation. However, many of these researches have failed to confirm this hypothesis. Thus, in recent years investigators have changed their research target and focused on the effects of BCAA on the muscle protein matrix and the immune system. Data show that BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis. Muscle damage develops delayed onset muscle soreness: a syndrome that occurs 24-48 h after intensive physical activity that can inhibit athletic performance. Other recent works indicate that BCAA supplementation recovers peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogens after a long distance intense exercise, as well as plasma glutamine concentration. The BCAA also modifies the pattern of exercise-related cytokine production, leading to a diversion of the lymphocyte immune response towards a Th1 type. According to these findings, it is possible to consider the BCAA as a useful supplement for muscle recovery and immune regulation for sports events. PMID:18974721

  11. Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

  12. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  13. Athletic footwear affects balance in men.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E; Gouw, G J; McClaran, J

    1994-01-01

    Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we performed an experiment using similar methods on a younger population. We tested the hypothesis that midsole thickness is negatively, and hardness positively related to dynamic equilibrium, in 17 healthy adult men (mean(s.d.) age 33(11.13) years) via a balance beam method. Subjects walked along a 9-m long beam at 0.5 m s-1 once barefoot and six times wearing identical pairs of experimental shoes which differed only in midsole hardness and thickness which spanned the respective ranges currently available in footwear. Falls from the beam (balance failures) were quantified. Balance failures varied significantly in relation to midsole hardness and thickness, and there was a strong trend toward interaction of these variables (P = 0.09). Midsole hardness was positively related to stability, and midsole thickness was negatively related, which confirms the previous report. Hence, shoes with thick-soft soles, similar to modern athletic footwear and 'walking shoes', destabilize men, and shoes with thin-hard soles provide superior stability. The pair with the poorest stability (A 15-thick; 12.34 balance failures per 100 m) produced 217% more balance failures than those associated with the best stability (A 50-thin; 3.89 balance failures per 100 m). Since most types of athletic footwear and many other shoes incorporate midsoles with hardness and thickness associated with poor stability, we conclude that both athletic performance and public safety could be enhanced through stability optimized footwear. PMID:7921911

  14. Athletic performance and urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J

    1984-01-01

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance. PMID:6744156

  15. How does sport psychology actually improve athletic performance? A framework to facilitate athletes' and coaches' understanding.

    PubMed

    Gee, Chris J

    2010-09-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a competitive contest. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that many athletes, coaches, and sporting administrators are still quite reluctant to seek out the services of a qualified sport psychologist, even if they believe it could help. One of the primary reasons for this hesitation appears to be a lack of understanding about the process and the mechanisms by which these mental skills affect performance. Unlike the "harder sciences" of sport physiology and biochemistry where athletes can see the tangible results in themselves or other athletes (e.g., he or she lifted weights, developed larger muscles, and is now stronger/faster as a result), the unfamiliar and often esoteric nature of sport psychology appears to be impeding a large number of athletes from soliciting these important services. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a simple framework depicting how mental skills training translates into improved within-competition performance. This framework is intended to help bridge the general "understanding gap" that is currently being reported by a large number of athletes and coaches, while also helping sport psychology practitioners sell their valuable services to individual athletes and teams. PMID:20935240

  16. Noncognitive Predictors of Student Athletes' Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Van Rheenen, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of four noncognitive variables in predicting academic performance in 200 Division I athletes. Studies the noncognitive variables of athletic-academic commitment, feelings of being exploited, academic self-worth, self-handicapping excuses as well as several background and academic preparation variables. Finds all four noncognitive…

  17. A measure of stress for athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Seggar, J F; Pedersen, D M; Hawkes, N R; McGown, C

    1997-02-01

    The Athlete Stress Inventory of 49 items was developed. Using factor analysis on the intercorrelations of responses of 148 women student-athletes, four orthogonal factors of stress in athletes were identified-Negative Mood, Team Compatibility, Physical Well-being, and Academic Efficacy. Scales for these factors were reliable and valid. The predictive validity of these scores was investigated by correlations with the athletic performance of 32 women athletes on three intercollegiate teams-tennis, gymnastics, and basketball. Stress scores (except Emotional Mood) reported four days prior to competition tended to be significantly correlated with performance for the individual sports (tennis and gymnastics) but not for the group sport (basket-ball). The correlation involving Physical Well-being was not significant for gymnasts. PMID:9132713

  18. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  19. Nutritional Considerations for Performance in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, JohnEric W.; Holmes, Megan E.; McAllister, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an integral component to any athletes training and performance program. In adults the balance between energy intake and energy demands is crucial in training, recovery, and performance. In young athletes the demands for training and performance remain but should be a secondary focus behind the demands associated with maintaining the proper growth and maturation. Research interventions imposing significant physiological loads and diet manipulation are limited in youth due to the ethical considerations related to potential negative impacts on the growth and maturation processes associated with younger individuals. This necessary limitation results in practitioners providing nutritional guidance to young athletes to rely on exercise nutrition recommendations intended for adults. While many of the recommendations can appropriately be repurposed for the younger athlete attention needs to be taken towards the differences in metabolic needs and physiological differences. PMID:26464898

  20. Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in Professional Lacrosse Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Plancher, Kevin D.; Brooks-James, Ariana; Nissen, Carl W.; Diduch, B. Kent; Petterson, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concussions have become a major public health concern for both youth and professional athletes. The long-term consequences of concussion can be debilitating or even life threatening. To reduce these concerns, baseline neurocognitive performance can aid decision making in postconcussion recovery and return to play for athletes sustaining concussions. To date, these data are not available for lacrosse athletes. Purpose: To present baseline neurocognitive performance for Major League Lacrosse (MLL) players and to determine differences between athletes with and without a history of concussion. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores from MLL players who completed baseline testing from June 2010 to June 2011. Inclusion required a valid baseline test and no history of concussion in the 3 months prior to testing. Means ± standard deviations were computed for all demographic variables and ImPACT composite scores including visual and verbal memory, reaction time, and visual motor processing speed. Independent-samples t tests were used to determine differences between athletes with and without a history of concussion. Results: Valid baseline ImPACT testing was available for 235 MLL athletes (mean age, 25.1 ± 3.0 years). Forty percent of MLL athletes (n = 94) reported a history of concussion, with 14% of those (n = 13) reporting a history of 3 or more previous concussions. There were no differences on any demographic variables between MLL athletes with and without a history of concussion. MLL athletes with a history of concussion had lower ImPACT composite scores than those without a history of concussion, although only the verbal memory composite was found to be statistically significant (MLL with concussion, 83.2 ± 10.8 vs MLL without concussion, 86.9 ± 9.5; P = .007). Conclusion: This study establishes baseline Im

  1. Athletes as Students: Ensuring Positive Cognitive and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayles, Joy Gaston; Hu, Shouping

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has become increasingly concerned about the educational experience of student athletes, beyond enforcement of eligibility rules and regulations. Perhaps this growing interest is in response to public criticism of the poor performance--and even misconduct--associated with the…

  2. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. PMID:23834510

  3. The Effects of Caffeine on Athletic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle; Streitz, Carmyn; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who use caffeine before exercising or competition may be upgrading themselves more than they realize. Caffeine is classified as a stimulant and is the most commonly used drug in the world. Caffeine has the same affects that amphetamines and cocaine have, just to a lesser degree. Caffeine crosses the membranes of all the body's tissues. It…

  4. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  5. Academic and Athletic Motivation as Predictors of Academic Performance of Division I College Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Christina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…

  6. The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose: in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. Methods: we searched PubMed using the terms “sports injuries”, “athletic performance” and “genetics” over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. Results: most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. Conclusions: genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these. PMID:24367777

  7. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak?

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules. PMID:26094000

  8. NFL Combine Athletic Performance after ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Nathan E.; Keller, Robert A.; Mehran, Nima; Austin, William; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the functional performance of NFL combine participants after ACL reconstruction compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group. The hypothesis was that there would be no difference between players after ACL reconstruction as compared with controls in functional athletic performance. Methods: A total of 98 NFL-caliber athletes who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction and participated in the NFL scouting combine between 2010 and 2014 were reviewed and compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group. Data recorded for each player included a 40-yard dash, vertical leap, broad jump, shuttle drill, and 3-cone drill. Results: With regard to speed and acceleration, the mean 40-yard dash time for ACL-reconstructed players was 4.74 seconds (range, 4.33-5.55 seconds) compared with controls at 4.74 seconds (range, 4.34-5.38 seconds; P = .96). Jumping performance was also similar, with a mean vertical leap for ACL-reconstructed players of 33.35 inches (range, 23-43 inches) and broad jump of 113.9 inches (range, 96-136 inches) compared with respective values for the controls of 33.22 inches (range, 23.5-43.5 inches; P = .84) and 113.9 inches (range, 92-134 inches; P = .99). Agility and quickness testing measures also did not show a statistically significantly difference, with ACL-reconstructed players performing the shuttle drill in 4.37 seconds (range, 4.02-4.84 seconds) and the 3-cone drill in 7.16 seconds (range, 6.45-8.14 seconds), respectively, compared with respective times for the controls of 4.37 seconds (range, 3.96-5.00 seconds; P = .91) and 7.18 seconds (range, 6.64-8.24 seconds; P = .75). Conclusion: This study suggests that after ACL reconstruction, high-caliber athletes can achieve equivalent levels of perfor- mance with no statistically significant differences compared with matched controls. This information is unique when advising high-level athletes on athletic

  9. The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses. PMID:24726389

  10. Athletic amenorrhea, major affective disorders, and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Gadpaille, W J; Sanborn, C F; Wagner, W W

    1987-07-01

    While studying amenorrheic runners, the authors became aware of psychiatric differences between them. Psychiatric interviews of 13 amenorrheic and 19 regularly menstruating runners revealed that of the amenorrheic runners, 11 reported major affective disorders in themselves or in first- and second-degree relatives and eight reported eating disorders in themselves. Among the regularly menstruating runners, however, there were no eating disorders or major affective disorders, and only one had first-degree relatives with major affective disorders. These data suggest a link between athletic amenorrhea in runners, major affective disorders, and eating disorders. PMID:3474904

  11. Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Covert, D.S.; Koenig, J.Q.; Namekata, T.; Kim, Y.S.

    1986-06-01

    Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest that air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, sulfur dioxide, which is a highly water-soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared to pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where milliseconds and millimeters often determine the success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

  12. Review: Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, William E.; Covert, David S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Namekata, Tsukasa; Kim, Yoon Shin

    Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, SO 2 which is a highly water soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO 2 or O 3) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared with pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where ms and mm often determine success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

  13. A Comparison of Athletes and Non-Athletes at Highly Selective Colleges: Academic Performance and Personal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aries, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Danielle; Salovey, Peter; Banaji, Mahzarin R.

    2004-01-01

    Student-athletes were studied over 4 years at a highly selective liberal arts college and an Ivy League university. Students spending 10 or more hours per week in athletic activities had lower entering academic credentials and academic self-assessments than non-athletes, but the academic performance of athletes was not below what would be expected…

  14. The Mental Aspect of Athletics: The Effects of the Mind's Influence on Athletic Achievement and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollough, David D.

    This study of athletes seeks to determine that a relationship exists between the mind and the body. It presents negative psychological factors that may arise and shows possible ways to enhance athletic performance through psychological techniques. The central part of the study is an annotated bibliography covering selected literature on these…

  15. Cognitive behavioral strategies in athletic performance enhancement.

    PubMed

    Meyers, A W; Whelan, J P; Murphy, S M

    1996-01-01

    While we might debate the role of sport in our culture, its influence is certainly pervasive. Each day millions of Americans engage in some form of competition, training, or physical exercise. Such popularity and the value our culture places on competition have made sport a valid area of psychological inquiry. Within the cognitive behavioral model, sport psychology and, specifically, athletic performance enhancement have experienced vigorous growth over the past two decades. Behavior change strategies familiar to most cognitive behaviorists form the core of virtually all athletic performance enhancement interventions. Goal setting, imagery or mental rehearsal, relaxation training, stress management, self-monitoring, self-instruction, cognitive restructuring, and modeling interventions dominate this literature. Our examination of these performance enhancement programs, both through a qualitative review and the Whelan et al. (1989) meta-analysis, supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions for the enhancement of sport performance. First, the average effect size across the empirical literature indicates that these interventions are reliably effective. Furthermore, this positive result is observed across variations in treatment conditions, control conditions, and across different types of dependent measures. Evidence on goal setting, imagery, arousal management, cognitive self-regulation, and packaged programs specifically support the behavior change efficacy of these interventions. These findings are encouraging, but much work needs to be done. Few investigators cited in this review attend to crucial internal and external validity issues. Attention to treatment integrity, including training of behavior change agents, verification of intervention implementation, and verification of reception of the treatment, is sorely lacking. Psychological skill development and its relationship to performance improvements are rarely checked. Now that cognitive

  16. Stance limb kinetics of older male athletes endurance running performance.

    PubMed

    Diss, Ceri; Gittoes, Marianne J; Tong, Richard; Kerwin, David G

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the age-based, lower limb kinetics of running performances of endurance athletes. Six running trials were performed by 24 male athletes, who were distinguished by three age groupings (S35: 26-32 years, M50: 50-54 years, M60+: 60-68 years). Lower limb coordinate and ground reaction force data were collected using a nine camera infra-red system synchronised with a force plate. A slower anteroposterior (M ± SD S35 = 4.13 ± 0.54 m/s: M60+ = 3.34 ± 0.40 m/s, p < 0.05) running velocity was associated with significant (p < 0.05) decreases in step length and discrete vertical ground contact force between M60+and S35 athletes. The M60+athletes simultaneously generated a 32% and 42% reduction (p < 0.05) in ankle joint moment when compared to the M50 and S35 athletes and 72% (p < 0.05) reduction in knee joint stiffness when compared to S35 athletes. Age-based declines in running performance were associated with reduced stance phase force tolerance and generation that may be accounted for due to an inhibited force-velocity muscular function of the lower limb. Joint-specific coaching strategies customised to athlete age are warranted to maintain/enhance athletes' dynamic performance. PMID:26208084

  17. African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kathryn Mary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…

  18. Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B

    2016-02-01

    Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes. PMID:26568028

  19. On the Field and Outside the Lines: Relationships between Student-Athletes' Perceptions of Their Intercollegiate Coaches' Leadership Practices and Student-Athletes' Self Reported Satisfaction, Athletic and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispo, Elaine J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between intercollegiate student-athletes' perceptions of their coaches' exemplary leadership practices and those student-athletes' self-reported athlete satisfaction, athletic and academic performances, while controlling for the demographics of coach and student-athlete gender, student-athlete playing…

  20. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public performances, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional... amateur or semi-professional athletes or athletic teams wishing to travel to participate in...

  1. The Olympic Training Center: Helping Athletes Improve Their Performance.

    PubMed

    DeBenedette, V

    1988-07-01

    The Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs offers a variety of programs to help American athletes optimize their performance. Research in biomechanics and exercise physiology may pay off at the 1988 Summer Games. PMID:27403833

  2. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in elite athletes: optimal management for quality of life and performance.

    PubMed

    Katelaris, Constance H; Carrozzi, Fiona M; Burke, Therese V

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is a common condition with a peak incidence in the age range of the majority of elite athletes. The condition has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected and poses particular challenges when present in the elite athlete. When an athlete is looking for exceptional performance at events such as the Olympic Games, any factor which affects quality of life by interfering with sleep, decreasing the ability to concentrate, or reducing peak physical fitness, may have a significant impact on the ability to perform at one's best. Optimal management begins with correct diagnosis and identification of triggering factors. There are a number of therapeutic options available to the treating physician. When formulating a management plan for the elite athlete, the physician must consider "doping" rules and the possible effect of medication on athletic performance. Medication choices include the newer, non-sedating antihistamines, used either orally or topically, and the prophylactic use of intranasal corticosteroids. When allergic conjunctivitis is the principal problem, the newer, topical antihistamines are highly effective and have a rapid onset of action. Since avoidance strategies are rarely practical for the athlete, consideration should be given to strategies such as immunotherapy, where long-term benefit is possible. PMID:12744714

  3. Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Dieter, Brad P; Koehle, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine vitamin D in the context of sport nutrition and its potential role in optimizing athletic performance. Vitamin D receptors (VDR) and vitamin D response elements (VDREs) are located in almost every tissue within the human body including skeletal muscle. The hormonally-active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has been shown to play critical roles in the human body and regulates over 900 gene variants. Based on the literature presented, it is plausible that vitamin D levels above the normal reference range (up to 100 nmol/L) might increase skeletal muscle function, decrease recovery time from training, increase both force and power production, and increase testosterone production, each of which could potentiate athletic performance. Therefore, maintaining higher levels of vitamin D could prove beneficial for athletic performance. Despite this situation, large portions of athletic populations are vitamin D deficient. Currently, the research is inconclusive with regards to the optimal intake of vitamin D, the specific forms of vitamin D one should ingest, and the distinct nutrient-nutrient interactions of vitamin D with vitamin K that affect arterial calcification and hypervitaminosis. Furthermore, it is possible that dosages exceeding the recommendations for vitamin D (i.e. dosages up to 4000-5000 IU/day), in combination with 50 to 1000 mcg/day of vitamin K1 and K2 could aid athletic performance. This review will investigate these topics, and specifically their relevance to athletic performance. PMID:26288575

  4. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes. PMID:22248498

  5. The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance. The population biases of some studies of athletic performance also confound the results. Conclusions Targeted core stability training provides marginal benefits to athletic performance. Conflicting findings and the lack of a standardization for measurement of outcomes and training focused to improve core strength and stability pose difficulties. Because of this, further research targeted to determine this relationship is necessary to better understand how core strength and stability affect athletic performance. PMID:22784233

  6. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    PubMed

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. PMID:27173805

  7. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Hammes, Daniel; Coutts, Aaron J; Meyer, Tim

    2015-02-01

    Although its true function remains unclear, sleep is considered critical to human physiological and cognitive function. Equally, since sleep loss is a common occurrence prior to competition in athletes, this could significantly impact upon their athletic performance. Much of the previous research has reported that exercise performance is negatively affected following sleep loss; however, conflicting findings mean that the extent, influence, and mechanisms of sleep loss affecting exercise performance remain uncertain. For instance, research indicates some maximal physical efforts and gross motor performances can be maintained. In comparison, the few published studies investigating the effect of sleep loss on performance in athletes report a reduction in sport-specific performance. The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction. Of further concern, numerous studies investigating the effects of sleep loss on cognitive function report slower and less accurate cognitive performance. Based on this context, this review aims to evaluate the importance and prevalence of sleep in athletes and summarises the effects of sleep loss (restriction and deprivation) on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Given the equivocal understanding of sleep and athletic performance outcomes, further research and consideration is required to obtain a greater knowledge of the interaction between sleep and performance. PMID:25315456

  8. The effect of alcohol on athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2006-06-01

    The use of alcohol is often intimately associated with sport. As well as providing a source of energy, alcohol (ethanol) has metabolic, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and neuromuscular actions that may affect exercise performance. Strength is minimally affected, and performance impairments depend on the dose of alcohol and subject habituation to alcohol intake, exercise duration, environmental conditions, and other factors. Central nervous system function is impaired at high doses, resulting in decrements in cognitive function and motor skill, as well as behavioral changes that may have adverse effects on performance. Effects may persist for hours after intoxication. PMID:16822341

  9. Does Nutrition Knowledge and Practice of Athletes Translate to Enhanced Athletic Performance? Cross-Sectional Study Amongst Nigerian Undergraduate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Folasire, Oluyemisi F.; Akomolafe, Abiola A.; Sanusi, Rasaki A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Nutrition knowledge of an athlete, as well as practice, is expected to influence athlete’s performance. The study assessed the nutrition knowledge and practice as well as athletes’ performance and identified the factors predicting the athletes’ performance. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey, involved 110 purposively selected undergraduate athletes (47 females, 63 males) of University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between July 2013 and December 2013. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire assessed the nutrition knowledge and practice. 24-hr diet recall and food frequency questionnaire were done. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Handgrip strength (HGS), as an indirect measure of athlete performance, was assessed with the hand dynamometer. Chi-square and t-test analysis were used for the bivariate analysis. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were used to determine relationships and predict athletic performance. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Results: More than half (58.2%) had good nutrition knowledge (NK), and 62.7% had good nutrition practices (NP). Majority (75.4%) had normal handgrip strength (HGS). More than 70.0% frequently do not consume cereals, roots and tubers, fruits and vegetables, legumes/nuts. About 30.0-40.0% frequently do not consume eggs/milk, meat/fish. Having good NK was significantly associated with good NP (χ2 = 15.520, p=0.000), but not with athlete’s performance (HGS). There is no significant correlation between NK, NP, and HGS. There is a significant positive correlation between HGS and lean muscle mass (LMM) (r=.670, p=0.000), weight (r=.492, p=0.000), height (r=.521, p=0.000) and energy intake (r=.386, p=0.000). There is a significant negative correlation between HGS and percentage body fat (r=-.400, p=0.000). Athletes’ performance was significantly predicted by the resting metabolic

  10. Influence of Temperament and Anxiety on Athletic Performance

    PubMed Central

    H. Han, Doug; H. Kim, Joo; S. Lee, Young; Joeng Bae, Soo; Jin Bae, Soo; J. Kim, Hyung; Y. Sim, Min; H. Sung, Young; Kyoon Lyoo, In

    2006-01-01

    Our research aimed to conduct basic descriptions of temperamental traits and the level of state and trait anxiety of young male athletes, and to compare them by type of sports. Study participants were 277 athletes and 152 non-athletes who were all high school boys. The Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used for checking temperamental traits while the Korean version of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI-KY) was used to estimate anxiety levels. Harm Avoidance score of athletes was higher than that of non-athletes. Harm Avoidance score of golfers was lowest and that of swimmers was highest. The state anxiety score of baseball players was lowest and that of Taekwondo players was highest. The trait anxiety score of baseball players was also lowest and that of golfers was highest. Both trait and state anxieties of the ‘winner’ group were lower than those of the ‘no winner’ group. While prior research mainly focused on athletes’ environment and phenotypic characteristics, we studied the pattern of temperaments in athletes along with its potential influence on athletic performance. Key Points Harm Avoidance score of athletes was higher than that of non-athletes. Harm Avoidance score of golfers was lowest and that of swimmers was highest. Both trait and state anxieties of the ‘winner’ group were lower than those of the ‘no winner’ group. The trait anxiety score of baseball players was also lowest while that of golfers was highest. PMID:24353455

  11. Elite athletes' attitudes towards the use of placebo-induced performance enhancement in sports.

    PubMed

    Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Hevesi, Krisztina; Bárdos, György; Szabo, Attila

    2015-01-01

    While an increasing number of research is devoted to the understanding of placebo effects in sports, athletes' experiences with and attitudes towards the use of placebo for performance enhancement remain poorly understood. In this study, 79 elite athletes from different sports were surveyed on five issues related to placebo use in sports. Results showed that 47% of the athletes have experienced placebo effects in the past. A majority of the athletes (82%) thought that placebos could affect their sports performances. A wider use of placebos in sport settings was endorsed more by those who have experienced placebo effects in the past than those who did not (P = .005). Regardless of past experience with placebo, more than half of the athletes (53%) would accept an unknown but legitimate substance from the coach, and 67% of them would not mind a placebo-linked deception if that was effective. These findings confirm that most elite athletes believe in the power of placebos in enhancing sports performance, and those having a positive past experience exhibit slightly more favourable attitudes in contrast to those without such experiences. PMID:25189187

  12. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  13. Dietary requirements and athletic performance of horses.

    PubMed

    Frape, D L

    1988-05-01

    There is no clear evidence that the chronic requirement for any non-energy yielding nutrient rises in proportion as the energy requirement increases with hard work. The need for protein, and probably that for calcium, remain a function of bodyweight daily. Some proportionality with energy may exist for certain nutrients, although the evidence has not been adduced. For example, because of an increase in both the proportion and amount of propionic acid in the volatile fatty acids of caecal contents, the tissue requirement for vitamin B12 may rise with an increase in the rate of energy metabolism. Exercise influences appetite and therefore voluntary intake, and consequently the daily intake of nutrients. Although that intake is not just a function of dietary bulk and weight, it is necessary to increase energy concentration of diets to achieve an adequate chronic intake of energy where work intensity and energy expenditure are considerable. Acute nutrient requirements paint a different picture from chronic requirements. An increase in total feed intake, or the density of that feed, would neither satisfy these requirements nor be a desirable means of doing so. The acute needs of water, electrolytes and soluble carbohydrates should be met by dosing when the need arises. The timing of the consumption of energy yielding substrates relative to that of exercise may be critical to performance. An inevitable postprandial consequence of a meal of starch or protein by the resting horse, is an increase in the activity of plasma insulin. This increase decreases blood glucose, depriving muscles of a critical substrate, but the assertion has not been resolved by experiment in horses. Experiments are required to ascertain the optimum feeding regime during the 24 h preceding extreme exertion. Whereas exhaustion in sprint work is largely a function of elevated blood lactate concentration, that of extended work is a consequence of a decline in glycogen reserves and losses of body fluid

  14. Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance

    PubMed Central

    Wiechert, Karsten; Khattab, Mohamed F.; Korge, Andreas; Mayer, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical concerns remain and the implant’s resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients participated in a large variety of different types of sport. Significant and lasting pain-relief was attained following TDR with a mean follow-up of 26.3 months (range 9–50.7 months; FU rate 97.4%). Sporting activity was resumed within the first 3 months (38.5%) to 6 months (30.7%) with peak performance being reached after 5.2 months. Thirty-seven patients (94.9%) achieved resumption of sporting activity. Athletic performance improved significantly in 33 patients (84.6%). Minor subsidence was observed in 13 patients (30%) within the first 3 months with no further implant migration thereafter in 12 patients. Participation in all types of sport recorded in this study was accessible for a high rate of patients up to the level of professional athletes as well as those participating in extreme sports. Preoperative participation in sport proved to be a strong positive predictor for highly satisfactory postoperative outcome following TDR. In a selected group of patients, however, preoperative inability to participate in sporting activities did not impair postoperative physical activity. Due to the young age of the patients and significant load increase exerted during athletic activities, persisting concerns regarding the future behaviour of the implant remain and will require longer follow-up, modified investigation techniques and larger patient cohorts. PMID:17205239

  15. Abuse of drugs used to enhance athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J C

    1989-10-01

    The ergogenic potential of drugs used by athletes to enhance performance is reviewed, and areas of involvement for pharmacists interested in the problem of drug abuse in athletics are described. Athletes use drugs for therapeutic and recreational purposes, as supposed ergogenic aids, and to mask the presence of other drugs during testing. Because many athletes train for competition and not for health, they may view the risk-to-benefit ratio of ergogenic drugs as favorable and may begin using them at an early age. Alcohol is the drug most commonly used by student athletes. Although alcohol has no ergogenic benefit, it is viewed as a caloric source and an anxiolytic. Amphetamines do not prevent exhaustion but may mask fatigue, which can have dangerous consequences. Anabolic steroids appear to increase strength but frequently cause adverse reactions, primarily involving the hepatic and endocrine systems. Beta-blocking agents have been shown to reduce anxiety, hand tremor, and heart rate in precision sports like archery, but susceptible persons may experience serious adverse effects. Caffeine improves the efficiency of fuel use and reduces fatigue; its use has been banned by several athletic organizations. Neither cocaine nor marijuana causes any increase in strength. Secretion of human growth hormone may be stimulated by a variety of agents, but evidence that any subsequent increases in size and weight occur is lacking. Other substances tried by athletes include vitamins and minerals, naloxone, albuterol, and human recombinant erythropoietin. Opportunities in sports pharmacy exists in the areas of information retrieval and interpretation, drug testing, legislation to reclassify drugs, education, and research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2683762

  16. Clinical Integration and How It Affects Student Retention in Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M

    2013-01-01

    Context A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. Objective To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Design Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Setting Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F1,92 = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F1,92 = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F1,92 = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F1,92 = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. Conclusions A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences. PMID:23672327

  17. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    PubMed

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance. PMID:27003630

  18. The Analysis of Athletic Performance: Some Practical and Philosophical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lee J.; Groom, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a hypothetical dialogue between a notational analyst (NA) recently schooled in the positivistic assessment of athletic performance, an "old-school" traditional coach (TC) who favours subjective analysis, and a pragmatic educator (PE). The conversation opens with NA and TC debating the respective value of quantitative and…

  19. Japanese University Athletes' Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes' dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year students). A…

  20. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Lesinski, Melanie; Büsch, Dirk; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Prieske, Olaf; Puta, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Behm, David G

    2016-01-01

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes. PMID:27242538

  1. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development

    PubMed Central

    Granacher, Urs; Lesinski, Melanie; Büsch, Dirk; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Prieske, Olaf; Puta, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Behm, David G.

    2016-01-01

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes. PMID:27242538

  2. A Comparison of Mental Strategies During Athletic Skills Performance

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Eugenio A.; Ross, Michael J.; Gfeller, Jeffrey D.; LaVoie, Donna J.

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of performance enhancement techniques (PET’s) on motor skill performance. Specifically, one hundred fifty college student volunteers (Men = 41; 27.3% and Women = 109; 72.6%) were randomly assigned to one of the nine conditions (Cond): Cond 1 and 2, simultaneous, externally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say “aim, back, birdie ”or engaged in imagery out loud while putting); Cond 3 and 4, delayed externally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say “aim, back, birdie ”or engaged in imagery out loud before putting); Cond 5 and 6, simultaneous, internally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say “aim, back, birdie ”or engaged in imagery silently to oneself while putting); Cond 7 and 8, delayed internally verbalized (e.g., participant were instructed to say “aim, back, birdie ”or engaged in imagery silently to oneself before putting); and Cond 9, no instruction control group. All participants were asked to perform a golf-putting task. Results indicated that participants who implemented several (PET’s) increased their putting accuracy across overall difference score evaluations F (8, 141) = 4.01, p < 0.05 when compared to a no instruction control condition. Follow-up analyses indicated that participants who reportedly engaged in ten hours or less of athletic activities per week preferred self-talk strategies F (2, 119) = 4.38, p < 0.05 whereas participants who endorsed ten hours or more of athletic activity per week preferred imagery strategies F (2, 25) = 5.27, p < 0.05. Key Points Mental imagery and self-talk strategies are implemented by athletes in order to regulate arousal, reduce maladaptive behaviors, reconstruct negative thoughts, and to increase one’s concentration and focus. Results of the current study suggest that participants who engaged in several performance enhancement techniques exhibited

  3. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks. PMID:19308873

  4. Genetic aspects of athletic performance: the African runners phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Pesquero, João Bosco; Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Borin, João Paulo; Montagner, Paulo César; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The current dominance of African runners in long-distance running is an intriguing phenomenon that highlights the close relationship between genetics and physical performance. Many factors in the interesting interaction between genotype and phenotype (eg, high cardiorespiratory fitness, higher hemoglobin concentration, good metabolic efficiency, muscle fiber composition, enzyme profile, diet, altitude training, and psychological aspects) have been proposed in the attempt to explain the extraordinary success of these runners. Increasing evidence shows that genetics may be a determining factor in physical and athletic performance. But, could this also be true for African long-distance runners? Based on this question, this brief review proposed the role of genetic factors (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, the Y chromosome, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme and the alpha-actinin-3 genes) in the amazing athletic performance observed in African runners, especially the Kenyans and Ethiopians, despite their environmental constraints. PMID:24891818

  5. Genetic aspects of athletic performance: the African runners phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Pesquero, João Bosco; Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Borin, João Paulo; Montagner, Paulo César; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The current dominance of African runners in long-distance running is an intriguing phenomenon that highlights the close relationship between genetics and physical performance. Many factors in the interesting interaction between genotype and phenotype (eg, high cardiorespiratory fitness, higher hemoglobin concentration, good metabolic efficiency, muscle fiber composition, enzyme profile, diet, altitude training, and psychological aspects) have been proposed in the attempt to explain the extraordinary success of these runners. Increasing evidence shows that genetics may be a determining factor in physical and athletic performance. But, could this also be true for African long-distance runners? Based on this question, this brief review proposed the role of genetic factors (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, the Y chromosome, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme and the alpha-actinin-3 genes) in the amazing athletic performance observed in African runners, especially the Kenyans and Ethiopians, despite their environmental constraints. PMID:24891818

  6. Comparing Division IA Scholarship and Non-Scholarship Student-Athletes: A Discriminant Analysis of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lisa Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the academic performance and graduation rates of college student-athletes. The limited focus on scholarship student-athletes has overlooked the majority of NCAA student-athletes, those participating in collegiate athletic programs without athletic scholarships. Therefore, this study contributes to a gap in the…

  7. [Banned performance enhancing ergogenic aids in children and adolescent athletes].

    PubMed

    Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2007-10-01

    Ergogenic aids (from the Greek, ergon, meaning work) are ingested to enhance energy utilization in athletes. In recent years there has been an increase in youth participating in competitive sports and, as a consequence, a concomitant increase in the usage of performance enhancing substances. Ergogenic aid usage could influence, or its efficiency could be influenced, during this period of rapid growth and sexual maturation, and by the marked hormonal fluctuations. Ephedra alkaloids; pain relief medications, diuretics, anabolic steroids and protein hormones are among the ergogenic aids used by young athletes. While there is no scientific evidence to support the usage of these agents for enhancing performance in children and adolescents, using supra-physiological doses may be associated with undesired side effects. PMID:17990397

  8. The Impact of a Performance Profiling Intervention on Athletes' Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Neil J. V.; Greenlees, Iain A.; Thelwell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Originally developed by Butler (1989) with the Great Britain Olympic boxing team, performance profiling is an assessment tool primarily used by sport psychologists to enhance athlete awareness. The completed profile provides the athlete, the coach, and psychologist with a visual representation of the athlete's perception of his or her performance…

  9. Gender Differences in the Prediction of College Student-Athletes' Academic Performances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores and negative life stress on intercollegiate student-athletes' academic performances. Analysis of 53 male athletes and 32 female athletes indicate that negative life stress, experienced during the preceding year, can have deleterious effects on female, but not male,…

  10. [Selenium determination in blood plasma samples of high performance athletes].

    PubMed

    Logemann, E; Krützfeldt, B; Rokitzki, L

    1989-01-01

    Cooperating with the department "Sport- und Leistungsmedizin" of the university hospital of Freiburg/Brsg. we investigated the problem whether endurance stress leads to a significant change in the selenium blood concentration of athletes. We took blood samples of 13 test persons (11 men, 2 women) before, immediately after and 2 hours following a marathon course. The analyses of the concentration of selenium in plasma were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry AAS (molybdenum-coated graphite tube technique with L'vov platform as well as matrix modification with nickel nitrate in order to thermally stabilize the selenium). The selenium level of the plasma samples ranged between 41 and 153 micrograms/L. Our experiments have shown that running a marathon course does not lead to significant changes in the standard selenium plasma concentrations of the athletes. PMID:2818554

  11. Adult age trends in athletic performances.

    PubMed

    Stones, M J; Kozma, A

    1981-01-01

    Aged trends in male, world record, track and field performances were examined over the 40-69 years age range. Five hypotheses were compared with respect to accuracy of prediction of differential age trends across events. The only hypothesis to yield statistically significant predictions was termed that of energy expenditure-supply ratio. This hypothesis predicts performance changes with age to exhibit steeper overall declines for events for events associated with higher maximal force transmissions, relative to the available (anaerobic or aerobic) energy supply. PMID:7318855

  12. Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Ward, Emery

    2015-01-01

    The training regimens of modern-day athletes have evolved from the sole emphasis on a single fitness component (e.g., endurance athlete or resistance/strength athlete) to an integrative, multimode approach encompassing all four of the major fitness components: resistance (R), interval sprints (I), stretching (S), and endurance (E) training. Athletes rarely, if ever, focus their training on only one mode of exercise but instead routinely engage in a multimode training program. In addition, timed-daily protein (P) intake has become a hallmark for all athletes. Recent studies, including from our laboratory, have validated the effectiveness of this multimode paradigm (RISE) and protein-feeding regimen, which we have collectively termed PRISE. Unfortunately, sports nutrition recommendations and guidelines have lagged behind the PRISE integrative nutrition and training model and therefore limit an athletes' ability to succeed. Thus, it is the purpose of this review to provide a clearly defined roadmap linking specific performance enhancing diets (PEDs) with each PRISE component to facilitate optimal nourishment and ultimately optimal athletic performance. PMID:25949823

  13. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

  14. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent. PMID:24041313

  15. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  16. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  17. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  18. Factors affecting the relative age effect in NHL athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE. PMID:24869606

  19. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition and Physical Performance in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Memari, Amir-Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Panahi, Nekoo; Nikookar, Laya R.; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan. Methods Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests. Results There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (P<0.001) and BMI (P<0.001) was observed in T3 compared to T1. Calorie intake decreased significantly in T3 compared with T1 (P=0.008), and increased significantly in T4 compared with T3 (P=0.04). There was a significant main effect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3). Conclusions This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan. PMID:22375235

  20. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed. PMID:22267572

  1. The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Krendl, Anne; Gainsburg, Izzy; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-02-01

    Although the effects of negative stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance have been well researched, the effects of positive stereotypes on performance, particularly in the presence of observers, is not known. In the current study, White males watched a video either depicting Whites basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (positive stereotype), Black basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (negative stereotype), or a neutral sports video (control). Participants then shot a set of free throws, during which half the participants were also videotaped (observer condition), whereas the other half were not (no observer condition). Results demonstrated that positive stereotypes improved free throw performance, but only in the no observer condition. Interestingly, observer pressure interacted with the positive stereotype to lead to performance decrements. In the negative stereotype condition, performance decrements were observed both in the observer and no observer conditions. PMID:22356881

  2. Prediction and Quantification of Individual Athletic Performance of Runners.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Duncan A J; Király, Franz J

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners' performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0.3 seconds on 100 metres performances, and a lower error than the state-of-the-art in performance prediction (30% improvement, RMSE) over a range of distances. We are also the first to report on a systematic comparison of predictors for running performance. Our model has three parameters per runner, and three components which are the same for all runners. The first component of the model corresponds to a power law with exponent dependent on the runner which achieves a better goodness-of-fit than known power laws in the study of running. Many documented phenomena in quantitative sports science, such as the form of scoring tables, the success of existing prediction methods including Riegel's formula, the Purdy points scheme, the power law for world records performances and the broken power law for world record speeds may be explained on the basis of our findings in a unified way. We provide strong evidence that the three parameters per runner are related to physiological and behavioural parameters, such as training state, event specialization and age, which allows us to derive novel physiological hypotheses relating to athletic performance. We conjecture on this basis that our findings will be vital in exercise physiology, race planning, the study of aging and training regime design. PMID:27336162

  3. Prediction and Quantification of Individual Athletic Performance of Runners

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners’ performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0.3 seconds on 100 metres performances, and a lower error than the state-of-the-art in performance prediction (30% improvement, RMSE) over a range of distances. We are also the first to report on a systematic comparison of predictors for running performance. Our model has three parameters per runner, and three components which are the same for all runners. The first component of the model corresponds to a power law with exponent dependent on the runner which achieves a better goodness-of-fit than known power laws in the study of running. Many documented phenomena in quantitative sports science, such as the form of scoring tables, the success of existing prediction methods including Riegel’s formula, the Purdy points scheme, the power law for world records performances and the broken power law for world record speeds may be explained on the basis of our findings in a unified way. We provide strong evidence that the three parameters per runner are related to physiological and behavioural parameters, such as training state, event specialization and age, which allows us to derive novel physiological hypotheses relating to athletic performance. We conjecture on this basis that our findings will be vital in exercise physiology, race planning, the study of aging and training regime design. PMID:27336162

  4. Coaches, Athletes, and Dominance Profiles in Sport: Addressing the Learning Styles of Athletes to Improve Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Debbie; Cadorette, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help…

  5. How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a…

  6. How does visual manipulation affect obstacle avoidance strategies used by athletes?

    PubMed

    Bijman, M P; Fisher, J J; Vallis, L A

    2016-01-01

    Research examining our ability to avoid obstacles in our path has stressed the importance of visual input. The aim of this study was to determine if athletes playing varsity-level field sports, who rely on visual input to guide motor behaviour, are more able to guide their foot over obstacles compared to recreational individuals. While wearing kinematic markers, eight varsity athletes and eight age-matched controls (aged 18-25) walked along a walkway and stepped over stationary obstacles (180° motion arc). Visual input was manipulated using PLATO visual goggles three or two steps pre-obstacle crossing and compared to trials where vision was given throughout. A main effect between groups for peak trail toe elevation was shown with greater values generated by the controls for all crossing conditions during full vision trials only. This may be interpreted as athletes not perceiving this obstacle as an increased threat to their postural stability. Collectively, findings suggest the athletic group is able to transfer their abilities to non-specific conditions during full vision trials; however, varsity-level athletes were equally reliant on visual cues for these visually guided stepping tasks as their performance was similar to the controls when vision is removed. PMID:26291383

  7. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  8. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

  9. Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future. PMID:25786594

  10. A Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment-Based Approach to Athletic Performance Enhancement: Theoretical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Frank L.; Moore, Zella E.

    2004-01-01

    While traditional cognitive-behavioral skills-training-based approaches to athletic performance enhancement posit that negative thoughts and emotions must be controlled, eliminated, or replaced for athlete-clients to perform optimally, recent evidence suggests that efforts to control, eliminate, or suppress these internal states may actually have…

  11. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  12. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  14. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  15. [Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].

    PubMed

    Braun, H

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability. PMID:27490353

  16. Insomnia and sleep disruption: relevance for athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Leger, Damien; Metlaine, Arnaud; Choudat, Dominique

    2005-04-01

    Insomnia is a common sleep complaint even in young adults and has important daytime consequences. Several subjective and objective tools are recommended to assess the magnitude of the problem and to try to find a cause. Chronic insomnia is often caused by precipitating factors, such as acute stress, work conditions, illness, and travel, and perpetuating factors, such as poor sleep hygiene, anxiety, and medications. Insomnia may have implications in athletic performance resulting from physical and cognitive effects. Several pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are employed in the management of insomnia that have proven effective for short-term treatment. The pharmacologic approaches include the use of zolpidem and specific GABA agonists, benzodiazepines for specific indications, antidepressants, and melatonin. The nonpharmacologic approaches include stimulus control, sleep restriction, relaxation strategies, and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:15892923

  17. Performance enhancing drug abuse and cardiovascular risk in athletes: implications for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Angell, Peter J; Chester, Neil; Sculthorpe, Nick; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith; Somauroo, John

    2012-11-01

    The use of performance-enhancing and social drugs by athletes raises a number of ethical and health concerns. The World Anti-Doping Agency was constituted to address both of these issues as well as publishing a list of, and testing for, banned substances in athletes. Despite continuing methodological developments to detect drug use and associated punishments for positive dope tests, there are still many athletes who choose to use performance and image enhancing drugs. Of primary concern to this review are the health consequences of drug use by athletes. For such a large topic we must put in place delimitations. Specifically, we will address current knowledge, controversies and emerging evidence in relation to cardiovascular (CV) health of athletes taking drugs. Further, we delimit our discussion to the CV consequences of anabolic steroids and stimulant (including amphetamines and cocaine) use. These drugs are reported in the majority of adverse findings in athlete drug screenings and thus are more likely to be relevant to the healthcare professionals responsible for the well-being of athletes. In detailing CV health issues related to anabolic steroid and stimulant abuse by athletes we critique current research evidence, present exemplar case studies and suggest important avenues for on-going research. Specifically we prompt the need for awareness of clinical staff when assessing the potential CV consequences of drug use in athletes. PMID:23097484

  18. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    PubMed Central

    Silfies, Sheri P.; Ebaugh, David; Pontillo, Marisa; Butowicz, Courtney M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. OBJECTIVES: 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2) Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3) Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance. DISCUSSION: Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance. CONCLUSIONS: A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes. PMID:26537806

  19. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: How Vulnerable Are Athletes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses chronic fatigue syndrome as it affects elite athletes, noting that overtraining may mimic it. In some cases, athletes who have it perform exceedingly well in the face of debilitating fatigue. Among athletes and nonathletes, the cause and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)

  20. Management of severe lower abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. PAIN (Performing Athletes with Abdominal or Inguinal Neuromuscular Pain Study Group).

    PubMed

    Meyers, W C; Foley, D P; Garrett, W E; Lohnes, J H; Mandlebaum, B R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiologic processes of severe lower-abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. We evaluated 276 patients; 175 underwent pelvic floor repairs. Of the 157 athletes who had not undergone previous surgery, 124 (79%) participated at a professional or other highly competitive level, and 138 patients (88%) had adductor pain that accompanied the lower-abdominal or inguinal pain. More patients underwent related adductor releases during the later operative period in the series. Evaluation revealed 38 other abnormalities, including severe hip problems and malignancies. There were 152 athletes (97%) who returned to previous levels of performance. The syndrome was uncommon in women and the results were less predictable in nonathletes. A distinct syndrome of lower-abdominal/adductor pain in male athletes appears correctable by a procedure designed to strengthen the anterior pelvic floor. The location and pattern of pain and the operative success suggest the cause to be a combination of abdominal hyperextension and thigh hyperabduction, with the pivot point being the pubic symphysis. Diagnosis of "athletic pubalgia" and surgery should be limited to a select group of high-performance athletes. The consideration of other causes of groin pain in the patient is critical. PMID:10653536

  1. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. 515.567 Section 515.567 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.567 Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific...

  2. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. 515.567 Section 515.567 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.567 Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific...

  3. Perceived Effects of Emotion Intensity on Athletic Performance: A Contingency-Based Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Hanin, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    This study, based on the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model, examined the perceived effect of idiosyncratic emotions and bodily symptoms on athletic performance along the entire emotion-intensity range. The participants were 35 elite Italian athletes, 16 women and 19 men, competing in either figure skating or gymnastics. Idiosyncratic…

  4. Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an…

  5. Jet Lag in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aaron; Galvez, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Context: Prolonged transmeridian air travel can impart a physical and emotional burden on athletes in jet lag and travel fatigue. Jet lag may negatively affect the performance of athletes. Study Type: Descriptive review. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search for articles relating to jet lag was performed (1990-present), as was a search relating to jet lag and athletes (1983-January, 2012). The results were reviewed for relevance. Eighty-nine sources were included in this descriptive review. Results: Behavioral strategies are recommended over pharmacological strategies when traveling with athletes; pharmacological aides may be used on an individual basis. Strategic sleeping, timed exposure to bright light, and the use of melatonin are encouraged. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that mood and cognition are adversely affected by jet lag. Some measures of individual and team performance are adversely affected as well. PMID:23016089

  6. The impact of Ramadan observance upon athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2012-06-01

    Ramadan observance requires a total abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset for a period of one month. Such intermittent fasting has only minor effects upon the overall nutrition and physiological responses of the general sedentary population. Larger meals are consumed at night and in the early morning. Body mass usually remains unchanged, the total energy intake remains roughly constant, and there is little alteration in the relative consumption of protein, fats and carbohydrates. However, Ramadan observance may be of greater consequence for the training and performance of the competitive athlete, particularly when the festival is celebrated in the hotter part of the year and daylight hours are long, as is the case for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London, England. The normal sleeping time then tends to be shortened, and blood sugar and tissue hydration decrease progressively throughout the hours of daylight. Some limitation of anaerobic effort, endurance performance and muscle strength might be anticipated from the decrease in muscle glycogen and body fluid reserves, and a reduced blood glucose may cause a depressed mood state, an increased perception of effort, and poorer team work. This review considers empirical data on the extent of such changes, and their likely effect upon anaerobic, aerobic and muscular performance, suggesting potential nutritional and behavioral tactics for minimizing such effects in the Muslim competitor. PMID:22822448

  7. The Impact of Ramadan Observance upon Athletic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Ramadan observance requires a total abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset for a period of one month. Such intermittent fasting has only minor effects upon the overall nutrition and physiological responses of the general sedentary population. Larger meals are consumed at night and in the early morning. Body mass usually remains unchanged, the total energy intake remains roughly constant, and there is little alteration in the relative consumption of protein, fats and carbohydrates. However, Ramadan observance may be of greater consequence for the training and performance of the competitive athlete, particularly when the festival is celebrated in the hotter part of the year and daylight hours are long, as is the case for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London, England. The normal sleeping time then tends to be shortened, and blood sugar and tissue hydration decrease progressively throughout the hours of daylight. Some limitation of anaerobic effort, endurance performance and muscle strength might be anticipated from the decrease in muscle glycogen and body fluid reserves, and a reduced blood glucose may cause a depressed mood state, an increased perception of effort, and poorer team work. This review considers empirical data on the extent of such changes, and their likely effect upon anaerobic, aerobic and muscular performance, suggesting potential nutritional and behavioral tactics for minimizing such effects in the Muslim competitor. PMID:22822448

  8. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  9. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype Affects Skeletal Muscle Strength In Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel Almeida; Cardoso Marques, Mário; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years) and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years). The athletes were classified as: short (≤ 200m) and middle (400m to 1500m) distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland). DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote’s. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05). In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05), in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females. Key points DD homozygote’s and D allele carriers from both genders shows significantly higher right grip strength. Right grip strength remains significantly higher in the D allele carrier’s female endurance group. Female’s D allele

  10. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  11. [Endurance and Fatigue Caused by Local Muscular Performance in Skilled Athletes].

    PubMed

    Popova, T V; Koryukalov, Y I; Kourova, O G

    2015-01-01

    It was the objective of this research to study the functional parameters of endurance and performance and the brain electrobiological activity during local antebrachial muscle work performance among skilled athletes and unfit people aged 18-23. We examined performance and the brain bioelectrical activity changes at local muscle work by means of an ergograph until fatigue. Our results suggested that local performance increased the spectral power of slow alpha- and theta waves as the fatigue set in, but these changes developed slower and were manifested later in the athletes than in the unfit people. Besides, tired athletes' EEGs showed alpha waves synchronization and only demonstrated a decrease in low- and high frequency beta waves indexes. Athletes show higher performance and lower fatigability if compared to unfit people during local performance, also proved by the EEG bioelectrical changes. PMID:26859997

  12. The impact of circadian phenotype and time since awakening on diurnal performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Facer-Childs, Elise; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2015-02-16

    Circadian rhythms, among other factors, have been shown to regulate key physiological processes involved in athletic performance. Personal best performance of athletes in the evening was confirmed across different sports. Contrary to this view, we identified peak performance times in athletes to be different between human "larks" and "owls" (also called "morningness/eveningness types" or "chronotypes" and referred to as circadian phenotypes in this paper), i.e., individuals with well-documented genetic and physiological differences that result in disparities between their biological clocks and how they entrain to exogenous cues, such as the environmental light/dark cycle and social factors. We found time since entrained awakening to be the major predictor of peak performance times, rather than time of day, as well as significant individual performance variations as large as 26% in the course of a day. Our novel approach combining the use of an athlete-specific chronometric test, longitudinal circadian analysis, and physical performance tests to characterize relevant sleep/wake and performance parameters in athletes allows a comprehensive analysis of the link between the circadian system and diurnal performance variation. We establish that the evaluation of an athlete's personal best performance requires consideration of circadian phenotype, performance evaluation at different times of day, and analysis of performance as a function of time since entrained awakening. PMID:25639241

  13. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-04-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

  14. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

  15. Using reactive strength index-modified as an explosive performance measurement tool in Division I athletes.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Bailey, Christopher A; Sole, Christopher J; Grazer, Jacob L; Beckham, George K

    2015-04-01

    The purposes of this study included examining the reliability of reactive strength index-modified (RSImod), the relationships between RSImod and force-time variables, and the differences in RSImod between male and female collegiate athletes. One hundred six Division I collegiate athletes performed unloaded and loaded countermovement jumps (CMJs). Intraclass correlation coefficients and typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation were used to establish the relative and absolute reliability of RSImod, respectively. Pearson zero-order product-moment correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between RSImod and rate of force development, peak force (PF), and peak power (PP) during unloaded and loaded jumping conditions. Finally, independent samples t-tests were used to examine the sex differences in RSImod between male and female athletes. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for RSImod ranged from 0.96 to 0.98, and typical error values ranged from 7.5 to 9.3% during all jumping conditions. Statistically significant correlations existed between RSImod and all force-time variables examined for male and female athletes during both jumping conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Statistically significant differences in RSImod existed between male and female athletes during both unloaded and loaded CMJs (p < 0.001). Reactive strength index-modified seems to be a reliable performance measurement in male and female athletes. Reactive strength index-modified may be described and used as a measure of explosiveness. Stronger relationships between RSImod, PF, and PP existed in female athletes as compared with that in male athletes; however, further evidence investigating these relationships is needed before conclusive statements can be made. Male athletes produced greater RSImod values as compared with that produced by female athletes. PMID:25426515

  16. Effects of tendon viscoelasticity in Achilles tendinosis on explosive performance and clinical severity in athletes.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-K; Lin, K-H; Su, S-C; Shih, T T-F; Huang, Y-C

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to compare viscoelastic properties of Achilles tendons between legs in elite athletes with unilateral tendinosis, and to investigate relationships between the properties and explosive performance and clinical severity. Seventeen male athletes (mean ± standard deviation age, 27.3 ± 2.0 years) who had unilateral, chronic middle-portion tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon were assessed by the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment questionnaire, measurements of tendon viscoelastic properties, voluntary electromechanical delay (EMD), normalized rate of force development (RFD), and one-leg hopping distance. Compared with the non-injured leg, the tendinopathic leg showed reduced tendon stiffness (-19.2%. P < 0.001), greater mechanical hysteresis (+21.2%, P = 0.004), lower elastic energy storage and release (-14.2%, P = 0.002 and -19.1%, P < 0.001), lower normalized RFD at one-fourth (-16.3%, P = 0.02), 2/4 (-17.3%, P = 0.006), and three-fourths maximal voluntary contraction (-13.7%, P = 0.02), longer soleus and medial gastrocnemius voluntary EMD (+26.9%, P = 0.009 and +24.0%, P = 0.004), and shorter hopping distances (-34.1%, P < 0.001). Tendon stiffness was correlated with normalized RFD, voluntary EMD in the medial gastrocnemius, and hopping distances (r ranged from -0.35 to 0.64, P < 0.05). Hysteresis was correlated to the soleus voluntary EMD and hopping distances (r = 0.42 and -0.39, P < 0.05). We concluded that altered tendon viscoelastic properties in Achilles tendinosis affect explosive performance in athletes. PMID:22830527

  17. Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  18. Visuo-attentional and sensorimotor alpha rhythms are related to visuo-motor performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Del Percio, Claudio; Babiloni, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Marzano, Nicola; Iacoboni, Marco; Infarinato, Francesco; Lizio, Roberta; Stocchi, Massimiliano; Robazza, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Comani, Silvia; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-11-01

    This study tested the two following hypotheses: (i) compared with non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the preparation of precise visuo-motor performance; (ii) in elite athletes, an optimal visuo-motor performance is related to a low cortical activation. To this aim, electroencephalographic (EEG; 56 channels; Be Plus EB-Neuro) data were recorded in 18 right-handed elite air pistol shooters and 10 right-handed non-athletes. All subjects performed 120 shots. The EEG data were spatially enhanced by surface Laplacian estimation. With reference to a baseline period, power decrease/increase of alpha rhythms during the preshot period indexed the cortical activation/deactivation (event-related desynchronization/synchronization, ERD/ERS). Regarding the hypothesis (i), low- (about 8-10 Hz) and high-frequency (about 10-12 Hz) alpha ERD was lower in amplitude in the elite athletes than in the non-athletes over the whole scalp. Regarding the hypothesis (ii), the elite athletes showed high-frequency alpha ERS (about 10-12 Hz) larger in amplitude for high score shots (50%) than for low score shots; this was true in right parietal and left central areas. A control analysis confirmed these results with another indicator of cortical activation (beta ERD, about 20 Hz). The control analysis also showed that the amplitude reduction of alpha ERD for the high compared with low score shots was not observed in the non-athletes. The present findings globally suggest that in elite athletes (experts), visuo-motor performance is related to a global decrease of cortical activity, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical processes ("neural efficiency"). PMID:19350556

  19. Gradual and rapid weight loss: effects on nutrition and performance in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, G M; Koskinen, R; Laakso, J; Rankinen, T; Ruokonen, I

    1993-03-01

    We studied seven male wrestlers and three judo athletes (weight 55-93 kg) during two weight reductions. In the "gradual" procedure (GP), a 5.0 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SEM) weight loss was achieved in 3 weeks by energy restriction. In the "rapid" procedure (RP), 6.0 +/- 0.6% of body weight was lost in 2.4 days by fluid and diet restriction and forced sweating, and followed by a 5-h "loading" (food and drinks ad libitum). The net weight loss after GP and loading was 2.7 +/- 0.5%. Protein intakes (4-d food records) during GP and RP were 71 +/- 16 and RP 56 +/- 17 g.d-1, respectively. Carbohydrate intakes were 239 +/- 56 (GP) and 182 +/- 55 g.d-1 (RP). During GP and RP, mean thiamin, magnesium, and zinc intakes were at or below the respective recommendation. Thiamin, riboflavin, potassium, iron, and zinc status, assessed from blood chemistry, remained stable during both procedures. Changes in vitamin B6 indicator (E-ASTAC) and S-magnesium concentration were different (P < 0.01) between the procedures, suggesting negative trends during GP. Sprint (30-m run) and anaerobic (1-min Wingate test) performance was similar throughout the study. Following GP, vertical jump height with extra load increased by 6-8% (P < 0.01). Jumping results were not affected by RP. Hence, < or = 5% loss in body weight by either method did not impair experienced athletes' performance. PMID:8455453

  20. Developing a Performance Nutrition Curriculum for Collegiate Athletics.

    PubMed

    Parks, Rachel B; Helwig, Dennis; Dettmann, John; Taggart, Tim; Woodruff, Bridget; Horsfall, Karla; Brooks, M Alison

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for developing a sports nutrition education program in a collegiate athletic department. A review of literature on student-athlete nutrition behaviors is combined with practical suggestions from personnel who wrote a sports nutrition curriculum at a large Midwestern university. There are 2 primary implications for practice. First, maintaining a written curriculum and conducting periodic evaluation are fundamental aspects of sports nutrition education programs. Second, better documentation of program outcomes is needed to establish best practices in collegiate sports nutrition education and demonstrate the value of full-time sports registered dietitians. PMID:27062229

  1. Selected factors correlated to athletic performance in adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Baldari, Carlo; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the contribution of selected factors to the athletic performance in adults with mental retardation (MR) and to analyze the correlation of each factor with subjects' MR levels. Twenty-nine trained athletes with MR aged 20-45 years were recruited. The fundamental factors included anthropometric measurements, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, explosive leg power, cardiovascular endurance, and motor coordination. The athletic performances were as follows: 60 m, 300 m, 400 m in walking, standing long jump, and vortex throw (Level I) or 100-m run, shot put, and long jump (Level II). Motor coordination and body weight had significant contributions to 60 m (p < 0.01) and the %body fat had significant contribution to 300 m and 100 m (p < 0.05). The explosive leg power had significant contribution to vortex throw and standing long jump (p < 0.05). The upper-body strength and muscular endurance had significant contribution in shot put (p < 0.05). The body weight had significant contribution in long jump (p < 0.05). MR level was positively correlated to motor coordination (p < 0.05) and negatively to abdominal muscular strength and endurance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed the possibility to determine the contributions of selected factors to the athletic performance. This should be addressed in athletics training to help athletes with MR to perform successfully in their competitions. PMID:20300018

  2. Clinical Instructors' Perceptions of the Importance of Affective Behaviors in Undergraduate Athletic Training Clinical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokris, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The affective domain represents a set of learning objectives that are difficult to assess and instruct. Affective behaviors consist of different attributes such as interpersonal relationships, professionalism, trust, empathy, and integrity to name a few. This study surveyed athletic training clinical instructors' perception of the importance…

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Emotions Associated with Optimal and Dysfunctional Athletic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew M.; Devonport, Tracey J.; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key points Athletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions. Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions. Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance. PMID:24149631

  4. Emotional intelligence and emotions associated with optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrew M; Devonport, Tracey J; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key pointsAthletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions.Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions.Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance. PMID:24149631

  5. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  6. Using Learning Preferences to Improve Coaching and Athletic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Julia L.

    2009-01-01

    Each individual learns in a different manner, depending on his or her perceptual or learning preferences (visual, auditory, read/write, or kinesthetic). In sport, coaches and athletes must speak a common language of instructions, verbal cues, and appropriate motor responses. Thus, developing a clear understanding of how to use students' learning…

  7. Sensory enhancing insoles improve athletic performance during a hexagonal agility task.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Daniel L; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Gravelle, Denise C; Petersen, Kelsey; Ryzman, Rachael; Niemi, James; Lesniewski-Laas, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    Athletes incorporate afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors of their plantar feet to provide information about posture, stability, and joint position. Sub-threshold stochastic resonance (SR) sensory enhancing insoles have been shown to improve balance and proprioception in young and elderly participant populations. Balance and proprioception are correlated with improved athletic performance, such as agility. Agility is defined as the ability to quickly change direction. An athlete's agility is commonly evaluated during athletic performance testing to assess their ability to participate in a competitive sporting event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SR insoles during a hexagonal agility task routinely used by coaches and sports scientists. Twenty recreational athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Each athlete was asked to perform a set of hexagonal agility trials while SR stimulation was either on or off. Vicon motion capture was used to measure feet position during six successful trials for each stimulation condition. Stimulation condition was randomized in a pairwise fashion. The study outcome measures were the task completion time and the positional accuracy of footfalls. Pairwise comparisons revealed a 0.12s decrease in task completion time (p=0.02) with no change in hopping accuracy (p=0.99) when SR stimulation was on. This is the first study to show athletic performance benefits while wearing proprioception and balance improving equipment on healthy participants. With further development, a self-contained sensory enhancing insole device could be used by recreational and professional athletes to improve movements that require rapid changes in direction. PMID:26944688

  8. Blurred lines: Performance Enhancement, Common Mental Disorders and Referral in the U.K. Athletic Population.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Claire-Marie; Faull, Andrea L; Tod, David

    2016-01-01

    Through the awareness-raising efforts of several high-profile current and former athletes, the issue of common mental disorders (CMD) in this population is gaining increasing attention from researchers and practitioners alike. Yet the prevalence is unclear and most likely, under-reported. Whilst the characteristics of the sporting environment may generate CMD within the athletic population, it also may exacerbate pre-existing conditions, and hence it is not surprising that sport psychology and sport science practitioners are anecdotally reporting increased incidences of athletes seeking support for CMD. In a population where there are many barriers to reporting and seeking help for CMD, due in part to the culture of the high performance sporting environment, anecdotal reports suggest that those athletes asking for help are approaching personnel who they are most comfortable talking to. In some cases, this may be a sport scientist, the sport psychologist or sport psychology consultant. Among personnel in the sporting domain, there is a perception that the sport psychologist or sport psychology consultant is best placed to assist athletes seeking assistance for CMD. However, sport psychology as a profession is split by two competing philosophical perspectives; one of which suggests that sport psychologists should work exclusively with athletes on performance enhancement, and the other views the athlete more holistically and accepts that their welfare may directly impact on their performance. To add further complication, the development of the profession of sport psychology varies widely between countries, meaning that practice in this field is not always clearly defined. This article examines case studies that illustrate the blurred lines in applied sport psychology practice, highlighting challenges with the process of referral in the U.K. athletic population. The article concludes with suggestions for ensuring the field of applied sport psychology is continually

  9. Blurred lines: Performance Enhancement, Common Mental Disorders and Referral in the U.K. Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Claire-Marie; Faull, Andrea L.; Tod, David

    2016-01-01

    Through the awareness-raising efforts of several high-profile current and former athletes, the issue of common mental disorders (CMD) in this population is gaining increasing attention from researchers and practitioners alike. Yet the prevalence is unclear and most likely, under-reported. Whilst the characteristics of the sporting environment may generate CMD within the athletic population, it also may exacerbate pre-existing conditions, and hence it is not surprising that sport psychology and sport science practitioners are anecdotally reporting increased incidences of athletes seeking support for CMD. In a population where there are many barriers to reporting and seeking help for CMD, due in part to the culture of the high performance sporting environment, anecdotal reports suggest that those athletes asking for help are approaching personnel who they are most comfortable talking to. In some cases, this may be a sport scientist, the sport psychologist or sport psychology consultant. Among personnel in the sporting domain, there is a perception that the sport psychologist or sport psychology consultant is best placed to assist athletes seeking assistance for CMD. However, sport psychology as a profession is split by two competing philosophical perspectives; one of which suggests that sport psychologists should work exclusively with athletes on performance enhancement, and the other views the athlete more holistically and accepts that their welfare may directly impact on their performance. To add further complication, the development of the profession of sport psychology varies widely between countries, meaning that practice in this field is not always clearly defined. This article examines case studies that illustrate the blurred lines in applied sport psychology practice, highlighting challenges with the process of referral in the U.K. athletic population. The article concludes with suggestions for ensuring the field of applied sport psychology is continually

  10. Scientometric analyses of studies on the role of innate variation in athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael P; Emiah, Shadie

    2014-01-01

    Historical events have produced an ideologically charged atmosphere in the USA surrounding the potential influences of innate variation on athletic performance. We tested the hypothesis that scientific studies of the role of innate variation in athletic performance were less likely to have authors with USA addresses than addresses elsewhere because of this cultural milieu. Using scientometric data collected from 290 scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000-2012, we compared the proportions of authors with USA addresses with those that listed addresses elsewhere that studied the relationships between athletic performance and (a) prenatal exposure to androgens, as indicated by the ratio between digits 2 and 4, and (b) the genotypes for angiotensin converting enzyme, α-actinin-3, and myostatin; traits often associated with athletic performance. Authors with USA addresses were disproportionately underrepresented on papers about the role of innate variation in athletic performance. We searched NIH and NSF databases for grant proposals solicited or funded from 2000-2012 to determine if the proportion of authors that listed USA addresses was associated with funding patterns. NIH did not solicit grant proposals designed to examine these factors in the context of athletic performance and neither NIH nor NSF funded grants designed to study these topics. We think the combined effects of a lack of government funding and the avoidance of studying controversial or non-fundable topics by USA based scientists are responsible for the observation that authors with USA addresses were underrepresented on scientific papers examining the relationships between athletic performance and innate variation. PMID:25013748

  11. Athletes' precompetitive sleep behaviour and its relationship with subsequent precompetitive mood and performance.

    PubMed

    Lastella, Michele; Lovell, Geoff Peter; Sargent, Charli

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined precompetitive sleep behaviour of 103 athletes and how it relates to precompetitive mood and subsequent performance. Results revealed that on the night before competition athletes slept well under the recommended target of eight hours of sleep for healthy adults, with almost 70% of athletes experiencing poorer sleep than usual. It was found that anxiety, noise, the need to use the bathroom and early event times were amongst the most commonly reported causes of disrupted sleep in athletes on the night prior to competition. The negative moods of fatigue and tension were both significantly negatively correlated with precompetitive relative sleep quality (r = -0.28, P = 0.004, r = -0.21, P = 0.030, respectively) and total sleep time (r = -0.23, P = 0.023, r = -0.20, P = 0.044, respectively). Additionally, tension was positively correlated with number of awakenings (r = -0.20, P = 0.045). Vigour was seen to be significantly positively associated with relative sleep quality (r = 0.24, P=0.013). The relationships between relative sleep quality and fatigue, tension and vigour accounted for approximately 4 - 5% of the variance in mood scores. Disrupted sleep did not demonstrate any significant relationship with relative sporting performance. Conclusions from the present investigation are that athletes may be at particular risk of disrupted sleep on the night prior to competition, and this disruption can negatively relate to an athlete's precompetitive mood states. PMID:24444196

  12. [Cardiac hypertrophy, dilatation and performance in top athletes].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, E; Bile, A; Ekra, A; Touze, J E; Le Gallais, D

    1987-02-01

    The authors have studied three groups of patients: 12 reference patients (REF) leading a sedentary life; 22 athletes of international fame, practising an endurance sport (END), including 10 long distance and middle-distance runners, 12 cyclists and 12 top (RES) athletes practising a resistance sport i.e. 12 sprinters. There is no age difference between the two groups. The RES have a larger body area than the REF and END. The cardiac frequency is lowered in the athletes without any difference between RES and END. There is no difference as far as the athletes' blood pressure is concerned. On the EKG, the Sokoloff index is significantly higher in END than in REF and RES. Sonographic data were especially analyzed. END present a hypertrophic myocardium and ventricular dilatation. The hypertrophy, more assymmetrical than that of RES, is more marked at the level of the septum. There is a non-significant tendency toward an excentric hypertrophy. RES present a marked hypertrophy with little or no dilatation. This hypertrophy is more symmetrical and concentric than in END patients. As far as the pump function is concerned (FR, FE, VES): it is not altered in RES (this fact is found in the literature). On the contrary, in END patients, the pump function (FR, FE) is diminished (this fact is debated in the literature), in spite of an increased systolic ejection volume. The total contraction function is not altered in RES nor in END patients. An increased septal contraction rate is noted, which is significant in RES patients and non-significant in END patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2950822

  13. Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Petrie, A; Fortune, F; Turner, W; Jones, J; Niggli, J; Engebretsen, L; Budgett, R; Donos, N; Clough, T; Porter, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health is important both for well-being and successful elite sporting performance. Reports from Olympic Games have found significant treatment needs; however, few studies have examined oral health directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Games. Methods Cross-sectional study at the dental clinic within the Polyclinic in the athletes’ village. Following informed consent, a standardised history, clinical examination and brief questionnaire were conducted. Results 302 athletes from 25 sports were recruited with data available for 278. The majority of athletes were from Africa, the Americas and Europe. Overall, the results demonstrated high levels of poor oral health including dental caries (55% athletes), dental erosion (45% athletes) and periodontal disease (gingivitis 76% athletes, periodontitis 15% athletes). More than 40% of athletes were ‘bothered’ by their oral health with 28% reporting an impact on quality of life and 18% on training and performance. Nearly half of the participants had not undergone a dental examination or hygiene care in the previous year. Conclusions The oral health of athletes attending the dental clinic of the London 2012 Games was poor with a resulting substantial negative impact on well-being, training and performance. As oral health is an important element of overall health and well-being, health promotion and disease prevention interventions are urgently required to optimise athletic performance. PMID:24068332

  14. A PILOT STUDY OF CORE STABILITY AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE: IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP?

    PubMed Central

    Sharrock, Chris; Cropper, Jarrod; Mostad, Joel; Johnson, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Study Design: Correlation study Objectives: To objectively evaluate the relationship between core stability and athletic performance measures in male and female collegiate athletes. Background: The relationship between core stability and athletic performance has yet to be quantified in the available literature. The current literature does not demonstrate whether or not core strength relates to functional performance. Questions remain regarding the most important components of core stability, the role of sport specificity, and the measurement of core stability in relation to athletic performance. Methods: A sample of 35 volunteer student athletes from Asbury College (NAIA Division II) provided informed consent. Participants performed a series of five tests: double leg lowering (core stability test), the forty yard dash, the T-test, vertical jump, and a medicine ball throw. Participants performed three trials of each test in a randomized order. Results: Correlations between the core stability test and each of the other four performance tests were determined using a General Linear Model. Medicine ball throw negatively correlated to the core stability test (r –0.389, p=0.023). Participants that performed better on the core stability test had a stronger negative correlation to the medicine ball throw (r =–0.527). Gender was the most strongly correlated variable to core strength, males with a mean measurement of double leg lowering of 47.43 degrees compared to females having a mean of 54.75 degrees. Conclusions: There appears to be a link between a core stability test and athletic performance tests; however, more research is needed to provide a definitive answer on the nature of this relationship. Ideally, specific performance tests will be able to better define and to examine relationships to core stability. Future studies should also seek to determine if there are specific sub-categories of core stability which are most important to allow for optimal training and

  15. The asthmatic athlete: inhaled Beta-2 agonists, sport performance, and doping.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Donald C; Fitch, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    The asthmatic athlete has a long history in competitive sport in terms of success in performance and issues related to doping. Well documented are detailed objective tests used to evaluate the athlete with symptoms of asthma or airway hyperresponsiveness and the medical management. Initiated at the 2002 Salt Lake City Games, the International Olympic Committee's Independent Asthma Panel required testing to justify the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists (IBAs) in Olympic athletes and has provided valuable guidelines to the practicing physician. This program was educational and documented the variability in prevalence of asthma and/or airway hyperresponsiveness and IBA use between different sports and different countries. It provided a standard of care for the athlete with respiratory symptoms and led to the discovery that asthmatic Olympic athletes outperformed their peers at both Summer and Winter Olympic Games from 2002 to 2010. Changes to the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List in 2010 permitted the use of 2 IBA produced by the same pharmaceutical company. All others remain prohibited. However, there is no pharmacological difference between the permitted and prohibited IBAs. As a result of these changes, asthmatic athletes are being managed differently based on a World Anti-Doping Agency directive that has no foundation in pharmacological science or in clinical practice. PMID:21200170

  16. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific licenses... incident to athletic competition by amateur or semi-professional athletes or athletic teams wishing...

  17. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific licenses... incident to athletic competition by amateur or semi-professional athletes or athletic teams wishing...

  18. Associations between academic performance of division 1 college athletes and their perceptions of the effects of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Perko, M A; Cowdery, J; Wang, M Q; Yesalis, C S

    1995-02-01

    Data on the relationship between academic performance (grade point average) of college athletes and their perceptions of the effects of anabolic steroids on their sport and their performance were collected from Division 1 athletes (N = 1,638) representing 12 varsity sports chosen from five universities nationwide. The response rate was 74%. Analysis yielded differences between athletes with high and low GPAs in perceptions of the effects of anabolic steroids. The lower the GPA, the less likely the athletes were to believe that anabolic steroids are a threat to health, are a problem in their sport, and are addictive. Also, they were more likely to believe that anabolic steroids enhance performance. PMID:7624207

  19. The Impact of Athletic Performance on Alumni Giving: An Analysis of Microdata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing controversy in the literature on the economics of higher education centers on whether the success of a school's athletic program affects alumni donations. This paper uses a unique data set to investigate this issue. The data contain detailed information about donations made by alumni of a selective research university as well as a…

  20. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  1. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  2. Quantum Tunneling Affects Engine Performance.

    PubMed

    Som, Sibendu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Dingyu D Y; Magnotti, Gina M; Sivaramakrishnan, Raghu; Longman, Douglas E; Skodje, Rex T; Davis, Michael J

    2013-06-20

    We study the role of individual reaction rates on engine performance, with an emphasis on the contribution of quantum tunneling. It is demonstrated that the effect of quantum tunneling corrections for the reaction HO2 + HO2 = H2O2 + O2 can have a noticeable impact on the performance of a high-fidelity model of a compression-ignition (e.g., diesel) engine, and that an accurate prediction of ignition delay time for the engine model requires an accurate estimation of the tunneling correction for this reaction. The three-dimensional model includes detailed descriptions of the chemistry of a surrogate for a biodiesel fuel, as well as all the features of the engine, such as the liquid fuel spray and turbulence. This study is part of a larger investigation of how the features of the dynamics and potential energy surfaces of key reactions, as well as their reaction rate uncertainties, affect engine performance, and results in these directions are also presented here. PMID:26283246

  3. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15–75%, dental erosion 36–85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

  4. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. PMID:27207600

  5. [Some performance tests among athletes: their importance according to sport, their interests and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Ziltener, J-L; Leal, S

    2005-07-27

    In the multiple performance tests that actually exist, the choice of the most representative evaluation of the physical activity is crucial. For the general or field practitioner who wants to give his or her athlete the most useful informations for the follow-up, this choice may be very difficult. Nevertheless, the results of those tests, once a correct interpretation have been done, will give opportunity to built an efficient training's program, whatever the type of sports or the athlete's level. This change in the management of the sportsman is an answer to the request of the athlete or his trainer; from now on, they both want a more scientific training's planning, built on physiological parameters. PMID:16130533

  6. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  7. Palama Settlement: Effect of the Academic-Athletic Program on Future School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.

    The hypothesis that participation in a Palama Settlement House after-school, academic-athletic program leads to an increase in academic performance in the targeted subject (math) in school is examined in this document. It is also of interest to know whether or not the program is reaching its target group of low academic achievers. A sample of…

  8. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  9. Using Performance Assessments to Determine Competence in Clinical Athletic Training Education: How Valid Are Our Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle A.; Moss, Robert; Applegate, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Context: Validity arguments can be used to provide evidence that instructors are drawing accurate conclusions from the results of students' clinical performance assessments (PAs). Little research has been conducted in athletic training education to determine if the evidence supports the use of current PAs. Measurement theories designed to…

  10. A Multilevel Multivariate Analysis of Academic Performances in College Based on NCAA Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, John J.; Paskus, Thomas S.; Boker, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    This is an application of contemporary multilevel regression modeling to the prediction of academic performances of 1st-year college students. At a first level of analysis, the data come from N greater than 16,000 students who were college freshman in 1994-1995 and who were also participants in high-level college athletics. At a second level of…

  11. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  12. Relationship between Functional Classification Levels and Anaerobic Performance of Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J.; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula

    2010-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes…

  13. Drug Testing US Student-Athletes for Performance-Enhancing Substance Misuse: A Flawed Process.

    PubMed

    Bahrke, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that drug testing of U.S. high school students for performance-enhancing substance misuse is invasive, expensive, and the low number of positive test results do not justify the costs, especially in financially strapped school districts where this money would be better spent on injury prevention for athletes and the education of all students. PMID:26361919

  14. Academic and Nonacademic Predictors of Female Student-Athletes' Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Stoever, Shawn

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of academic and nonacademic variables on female intercollegiate student-athletes' (N=152) academic performances over two consecutive semesters. Results indicate that Scholastic Aptitude Test scores consistently related to fall and spring semester grades for both freshmen and upper-division students, whereas social support…

  15. The Astronaut-Athlete: Optimizing Human Performance in Space.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Kyle J; Scott, Jessica M; Hanson, Andrea M; English, Kirk L; Downs, Meghan E; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that long-duration spaceflight results in deconditioning of neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, leading to a decline in physical fitness. On reloading in gravitational environments, reduced fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and endurance) could impair human performance, mission success, and crew safety. The level of fitness necessary for the performance of routine and off-nominal terrestrial mission tasks remains an unanswered and pressing question for scientists and flight physicians. To mitigate fitness loss during spaceflight, resistance and aerobic exercise are the most effective countermeasure available to astronauts. Currently, 2.5 h·d, 6-7 d·wk is allotted in crew schedules for exercise to be performed on highly specialized hardware on the International Space Station (ISS). Exercise hardware provides up to 273 kg of loading capability for resistance exercise, treadmill speeds between 0.44 and 5.5 m·s, and cycle workloads from 0 and 350 W. Compared to ISS missions, future missions beyond low earth orbit will likely be accomplished with less vehicle volume and power allocated for exercise hardware. Concomitant factors, such as diet and age, will also affect the physiologic responses to exercise training (e.g., anabolic resistance) in the space environment. Research into the potential optimization of exercise countermeasures through use of dietary supplementation, and pharmaceuticals may assist in reducing physiological deconditioning during long-duration spaceflight and have the potential to enhance performance of occupationally related astronaut tasks (e.g., extravehicular activity, habitat construction, equipment repairs, planetary exploration, and emergency response). PMID:26595138

  16. Athletic Performance at the National Basketball Association Combine After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mehran, Nima; Williams, Phillip N.; Keller, Robert A.; Khalil, Lafi S.; Lombardo, Stephen J.; Kharrazi, F. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are significant injuries in elite-level basketball players. In-game statistical performance after ACL reconstruction has been demonstrated; however, few studies have reviewed functional performance in National Basketball Association (NBA)–caliber athletes after ACL reconstruction. Purpose: To compare NBA Combine performance of athletes after ACL reconstruction with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group of players with no previous reported knee injury requiring surgery. We hypothesized that there is no difference between the 2 groups in functional performance. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 1092 NBA-caliber players who participated in the NBA Combine between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-one athletes were identified as having primary ACL reconstruction prior to participation in the combine. This study group was compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group in objective functional performance testing, including the shuttle run test, lane agility test, three-quarter court sprint, vertical jump (no step), and maximum vertical jump (running start). Results: With regard to quickness and agility, both ACL-reconstructed athletes and controls scored an average of 11.5 seconds in the lane agility test and 3.1 seconds in the shuttle run test (P = .745 and .346, respectively). Speed and acceleration was measured by the three-quarter court sprint, in which both the study group and the control group averaged 3.3 seconds (P = .516). In the maximum vertical jump, which demonstrates an athlete’s jumping ability with a running start, the ACL reconstruction group had an average height of 33.6 inches while the controls averaged 33.9 inches (P = .548). In the standing vertical jump, the ACL reconstruction group averaged 28.2 inches while the control group averaged 29.2 inches (P = .067). Conclusion: In athletes who are able to return to sport

  17. AMPD1 rs17602729 is associated with physical performance of sprint and power in elite Lithuanian athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The C34T genetic polymorphism (rs17602729) in the AMPD1 gene, encoding the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), is a common polymorphism among Caucasians that can impair exercise capacity. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine the C34T AMPD1 allele/genotype frequency distributions in Lithuanian athletes (n = 204, stratified into three groups: endurance, sprint/power and mixed) and compare them with the allele/genotype frequency distributions in randomly selected healthy Lithuanian non-athletes (n = 260) and (2) to compare common anthropometric measurements and physical performance phenotypes between the three groups of athletes depending on their AMPD1 genotype. Results The results of our study indicate that the frequency of the AMPD1 TT genotype was 2.4% in the control group, while it was absent in the athlete group. There were significantly more sprint/power-orientated athletes with the CC genotype (86.3%) compared with the endurance-orientated athletes (72.9%), mixed athletes (67.1%), and controls (74.2%). We determined that the AMPD1 C34T polymorphism is not associated with aerobic muscle performance phenotype (VO2max). For CC genotype the short-term explosive muscle power value (based on Vertical Jump test) of athletes from the sprint/power group was significantly higher than that of the endurance group athletes (P < 0.05). The AMPD1 CC genotype is associated with anaerobic performance (Vertical Jump). Conclusions The AMPD1 C allele may help athletes to attain elite status in sprint/power-oriented sports, and the T allele is a factor unfavourable for athletics in sprint/power-oriented sports categories. Hence, the AMPD1 C allele can be regarded as a marker associated with the physical performance of sprint and power. Replications studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:24885427

  18. Circadian disruption and remedial interventions: effects and interventions for jet lag for athletic peak performance.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Robertson, Sarah; Dudley, Edward; Vadgama, Pankaj; Cook, Christian; Drawer, Scott; Kilduff, Liam

    2012-03-01

    Jet lag has potentially serious deleterious effects on performance in athletes following transmeridian travel, where time zones are crossed eastwards or westwards; as such, travel causes specific effects related to desynchronization of the athlete's internal body clock or circadian clock. Athletes are particularly sensitive to the effects of jet lag, as many intrinsic aspects of sporting performance show a circadian rhythm, and optimum competitive results require all aspects of the athlete's mind and body to be working in tandem at their peak efficiency. International competition often requires transmeridian travel, and competition timings cannot be adjusted to suit individual athletes. It is therefore in the interest of the individual athlete and team to understand the effects of jet lag and the potential adaptation strategies that can be adopted. In this review, we describe the underlying genetic and physiological mechanisms controlling the circadian clock and its inherent ability to adapt to external conditions on a daily basis. We then examine the fundamentals of the various adaptation stimuli, such as light, chronobiotics (e.g. melatonin), exercise, and diet and meal timing, with particular emphasis on their suitability as strategies for competing athletes on the international circuit. These stimuli can be artificially manipulated to produce phase shifts in the circadian rhythm to promote adaptation in the optimum direction, but care must be taken to apply them at the correct time and dose, as the effects produced on the circadian rhythm follow a phase-response curve, with pronounced shifts in direction at different times. Light is the strongest realigning stimulus and careful timing of light exposure and avoidance can promote adjustment. Chronobiotics such as melatonin can also be used to realign the circadian clock but, as well as timing and dosage issues, there are also concerns as to its legal status in different countries and with the World Anti

  19. Exercise in the Heat. II. Critical Concepts in Rehydration, Exertional Heat Illnesses, and Maximizing Athletic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To acquaint athletic trainers with the numerous interrelated components that must be considered when assisting athletes who exercise in hot environments. Useful guidelines to maximize performance and minimize detrimental health consequences are presented. Data Sources: The databases MEDLINE and SPORT Discus were searched from 1980 to 1999, with the terms. “body cooling,” “dehydration,” “exercise,” “heat illnesses,” “heat,” “fluid replacement,” “acclimatization,” “hydration,” “rehydration,” “performance,” and “intravenous,” among others. Data Synthesis: This paper provides an in-depth look at issues regarding physiologic and performance considerations related to rehydration, strategies to maximize rehydration, modes of rehydration, health consequences of exercise in the heat, heat acclimatization, body cooling techniques, and practice and competition modifications. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers have a responsibility to ensure that athletes who exercise in hot environments are prepared to do so in an optimal manner and to act properly to avoid the potentially harmful heat illnesses that can result from exercise in the heat. PMID:16558573

  20. Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Matera, Angela J; Basinger, Jency; Evans, Mindy; Schurman, Taylor; Marquez, Rodney

    2012-05-01

    Energy drinks are frequently consumed by athletes prior to competition to improve performance. This study examined the effect of Red Bull™ on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Fifteen collegiate soccer players participated, with mean age, height, and body mass equal to 19.5±1.1 year, 168.4±5.8 cm, and 63.4±6.1 kg, respectively. After performing a familiarization trial, subjects performed three sets of eight bouts of the modified t test after ingestion of 255 mL of placebo or Red Bull 1 h pre-exercise in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Throughout testing, sprint time, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were continuously obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in variables between drink conditions. Across athletes, t test time ranged from 10.4 to 12.7 s. Mean sprint time was similar (p>0.05) between Red Bull (11.31±0.61 s) and placebo (11.35±0.61 s). HR and RPE increased (p<0.05) during the bouts, but there was no effect (p>0.05) of Red Bull on either variable versus placebo. Findings indicate that 255 mL of Red Bull containing 1.3 mg/kg of caffeine and 1 g of taurine does not alter repeated sprint performance, RPE, or HR in women athletes versus placebo. One serving of this energy drink provides no ergogenic benefit for women athletes engaging in sprint-based exercise. PMID:21461905

  1. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  2. Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity with the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Successfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoncino, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…

  3. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Status and Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Christine M; Dean, Preston; LoGalbo, Anthony; Dougherty, Michael; Field, Melvin; Webbe, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 136,000 concussions occur annually in American high school sports. Neuropsychological data indicate that children with preexisting cognitive difficulties, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may have protracted recovery from concussion. ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 11% in youth, may increase an athlete's vulnerability to sustaining sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). The preponderance of evidence focusing on TBI and ADHD has derived from motor vehicle accidents rather than sports-related incidents. Thus, it is paramount to explore how ADHD may relate to injury in the sports concussion context, as well as to assess how ADHD may affect baseline neurocognitive testing. Adolescent athletes with ADHD (n = 256) demonstrated significantly reduced Verbal Memory, Visual Motor, and Impulse Control index scores compared with their peers without ADHD (n = 256). Athletes with ADHD were nearly twice as likely to have sustained a prior concussion (ADHD, 14.1%; non-ADHD, 7.8%). Knowledge regarding the unique neurocognitive profile of athletes with ADHD may enhance clinical management decisions. PMID:26980407

  4. Additional Post-Concussion Impact Exposure May Affect Recovery in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Virginia K; Pratson, Lincoln; Vaughan, Christopher G; Gioia, Gerard A

    2016-04-15

    Repeat concussion has been associated with risk for prolonged and pronounced clinical recovery in athletes. In this study of adolescent athletes, we examined whether an additional head impact within 24 h of a sports-related concussion (SRC) is associated with higher symptom burden and prolonged clinical recovery compared with a single-injury group. Forty-two student-athletes (52% male, mean age = 14.9 years) diagnosed with an SRC in a concussion clinic were selected for this study: (1) 21 athletes who sustained an additional significant head impact within 24 h of the initial injury (additional-impact group); (2) 21 single-injury athletes, age and gender matched, who sustained only one discrete concussive blow to the head (single-injury group). Groups did not differ on initial injury characteristics or pre-injury risk factors. The effect of injury status (single- vs. additional-impact) was examined on athlete- and parent-reported symptom burden (at first clinic visit) and length of recovery (LOR). Higher symptom burden was reported by the athletes and parents in the additional-impact group at the time of first visit. The additional-impact group also had a significantly longer LOR compared with the single-injury group. These findings provide preliminary, hypothesis-generating evidence for the importance of immediate removal from play following an SRC to protect athletes from re-injury, which may worsen symptoms and prolong recovery. The retrospective study design from a specialized clinical sample points to the need for future prospective studies of the relationship between single- and additional-impact injuries on symptom burden and LOR. PMID:26421452

  5. AGTR2 gene polymorphism is associated with muscle fibre composition, athletic status and aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Mustafina, Leysan J; Naumov, Vladimir A; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Popov, Daniil V; Lyubaeva, Ekaterina V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Fedotovskaya, Olga N; Druzhevskaya, Anastasiya M; Astratenkova, Irina V; Glotov, Andrey S; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Mustafina, Milyausha M; Egorova, Emiliya S; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Larin, Andrey K; Generozov, Edward V; Nurullin, Ruslan E; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Kulemin, Nickolay A; Ospanova, Elena A; Pavlenko, Alexander V; Sawczuk, Marek; Akimov, Egor B; Danilushkina, Anna A; Zmijewski, Piotr; Vinogradova, Olga L; Govorun, Vadim M; Ahmetov, Ildus I

    2014-08-01

    Muscle fibre type is a heritable trait and can partly predict athletic success. It has been proposed that polymorphisms of genes involved in the regulation of muscle fibre characteristics may predispose the muscle precursor cells of a given individual to be predominantly fast or slow. In the present study, we examined the association between 15 candidate gene polymorphisms and muscle fibre type composition of the vastus lateralis muscle in 55 physically active, healthy men. We found that rs11091046 C allele carriers of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene (AGTR2; involved in skeletal muscle development, metabolism and circulatory homeostasis) had a significantly higher percentage of slow-twitch fibres than A allele carriers [54.2 (11.1) versus 45.2 (10.2)%; P = 0.003]. These data indicate that 15.2% of the variation in muscle fibre composition of the vastus lateralis muscle can be explained by the AGTR2 genotype. Next, we investigated the frequencies of the AGTR2 alleles in 2178 Caucasian athletes and 1220 control subjects. The frequency of the AGTR2 C allele was significantly higher in male and female endurance athletes compared with power athletes (males, 62.7 versus 51.7%, P = 0.0038; females, 56.6 versus 48.1%, P = 0.0169) and control subjects (males, 62.7 versus 51.0%, P = 0.0006; elite female athletes, 65.1 versus 55.2%, P = 0.0488). Furthermore, the frequency of the AGTR2 A allele was significantly over-represented in female power athletes (51.9%) in comparison to control subjects (44.8%, P = 0.0069). We also found that relative maximal oxygen consumption was significantly greater in male endurance athletes with the AGTR2 C allele compared with AGTR2 A allele carriers [n = 28; 62.3 (4.4) versus 57.4 (6.0) ml min(-1) kg(-1); P = 0.0197]. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AGTR2 gene C allele is associated with an increased proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibres, endurance athlete status and aerobic performance, while the A allele is

  6. Lower Body Symmetry and Running Performance in Elite Jamaican Track and Field Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are–on average–significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes. PMID:25401732

  7. EFFECT OF ATHLETIC TAPING AND KINESIOTAPING® ON MEASUREMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS WITH CHRONIC INVERSION ANKLE SPRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Karatas, Nihan; Baltaci, Gul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic inversion ankle sprains are common in basketball players. The effect of taping on functional performance is disputed in the literature. Kinesiotaping® (KT®) is a new method that is being used as both a therapeutic and performance enhancement tool. To date, it appears that no study has investigated the effect of ankle KT® on functional performance. Purpose: To investigate the effects of different types of taping (KT® using Kinesio Tex®, athletic taping) on functional performance in athletes with chronic inversion sprains of the ankle. Study Design: Crossover Study Design Methods: Fifteen male basketball players with chronic inversion ankle sprains between the ages of 18 and 22 participated in this study. Functional performance tests (Hopping test by Amanda et al, Single Limb Hurdle Test, Standing Heel Rise test, Vertical Jump Test, The Star Excursion Balance Test [SEBT] and Kinesthetic Ability Trainer [KAT] Test) were used to quantify agility, endurance, balance, and coordination. These tests were conducted four times at one week intervals using varied conditions: placebo tape, without tape, standard athletic tape, and KT®. One-way ANOVA tests were used to examine difference in measurements between conditions. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for repeated testing. Results: There were no significant differences among the results obtained using the four conditions for SEBT (anterior p=0.0699; anteromedial p=0.126; medial p=0.550; posteromedial p=0.587; posterior p=0.754; posterolateral p=0.907; lateral p=0.124; anterolateral p=0.963) and the KAT dynamic measurement (p=0.388). Faster performance times were measured with KT® and athletic tape in single limb hurdle test when compared to placebo and non-taped conditions (Athletic taping- placebo taping: p=0.03; athletic taping- non tape p=0.016;KT®- Placebo taping p=0.042; KT®-Non tape p=0.016). In standing heel rise test and vertical jump test, athletic taping led to decreased

  8. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Goran; Jukic, Igor; Milanovic, Dragan; Metikos, Dusan

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sprint training on muscle function and dynamic athletic performance and to compare them with the training effects induced by standard plyometric training. Male physical education students were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: sprint group (SG; n = 30), plyometric group (PG; n = 30), or control group (CG; n = 33). Maximal isometric squat strength, squat- and countermovement jump (SJ and CMJ) height and power, drop jump performance from 30-cm height, and 3 athletic performance tests (standing long jump, 20-m sprint, and 20-yard shuttle run) were measured prior to and after 10 weeks of training. Both experimental groups trained 3 days a week; SG performed maximal sprints over distances of 10-50 m, whereas PG performed bounce-type hurdle jumps and drop jumps. Participants in the CG group maintained their daily physical activities for the duration of the study. Both SG and PG significantly improved drop jump performance (15.6 and 14.2%), SJ and CMJ height ( approximately 10 and 6%), and standing long jump distance (3.2 and 2.8%), whereas the respective effect sizes (ES) were moderate to high and ranged between 0.4 and 1.1. In addition, SG also improved isometric squat strength (10%; ES = 0.4) and SJ and CMJ power (4%; ES = 0.4, and 7%; ES = 0.4), as well as sprint (3.1%; ES = 0.9) and agility (4.3%; ES = 1.1) performance. We conclude that short-term sprint training produces similar or even greater training effects in muscle function and athletic performance than does conventional plyometric training. This study provides support for the use of sprint training as an applicable training method of improving explosive performance of athletes in general. PMID:17530960

  9. Development of hydration strategies to optimize performance for athletes in high-intensity sports and in sports with repeated intense efforts.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M

    2010-10-01

    Hypohydration - if sufficiently severe - adversely affects athletic performance and poses a risk to health. Strength and power events are generally less affected than endurance events, but performance in team sports that involve repeated intense efforts will be impaired. Mild hypohydration is not harmful, but many athletes begin exercise already hypohydrated. Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and - where opportunities exist - to consume fluid during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. In high-intensity efforts, there is no need, and may be no opportunity, to drink during competition. Most team sports players do not drink enough to match sweat losses, but some drink too much and a few may develop hyponatremia because of excessive fluid intake. Athletes should assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment and individual needs. Pre-exercise hydration status can be assessed from urine markers. Short-term changes in hydration can be estimated from the change in body mass. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of pre-exercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte and substrate needs before, during and after exercise. PMID:20840563

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  11. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college. PMID:22990572

  12. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience. PMID:26347678

  13. Running away from stress: How regulatory modes prospectively affect athletes' stress through passion.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, F; Pica, G; Mallia, L; Castrucci, E; Manganelli, S; Bélanger, J J; Pierro, A

    2016-06-01

    A prospective field study conducted with runners training for an upcoming marathon (Marathon of Rome 2013) examined the relation between regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, and stress. Integrating regulatory mode theory and the dualistic model of passion, we hypothesized that the relation between regulatory modes (evaluated 3 months before the race) and the experience of stress approaching the marathon, is mediated by the type of passion (harmonious vs obsessive) athletes experience with regard to marathoning. Results revealed that (a) locomotion positively predicted harmonious passion, which in turn reduced athletes' experience of stress; and (b) assessment positively predicted obsessive passion, which in turn enhanced athletes' experience of stress. Overall, the present results suggest that proximal psychological mechanisms such as basic regulatory mode orientations can predict distal outcomes such as stress indirectly through their relation with motivational phenomena such as passion. PMID:26059847

  14. Anxiety and performance in elite non-professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Hannon, B; Fitzgerald, P

    2006-09-01

    Anxiety is one of the main motivators with regards to performance of individuals in any given task, including sporting endeavours. Our study sought to assess state anxiety levels in elite non-professional sportsmen, and to investigate if anxiety correlated with sporting performance, the IDA-Q (irritability, depression & anxiety questionnaire) was used to assess 3 mental state variables in an inter-county hurling team as well as a matched non-sporting control group, and performance was judged by completion of a standard task in 2 different settings: a non-pressurised one and a highly pressurised setting. Subjects had significantly higher anxiety scores on the IDA-Q than the controls (p = 0.019). There were no significant differences and controls in the depression and irritability scales. There was a significantly negative correlation between anxiety scores and performance on the IDA-Q; spearman r = -0.57. High anxiety levels impair sporting performance. PMID:17120607

  15. Sleep and circadian rhythms in children and adolescents: relevance for athletic performance of young people.

    PubMed

    Carskadon, Mary A

    2005-04-01

    The amount and timing of sleep play significant roles in forming a solid foundation for competitive performance in young athletes. As children mature into and through adolescence, their need for sleep does not decline substantially, although the opportunity to sleep is limited by lifestyle choices, academic and practice schedules, and compelling changes in the biological processes. The biological changes include a more "permissive" pace for the accumulation of sleep pressure across the day in older adolescents and a longer day length in the more mature. These factors all favor later bedtimes and rising times as children pass into adolescence, and a concomitant delay in the optimal timing for waking activities. Among the important threats to athletic performance are insufficient sleep during training and competition and poor appreciation for the best time of day for competitive activities. The specific consequences of these issues for individual athletes are not clear, though when considering young people as a group, support for adequate sleep is a rational intervention to maximize performance. PMID:15892926

  16. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health. PMID:22741207

  17. Game Changers: The Role Athletic Identity and Racial Identity Play on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which athletic and racial identity predict the academic outcomes of Black student athletes participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 Football Bowl Series football. The academic outcomes of Black student athletes are a growing concern to both scholars and…

  18. Kinanthropometric Profile and Physical Performance of Athletic Track Events in Relation to Different Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Zamirullah; ahmed, Naseem; Raja, Waseem Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out kinanthropometric profile of 20 Athletes of middle distance 800 meters, & long distance runners 5000 meters of Track Event of age 17 years were assessed for the present study. The data of athletes was collected at Athletics Summer Camp 2015 in Kashmir region. The athletes having participation of at…

  19. Impact of Demographic Variables on African-American Student Athletes' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Lacey; Fisher, Dwalah; Cavil, J. Kenyatta

    2012-01-01

    Since the passage of Proposition 48 (NCAA, 1984), African-American student-athletes entering National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) major colleges and universities have meet new challenges in their future as student-athletes. This major change altered the landscape of the future of college athletics particularly for students of color.…

  20. The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883

  1. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  2. Performance-Enhancing Drugs and the High School Athlete.

    PubMed

    Franckowiak, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    A performance-enhancing drug (PED) is any substance that is used to increase muscle mass, dull pain, reduce weight, or ease stress. The use of PEDs is a growing concern among adolescents, due in part to the pressures to perform, the influence of professional role models, and a general lack of education about the dangers of these substances. Use of performance enhancers has been identified in middle school as well as high school age students. This article details the school nurse's role in identifying youth who are using a PED, providing education for students and families, and referring for treatment if needed. Although PED use is not as prevalent as use of other illicit drugs, PEDs still pose a threat to adolescent physical and mental health. Discussion about PED use can open the door to discussion about use of other substances. PMID:26118434

  3. Effect of long haul travel on maximal sprint performance and diurnal variations in elite skeleton athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Nicola; Martin, David T; Ross, Angus; Rosemond, Doug; Marino, Frank E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To quantify the impact of eastward long haul travel on diurnal variations in cortisol, psychological sensations and daily measurements of physical performance. Methods Five elite Australian skeleton athletes undertook a long haul eastward flight from Australia to Canada (LHtravel), while seven elite Canadian skeleton athletes did not travel (NOtravel). Salivary cortisol was measured on awakening, 60 min and 120 min after awakening. Psychological sensations were measured with a questionnaire, and maximal 30 m sprints were performed once a day between 09:30 and 11:00 h local time. Results Compared with baseline, average (SD) resting salivary cortisol decreased by 67% immediately after long haul travel (23.43 (5.71) nMol/l) (mean±90% confidence interval) in the LHtravel group (p = 0.03), while no changes were found in the NOtravel group (p = 0.74). There were no significant differences in 30 m sprint time between baseline and post‐flight tests in the LHtravel group (p>0.05). The LHtravel group perceived themselves as “jet lagged” for up to 2 days after the flight (p = 0.01 for both midday lunch and evening dinner). Conclusions Despite a distinct phase change in salivary cortisol rhythmicity and the athletes perceiving themselves as “jet lagged”, minimal disturbances in “one‐off” maximal sprinting ability between 09:30 and 11:00 h local time were seen in a group of elite skeleton athletes after long haul eastward travel from Australia to Canada. PMID:17473002

  4. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  5. Drug abuse in athletes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  6. Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Dank, Steven; Coupland, Rory; Midgley, Adrian; Spence, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; Lactaway® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] performed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80 s more in the Lactaway trial than they did in the placebo trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ≥94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance-related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects. PMID:22242733

  7. Effects of commercial energy drink consumption on athletic performance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Stephanie L; Wellborn-Kim, Jennifer J; Clauson, Kevin A

    2010-04-01

    Energy drinks are frequently marketed to individuals interested in athletics and an active lifestyle. From 2001 to 2008, estimates of energy drink use in adolescent to middle-aged populations ranged from 24% to 56%. Most energy drinks feature caffeine and a combination of other components, including taurine, sucrose, guarana, ginseng, niacin, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin. This article examines the evidence for 2 commonly purported uses of energy drinks: athletic performance enhancement and weight loss. Observed ergogenic benefits of energy drinks are likely attributable to caffeine and glucose content. There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of energy drinks on weight loss, although some data suggest that combining energy drink use with exercise may enhance body fat reduction. As with any pharmacologically active substance, energy drinks are associated with adverse effects. Combining energy drinks with alcohol exacerbates safety concerns and is an increasingly common practice contributing to toxic jock identity among college-aged male athletes. Practitioners should monitor identified populations likely to consume these loosely regulated beverages. PMID:20424408

  8. Predicting the protein targets for athletic performance-enhancing substances

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes the Prohibited List, a manually compiled international standard of substances and methods prohibited in-competition, out-of-competition and in particular sports. It would be ideal to be able to identify all substances that have one or more performance-enhancing pharmacological actions in an automated, fast and cost effective way. Here, we use experimental data derived from the ChEMBL database (~7,000,000 activity records for 1,300,000 compounds) to build a database model that takes into account both structure and experimental information, and use this database to predict both on-target and off-target interactions between these molecules and targets relevant to doping in sport. Results The ChEMBL database was screened and eight well populated categories of activities (Ki, Kd, EC50, ED50, activity, potency, inhibition and IC50) were used for a rule-based filtering process to define the labels “active” or “inactive”. The “active” compounds for each of the ChEMBL families were thereby defined and these populated our bioactivity-based filtered families. A structure-based clustering step was subsequently performed in order to split families with more than one distinct chemical scaffold. This produced refined families, whose members share both a common chemical scaffold and bioactivity against a common target in ChEMBL. Conclusions We have used the Parzen-Rosenblatt machine learning approach to test whether compounds in ChEMBL can be correctly predicted to belong to their appropriate refined families. Validation tests using the refined families gave a significant increase in predictivity compared with the filtered or with the original families. Out of 61,660 queries in our Monte Carlo cross-validation, belonging to 19,639 refined families, 41,300 (66.98%) had the parent family as the top prediction and 53,797 (87.25%) had the parent family in the top four hits. Having thus validated our approach, we used

  9. The Effect of Course Length on Individual Medley Swimming Performance in National and International Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Mathias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m) and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000–2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10.3±0.2% versus 9.7±0.3%, p<0.01), but did not differ for Swiss swimmers (p>0.05). Sex-related differences in swimming speed decreased with increasing race distance for both short- and long-course events for Swiss athletes, and for FINA athletes in long-course events. Performance improved significantly (p<0.05) during 2000–2011 for FINA men competing in either course length and FINA females competing in short-course events, but not for Swiss swimmers. Overall, the results showed that men and women individual medley swimmers, competing at both national and international levels, have faster average swimming speeds on short courses than on long courses, for both 200 m and 400 m distances. FINA athletes demonstrate an improving performance in the vast majority of individual medley events, while performance at national level seems to have reached a plateau during 2000–2011. PMID:25414752

  10. Bone quality in the lumbar spine in high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Sabo, D; Bernd, L; Pfeil, J; Reiter, A

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of high-performance training on the bone quality of the lumbar spine, in particular, the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in athletes with high weight-bearing demands on the spine. Measurements were therefore performed in internationally top-ranked high-performance athletes of different disciplines (weight lifters, boxers, and endurance-cyclists). The measurements were carried out by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the results compared with the measurements of 21 age-matched male controls. The BMD of the high-performance weight lifters was greater than that of the controls by 24% (0.252 g/cm2) on the AP view by 23% (0.200 g/cm2) on the lateral view (P < 0.01), while difference in BMD between the boxers and the controls was +17% (0.174 g/cm2) on the AP view and +19% (0.174 g/cm2) on the lateral view. The BMD of the lumbar spine in all endurance cyclists was lower than that in the controls (AP view -10%, 0.105 g/cm2; lateral view -8%, 0.067 g/cm2; P > 0.05). The results show that training program stressing axial loads of the skeleton may lead to a significant increase of BMD in the lumbar spine of young individuals. Other authors' findings that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease are confirmed. Nevertheless the 10% BMD loss of cyclists was surprisingly high. PMID:8886738

  11. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

  12. How Coriolis meter design affects field performance

    SciTech Connect

    Levien, A.; Dudiak, A.

    1995-12-31

    Although many possibilities exist for the design of Coriolis flowmeters, a common set of fundamental physical principles affect practical meter design. Design criteria such as tube geometry, alloy section, operating frequencies, stress levels, and tubing wall thickness have varying impacts on meter performance. Additionally, field conditions such as changing temperature, pressure, pipeline stress and vibration affect measurement performance. The challenge created in Coriolis flow meter design is to maximize the sensitivity of the meter Coriolis forces, while minimizing the impact of outside environmental influences. Data are presented on the physical principles that affect Coriolis flowmeters, and how the various aspects of meter design influence field performance.

  13. The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Cheri D.; Mah, Kenneth E.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Dement, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Setting: Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Participants: Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Interventions: Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2–4 week baseline followed by a 5–7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Results: Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated a faster timed sprint following sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P < 0.001). Shooting accuracy improved, with free throw percentage increasing by 9% and 3-point field goal percentage increasing by 9.2% (P < 0.001). Mean PVT reaction time and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores decreased following sleep extension (P < 0.01). POMS scores improved with increased vigor and decreased fatigue subscales (P < 0.001). Subjects also reported improved overall ratings of physical and mental well-being during practices and games. Conclusions: Improvements in specific measures of basketball performance after sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance. Citation: Mah CD; Mah KE; Kezirian EJ; Dement WC

  14. Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p < 0.05) were evident by the early phases of TAPER. A significant 7.0% improvement in 3 × 300-m performance time, a 6.9% improvement in the vertical jump (p < 0.05), and increased morning and evening SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.01) were observed during the middle-late phases of TAPER. The higher values of salivary variables were observed in the morning. This study indicates that salivary hormones display diurnal variation. Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition. PMID:23249825

  15. Adolescent Athletes and the Demand and Supply of Drugs to Improve Their Performance

    PubMed Central

    Laure, Patrick; Binsinger, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the ‘profiles’ of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved. Key Points This study confirms the existence of a ‘black market’ for products to improve performance, which is directed at adolescent athletes engaged in high-level competitions. This market is characterized by its ease of accessibility and also the diversity of its ‘suppliers’, the two main sources being friends and parents. PMID:24453531

  16. The Diurnal Variation on Cardiovascular Endurance Performance of Secondary School Athlete Student

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Chun-Yip; Chow, Gary Chi-Ching; Hung, Kwong-Chung; Kam, Lik-Hang; Chan, Ka-Chun; Mok, Yuen-Ting; Cheng, Nga-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The previous investigations in diurnal variation of endurance sports performance did not reach a consensus and have been limited. This study would be a valuable resource for endurance sports trainers and event managers to plan their training and competition in a specific time of day. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out the diurnal variation in cardiovascular endurance performance in the young athletes. Materials and Methods: Thirty five athlete students (15.17 ± 1.62 years) participated in this study. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), post-exercise percentage of maximal heart rate (MHR% post-ex), post-exercise body temperature (BTemppost-ex), and post exercise blood lactic acid level (LApost-ex) were measured in this study. Three non-consecutive testings: A) Morning (09:00-10:00; AM), B) Noon (12:00-13:00; NN) and C) Afternoon (16:00-17:00; PM) were conducted. Participants were required to follow the meal plan and resting schedule for all testing days. Results: VO2max was significantly higher at NN (F2. 68 = 3.29, P < 0.05, η2 = 0.088) in comparison with PM. The MHR%post-ex, BTemppost-ex, LApost-ex was not significantly different among three times of day. Conclusions: Diurnal effect on endurance performance was found and the highest exercise VO2max was identified at noon. Secondary school students or young athletes are recommended to have sports training related to VO2max at noon for the purpose of maximizing training effectiveness. PMID:26448833

  17. Arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation is affected by F(I)O2 at submaximal running velocities in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, J E; Leppävuori, A P; Kyrö, K P; Mäkelä, P; Rusko, H K

    1999-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether arterial desaturation would occur at submaximal workloads in highly trained endurance athletes and whether saturation is affected by the fraction of oxygen in inspired air (F(I)O2). Six highly trained endurance athletes (5 women and 1 man, aged 25+/-4 yr, VO2max 71.3+/-5.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) ran 4x4 min on a treadmill in normoxia (F(I)O2 0.209), hypoxia (F(I)O2 0.155) and hyperoxia (F(I)O2 0.293) in a randomized order. The running velocities corresponded to 50, 60, 70 and 80% of their normoxic maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In hypoxia, the arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation percentage (SpO2%) was significantly lower than in hyperoxia and normoxia throughout the test, and the difference became more evident with increasing running intensity. In hyperoxia, the SpO2% was significantly higher than in normoxia at 70% running intensity as well as during recovery. The lowest values of SpO2% were 94.0+/-3.8% (P<0.05, compared with rest) in hyperoxia, 91.0+/-3.6% (P<0.001) in normoxia and 72.8+/-10.2% (P<0.001) in hypoxia. Although the SpO2% varied with the F(I)O2, the VO2 was very similar between the trials, but the blood lactate concentration was elevated in hypoxia and decreased in hyperoxia at the 70% and 80% workloads. In conclusion, elite endurance athletes may show an F(I)O2-dependent limitation for arterial O2 saturation even at submaximal running intensities. In hyperoxia and normoxia, the desaturation is partly transient, but in hypoxia the desaturation worsens parallel with the increase in exercise intensity. PMID:10512206

  18. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement. PMID:23371823

  19. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  20. The Student Athlete Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayles, Joy Gaston

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…

  1. The Division III Student-Athlete: Academic Performance, Campus Involvement and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Shaunette; Aries, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    A study of 219 seniors, including a broad spectrum of student-athletes, at a Division III school revealed that athletic participation did not impede academic success, or prevent involvement in most other extracurricular activities or with nonathletes. Athletes' personal growth was positively related to time spent with teammates in games and…

  2. Metabolic clues regarding the enhanced performance of elite endurance athletes from orchiectomy-induced hormonal changes.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the metabolic performance of an elite cyclist, Lance Armstrong, before and after his diagnosis with testicular cancer. Although a champion cyclist in 1-day events prior to his diagnosis of testicular cancer at age 25, he was not a contender in multi-day endurance cycle races such as the 3-week Tour de France. His genetic makeup and physiology (high VO2max, long femur, strong heavy build) coupled with his ambition and motivation enabled him at an early age to become one of the best 1-day cyclists in the world. Following his cancer diagnosis, he underwent a unilateral orchiectomy, brain surgery and four cycles of chemotherapy. After recovering, he returned to cycling and surprisingly excelled in the Tour de France, winning this hardest of endurance events 7 years running. This dramatic transformation from a 1-day to a 3-week endurance champion has led many to query how this is possible, and under the current climate, has led to suggestions of doping as to the answer to this metamorphosis. Physiological tests following his recovery indicated that physiological parameters such as VO2max were not affected by the unilateral orchiectomy and chemotherapy. We propose that his dramatic improvement in recovery between stages, the most important factor in winning multi-day stage races, is due to his unilateral orchiectomy, a procedure that results in permanent changes in serum hormones. These hormonal changes, specifically an increase in gonadotropins (and prolactin) required to maintain serum testosterone levels, alter fuel metabolism; increasing hormone sensitive lipase expression and activity, promoting increased free fatty acid (FFA) mobilization to, and utilization by, muscles, thereby decreasing the requirement to expend limiting glycogen stores before, during and after exercise. Such hormonal changes also have been associated with ketone body production, improvements in muscle repair and haematocrit levels and may facilitate the loss of body weight

  3. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26891166

  4. Effect of iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance of iron-depleted female athletes.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Blee, Tanya; Goodman, Carmel; Dawson, Brian; Claydon, Gary; Beilby, John; Prins, Alex

    2007-06-01

    This investigation examined the effect of intramuscular iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance in iron-deficient women. Sixteen athletes performed a 10-min steady-state submaximal economy test, a VO2max test, and a timed test to exhaustion at VO2max workload. Subjects were randomly assigned to an iron-supplemented group (IG) receiving intramuscular iron injections or to a placebo group (PG). Twenty days after the first injection, exercise and blood testing were repeated. A final blood test occurred on Day 28. Post supplementation, no differences were found between the groups' submaximal or maximal VO2, heart rate, or blood lactate (P > 0.05). Time to exhaustion was increased in the IG (P < 0.05) but was not greater than that of the PG (P > 0.05). The IG's serum ferritin (SF) was significantly increased on Days 20 and 28 (mean +/- standard error: 19 +/- 3 to 65 +/- 11 to 57 +/- 12 microg/L; P < 0.01), with a percentage change from baseline significantly greater than in the PG (P < 0.01). It was concluded that intramuscular iron injections can effectively increase SF without enhancing submaximal or maximal aerobic-exercise performance in iron-depleted female athletes. PMID:17693684

  5. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents recommendations from the National Athletic Trainers Association for optimizing the fluid replacement practices of athletes, explaining that dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes must be educated about the risks of dehydration and overhydration. They must learn fluid…

  6. Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I; Rideout, Candice A

    2004-01-01

    With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made: 1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance; 2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance; 3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and 4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system. 5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss. PMID:15212753

  7. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; Bouchard, Claude; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms or the insertion/deletion variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts (i.e., made up of athletes of quite different sport specialties) have not generated the kind of results that could offer solid opportunities to bridge the gap between basic research in exercise sciences and deliverables in biomedicine. A retrospective view of genetic association studies with complex disease traits indicates that transition to hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will be more fruitful. In studies of complex disease, it is well recognized that the magnitude of genetic association is often smaller than initially anticipated, and, as such, large sample sizes are required to identify the gene effects robustly. A symposium was held in Athens and on the Greek island of Santorini from 14-17 May 2015 to review the main findings in exercise genetics and genomics and to explore promising trends and possibilities. The symposium also offered a forum for the development of a position stand (the Santorini Declaration). Among the participants, many were involved in ongoing collaborative studies (e.g., ELITE, GAMES, Gene SMART, GENESIS, and POWERGENE). A consensus emerged among participants that it would be advantageous to bring together all current studies and those recently launched into one new large collaborative initiative, which was subsequently named the Athlome Project Consortium. PMID:26715623

  8. Use of prescription drugs in athletes.

    PubMed

    Alaranta, Antti; Alaranta, Hannu; Helenius, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    protein synthesis. Physicians and pharmacists taking care of athletes' medication need to be aware of the medicines that an athlete is taking and how those medicines interact with performance, exercise, environment and other medicines. Sport associations should repeatedly monitor not only the use of banned substances, but also the trends of use of legal medicines in athletes. Not only physicians and pharmacists, but also athletes and coaches should be better educated with respect to potential benefits and risks, and how each agent may affect an athlete's performance. The attitudes and beliefs leading to ample use of legal medicines in athletes is an interesting area of future research. PMID:18489193

  9. The Impact of Athletic Performance on Alumni Giving: An Analysis of Micro Data. NBER Working Paper No. 13937

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2008-01-01

    An ongoing controversy in the literature on the economics of higher education centers on whether the success of a school's athletic program affects alumni donations. This paper uses a unique data set to investigate this issue. The data contain detailed information about donations made by alumni of a selective research university as well as a…

  10. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability.

    PubMed

    Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P < 0.05, d = 0.86), 10-20-m sprint time (3%, P < 0.05, d = 2.56), and kicking performance (1%, P < 0.01, d = 1.28). No significant Group × test interactions were observed for any variable. In conclusion, trunk muscle strength, sprint, and kicking performance improved following CSTU and CSTS when conducted in combination with regular soccer training. PMID:25559249

  11. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01). Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01). In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key points The RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol

  12. H.S. Athletics Out of Bounds, Report Warns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of high school athletic programs have taken on the trappings of university-level sports. A trend that greatly affects school athletics and academic performance, and are now becoming more frequent at the high school and even the middle school level. A report released by the National Association of State Boards of Education warns…

  13. Acute consumption of p-synephrine does not enhance performance in sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge; Salinero, Juan José; Abían-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo, Cesar; Puente, Carlos; Del Coso, Juan

    2016-01-01

    P-Synephrine is a protoalkaloid widely used as an ergogenic aid in sports. This substance has been included in the World Anti-Doping Agency monitoring program, although scientific information about its effects on performance and athletes' well-being is scarce. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of p-synephrine to increase performance in sprint athletes. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 13 experienced sprinters performed 2 acute experimental trials after the ingestion of p-synephrine (3 mg·kg(-1)) or after the ingestion of a placebo (control trial). Forty-five minutes after the ingestion of the substances, the sprinters performed a squat jump, a countermovement jump, a 15-s repeated jump test, and subsequently performed 60-m and 100-m simulated sprint competitions. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess side-effect prevalence. In comparison with the control trial, the ingestion of p-synephrine did not change countermovement jump height (37.4 ± 4.2 vs 36.7 ± 3.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.52), squat jump height (34.4 ± 3.6 vs 33.9 ± 3.7 cm; P = 0.34), or average 15-s repeated jumps height (31.8 ± 4.1 vs 32.2 ± 3.6 cm; P = 0.18). P-Synephrine did not modify maximal running speed during the 60-m (9.0 ± 0.5 vs 9.0 ± 0.4 m·s(-1), respectively; P = 0.55) and 100-m sprint competitions (8.8 ± 0.5 vs 8.8 ± 0.5 m·s(-1), respectively; P = 0.92). The ingestion of p-synephrine did not alter the prevalence of headache, gastrointestinal discomforts, muscle pain, or insomnia during the hours following the tests. Acute consumption of 3 mg·kg(-1) of p-synephrine was ineffective to increase performance in competitive sprint athletes. Moreover, p-synephrine did not increase the occurrence of side effects after the competition. PMID:26673246

  14. The Effects of Intercollegiate Athletic Participation on Student Academic Achievement and Leadership Performance in a Selective Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunker, Craig Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of various intensity levels of athletic participation on academic and leadership performance in a selective institution. For the purpose of this study a retrospective analysis of existing admissions and student performance data was conducted. The continuous dependent variables were academic…

  15. Neural Markers of Performance States in an Olympic Athlete: An EEG Case Study in Air-Pistol Shooting.

    PubMed

    di Fronso, Selenia; Robazza, Claudio; Filho, Edson; Bortoli, Laura; Comani, Silvia; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on identifying the neural markers underlying optimal and suboptimal performance experiences of an elite air-pistol shooter, based on the tenets of the multi-action plan (MAP) model. According to the MAP model's assumptions, skilled athletes' cortical patterns are expected to differ among optimal/automatic (Type 1), optimal/controlled (Type 2), suboptimal/controlled (Type 3), and suboptimal/automatic (Type 4) performance experiences. We collected performance (target pistol shots), cognitive-affective (perceived control, accuracy, and hedonic tone), and cortical activity data (32-channel EEG) of an elite shooter. Idiosyncratic descriptive analyses revealed differences in perceived accuracy in regard to optimal and suboptimal performance states. Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization analysis supported the notion that optimal-automatic performance experiences (Type 1) were characterized by a global synchronization of cortical arousal associated with the shooting task, whereas suboptimal controlled states (Type 3) were underpinned by high cortical activity levels in the attentional brain network. Results are addressed in light of the neural efficiency hypothesis and reinvestment theory. Perceptual training recommendations aimed at restoring optimal performance levels are discussed. Key pointsWe investigated the neural markers underlying optimal and suboptimal performance experiences of an elite air-pistol shooter.Optimal/automatic performance is characterized by a global synchronization of cortical activity associated with the shooting task.Suboptimal controlled performance is characterized by high cortical arousal levels in the attentional brain networks.Focused Event Related Desynchronization activity during Type 1 performance in frontal midline theta was found, with a clear distribution of Event Related Synchronization in the frontal and central areas just prior to shot release.Event Related Desynchronization patterns in low Alpha band

  16. Sex steroid and growth hormone supplementation to enhance performance in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Rogol, A D

    2000-08-01

    Ergogenic aids are taken to enhance energy utilization by producing more, controlling its use, or increasing mechanical efficiency. Most athletes are looking toward enhancing performance by proper training modalities and methods; however, some look to the biochemical route for a "quick fix." Thus, the use of chemical agents is on the rise. Herein is provided information on the anabolic-androgenic agents androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, and the "parent" compound, testosterone. The former two, at best, have equivocal activity, but testosterone is both anabolic and androgenic in doses that adolescents might receive. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 are anabolic, nonandrogenic compounds with undoubted effects on the lean body mass compartment. Both are expensive, not readily available, and subject to the art of counterfeiting. Thus, very few data are available in non-growth hormone-deficient adolescents. The discussion of these agents ends with issues of fairness, ethics, and the message we attempt to project to our teenagers, whether athletes or not. PMID:10943821

  17. Changes in Endurance Performance in Young Athletes During Two Training Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Tota, Łukasz; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Pokora, Ilona; Cempla, Jerzy; Pilch, Wanda; Pałka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males) during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15–17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity) endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects. PMID:26839615

  18. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years’ experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance. PMID:27111088

  19. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  20. Reliability of Maximal Back Squat and Power Clean Performances in Inexperienced Athletes.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine between-session reliability of maximal weight lifted during the back squat and power clean, in inexperienced athletes, and to identify the smallest detectable difference between sessions. Forty-four collegiate athletes (men: n = 32; age: 21.5 ± 2.0 years; height: 180.0 ± 6.1 cm; body mass: 81.01 ± 7.42 kg; women: n = 12; age: 21.0 ± 1.9 years; height: 169.0 ± 5.2 cm; body mass: 62.90 ± 7.46 kg) participated in this study. One repetition maximum (1RM) back squat and power cleans were each performed twice on separate days, 3-5 days apart. Paired samples' t tests revealed no significant differences between trial 1 and trial 2 of the power clean (70.55 ± 24.24 kg, 71.22 ± 23.87 kg, p > 0.05, power = 0.99) and the back squat (130.32 ± 34.05 kg, 129.82 ± 34.07 kg, p > 0.05, power = 1.0). No differences in reliability or measurement error were observed between men and women. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) demonstrated a high reliability (ICC = 0.997, p < 0.001) for between-session 1RM power clean with an R of 0.987; similarly, high reliability was observed for between-session back squat performances (ICC = 0.994, p < 0.001), with an R of 0.978. The smallest detectable difference between sessions for both measures were ∼5%, highlighting that coaches and researchers should look for a change of >5% to identify a meaningful change in both maximal back squat and power clean performance. PMID:25559912

  1. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, David C.; Borchers, James

    2014-01-01

    Context: Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a relatively uncommon but potentially fatal condition affecting athletes that requires prompt recognition and appropriate management. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the PubMed database from 2003 to 2013 using the term exertional rhabdomyolysis was performed. Further evaluation of the bibliographies of articles expanded the evidence. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a relatively uncommon condition with an incidence of approximately 29.9 per 100,000 patient years but can have very serious consequences of muscle ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia, and death. The athlete will have pain, weakness, and swelling in the muscles affected as well as significantly elevated levels of creatine kinase (CK). Hydration is the foundation for any athlete with ER; management can also include dialysis or surgery. Stratifying the athlete into high- or low-risk categories can determine if further workup is warranted. Conclusion: Exertional rhabdomyolysis evaluation requires a history, physical examination, and serology for definitive diagnosis. Treatment modalities should include rest and hydration. Return to play and future workup should be determined by the risk stratification of the athlete. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:24982707

  2. The Role of the Faculty Athletics Representative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Arthur W.

    1992-01-01

    The faculty athletics representative plays an important role in the athletic-academic relationship. This responsibility includes certifying student-athlete eligibility, reporting academic data as required, evaluating athlete-applicant qualifications and abilities, regular evaluation of athlete performance, and participation in evaluation of…

  3. The Future of Genomic Research in Athletic Performance and Adaptation to Training.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, an individual's trainability and injury predisposition, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies focusing predominantly on genotyping a limited number of genetic variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts has not generated results of practical significance. Hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will in the future provide more comprehensive coverage and in-depth understanding of the biology underlying sports-related traits and related genetic mechanisms. Large, collaborative projects with sound experimental designs (e.g. clearly defined phenotypes, considerations and controls for sources of variability, and necessary replications) are required to produce meaningful results, especially when a hypothesis-free approach is used. It remains to be determined whether the novel approaches under current implementation will result in findings with real practical significance. This review will briefly summarize current and future directions in exercise genetics and genomics. PMID:27287077

  4. Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Pete J; Kirk, Tom; Ashmore, Tom; Willerton, Kristof; Evans, Rhys; Smith, Alan; Murray, Andrew J; Stubbs, Brianna; West, James; McLure, Stewart W; King, M Todd; Dodd, Michael S; Holloway, Cameron; Neubauer, Stefan; Drawer, Scott; Veech, Richard L; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-08-01

    Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration. Ketosis decreased muscle glycolysis and plasma lactate concentrations, while providing an alternative substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. Ketosis increased intramuscular triacylglycerol oxidation during exercise, even in the presence of normal muscle glycogen, co-ingested carbohydrate and elevated insulin. These findings may hold clues to greater human potential and a better understanding of fuel metabolism in health and disease. PMID:27475046

  5. Does Goal Orientation Matter for Trait Anxiety, Self-Efficacy and Performance? An Investigation in University Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, goal orientations have been examined in their relationship with other potential determinants of athletic performance. The relevant research showed that task orientation, compared to ego orientation, is linked to more adaptive outcomes (Behzadi, Hamzei, Nori and Salehian, 2011; Duda and Whitehead, 1998; Roberts, 2001; Biddle, 2001;…

  6. Athletic Performance and Social Behavior as Predictors of Peer Acceptance in Children Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Seymour, Karen E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Pelham, William E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-three children between ages 6 and 12 who were enrolled in a summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a study designed to measure the relationship between social behaviors, athletic performance, and peer acceptance. Children were assessed on sport-specific skills of three major…

  7. Impact of Noncognitive Factors on First-Year Academic Performance and Persistence of NCAA Division I Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Siu-Man Raymond

    2009-01-01

    SAT scores and noncognitive factors (acquired knowledge in a field, community service, positive self-concept, and preference for long-term goals) were found to be related to academic performance and persistence among 1st-year NCAA Division I student athletes (N = 109). Implications for college counselors and future research directions are…

  8. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  9. Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filsinger, Lora C.

    2012-01-01

    As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…

  10. Case Study: Effect of Handrim Diameter on Performance in a Paralympic Wheelchair Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Gabriel Brizuela; Rubio, Miguel Polo; Belloch, Salvador Llana; Soriano, Pedro Perez

    2009-01-01

    This study, with a top T-52 class athlete, determines the relationship between stroke frequency (SF) and push time (PT) and wheelchair velocity (Wv) using different handrim diameters (HD) and the effect of different HDs on the athlete's heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (LACT) at competition speeds. Wv shows a linear-direct relationship with SF…

  11. Weight loss and gain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Janet Walberg

    2002-08-01

    Guidance from health professionals will assist the significant proportion of athletes who desire a change in their body weight. Athletes who use drastic food or fluid restriction to lose weight may experience negative consequences, including loss of lean tissue, hormonal disturbances, and performance impairment. Excess food consumption for weight gain can increase body fat and risk factors for chronic diseases. Weight change is best done during the off-season, modifying energy intake up or down by 500 kcal/d. Adequate carbohydrate (60%-65%, > 5 g/kg) and protein (15%, 1.2-1.8 g/kg) and a low fat intake (20%-25%) is appropriate for either weight loss or gain. The athletic staff should be knowledgeable about the latest rules related to weight and appropriate weight control methods so they may guide their athletes using modest, safe approaches that will not negatively affect health or performance. PMID:12831697

  12. Muscular performance characterization in athletes: a new perspective on isokinetic variables

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Giovanna M.; Marinho, Hellen V. R.; Ocarino, Juliana M.; Silva, Paula L. P.; de Souza, Thales R.; Fonseca, Sérgio T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isokinetic dynamometry allows the measurement of several variables related to muscular performance, many of which are seldom used, while others are redundantly applied to the characterization of muscle function. Objectives: The present study aimed to establish the particular features of muscle function that are captured by the variables currently included in isokinetic assessment and to determine which variables best represent these features in order to achieve a more objective interpretation of muscular performance. Method: This study included 235 male athletes. They performed isokinetic tests of concentric knee flexion and extension of the dominant leg at a velocity of 60º/s. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results: The findings demonstrated that isokinetic variables can characterize more than muscle torque production and pointed to the presence of 5 factors that enabled the characterization of muscular performance according to 5 different domains or constructs. Conclusions: The constructs can be described by torque generation capacity; variation of the torque generation capacity along repetitions; movement deceleration capacity; mechanical/physiological factors of torque generation; and acceleration capacity (torque development). Fewer than eight out of sixteen variables are enough to characterize these five constructs. Our results suggest that these variables and these 5 domains may lead to a more systematic and optimized interpretation of isokinetic assessments. PMID:25590444

  13. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Kais, Kristjan; Raudsepp, Lennart

    2004-04-01

    This study considered the influence of competitive anxiety and self-confidence state responses upon athletic performance. 66 male beach volleyball players completed the translated and modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 which included the original intensity scale and a direction scale of Jones and Swain. Players' performance was scored from the video records using a standard rating scales. Correlations indicated scores on Direction subscale of modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Self-confidence were moderately positively (r=.27 to .51) correlated with different skill components and sum of skill components of beach volleyball. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that, as anticipated, directional perceptions of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence were significant predictors of beach volleyball performance but accounted for only 42% of variance. Original Intensity subscales of somatic and cognitive anxiety did not predict performance. Findings support the notion that direction of anxiety responses must be taken into consideration when examining anxiety-performance association in sport. PMID:15141908

  14. Rehabilitation Counseling for Athletes Prior to Retirement: A Preventative Approach Using Self-Acceptance To Enhance Performance before and after Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    This paper suggests that collegiate and professional athletes preparing to retire should be provided with preretirement and postretirement rehabilitation counseling. The counseling should involve a preventative approach centered around self-acceptance, to enhance the athlete's performance before and after retirement. The development of…

  15. Organizational Commitment Among Intercollegiate Head Athletic Trainers: Examining Our Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    Winterstein, Andrew P.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Design and Setting: Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. Subjects: A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Measurements: Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Results: Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. Conclusions: The findings reinforce a central theme in intercollegiate athletic training: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student-athletes

  16. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in heart rate among BL, ALM and COK. ALM maintained higher blood glucose level after TT than COK (P < 0.05). ALM had higher vitamin E and haemoglobin and lower serum free fatty acid (P < 0.05), slightly elevated serum arginine and nitric oxide and plasma insulin (P > 0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05). Conclusions Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to

  17. Use of video observation and motor imagery on jumping performance in national rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; p<.01, and between groups F(1,71)=10.620; p<.01. In the experimental group there were significant correlations between imagery ability and the post-training Flight Time of the HT, r(34)=-.295, p<.05 and the DJ, r(34)=-.297, p<.05. The application of the protocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks. PMID:25457420

  18. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of iron deficiency. However, this approach has been criticised because of the side effects and increased risk of iron toxicity associated with the use of supplements. Thus, more recently there has been a growing interest in using dietary modification rather than the use of supplements to improve iron status of athletes. Dietary iron treatment methods include the prescription of an iron-rich diet, or/and haem iron-based diet, dietary advice counselling and inclusion of novel iron-rich products into the daily diet. Although studies using dietary modification are still scarce, current literature suggests that dietary iron interventions can assist in maintaining iron status in female athletes, especially during intensive training and competition. Future research should focus on the most efficient method(s) of dietary modification for improvement of iron status and whether these approaches can have a favourable impact on sports and exercise performance. PMID:26448737

  19. Prediction Versus Reality: The Use of Mathematical Models to Predict Elite Performance in Swimming and Athletics at the Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Heazlewood, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have attempted to predict future Olympic performances in athletics and swimming based on trends displayed in previous Olympic Games. Some have utilised linear models to plot and predict change, whereas others have utilised multiple curve estimation methods based on inverse, sigmoidal, quadratic, cubic, compound, logistic, growth and exponential functions. The non linear models displayed closer fits to the actual data and were used to predict performance changes 10’s, 100’s and 1000’s of years into the future. Some models predicted that in some events male and female times and distances would crossover and females would eventually display superior performance to males. Predictions using mathematical models based on pre-1996 athletics and pre-1998 swimming performances were evaluated based on how closely they predicted sprints and jumps, and freestyle swimming performances for both male and females at the 2000 and 2004 Olympic Games. The analyses revealed predictions were closer for the shorter swimming events where men’s 50m and women’s 50m and 100m actual times were almost identical to predicted times. For both men and women, as the swim distances increased the accuracy of the predictive model decreased, where predicted times were 4.5-7% faster than actual times achieved. The real trends in some events currently displaying performance declines were not foreseen by the mathematical models, which predicted consistent improvements across all athletic and swimming events selected for in this study. Key Points Prediction of future Olympic performance based on previous performance trends. Application of non-linear mathematical equations resulting in better fitting models. Application of mathematical predictive models to the Olympic sports of athletics and swimming. Accuracy of mathematical models in predicting sprint events in running and swimming. A research approach to predict future Olympic performance and set future performance standards

  20. Roles of an Upper-Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances.

    PubMed

    Hooper, David R; Dulkis, Lexie L; Secola, Paul J; Holtzum, Gabriel; Harper, Sean P; Kalkowski, Ryan J; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; DuPont, William H; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Culley, Kevin P; Kraemer, William J

    2015-09-01

    Compression garments (CGs) have been previously shown to enhance proprioception; however, this benefit has not been previously shown to transfer to improved performance in sports skills. The purpose of this study was to assess whether enhanced proprioception and comfort can be manifested in improved sports performance of high-level athletes. Eleven Division I collegiate pitchers (age: 21.0 ± 2.9 years; height: 181.0 ± 4.6 cm; weight: 89.0 ± 13.0 kg; body fat: 12.0 ± 4.1%) and 10 Division I collegiate golfers (age: 20.0 ± 1.3 years; height: 178.1 ± 3.9 cm; weight: 76.4 ± 8.3 kg; body fat: 11.8 ± 2.6%) participated in the study. A counterbalanced within-group design was used. Subjects performed the respective baseball or golf protocol wearing either typical noncompressive (NC) or the experimental CG. Golfers participated in an assessment of driving distance and accuracy, as well as approach shot, chipping, and putting accuracy. Pitchers were assessed for fastball accuracy and velocity. In pitchers, there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in fastball accuracy (NC: 0.30 ± 0.04 vs. CG: 0.21 ± 0.07 cm). There were no differences in pitching velocity. In golfers, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvements in driving accuracy (NC: 86.7 ± 30.6 vs. CG: 68.9 ± 18.5 feet), as well as approach shot accuracy (NC: 26.6 ± 11.9 vs. CG: 22.1 ± 8.2 feet) and chipping accuracy (NC: 2.9 ± 0.6 vs. CG: 2.3 ± 0.6 inch). There was also a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in comfort for the golfers (NC: 3.7 ± 0.8 vs. CG: 4.5 ± 1.0). These results demonstrate that comfort and performance can be improved with the use of CGs in high-level athletes being most likely mediated by improved proprioceptive cues during upper-body movements. PMID:25719920

  1. Hemoglobin Mass and Aerobic Performance at Moderate Altitude in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Marti, Bernard; Hallén, Jostein

    2016-01-01

    Fore more than a decade, the live high-train low (LHTL) approach, developed by Levine and Stray-Gundersen, has been widely used by elite endurance athletes. Originally, it was pointed out, that by living at moderate altitude, athletes should benefit from an increased red cell volume (RCV) and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), while the training at low altitudes should prevent the disadvantage of reduced training intensity at moderate altitude. VO2max is reduced linearly by about 6-8 % per 1000 m increasing altitude in elite athletes from sea level to 3000 m, with corresponding higher relative training intensities for the same absolute work load. With 2 weeks of acclimatization, this initial deficit can be reduced by about one half. It has been debated during the last years whether sea-level training or exposure to moderate altitude increases RCV and Hbmass in elite endurance athletes. Studies which directly measured Hbmass with the optimized CO-rebreathing technique demonstrated that Hbmass in endurance athletes is not influenced by sea-level training. We documented that Hbmass is not increased after 3 years of training in national team cross-country skiers. When athletes are exposed to moderate altitude, new studies support the argument that it is possible to increase Hbmass temporarily by 5-6 %, provided that athletes spend >400 h at altitudes above 2300-2500 m. However, this effect size is smaller than the reported 10-14 % higher Hbmass values of endurance athletes living permanently at 2600 m. It remains to be investigated whether endurance athletes reach these values with a series of LHTL camps. PMID:27343108

  2. Athlete Atypicity on the Edge of Human Achievement: Performances Stagnate after the Last Peak, in 1988

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Tafflet, Muriel; El Helou, Nour; Len, Stéphane; Escolano, Sylvie; Guillaume, Marion; Nassif, Hala; Tolaïni, Julien; Thibault, Valérie; Desgorces, François Denis; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F) and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress. We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP) of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988) followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints. PMID:20098706

  3. Factors affecting performance of dispenser photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Nathan A.; Jensen, Kevin L.; Feldman, Donald W.; Montgomery, Eric J.; O'Shea, Patrick G.

    2007-11-01

    Usable lifetime has long been a limitation of high efficiency photocathodes in high average current accelerator applications such as free electron lasers, where poor vacuum conditions and high incident laser power contribute to early degradation in electron beam emission. Recent progress has been made in adapting well known thermionic dispenser techniques to photocathodes, resulting in a dispenser photocathode whose photosensitive surface coating of cesium can be periodically replenished to extend effective lifetime. This article details the design and fabrication process of a prototype cesium dispenser photocathode and describes in detail the dominant factors affecting its performance: activation procedure, surface cleanliness, temperature, and substrate microstructure.

  4. Association of G197 polymorphism of IL-17A gene with myocardial remodeling and aerobic performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Lifanov, A D; Khadyeva, M N; Demenev, S V; Knyazev, A N; Babushkin, Yu A; Astashina, E E

    2014-09-01

    We studied the relationship between G197A polymorphism of IL-17A gene and changes in morphometric echocardiography parameters and physiological parameters in skiers (19 examinees). Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and echocardiography using a Nemio MX ultrasound scanner (Toshiba). Association of 197A allele of IL-17A gene with low myocardial growth and high aerobic performance of athletes was demonstrated. PMID:25257435

  5. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  6. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  7. [A pilot study on adolescents of both sexes. Correlation between phenotype, athletic performances and family history to type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Pomara, F; Grosso, F; Basile, D; Polizzi, V; Marcianò, C; Adamo, V; De Vita, A; Petrucci, M

    2010-10-01

    The authors have studied the influence of family history of type 2 diabetes on the physical phenotype of 47 health adolescents. In both sexes groups with positive family history (FH+) had the highest values of stature and body weight (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), waist circumference (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), and wrist circumference (P=0.05 for males, not significant for females). Considering athletic performance, FH+ males showed a significant higher performance in power exercises than FH- males; no significant differences were found between FH+ and FH- female groups. The study confirms that family history of type 2 diabetes can induce in both sexes precocious phenotype and athletic performances linked-related variations; larger studies are necessary to confirm these data and to verify preventive interventions promoting significant life-style changes. PMID:20940677

  8. Performance analysis in sport: contributions from a joint analysis of athletes' experience and biomechanical indicators.

    PubMed

    Sève, C; Nordez, A; Poizat, G; Saury, J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of combining two types of analysis to investigate sports performance with the aim of optimizing it. These two types of analysis correspond to two levels of athletes' activity: (a) their experiences during performance and (b) the biomechanical characteristics of their movements. Rowing served as an illustration, and the activity of one female crew member was studied during a race. Three types of data were collected: (a) audiovisual data recorded during the race; (b) verbalization data obtained in interviews conducted afterward; and (c) biomechanical data. The courses of experience of the two rowers during the race were reconstructed on the basis of the audiovisual and verbalization data. This paper presents a detailed analysis of a single phenomenon of the race experienced by one of the rowers. According to the coaches, it reflected a dysfunction in crew coordination. The aim of this analysis was to identify the biomechanical characteristics of the rowers' movements that might explain it. The results showed that the phenomenon could be explained principally by an amplitude differential between the two rowers' strokes. On this basis, the coaches defined new training objectives to remedy the dysfunction in crew coordination. PMID:22150999

  9. Joint Cooling does not Hinder Athletic Performance during High-intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise. PMID:27119166

  10. An accelerometer-based system for elite athlete swimming performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Neil P.; Anderson, Megan E.; James, Daniel A.

    2005-02-01

    The measurement of sport specific performance characteristics is an important part of an athletes training and preparation for competition. Thus automated measurement, extraction and analysis of performance measures is desired and addressed in this paper. A tri-axial accelerometer based system was located on the lower back or swimmers to record acceleration profiles. The accelerometer system contained two ADXL202 bi-axial accelerometers positioned perpendicular to one another, and can store over 6 hours of data at 150Hz per channel using internal flash memory. The simultaneous collection of video and electronics touch pad timing was used to validate the algorithm results. Using the tri-axial accelerometer data, algorithms have been developed to derive lap times and stroke count. Comparison against electronic touch pad timing against accelerometer lap times has produced results with a typical error of better than +/-0.5 seconds. Video comparison of the stroke count algorithm for freestyle also produced results with an average error of +/-1 stroke. The developed algorithms have a higher level of reliability compared to hand timed and counted date that is commonly used during training.

  11. Commercial Hype Versus Reality: Our Current Scientific Understanding of Gluten and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    Lis, Dana M; Fell, James W; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Kitic, Cecilia M; Stellingwerff, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Recent explosion in the prevalence of gluten-free athletes, exacerbated by unsubstantiated commercial health claims, has led to some professional athletes touting gluten-free diet as the secret to their success. Forty-one percent of athletes report adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD), which is four-fold higher than the population-based clinical requirements. Many nonceliac athletes believe that gluten avoidance improves gastrointestinal well-being, reduces inflammation, and provides an ergogenic edge, despite the fact that limited data yet exist to support any of these benefits. There are several plausible associations between endurance-based exercise and gastrointestinal permeability whereby a GFD may be beneficial. However, the implications of confounding factors, including the risks of unnecessary dietary restriction, financial burden, food availability, psychosocial implications, alterations in short-chain carbohydrates (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols), and other wheat constituents emphasize the need for further evaluation. PMID:27399823

  12. Performance Decrement and Skill Deterioration During a Water Polo Game are Linked With the Conditioning Level of the Athletes.

    PubMed

    Botonis, Petros G; Toubekis, Argyris G; Terzis, Gerasimos D; Geladas, Nickos D; Platanou, Theodoros I

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether physical and technical performance deterioration after a water polo game is related to the athletes' conditioning level. Blood lactate concentration was measured during a 5 × 200-m incremental swimming test in 10 male water polo athletes to calculate the velocities corresponding to 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol·L lactate concentration (V4, V5, and V10, respectively) and define their conditioning level. All athletes participated in 5 competitive water polo games. Before (Pre), at half time (Mid), and after (Post) the first 2 games, handgrip strength and repeated sprint ability (8 × 20-m) were measured. Pre and Post the next 2 games, ball throwing velocity, shooting accuracy, and 400-m swim were evaluated. Pre, Mid, and Post the last game, the eggbeater kick test was performed. Handgrip strength, repeated sprint ability, 400-m swim performance, and ball shooting accuracy decreased after the game (8.4 ± 6.2%, 6.3 ± 3.4%, 7.0 ± 4.1%, and 20.3 ± 23.4%, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). V4, V5, and V10 were not significantly correlated with changes in physical or technical performance after the game. Performance in 400-m swim correlated with V4 and V5 whereas changes in 400-m swim Pre-Post, correlated with changes in ball shooting accuracy and throwing velocity (r = 0.73 and r = 0.80, p ≤ 0.05). These data suggest that V4, V5, and V10 may not correlate with performance decline in water polo. Interestingly, the 400-m swim test is connected with the decline in repeated sprints, ball shooting accuracy, and throwing velocity after a water polo game in well-trained athletes. PMID:26349048

  13. Desaturation Patterns Detected by Oximetry in a Large Population of Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido-Chamorro, Raul P.; Gonzalez-Lorenzo, Marta; Sirvent-Belando, Jose; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Roche, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Optimal exercise performance in well trained athletes can be affected by arterial oxygen saturation failure. Noninvasive detection of this phenomenon when performing a routine ergometric test can be a valuable tool for subsequent planning of the athlete's training, recovery, and nutrition. Oximetry has been used to this end. The authors studied…

  14. Can selected functional movement screen assessments be used to identify movement deficiencies that could affect multidirectional speed and jump performance?

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Schultz, Adrian B; Jordan, Corrin A; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Luczo, Tawni M

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) includes lower-body focused tests (deep squat [DS], hurdle step, in-line lunge) that could assist in identifying movement deficiencies affecting multidirectional sprinting and jumping, which are important qualities for team sports. However, the hypothesized relationship with athletic performance lacks supportive research. This study investigated relationships between the lower-body focused screens and overall FMS performance and multidirectional speed and jumping capabilities in team sport athletes. Twenty-two healthy men were assessed in the FMS, and multidirectional speed (0- to 5-m, 0- to 10-m, 0- to 20-m sprint intervals; 505 and between-leg turn differences, modified T-test and differences between initial movement to the left or right); and bilateral and unilateral multidirectional jumping (vertical [VJ], standing long [SLJ], and lateral jump) tests. Pearson's correlations (r) were used to calculate relationships between screening scores and performance tests (p ≤ 0.05). After the determination of any screens relating to athletic performance, subjects were stratified into groups (3 = high-performing group; 2 = intermediate-performing group; 1 = low-performing group) to investigate movement compensations. A 1-way analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) determined any between-group differences. There were few significant correlations. The DS did moderately correlate with between-leg 505 difference (r = -0.423), and bilateral VJ (r = -0.428) and SLJ (r = -0.457). When stratified into groups according to DS score, high performers had a 13% greater SLJ when compared with intermediate performers, which was the only significant result. The FMS seems to have minimal capabilities for identifying movement deficiencies that could affect multidirectional speed and jumping in male team sport athletes. PMID:25028993

  15. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lafay, Sophie; Jan, Caroline; Nardon, Karine; Lemaire, Benoit; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Houvenaeghel, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Cara, Louis

    2009-01-01

    g·dL-1, p < 0.05), suggesting that GE administration might protect cell damage during exercise. The high variability between sport disciplines did not permit to observe the differences in the effort test. Analyzing each individual group, handball players increased their physical performance by 24% (p < 0.05) and explosive power by 6.4% (p = 0.1) after GE supplementation compared to the placebo. Further analyses showed that CPK and Hb were the only biomarkers correlated with the increase in performance. In conclusion, GE ameliorates the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in elite athletes in the competition period, and enhances performance in one category of sportsmen (handball). Our results suggest that the enhancement in performance might be caused by the protective action of GE during physical exercise. These findings encourage conducting further studies to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action of GE on elite and occasional athletes. Key points Grape extract consumption improves the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in sportsmen. Grape extract consumption enhances physical performance in one category of sportsmen (Handball). The performance enhancement might be caused by the protective action of grape extract during physical exercise. PMID:24150013

  16. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Learn About Feet » Foot Health Information Athlete's Foot What is Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a skin disease caused by a fungus, ... fungus growth. Not all fungus conditions are athlete's foot. Other conditions, such as disturbances of the sweat ...

  17. Special feature for the Olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, L T

    2000-10-01

    Overtraining is a process of excessive exercise training in high-performance athletes that may lead to overtraining syndrome. Overtraining syndrome is a neuroendocrine disorder characterized by poor performance in competition, inability to maintain training loads, persistent fatigue, reduced catecholamine excretion, frequent illness, disturbed sleep and alterations in mood state. Although high-performance athletes are generally not clinically immune deficient, there is evidence that several immune parameters are suppressed during prolonged periods of intense exercise training. These include decreases in neutrophil function, serum and salivary immunoglobulin concentrations and natural killer cell number and possibly cytotoxic activity in peripheral blood. Moreover, the incidence of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection increases during periods of endurance training. However, all of these changes appear to result from prolonged periods of intense exercise training, rather than from the effects of overtraining syndrome itself. At present, there is no single objective marker to identify overtraining syndrome. It is best identified by a combination of markers, such as decreases in urinary norepinephrine output, maximal heart rate and blood lactate levels, impaired sport performance and work output at 110% of individual anaerobic threshold, and daily self-analysis by the athlete (e.g. high fatigue and stress ratings). The mechanisms underlying overtraining syndrome have not been clearly identified, but are likely to involve autonomic dysfunction and possibly increased cytokine production resulting from the physical stress of intense daily training with inadequate recovery. PMID:11050533

  18. Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Josh Timothy; Oliver, Samuel James; Lewis-Jones, Tammy Maria; Wylie, Lee John; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) provided as concentrated beetroot juice supplement would improve endurance running performance of well-trained runners in normobaric hypoxia. Ten male runners (mean (SD): sea level maximal oxygen uptake, 66 (7) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 10 km personal best, 36 (2) min) completed incremental exercise to exhaustion at 4000 m and a 10-km treadmill time-trial at 2500 m simulated altitude on separate days after supplementation with ∼7 mmol NO3(-) and a placebo at 2.5 h before exercise. Oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the incremental exercise test. Differences between treatments were determined using means [95% confidence intervals], paired sample t tests, and a probability of individual response analysis. NO3(-) supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration (NO3(-), 473 (226) nmol·L(-1) vs. placebo, 61 (37) nmol·L(-1), P < 0.001) but did not alter time to exhaustion during the incremental test (NO3(-), 402 (80) s vs. placebo 393 (62) s, P = 0.5) or time to complete the 10-km time-trial (NO3(-), 2862 (233) s vs. placebo, 2874 (265) s, P = 0.6). Further, no practically meaningful beneficial effect on time-trial performance was observed as the 11 [-60 to 38] s improvement was less than the a priori determined minimum important difference (51 s), and only 3 runners experienced a "likely, probable" performance improvement. NO3(-) also did not alter oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, or RPE. Acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation did not consistently enhance running performance of well-trained athletes in normobaric hypoxia. PMID:25942474

  19. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements. PMID:27329516

  20. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  1. Association of Short-Passing Ability with Athletic Performances in Youth Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    BenOunis, Omar; BenAbderrahman, Abderaouf; Chamari, Karim; Ajmol, Ali; BenBrahim, Mehdi; Hammouda, Amor; Hammami, Mohamed-Ali; Zouhal, Hassane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the relationship between multiple short-passing ability [measured using the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT)] and athletic performances in youth soccer players. Methods Forty-two young soccer players (age 14.8±0.4years) performed the LSPT, the squat-jump (SqJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ), the 30m sprints (with 5m and 20m split times also recorded), the 15m agility run (Agility-15m), the 15m ball dribbling (Ball-15m), the Illinois agility test (IAGT) and the Yo-Yo IRT Level 1 tests. Results LSPT total performance (LSPT TP) showed significant positive correlation with 5m, 20m, and 30m sprint times, Agility-15m, Ball-15m and Illinois agility test (r=0.60, r=0.58, r=0.49, r=0.75, r=0.71 and r=0.72; P<0.01, respectively). Significant negative correlation were found between LSPT TP and SqJ and CMJ (r=−0.62 and r=−0.64; P<0.01, respectively). It was determined that Agility-15m, Illinois agility test and Ball-15m were the most effective factors associated with LSPT TP among other factors in multiple regression analysis. Conclusion This study showed that LSPT TP of young elite soccer players is determined by their agility abilities, thus enabling this test to be used for talent identification purposes. PMID:23785575

  2. Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In light of the World Anti Doping Agency’s 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research’ by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

  3. Development of a measurement and feedback training tool for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes.

    PubMed

    Lembert, Sandra; Schachner, Otto; Raschner, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the start plays a critical role in sliding events and explains more than 55% of the variance of the final time in luge. Experts evaluate the contribution of the arm strokes to be 23% of the total starting performance. The aim of the present study was to develop a measurement and feedback training tool (Speedpaddler) for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes. The construction is an aluminium alloy framework with a customary belt conveyor system, which is driven by two synchronized servo motors. Training is possible with constant speeds up to 12 m · s(-1) or several speed curves, which simulate the acceleration of different luge tracks. The construction facilitates variations in the inclination and speed of the conveyor belts and thereby the resistance and movement speed. If the athlete accelerates the conveyor belts during arm-paddling, the torque of the motors decreases. Torque measurements and high-speed video offer valuable insights into the several technique criteria. Comparisons of arm-paddle cycle durations on ice and on the Speedpaddler with 18 luge athletes (national team and juniors) showed no statistical differences. The Speedpaddler might be a useful tool to improve starting performance all year round. PMID:22077383

  4. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes. PMID:26016588

  5. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  6. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  7. Line-Bisecting Performance in Highly Skilled Athletes: Does Preponderance of Rightward Error Reflect Unique Cortical Organization and Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstedt, Roland A.

    2004-01-01

    A line-bisecting test was administered to 250 highly skilled right-handed athletes and a control group of 60 right-handed age matched non-athletes. Results revealed that athletes made overwhelmingly more rightward errors than non-athletes, who predominantly bisected lines to the left of the veridical center. These findings were interpreted in the…

  8. Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes.

    PubMed

    Venderley, Angela M; Campbell, Wayne W

    2006-01-01

    The quality of vegetarian diets to meet nutritional needs and support peak performance among athletes continues to be questioned. Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient energy and an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes to support performance and health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat and protein of 45-65%, 20-35% and 10-35%, respectively, are appropriate for vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike, especially those who perform endurance events. Vegetarian athletes can meet their protein needs from predominantly or exclusively plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. Muscle creatine stores are lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. Creatine supplementation provides ergogenic responses in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes, with limited data supporting greater ergogenic effects on lean body mass accretion and work performance for vegetarians. The potential adverse effect of a vegetarian diet on iron status is based on the bioavailability of iron from plant foods rather than the amount of total iron present in the diet. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike must consume sufficient iron to prevent deficiency, which will adversely affect performance. Other nutrients of concern for vegetarian athletes include zinc, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and calcium. The main sources of these nutrients are animal products; however, they can be found in many food sources suitable for vegetarians, including fortified soy milk and whole grain cereals. Vegetarians have higher antioxidant status for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol), and beta-carotene than omnivores, which might help reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Research is needed comparing antioxidant defences in vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes. PMID:16573356

  9. Revenue Producing Athletes: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Leroy; And Others

    An annotated bibliography on revenue producing sports is presented, with attention to: Proposition 48, exploitation of athletes, legal proceedings, research related to athletes and academic performance, psychological characteristics of athletes, and counseling programs for athletes. Introductions to each of the six topics are included. The section…

  10. Subjecting Elite Athletes to Inspiratory Breathing Load Reveals Behavioral and Neural Signatures of Optimal Performers in Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Flagan, Taru; Simmons, Alan N.; Gillis, Kristine; Kotturi, Sante; Thom, Nathaniel; Johnson, Douglas C.; Van Orden, Karl F.; Davenport, Paul W.; Swain, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether and how elite athletes process physiological or psychological challenges differently than healthy comparison subjects. In general, individuals optimize exercise level as it relates to differences between expected and experienced exertion, which can be conceptualized as a body prediction error. The process of computing a body prediction error involves the insular cortex, which is important for interoception, i.e. the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Thus, optimal performance may be related to efficient minimization of the body prediction error. We examined the hypothesis that elite athletes, compared to control subjects, show attenuated insular cortex activation during an aversive interoceptive challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings Elite adventure racers (n = 10) and healthy volunteers (n = 11) performed a continuous performance task with varying degrees of a non-hypercapnic breathing load while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) non-hypercapnic inspiratory breathing load is an aversive experience associated with a profound activation of a distributed set of brain areas including bilateral insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated; (2) adventure racers relative to comparison subjects show greater accuracy on the continuous performance task during the aversive interoceptive condition; and (3) adventure racers show an attenuated right insula cortex response during and following the aversive interoceptive condition of non-hypercapnic inspiratory breathing load. Conclusions/Significance These findings support the hypothesis that elite athletes during an aversive interoceptive condition show better performance and an attenuated insular cortex activation during the aversive experience. Interestingly, differential modulation of the right insular cortex has been found previously in elite military personnel and appears to be emerging as an important

  11. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

  12. Structural Support of High-Performance Athletes' Education: Supporting Dual Careers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlidis, George; Gargalianos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how the current Greek sport-education context seems to offer relatively poor dual-career support in comparison to other available structures in the world. This results in additional obstacles for Greek athletes who wish to educate themselves and an ambiguous prospect for their future. Consequently, the Greek…

  13. A Study of the Academic Performance of Student Athletes in California's Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha; Lewis, Merillee

    In the California Community Colleges (CCC), students who participate in athletics must be enrolled in a minimum of 12 credit units during the season of participation and must maintain a grade point average (GPA) of at least 2.0. In 1989, a study was conducted to determine whether there were differences in the educational goal achievement of…

  14. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Interventions and Supplements to Improve Performance during Athletic Training.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Daniela; Negro, Massimo; Arcelli, Enrico; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous positive effects of physical exercise, some negative physiological changes occur in long-lasting heavy training with transient dysfunction of the immune system, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. This is the case of elite athletes, who train intensively to compete at the highest levels. However, these athletes can counteract the negative effects of heavy training, reducing acute and chronic inflammations and supporting the immune system, with nutritional and supplementation countermeasures. For this purpose, macronutrient manipulation with an appropriate use of certain supplements can be considered as an intervention to reduce exercise-induced immune changes and inflammatory risk. For example, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation may promote such immune responses in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, micronutrients play an important role in immune function; in particular, the antioxidant capacity of several dietary micronutrients (e.g., tocopherols, docosahexaenoate, and flavonoids) is very interesting to support the endogenous antioxidant defense systems of the athletes, counterbalancing the negative effects of oxidative damage due to free radicals. Some of these nutrients have potential anti-inflammatory properties as assessed by the attenuated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Key Teaching Points: Long-lasting heavy training plan and competition can lead to chronic immune suppression in athletes, increasing infection risk. Chronic exercise increases mobilization of neutrophils, decreases mobilization of lymphocytes, and decreases the absolute and relative numbers of neutrophils at rest. Nutritional deficiencies alter the immuno-system and increase infection risk. Nutrition can influence exercise-induced immune suppression. Elite athletes competing at the highest levels can benefit from nutritional and supplementation support to improve immunity and reduce acute and chronic inflammations. PMID

  15. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tinea, athlete's foot. The Basics on Tinea Infections Tinea (pronounced: TIH-nee-uh) is the medical name ... or scalp, including athlete's foot, jock itch , and ringworm (despite its name, ringworm is not a worm). ...

  16. The effect of breathing an ambient low‐density, hyperoxic gas on the perceived effort of breathing and maximal performance of exercise in well‐trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ansley, L; Petersen, D; Thomas, A; Gibson, A St Clair; Robson‐Ansley, P; Noakes, T D

    2007-01-01

    Background The role of the perception of breathing effort in the regulation of performance of maximal exercise remains unclear. Aims To determine whether the perceived effort of ventilation is altered through substituting a less dense gas for normal ambient air and whether this substitution affects performance of maximal incremental exercise in trained athletes. Methods Eight highly trained cyclists (mean SD) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) = 69.9 (7.9) (mlO2/kg/min) performed two randomised maximal tests in a hyperbaric chamber breathing ambient air composed of either 35% O2/65% N2 (nitrox) or 35% O2/65% He (heliox). A ramp protocol was used in which power output was incremented at 0.5 W/s. The trials were separated by at least 48 h. The perceived effort of breathing was obtained via Borg Category Ratio Scales at 3‐min intervals and at fatigue. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) were monitored continuously. Results Breathing heliox did not change the sensation of dyspnoea: there were no differences between trials for the Borg scales at any time point. Exercise performance was not different between the nitrox and heliox trials (peak power output = 451 (58) and 453 (56) W), nor was VO2max (4.96 (0.61) and 4.88 (0.65) l/min) or maximal VE (157 (24) and 163 (22) l/min). Between‐trial variability in peak power output was less than either VO2max or maximal VE. Conclusion Breathing a less dense gas does not improve maximal performance of exercise or reduce the perception of breathing effort in highly trained athletes, although an attenuated submaximal tidal volume and VE with a concomitant reduction in VO2 suggests an improved gas exchange and reduced O2 cost of ventilation when breathing heliox. PMID:17062658

  17. Qualitative Inquiry in Athletic Training: Principles, Possibilities, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the principles of qualitative research and provide insights into how such methods can benefit the profession of athletic training. Background: The growth of a profession is influenced by the type of research performed by its members. Although qualitative research methods can serve to answer many clinical and professional questions that help athletic trainers navigate their socioprofessional contexts, an informal review of the Journal of Athletic Training reveals a paucity of such methods. Description: We provide an overview of the characteristics of qualitative research and common data collection and analysis techniques. Practical examples related to athletic training are also offered. Applications: Athletic trainers interact with other professionals, patients, athletes, and administrators and function in a larger society. Consequently, they are likely to face critical influences and phenomena that affect the meaning they give to their experiences. Qualitative research facilitates a depth of understanding related to our contexts that traditional research may not provide. Furthermore, qualitative research complements traditional ways of thinking about research itself and promotes a greater understanding related to specific phenomena. As the profession of athletic training continues to grow, qualitative research methods will assume a more prominent role. Thus, it will be necessary for consumers of athletic training research to understand the functional aspects of the qualitative paradigm. PMID:12937461

  18. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  19. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance. PMID:17241915

  20. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, M; Kalsen, A; Auchenberg, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max: 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were included in a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled parallel study. At baseline, after acute administration, and again after 2-week administration of the study drugs (8 mg salbutamol or placebo), subjects' maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of m. quadriceps and isometric endurance of m. deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P < 0.05). Two-week administration of salbutamol increased (P < 0.05) peak power during first and second Wingate test by 6.4 ± 2.0 and 4.2 ± 1.0%. Neither acute nor 2-week administration of salbutamol had any effect on MVC, exercise performance at 110% of VO2max or on isometric endurance. No differences were observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, salbutamol benefits athletes' sprint ability. Thus, the present study supports the restriction of oral salbutamol in competitive sports. PMID:25077918

  1. Restoration of physical performance capacity of athletes after prolonged restriction of their motor activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soldatov, A. D.; Finogeyev, V. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of different regimens of treatment following prolonged hypokinesia were studied in order to determine the most effective program. The types of programs considered were passive means, consisting of physical therapy; active means, consisting of athletic training; and a combined program. In the first stage of the experiment, the effects of a 10 day period of hypokinesia were studied. It was determined that the restoration programs must address the problems of: (1) increasing defense function and general tone of the body; (2) restore orthostatic stability; and (3) increase general endurance. In later stages, groups of athletes and nonathletes underwent 30 day periods of hypokinesia. Restoration was carefully monitored for groups treated with the various regimens. It was determined that the most effective treatment was a comprehensive program of passive and active therapy.

  2. Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tekla S.

    1991-01-01

    The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)

  3. Does Motivation Affect Performance via Persistence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmeyer, Regina; Rheinberg, Falko

    2000-01-01

    Studied the relationships among motivation, persistence, and performance in a sample of 51 German college students. Path analysis showed that initial motivation influenced persistence but that the relationship between persistence and performance was disrupted because learners with more knowledge stopped sooner. (SLD)

  4. Athletic osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Hiti, Corey J; Stevens, Kathryn J; Jamati, Moira K; Garza, Daniel; Matheson, Gordon O

    2011-05-01

    Athletic osteitis pubis is a painful and chronic condition affecting the pubic symphysis and/or parasymphyseal bone that develops after athletic activity. Athletes with osteitis pubis commonly present with anterior and medial groin pain and, in some cases, may have pain centred directly over the pubic symphysis. Pain may also be felt in the adductor region, lower abdominal muscles, perineal region, inguinal region or scrotum. The pain is usually aggravated by running, cutting, hip adduction and flexion against resistance, and loading of the rectus abdominis. The pain can progress such that athletes are unable to sustain athletic activity at high levels. It is postulated that osteitis pubis is an overuse injury caused by biomechanical overloading of the pubic symphysis and adjacent parasymphyseal bone with subsequent bony stress reaction. The differential diagnosis for osteitis pubis is extensive and includes many other syndromes resulting in groin pain. Imaging, particularly in the form of MRI, may be helpful in making the diagnosis. Treatment is variable, but typically begins with conservative measures and may include injections and/or surgical procedures. Prolotherapy injections of dextrose, anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and a variety of surgical procedures have been reported in the literature with varying efficacies. Future studies of athletic osteitis pubis should attempt to define specific and reliable criteria to make the diagnosis of athletic osteitis pubis, empirically define standards of care and reduce the variability of proposed treatment regimens. PMID:21510714

  5. Associations among hemorheological factors and maximal oxygen consumption. Is there a role for blood viscosity in explaining athletic performance?

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Lucas, Alexander R; Hamlin, Robert L; Devor, Steven T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hematocrit, blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and fibrinogen concentration during maximal oxygen uptake in aerobically trained (AT) and resistance trained (RT) athletes. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed using a Bruce graded exercise treadmill test to exhaustion, and blood samples were collected at rest and immediately following exercise using a venous catheter. Viscometric analyses were performed using a cone and plate viscometer at varying shear rates. Hematocrit was measured as the fraction of erythrocytes suspended in plasma following centrifugation. Erythrocyte rigidity was estimated using the Dintenfass index of red blood cell rigidity. Following maximal treadmill exercise, an increase of blood viscosity at varying shear rates (22.50, 45.00, 90.00, and 225.00 s- 1; P <  0.05) was observed in RT athletes only. Plasma viscosity @ 225.00 s- 1 (1.88 ± 0.09 vs. 1.78 ± 0.03 mPa.s; P <  0.05), erythrocyte rigidity (0.52 ± 0.08 vs. 0.40 ± 0.09; P <  0.05), and plasma fibrinogen (434 ± 7 vs. 295 ± 25 mg/dL; P <  0.01) were all significantly greater in RT than AT athletes following maximal exercise. In summary, AT, but not RT, is associated with a hemorheological profile that promotes both oxygen transport and delivery. The results indicate that hematocrit alone should not be the focus of training and ergogenic supplementation to increase aerobic performance. PMID:23514971

  6. Functional Movement Screening Performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes From Brazil: Differences Considering Practice Time and Combat Style.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Gondim, Denis Foster; Arruda, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p < 0.001), and they were 79% of the injuries that occurred in training sessions (χ = 14.53; p < 0.001). Despite the lack of statistical differences in the FMS performance between guard and pass fighters (t = 1.97; p = 0.05), its magnitude was considered medium (ES = 0.77). There was an association between FMS and presence of injury (χ = 4.95; p = 0.03). Considering the FMS score as a predictor and the presence or absence of injury as the dependent variable, the data met a Wald coefficient of 4.55, p = 0.03 and Exp (B) = 5.71. The study found that almost half of the sample had injuries in the upper limbs and a quarter had

  7. How to minimise the health risks to athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports review and position statement on behalf of the Ad Hoc Research Working Group on Body Composition, Health and Performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Meyer, Nanna L; Lohman, Timothy G; Ackland, Timothy R; Maughan, Ronald J; Stewart, Arthur D; Müller, Wolfram

    2013-11-01

    A focus on low body weight and body fat content, combined with regulations in some weight-sensitive sports, are considered risk factors for extreme dieting, eating disorders (EDs) and related health consequences among athletes. At present there are, from a health perspective, no generally accepted optimum values for body weight or percentage of fat mass in different sports and there is no 'gold standard' method for body composition assessment in athletes. On the basis of health considerations as well as performance, medical support teams should know how to approach elite athletes who seek to achieve an unrealistic body composition and how to prevent restrictive eating practices from developing into an ED. In addition, these teams must know when to raise the alarm and how to advice athletes who are affected by extreme dieting or clinical EDs. However, there is no consensus on when athletes struggling with extreme dieting or EDs should be referred for specialist medical treatment or removed from competition. Based on the present review, we conclude that there is a need for (1) sport-specific and gender-specific preventive programmes, (2) criteria for raising alarm and 'does not start' (DNS) for athletes with EDs and (3) modifications to the regulations in some sports. Further, the key areas for research identified include the development of standard methods for body composition assessment in elite athletes; screening measures for EDs among athletes; development and testing of prevention programmes; investigating the short and long-term effects of extreme dieting; and EDs on health and performance. PMID:24115480

  8. Student Profiles and Factors Affecting Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansarkar, B. A.; Michaeloudis, A.

    2001-01-01

    Studies the profiling of first year students studying the Quantitative Methods for Business module at a British university, and makes policy recommendations to improve student performance. Indicates that the highest proportion of students are United Kingdom students, 58% of the students are male, and only 30% of the students are mature students.…

  9. Factors affecting performance of engineered barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J. A., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    For the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment (VA), a reference design was tentatively selected` In September 1997, and a series of model abstractions are being prepared for the performance assessment (PA) of that design. To determine the sensitivity of peak dose rate at the accessible environment to engineered components, several design options were subjected to the PA models available late in FY97.

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF ENGINEERED BARRIERS

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J. A.; Bailey, T. W.; Doering, W.; Lee, J. K.; Mccoy, J. K.; McKenzie, D. G.; Sevougian, D.; Vallikat, V.

    1998-03-01

    For the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment (VA), a reference design was tentatively selected in September 1997, and a series of model abstractions are being prepared for the performance assessment (PA) of that design. To determine the sensitivity of peak dose rate at the accessible environment to engineered components, several design options were subjected to the PA models available late in FY97.

  11. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations to optimize the fluid-replacement practices of athletes. Background: Dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes do not voluntarily drink sufficient water to prevent dehydration during physical activity. Drinking behavior can be modified by education, increasing accessibility, and optimizing palatability. However, excessive overdrinking should be avoided because it can also compromise physical performance and health. We provide practical recommendations regarding fluid replacement for athletes. Recommendations: Educate athletes regarding the risks of dehydration and overhydration on health and physical performance. Work with individual athletes to develop fluid-replacement practices that optimize hydration status before, during, and after competition. Imagesp224-a PMID:16558633

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS PERFORMED AT GIVEN INTENSITIES IS DIFFERENT IN ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH TRAINED ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Richens, B.

    2014-01-01

    Prescribing training intensity and volume is a key problem when designing resistance training programmes. One approach is to base training prescription on the number of repetitions performed at a given percentage of repetition maximum due to the correlation found between these two measures. However, previous research has raised questions as to the accuracy of this method, as the repetitions completed at different percentages of 1RM can differ based upon the characteristics of the athlete. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of an athlete's training background on the relationship between the load lifted (as a percentage of one repetition maximum) and the number of repetitions achieved. Eight weightlifters and eight endurance runners each completed a one repetition maximum test on the leg press and completed repetitions to fatigue at 90, 80 and 70% of their one repetition maximum. The endurance runners completed significantly more repetitions than the weightlifters at 70% (39.9 ± 17.6 versus 17.9 ± 2.8; p < 0.05) and 80% (19.8 ± 6.4 versus 11.8 ± 2.7; p < 0.05) of their one repetition maximum but not at 90% (10.8 ± 3.9 versus 7.0 ± 2.1; p > 0.05) of one repetition maximum. These differences could be explained by the contrasting training adaptations demanded by each sport. This study suggests that traditional guidelines may underestimate the potential number of repetitions that can be completed at a given percentage of 1RM, particularly for endurance trained athletes. PMID:24899782

  13. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers.

    PubMed

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers - seven with sleep bruxism and seven without - randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  14. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers

    PubMed Central

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J.; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers – seven with sleep bruxism and seven without – randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  15. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes. PMID:25574886

  16. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality. PMID:27544991

  17. Beetroot Juice Improves On-Water 500 M Time-Trial Performance, and Laboratory-Based Paddling Economy in National and International-Level Kayak Athletes.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Cox, Gregory R; Bullock, Nicola; Burke, Louise M

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the ingestion of a beetroot juice supplement (BR) on 4-min laboratory-based kayak performance in national level male (n = 6) athletes (Study A), and on 500 m on-water kayak time-trial (TT) performance in international level female (n = 5) athletes (Study B). In Study A, participants completed three laboratory-based sessions on a kayak ergometer, including a 7 × 4 min step test, and two 4 min maximal effort performance trials. Two and a half hours before the warm-up of each 4 min performance trial, athletes received either a 70 ml BR shot containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). The distance covered over the 4 min TT was not different between conditions; however, the average VO2 over the 4 min period was significantly lower in BR (p = .04), resulting in an improved exercise economy (p = .05). In Study B, participants completed two field-based 500 m TTs, separated by 4 days. Two hours before each trial, athletes received either two 70 ml BR shots containing ~9.6 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). BR supplementation significantly enhanced TT performance by 1.7% (p = .01). Our results show that in national-level male kayak athletes, commercially available BR shots (70 ml) containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate improved exercise economy during laboratory-based tasks predominantly reliant on the aerobic energy system. Furthermore, greater volumes of BR (140 ml; ~9.6 mmol nitrate) provided to international-level female kayak athletes resulted in enhancements to TT performance in the field. PMID:25202886

  18. On understanding the role of need thwarting in the association between athlete attachment and well/ill-being.

    PubMed

    Felton, L; Jowett, S

    2015-04-01

    Grounded in attachment theory and basic psychological needs theory, the current study aimed to examine the mediating role of basic psychological need thwarting between perceptions of athlete attachment to the coach and indexes of athlete well/ill-being. A sample of athletes (N = 241) participating in various organized sports completed a multisection questionnaire assessing the main study variables. Bootstrap mediation analysis revealed that the perceived psychological needs of thwarted autonomy and competence within the coach relational context mediated the associations between athletes' perceptions of insecure attachments to the coach and experiences of life satisfaction and negative affect. Analysis also revealed that the perceived psychological needs of thwarted competence and relatedness within the sport context mediated the associations between athletes' attachment style and experiences of performance satisfaction, life satisfaction, depression, and negative affect. Overall, the findings of the study highlight that the examination of negative aspects of sport participation may facilitate a more complete understanding of athletes' psychological functioning. PMID:24593151

  19. Influence of crank length on cycle ergometry performance of well-trained female cross-country mountain bike athletes.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul William; Edwards, Andrew M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differential effects of three commonly used crank lengths (170, 172.5 and 175 mm) on performance measures relevant to female cross-country mountain bike athletes (n = 7) of similar stature. All trials were performed in a single blind and balanced order with a 5- to 7-day period between trials. Both saddle height and fore-aft position to pedal axle distance at a crank angle of 90 degrees was controlled across all trials. The laboratory tests comprised a supra-maximal (peak power-cadence); an isokinetic (50 rpm) test; and a maximal test of aerobic capacity. The time to reach supra-maximal peak power was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in the 170 mm (2.57 +/- 0.79 s) condition compared to 175 mm (3.29 +/- 0.76 s). This effect represented a mean performance advantage of 27.8% for 170 mm compared to 175 mm. There was no further inter-condition differences between performance outcome measurements derived for the isokinetic (50 rpm) maximum power output, isokinetic (50 rpm) mean power output or indices of endurance performance. The decreased time to peak power with the greater rate of power development in the 170 mm condition suggests a race advantage may be achieved using a shorter crank length than commonly observed. Additionally, there was no impediment to either power output produced at low cadences or indices of endurance performance using the shorter crank length and the advantage of being able to respond quickly to a change in terrain could be of strategic importance to elite athletes. PMID:19771448

  20. Genes and athletes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R; Greydanus, Donald E

    2002-06-01

    Genetics plays an important role in determining characteristics desired for success in a given sport. Advances in biotechnology pose interesting and perplexing dilemmas for athletes, parents, health care providers, and society at large. Gene therapy holds great prospects for disease prevention and treatment. The same techniques also can be misused for genetic manipulation to enhance athletic prowess. This chapter reviews selective aspects of genotype influence on sport performance, uses and misuses of genetic technology, and ethical as well as legal dilemmas. PMID:11986034

  1. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance. PMID:25671398

  2. The role of effective mass and hand speed in the performance of kung fu athletes compared with nonpractitioners.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F

    2007-05-01

    The main goal of this article is to quantify the contribution of effective mass (me) and handspeed (shi) on the palm strike performance of kung fu athletes (kung fu group) compared with nonpractitioners (control group). All subjects were asked to strike a basketball. Hand and ball speed (sbf) were determined by high-speed video analysis. The value for me was determined by an equation that does not depend upon postimpact measurement of the hand speed. The results show that kung fu athletes had greater shi (6.67 [SD 1.42] m/s), p = 0.042), higher me (2.62 [SD 0.33] kg, p = 0.004), and greater sbf (9.00 [SD 1.89] m/s), p = 0.004) than the nonpractitioners (5.04 [SD 0.57] m/s, 1.33 [SD 0.19] kg, and 5.72 [SD 0.44] m/s, respectively). Comparing the average values obtained for me and hand and forearm mass (m), it was found that for the control group me is statistically equal to m (p = 0.917), whereas for the kung fu group me is significant greater than m (p = 0.003). It is suggested that for impacts against heavier objects, the effective mass would be the main factor to distinguish a martial arts-trained from an untrained subject. PMID:17603133

  3. Repeated Sprint Performance in Male and Female College Athletes Matched for VO2max Relative to Fat Free Mass

    PubMed Central

    MAGEEAN, AMANDA L.; ALEXANDER, RYAN P.; MIER, CONSTANCE M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in repeated sprint exercise (RSE) performance among male and female athletes matched for VO2max relative to FFM (VO2max FFM). Thirty nine male and female college athletes performed a graded exercise test for VO2max and hydrostatic weighing to determine FFM. From the results, 11 pairs of males and females matched for VO2max FFM (mean ± SD; 58.3 ± 4.3 and 58.9 ± 4.6 ml·kg FFM−1·min−1; men and women, respectively) were identified. On a separate day, matched participants performed a RSE protocol that consisted of five 6-sec cycle sprints with 30-sec recovery periods, followed by 5-min active recovery and a 30-sec all-out sprint. Repeated 6-sec sprint performance did not differ between men and women; both maintained power output (PO) until sprint 4. POFFM (W·kg−1 FFM) did not differ between men and women during the five sprints. During the 30-sec sprint, men achieved a lower peak POFFM than women (11.7 ± 1.5 vs 13.2 ± 1.2); however, the decline in POFFM over 30 sec was greater in women. VO2 (ml·kg FFM−1·min−1) was lower in men during recovery (24.4 ± 3.8 vs 28.7 ± 5.7) and at the beginning (29.2 ± 4.0 vs 34.7 ± 4.9) and end (49.4 ± 5.0 vs 52.3 ± 4.0). of the 30-sec sprint. These data indicate that men and women with similar aerobic capacities do not respond differently to short repeated sprints but may differ in their ability to recover and perform sprints of longer duration. PMID:27182366

  4. Athletics: Time Is Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmion, Harry

    1987-01-01

    Governing boards have to understand the money-and-power issues affecting intercollegiate athletics: coaches (their compensation and the hiring process); money from revenue-producing sports; money from other sources, such as booster clubs; and the impact of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. (Author/MLW)

  5. Asthma Medications: Basic Pharmacology and Use in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Houglum, Joel E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Asthma is a chronic disease that affects athletes at all levels of sport. Several categories of drugs, including relatively new agents, are available to treat the asthmatic patient. By understanding the appropriate uses and effects of these drugs, the athletic trainer can assist the asthmatic athlete in improving therapeutic outcomes from the asthma therapy. The appropriate use of these medications includes not only the use of the appropriate drug(s), but also appropriate technique for administration, compliance with the prescribed dosing intervals, and sufficient care to avoid side effects. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE and CINAHL from 1982 to 1999 and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 1990 to 1999. Terms searched were “asthma,” “athlete,”“athletic,” “exercise-induced,” “exercise,” “performance,” “therapy,” and “treatment.” Data Synthesis: Bronchodilators include β2 agonists, anticholinergics, and methylxanthines. Of these, the β2 agonists used by inhalation are the drugs of choice to treat an acute asthma attack or to prevent an anticipated attack (such as before exercise). Anti-inflammatory agents include corticosteroids mast cell-stabilizing agents, and antileukotrienes. Corticosteroids by inhalation are the drugs of choice for long-term treatment to curb the inflammatory process in the lung. Each of these drug categories has a unique mechanism of action. The athletic trainer who understands the appropriate use of these medications can help the athlete to obtain optimal results from drug therapy. Encouraging the athlete to comply with appropriate therapy, monitoring the effectiveness of the therapy, and recognizing the stimuli that initiate asthmatic attacks can improve the patient's therapeutic outcomes. Conclusions/Recommendations: The athletic trainer has an opportunity to play a key role in ensuring that the asthmatic athlete achieves the desired outcomes from treatment. The athletic trainer can help

  6. The athlete's hip and groin.

    PubMed

    Tammareddi, Kumar; Morelli, Vincent; Reyes, Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Groin and hip injuries are seen in athletes who perform quick directional changes and cutting movements. Because forces generated through athletic performance are transferred through the hip, injuries to these areas may limit athletes with mild pain or lead to career-ending injuries. The anatomy of the hip and groin is complex and symptoms often overlap. This article discusses some athletic causes, but other medical conditions may be associated with hip and groin pain as well. Updates in evaluation and treatment are discussed for adductor strains, hip osteoarthritis, femoroacetabular impingement, sports hernia, osteitis pubis, and obturator nerve entrapment. PMID:23668647

  7. Effects of acute supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on endurance and sprint performance in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Peacock, Oliver; James, Philip; Welde, Boye; Stokes, Keith; Böhlke, Nikolai; Tjønna, Arnt Erik

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of acute supplementation with L-arginine and nitrate on running economy, endurance and sprint performance in endurance-trained athletes. In a randomised cross-over, double-blinded design we compared the effects of combined supplementation with 6 g L-arginine and 614 mg nitrate against 614 mg nitrate alone and placebo in nine male elite cross-country skiers (age 18 ± 0 years, VO2max 69.3 ± 5.8 ml ⋅ min(-1) ⋅ kg(-1)). After a 48-hour standardisation of nutrition and exercise the athletes were tested for plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure, submaximal running economy at 10 km ⋅ h(-1) and 14 km ⋅ h(-1) at 1% incline and 180 m as well as 5-km time-trial running performances. Plasma nitrite concentration following L-arginine + nitrate supplementation (319 ± 54 nmol ⋅ L(-1)) did not differ from nitrate alone (328 ± 107 nmol ⋅ L(-1)), and both were higher than placebo (149 ± 64 nmol ⋅ L(-1), p < 0.01). There were no differences in physiological responses during submaximal running or in 5-km performance between treatments. The plasma nitrite concentrations indicate greater nitric oxide availability both following acute supplementation of L-arginine + nitrate and with nitrate alone compared to placebo, but no additional effect was revealed when L-arginine was added to nitrate. Still, there were no effects of supplementation on exercise economy or endurance running performance in endurance-trained cross-country skiers. PMID:25445632

  8. Stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S

    1987-06-01

    During the 14-year period of 1971-1985, 368 stress fractures in 324 athletes were treated. The series contained 268 fractures in males and 100 fractures in females; 32 fractures occurred in children (less than 16 years), 117 in adolescents (16-19 years), and 219 in adults. Forty-six fractures were incurred by athletes at an international level, 274 by athletes at a national or district level and 48 by recreational athletes. Of the total cases, 72% occurred to runners and a further 12% to athletes in other sports after running exercises. The distribution of the stress fractures by site was: tibia 182, metatarsal bones 73, fibula 44, big toe sesamoid bones 15, femoral shaft 14, femoral neck 9, tarsal navicular 9, pelvis 7, olecranon 5 and other bones 10. Of the total fractures, 342 were treated conservatively and 26 fractures required surgical treatment. The operative indication was dislocation in 5 cases and delayed union/nonunion in 21 cases. The sites most often affected by delayed union were: anterior midtibia, sesamoid bones of the big toe, base of the fifth metatarsal, olecranon, and tarsal navicular. The athletes at an international level experienced the greatest risk of multiple separate fractures, protracted healing, or fractures requiring surgery. PMID:3623785

  9. Cardiac Imaging In Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asaad A.; Safi, Lucy; Wood, Malissa

    2016-01-01

    Athletic heart syndrome refers to the physiological and morphological changes that occur in a human heart after repetitive strenuous physical exercise. Examples of exercise-induced changes in the heart include increases in heart cavity dimensions, augmentation of cardiac output, and increases in heart muscle mass. These cardiac adaptations vary based on the type of exercise performed and are often referred to as sport-specific cardiac remodeling. The hemodynamic effects of endurance and strength training exercise lead to these adaptations. Any abnormalities in chamber dilatation and left ventricular function usually normalize with cessation of exercise. Athletic heart syndrome is rare and should be differentiated from pathologic conditions such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia when assessing a patient for athletic heart syndrome. This paper describes specific adaptations that occur in athletic heart syndrome and tools to distinguish between healthy alterations versus underlying pathology. PMID:27486490

  10. Nutritional Preparation of Athletes: What Makes Sense?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Malcolm L.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion of nutrition's role in athletics is presented in this article. The effects of good day-to-day nutrition, the pregame meal, fluid intake, and dietary supplements on the athletes endurance and performance are discussed. (DF)

  11. Hydration in the Pediatric Athlete - How to Guide Your Patients.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Hydration is arguably among the foremost priorities youth athletes, parents, and coaches habitually consider as vital for sports. Insufficient hydration and a resultant measurable sweat-induced body water deficit can negatively affect performance and, in some athletic scenarios, can be a danger to a young athlete's health and safety, especially during vigorous physical activity in a warm-to-hot environment. Accordingly, it is essential to be well hydrated prior to practice, training, and competition and minimize total body water deficits incurred while being mindful of the greater sweat losses and hydration needs/challenges that accompany physical growth and maturation. Informed clinicians can play a key role as trusted resources in providing the most effective guidelines and making the best overall individual recommendations regarding hydration for youth athletes. PMID:26166053

  12. How Sport Psychologists Help Coaches and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Gerard F.

    2002-01-01

    Explains that sport psychologists play a vital role in helping athletes overcome obstacles in order to achieve their goals and provide athletes with tools to reach peak performance and personal growth (i.e., psychological and behavioral interventions for enhancing athletic performance). Sport psychologists work within the complex pathways between…

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme/vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and bioelectrical impedance analysis in predicting athletic performances of Italian young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Matteo Levi; Gulisano, Massimo; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Ruggiero, Marco; Ceroti, Marco; Marella, Mario; Castellini, Elena; Pacini, Stefania

    2011-08-01

    We evaluated the association between 2 genetic polymorphisms known to be involved in fitness and performance, and anthropometric features, body composition, and athletic performances in young male soccer players with the goal of identifying genetic profiles that can be used to achieve maximal results from training. One hundred twenty-five medium-high-level male soccer players were genotyped for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI gene polymorphisms and scored for anthropometric measurements, body composition, and athletic performance. Body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, resistance, reactance, impedance, phase angle (PA), and body cell mass were measured. Athletic performance was evaluated by squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), 2-kg medicine ball throw, 10- and 20-m sprint time. We observed that the homozygous ff genotype of the VDR gene was significantly more represented in young soccer players than in a matched sedentary population. Values of reactance and PA were differently distributed in ACE and VDR genotypes with high mean values in subjects with DD (ACE) and FF (VDR) genotypes. No correlation was observed between ACE or VDR genotypes and 2-kg medicine ball throw, 10- and 20-m sprint times. The ID genotype of ACE was associated with the best performances in squat jump and CMJ. Our results suggest that determination of ACE and VDR genotypes might help select those young athletes harboring the most favorable genetic potential to succeed in soccer. PMID:21747292

  14. Expert performance by athletes in the verbal estimation of spatial extents does not alter their perceptual metric of space

    PubMed Central

    Durgin, Frank H; Leonard-Solis, Keenan; Masters, Owen; Schmelz, Brittany; Li, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Athletes often give more accurate estimates of egocentric distance along the ground than do non-athletes. To explore whether cognitive calibration was accompanied by perceptual change, athletes and non-athletes made verbal height and distance estimates and also did a perceptual matching task between perceived egocentric distances and frontal vertical extents. Both groups were well calibrated for height estimation for poles viewed frontally, but athletes were much better calibrated at estimating longer egocentric distances (which are systematically underestimated by non-athletes). Athletes were more likely to have learned specific units of ground distance from relevant sports contexts. Both groups reported using human height as a metric for vertical extent. For non-athletes, verbal underestimation of ground distance corresponded to predictions based on perceptual matches between egocentric distances and vertical extents in conjunction with human-height-based verbal estimates of vertical extents. For athletes, the verbal scaling of egocentric distances of 10 m or more was more accurate and was not predicted by their egocentric distance matches to vertical extents. PMID:22833782

  15. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  16. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a “crossover” sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Results: Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Clinical Relevance: Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI. PMID:24587869

  17. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  18. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  19. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  20. Brain-training for physical performance: a study of EEG-neurofeedback and alpha relaxation training in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Paluch, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Marek; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, EEG-neurofeedback training (EEG-NFB) has been increasingly used to optimize various brain functions. Better performance in various activities was also reported after relaxation trainings, another popular method in therapeutic practice. Both these methods are used as a part of professional coaching in sports training centers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of such holistic training on physiological (EEG) and behavioral measures on semi-professional athletes. EEG-NFB paradigm was intended for amplification of the amplitudes of SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta1 (13-20 Hz) bands and simultaneous reduction of the amplitude of theta (4-7.5 Hz) and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Participation in NFB sessions was accompanied with self-administration of relaxing, audio-visual stimulation after each daily athletic training session. The training program resulted in the increase of alpha and beta1 power of trained participants when assessed in rest with eyes-closed. In eyes - open state, participants of the trained group maintained the same level in all frequency bands, in opposite to the control subjects, whose power decreased in the second measurement in beta1 band when compared to the first one. The trained group exhibited greater reduction of reaction times in a test of visual attention than the control group and showed improvement in several performance measures of Kraepelin's work-curve, used to evaluate speed, effectiveness and work accuracy. Together, these results present initial support for the use of holistic, neurophysiological training in sports workout. PMID:26994421

  1. Asthma in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  2. Alcohol, Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Performance Enhancers: A Comparison of Use by College Student Athletes and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusko, David A.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the prevalence and pattern of substance use in undergraduate student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. Participants: Authors collected data from male (n = 418) and female (n = 475) student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. Methods: The authors administered self-report questionnaires to assess…

  3. A Study to Determine the Effect of Athletic Participation on the Academic Performance, Attendance, and Discipline of Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether selected independent variables are good predictors of athletic participation among Mexican students. The selected independent variables were gender, GPA, attendance, discipline referrals, and success on the Georgia High School Graduation Test. The dependent variable was participation in athletics.…

  4. Performative Pedagogy and the Creation of Desire: The Indigenous Athlete/Role Model and Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coram, Stella

    2007-01-01

    The athlete role model has emerged as the new pastor invested with the task of leading young people classed "at-risk" from entering into self-destructive pathways. The logic invested in the athlete role model is that young people identify with their sporting heroes and in the process try to emulate them. This holds for the major sporting codes in…

  5. Synthetic garments enhance comfort, thermoregulatory response, and athletic performance compared with traditional cotton garments.

    PubMed

    Hooper, David R; Cook, Brendan M; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J

    2015-03-01

    The ability of a fabric to transfer moisture is referred to as "wicking," and an increase in this property may have benefits in terms of comfort and thermoregulation. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in the context of sporting-type activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess whether comfort, thermal physiological parameters, and physical performance can be affected by the garment that is used. Ten men (age: 27.5 ± 4.4 years; height: 169.3 ± 14.2 cm; weight: 80.05 ± 10.87 kg) and 10 women (age: 26.8 ± 3.7 years; height: 166.6 ± 4.46 cm; weight: 64.63 ± 4.49 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. A within-group crossover counterbalanced design was used that included the Illinois Agility Run (IAR) and the Multistage Fitness Test (MSFT). The IAR was also performed while wearing protective padding. The protocol was completed on 2 occasions, once while wearing a cotton garment (C) and again while wearing a polyester (P) garment. Questionnaires referring to sensations of various components of comfort were completed after each test. The P garment provided significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater comfort in men and women after both the IAR and the MSFT. The P garment led to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved performance during the IAR in women. The P garment also provided significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater body mass loss during the protocol in women. This study demonstrated dramatic increases in the comfort of P garments, including while using protective equipment. This study also discovered the influence of P garments on anaerobic tasks and also revealed dramatic sex differences, where women seem to be much more sensitive to the benefits of P garments. Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the dramatic impact of garment choice, in aerobic and anaerobic tasks, particularly in women. PMID:25463694

  6. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    PubMed

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided. PMID:22562463

  7. Mathematics Anxiety and the Affective Drop in Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Moore, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a brief review of the history and assessment of math anxiety, its relationship to personal and educational consequences, and its important impact on measures of performance. Overall, math anxiety causes an "affective drop," a decline in performance when math is performed under timed, high-stakes conditions, both in laboratory…

  8. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  9. An Examination of the Relationship between Collegiate Student-Athlete's Leadership Role in the Athletic Setting and Their Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Darla K.

    2013-01-01

    Academic performance of collegiate student-athletes compared to non-athletes has been studied extensively. Results of these studies have been mixed in their findings of student-athletes academic performance in comparison to the nonstudent-athlete population. These conflicting results may be due to differences in level of competition or demographic…

  10. The Effect of Protandim® Supplementation on Athletic Performance and Oxidative Blood Markers in Runners

    PubMed Central

    Ueberschlag, Seteena L.; Seay, James R.; Roberts, Alexandra H.; DeSpirito, Pamela C.; Stith, Jeremy M.; Folz, Rodney J.; Carter, Kathleen A.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study determined if oral supplementation of Protandim® (a nutraceutical) for 90 days improved 5-km running performance and reduced serum thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) at rest, an indicator of oxidative stress. Secondary objectives were to measure whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), at rest and 10 minutes after completion of the race before and after supplementation as well as quality of life. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial, 38 runners [mean (SD) = 34 (7) yrs; BMI = 22 (2) kg/m2] received either 90 days of Protandim® [1 pill a day, n = 19)] or placebo (n = 19). Randomization was done in blocks of two controlling for sex and 5-km baseline performance. A 5-km race was performed at baseline and after 90 days of supplementation, with blood samples taken before and 10-min after each race. Fasting blood samples were acquired at baseline, after 30, 60, and 90 days of supplementation. TBARS, SOD, GPX, and GSH were assayed in an out-of-state accredited lab. Running performance was not altered by Protandim® or placebo [20.3 (2.1) minutes, with an -8 (33) seconds change in 5-km time regardless of group]. There was no change in TBARS, SOD, or GPX (at rest) after three months of Protandim® supplementation compared to placebo. However, in a subgroup ≥ 35 years of age, there was a 2-fold higher increase in SOD in those taking Protandim® for three months compared to those on placebo (p = 0.038). The mean post-race change in TBARS (compared to pre-race) increased by about 20% in half of the subjects, but was not altered between groups, even after three months of supplementation. Quality of life was also not different between the two conditions. In conclusion, Protandim® did not (1) alter 5-km running time, (2) lower TBARS at rest (3) raise antioxidant enzyme concentrations compared to placebo (with exception of SOD in those ≥ 35 years old) or, (4) affect

  11. Chem I Supplement: Nutrition (Diet) and Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineback, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects related to nutrition and athletics. Examines nutritional requirements, energy use, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies regarding food and athletic performance. Indicates that scientific evidence does not validate the use of any special diet by an athlete. (JN)

  12. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet. PMID:20622542

  13. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males. PMID:27171108

  14. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V˙O2max: 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males. PMID:27171108

  15. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

  16. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

  17. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  18. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot is the most common type of tinea infection. The fungus or yeast thrives in warm, ...

  19. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot occurs when a certain fungus or yeast grows on the skin of your feet. The same fungus ...

  20. Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Philipp; Lake, Mark J; Stewart, Claire E; Drust, Barry; Erskine, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged unaccustomed exercise involving muscle lengthening (eccentric) actions can result in ultrastructural muscle disruption, impaired excitation-contraction coupling, inflammation and muscle protein degradation. This process is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness and is referred to as exercise-induced muscle damage. Although a certain amount of muscle damage may be necessary for adaptation to occur, excessive damage or inadequate recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage can increase injury risk, particularly in older individuals, who experience more damage and require longer to recover from muscle damaging exercise than younger adults. Furthermore, it is apparent that inter-individual variation exists in the response to exercise-induced muscle damage, and there is evidence that genetic variability may play a key role. Although this area of research is in its infancy, certain gene variations, or polymorphisms have been associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (i.e. individuals with certain genotypes experience greater muscle damage, and require longer recovery, following strenuous exercise). These polymorphisms include ACTN3 (R577X, rs1815739), TNF (-308 G>A, rs1800629), IL6 (-174 G>C, rs1800795), and IGF2 (ApaI, 17200 G>A, rs680). Knowing how someone is likely to respond to a particular type of exercise could help coaches/practitioners individualise the exercise training of their athletes/patients, thus maximising recovery and adaptation, while reducing overload-associated injury risk. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the literature concerning gene polymorphisms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, both in young and older individuals, and to highlight the potential mechanisms underpinning these associations, thus providing a better understanding of exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:27294501

  1. The Historical Perspective of Athletic Sudden Death.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Walter J; Dean, Peter N; Battle, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    Since antiquity, the athlete has been elevated to a heroic status both within small communities and at the international level. Although numerous population studies have estimated athletic sudden death to be a rare event, the consequences resonate far beyond those directly affected. Sports cardiology has evolved as a result of these tragedies, which highlighted a need for safer play and more programmatic protection of the athlete in play. In this article, athletic sudden death is analyzed from a historical and literary perspective and the development of modern initiatives to protect athletes from sudden death is reviewed. PMID:26100429

  2. Effective nutrition support programs for college athletes.

    PubMed

    Vinci, D M

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Husky Sport Nutrition Program at the University of Washington. This program is a component of the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Total Student-Athlete Program, an NCAA-sponsored CHAMPS/Life Skills Program that provides life skills assistance to student-athletes. Successful integration of a sport nutrition program requires an understanding of the athletic culture, physiological milestones, and life stressors faced by college athletes. The sport nutritionist functions as an educator, counselor, and administrator. Team presentations and individual nutrition counseling provide athletes with accurate information on healthy eating behaviors for optimal performance. For women's sports, a multidisciplinary team including the sport nutritionist, team physician, clinical psychologist, and athletic trainer work to prevent and treat eating disorders. Case studies are presented illustrating the breadth of nutrition-related issues faced by a sport nutritionist working with college athletes. PMID:9738137

  3. Examining Academic and Athletic Motivation among Student Athletes at a Division I University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston-Gayles, Joy L.

    2004-01-01

    Academic motivation as a predictor of academic performance for college athletes has been debated in the literature. This study examined the utility of academic and athletic motivation as a key variable in predicting academic performance among 211 college athletes at a Division I institution in the Midwest. After controlling for background…

  4. Multidimensional Self-Efficacy and Affect in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…

  5. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  6. Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

  7. Femur Fractures in Professional Athletes: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Robby; Fetzer, Gary; Hunkele, Thomas; Sugarman, Eric; Boyd, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss return to play after femur fractures in several professional athletes. Background: Femur fractures are rare injuries and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. No reports exist, to our knowledge, on return to play after treatment of isolated femur fractures in professional athletes. Return to play is expected in patients with femur fractures, but recovery can take more than 1 year, with an expected decrease in performance. Treatment: Four professional athletes sustained isolated femur fractures during regular-season games. Two athletes played hockey, 1 played football, and 1 played baseball. Three players were treated with anterograde intramedullary nails, and 1 was treated with retrograde nailing. All players missed the remainder of the season. At an average of 9.5 months (range, 7–13 months) from the time of injury, all athletes were able to return to play. One player required the removal of painful hardware, which delayed his return to sport. Final radiographs revealed that all fractures were well healed. No athletes had subjective complaints or concerns that performance was affected by the injury at an average final follow-up of 25 months (range, 22–29 months). Uniqueness: As the size and speed of players increase, on-field trauma may result in significant injury. All players returned to previous levels of performance or exceeded previous statistical performance levels. Conclusions: In professional athletes, return to play from isolated femur fractures treated with either an anterograde or retrograde intramedullary nail is possible within 1 year. Return to the previous level of performance is possible, and it is important to develop management protocols, including rehabilitation guidelines, for such injuries. However, return to play may be delayed by subsequent procedures, including hardware removal. PMID:25680071

  8. Muscle fiber characteristics, satellite cells and soccer performance in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Thomas I; Mandroukas, Athanasios; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Kotoglou, Kostas; Ekblom, Björn; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2014-09-01

    This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13), 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10), 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9), 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01), while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05). Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min(-1) than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age. Key PointsFifteen years old soccer players have higher IIA percentage distribution than the younger players by approximately 18%.The age and the training status play a crucial role in muscle fibers co-expression.Specific training in young athletes seems to alter significantly the muscular metabolic profile. PMID:25177173

  9. Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Satellite Cells and Soccer Performance in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Metaxas, Thomas I.; Mandroukas, Athanasios; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Kotoglou, Kostas; Ekblom, Björn; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13), 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10), 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9), 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01), while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05). Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min-1 than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age. Key Points Fifteen years old soccer players have higher IIA percentage distribution than the younger players by approximately 18%. The age and the training status play a crucial role in muscle fibers co-expression. Specific training in young athletes seems to alter significantly the muscular metabolic profile. PMID:25177173

  10. Effects and dose–response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify age, sex, sport and training type-specific effects of resistance training on physical performance, and to characterise dose–response relationships of resistance training parameters that could maximise gains in physical performance in youth athletes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Data sources Studies were identified by systematic literature search in the databases PubMed and Web of Science (1985–2015). Weighted mean standardised mean differences (SMDwm) were calculated using random-effects models. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Only studies with an active control group were included if these investigated the effects of resistance training in youth athletes (6–18 years) and tested at least one physical performance measure. Results 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Our analyses revealed moderate effects of resistance training on muscle strength and vertical jump performance (SMDwm 0.8–1.09), and small effects on linear sprint, agility and sport-specific performance (SMDwm 0.58–0.75). Effects were moderated by sex and resistance training type. Independently computed dose–response relationships for resistance training parameters revealed that a training period of >23 weeks, 5 sets/exercise, 6–8 repetitions/set, a training intensity of 80–89% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and 3–4 min rest between sets were most effective to improve muscle strength (SMDwm 2.09–3.40). Summary/conclusions Resistance training is an effective method to enhance muscle strength and jump performance in youth athletes, moderated by sex and resistance training type. Dose–response relationships for key training parameters indicate that youth coaches should primarily implement resistance training programmes with fewer repetitions and higher intensities to improve physical performance measures of youth athletes. PMID:26851290

  11. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26920240

  12. Are there hangover-effects on physical performance when melatonin is ingested by athletes before nocturnal sleep?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G; Buckley, P; Edwards, B; Reilly, T; Waterhouse, J

    2001-04-01

    Athletes ingest melatonin in an attempt to improve sleep quality or alleviate symptoms of jet lag after transmeridian travel. It is not known whether there are residual effects of this hormone on physical performance in fit subjects. After a sample size estimation involving a meaningful effect on performance of 5%, five milligrams of melatonin or placebo were ingested by twelve physically-active subjects before sleep in a double-blind experiment. The following morning, subjective sleep quality (latency and maintenance) were measured together with intra-aural temperature, grip strength of the left and right hands, and time to complete a 4 km time trial on a cycle ergometer. The subjects also rated perceived exertion during the latter test. The null hypothesis of no effect of melatonin on either subjective sleep quality or physical performance measured the morning after administration could not be rejected on the basis of our observations (P > 0.30). The mean differences between treatments were less than 1% for the strength tests and time trial performance. The confidence intervals for these differences for left and right grip strength and the cycling test were - 2.1 to 2.8 kg, - 3.1 to 2.7 kg and -3.0 to 4.5 s, respectively. In conclusion, it is unlikely that 5 mg of melatonin would have any meaningful effects on physical performance in the morning after fit subjects ingest the hormone. There was also little evidence that it improves sleep quality in this population. Further research is needed concerning the effects of daytime and nighttime admistration of melatonin on performance, in both situations of normal and disturbed sleep. PMID:11354528

  13. Changes in breaststroke swimming performances in national and international athletes competing between 1994 and 2011 –a comparison with freestyle swimming performances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to analyse potential changes in performance of elite breaststroke swimmers competing at national and international level and to compare to elite freestyle swimming performance. Methods Temporal trends in performance of elite breaststroke swimmers were analysed from records of the Swiss Swimming Federation and the FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) World Swimming Championships during the 1994–2011 period. Swimming speeds of elite female and male breaststroke swimmers competing in 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m were examined using linear regression, non-linear regression and analysis of variance. Results of breaststroke swimmers were compared to results of freestyle swimmers. Results Swimming speed in both strokes improved significantly (p < 0.0001-0.025) over time for both sexes, with the exception of 50 m breaststroke for FINA men. Sex differences in swimming speed increased significantly over time for Swiss freestyle swimmers (p < 0.0001), but not for FINA swimmers for freestyle, while the sex difference remained stable for Swiss and FINA breaststroke swimmers. The sex differences in swimming speed decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) with increasing race distance. Conclusions The present study showed that elite male and female swimmers competing during the 1994–2011 period at national and international level improved their swimming speed in both breaststroke and freestyle. The sex difference in freestyle swimming speed consistently increased in athletes competing at national level, whereas it remained unchanged in athletes competing at international level. Future studies should investigate temporal trends for recent time in other strokes, to determine whether this improvement is a generalized phenomenon. PMID:24826211

  14. The Use of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme I/D Genetic Polymorphism as a Biomarker of Athletic Performance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    De Mello Costa, Maria Fernanda; Slocombe, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II is a key regulator of blood pressure and cardiovascular function in mammals. The conversion of angiotensin into its active form is carried out by Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE). The measurement of ACE concentration in plasma or serum, its enzymatic activity, and the correlation between an insertion/deletion (I/D) genetic polymorphism of the ACE gene have been investigated as possible indicators of superior athletic performance in humans. In this context, other indicators of superior adaptation to exercise resulting in better athletic performance (such as ventricular hypertrophy, VO2 max, and competition results) were mostly used to study the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and improved performance. Despite the fact that the existing literature presents little consensus, there is sufficient scientific evidence to warrant further investigation on the usage of ACE activity and the I/D ACE gene polymorphism as biomarkers of superior athletic performance in humans of specific ethnicities or in athletes involved in certain sports. In this sense, a biomarker would be a substance or genetic component that could be measured to provide a degree of certainty, or an indication, of the presence of a certain trait or characteristic that would be beneficial to the athlete’s performance. Difficulties in interpreting and comparing the results of scientific research on the topic arise from dissimilar protocols and variation in study design. This review aims to investigate the current literature on the use of ACE I/D polymorphism as a biomarker of performance in humans through the comparison of scientific publications. PMID:25586030

  15. Effect of Ginger and Cinnamon Intake on Oxidative Stress and Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Iranian Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Darvishi, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Barani, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Asia. Cinnamon (containing cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde) is used as spices and as a pharmacological agent in ancient medicine. Intense exercise can result in oxidative damage to cellular compounds and also muscle soreness. Efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as antioxidant agents and their effectiveness in exercise performance and reducing muscle soreness have been investigated in limited studies on humans. So we studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female taekwondo players. Methods: Sixty healthy trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the 6 week investigation and randomly categorized in three groups (cinnamon, ginger, or placebo) and received three grams of ginger, cinnamon, or placebo powder each day depending on the group they belonged. Human malondialdehyde (MDA) level, exercise performance, and body composition were evaluated in the beginning and at the end of the study and compared among the groups. Results: Forty-nine of the participants completed the 6 weeks intervention. There was minor decrease in MDA in cinnamon and ginger group compared with the placebo group and significant increase in exercise performance in ginger group (P < 0.01), and considerable increase in skin fold in cinnamon groups (P < 0.01), whereas there were significant accretion in BMI for ginger group (P < 0.1) and cinnamon group (P < 0.05). No significant changes in MDA, EP, and BMI were observed between groups over time. But there were specific changes in skin fold between cinnamon and placebo group (P < 0.05) and cinnamon and ginger groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with

  16. The athlete "out of breath".

    PubMed

    Couto, M; Moreira, A

    2016-03-01

    Athletes often complain about breathing problems. This is a crucial issue due to potential implications not only on their general health, but also on their competing performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction are prevalent conditions in elite athletes, which leads doctors to rely most of the times on asthma medication to treat athletes feeling "out of breath". However, there are several other conditions that may mimic asthma and cause dyspnea in athletes. Effective treatment of dyspnea requires appropriate identification and treatment of all disorders. Proper knowledge and accurate diagnosis of such entities is mandatory, since asthma medication is not effective in those conditions. Herein we review the most common differential diagnosis of dyspnea in athletes, and describe the diagnostic strategies in order to increase awareness and to improve doctor's confidence on dealing with these patients. PMID:26934737

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST FOR ATHLETES WHO SUSTAINED A LOWER EXTREMITY INJURY IN PREPARATION FOR RETURN TO SPORT: A DELPHI STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Sara; Baker, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: To develop a consensus on the critical constructs necessary to be included in a physical performance assessment checklist (PPAC) to assess an athlete's ability for return to sport following a lower extremity injury. Methods: The study used a 3‐round Delphi method to finalize the PPAI originally developed by a panel of experts. Fourteen Delphi representative sample participants were randomly derived from the authors of peer‐reviewed publications of lower extremity injuries. Nine participants completed all 3 rounds. Results: Throughout the 3 rounds, the 10 initial constructs were modified and revised to produce the finalized PPAC consisting of 12 constructs necessary to consider for an athlete's return to sport after a lower extremity injury. Conclusions: This instrument can be used as a checklist to advocate for prospective batteries of physical performance tests to incorporate the elements identified by this study. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23439809

  18. Study of how sash movement affects performance of fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, T.

    1997-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine how sash movements affect the performance of fume hoods. The performance of two fume hoods was studied as the sashes were moved from closed to open position at speeds of 2 ft/s, 1.5 ft/s, and 1 ft/s. The tests were conducted with fume hoods operated at both constant volume and variable air volume. The tests indicate that sash movements can disturb airflow patterns at the face of the hood and potentially affect the performance of the hood. The effect of the sash movement varied with hood type and speed of sash movement. The faster sash movements of 2 ft/s and 1.5 ft/s had a greater effect on the performance of the hoods than the slower movement of 1 ft/s. Constant-volume hoods and variable-air-volume hoods were both affected by sash movements. Constant-volume hoods set to a full open face velocity of 60 ft/min were more susceptible to the sash movement than at 100 ft/min full open face velocity. The performance of variable-air-volume hoods is affected not only by sash movement speed but also by the response time of the controller. The drop in face velocity that occurs when the sash is moved is determined by the speed of the VAV controller. The required response time for containment depends on the fume hood design and the speed of the sash movement.

  19. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    PubMed

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p < 0.01). The sports-boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high. PMID:8650989

  20. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  1. Right Ventricular Adaptation Is Associated with the Glu298Asp Variant of the NOS3 Gene in Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kolossváry, Márton; Tóth, Attila; Vágó, Hajnalka; Lendvai, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Loretta; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Bagyura, Zsolt; Merkely, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important endogenous pulmonary vasodilator is synthetized by the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3). Reduced NO bioavailability and thus the Glu298Asp polymorphism of NOS3 may enhance right ventricular (RV) afterload and hypertrophic remodeling and influence athletic performance. To test this hypothesis world class level athletes (water polo players, kayakers, canoeists, rowers, swimmers, n = 126) with a VO2 maximum greater than 50ml/kg/min were compared with non-athletic volunteers (n = 155). Cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) were performed to determine structural or functional changes. Genotype distribution of the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism was not affected by gender or physical performance. Cardiac MRI showed increased stroke volume with eccentric hypertrophy in all athletes regardless of their genotype. However, the Asp allelic variant carriers had increased RV mass index (32±6g versus 27±6g, p<0.01) and larger RV stroke volume index (71±10ml versus 64±10ml, p<0.01) than athletes with a Glu/Glu genotype. Genotype was not significantly associated with athletic performance. In the non-athletic group no genotype related differences were detected. The association between the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism and RV structure and dimension in elite athletes emphasizes the importance of NOS3 gene function and NO bioavailability in sport related cardiac adaptation. PMID:26517550

  2. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Jakob L; Bech, Rune D; Nygaard, Tobias; Sahlin, Kent; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1, n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ∼56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level; nevertheless, the gene expression was not different between groups. Glycogen and most gene expression levels returned to baseline by 24 h in both CHO and H2O. Baseline mRNA expression of NRF-1, COX-IV, GLUT4 and PPAR-α gene targets were higher in trained compared to untrained. Additionally, the proportion of type I muscle fibers positively correlated with baseline mRNA for PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, COX-IV, PPAR-α, and GLUT4 for both trained and untrained. CHO restriction during recovery from glycogen depleting exercise does not improve the mRNA response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, baseline gene expression of key metabolic pathways is higher in trained than untrained. PMID:25677542

  3. Academic Comparison of Athletes and Non-Athletes in a Rural High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaugg, Holt

    1998-01-01

    Compares academic performance, behavior, and commitment of basketball and volleyball athletes and nonathletes in a rural Canadian high school. Compares mid-term and final grades in each school discipline, disciplinary visits to administrators, and misbehavior demerits. Estimates athletes' mean weekly time commitment in each sport. Athletes matched…

  4. Effects of 28-Day Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Isokinetic Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Female Masters Athletes.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E; Kavouras, Stavros A; DiBrezzo, Ro; Turner, Ronna; Baum, Jamie I; Stone, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Beta-alanine (BA) supplementation increases exercise performance due to increases in the intramuscular lactate buffer, carnosine. Females are more sensitive to these increases and results are further pronounced in trained individuals. Baseline intramuscular carnosine levels also naturally decrease with age; therefore, trained older females may experience augmented benefits from BA supplementation. However, the ability of BA to increase lower-body isokinetic strength (ISO) in female masters athletes (MA) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of BA supplementation on ISO, handgrip strength (HG), and body composition in female MA cyclists. Twenty-two subjects participated in this double-blind randomized study. Subjects were randomized into 2 groups (placebo [PLA] = 8 g dextrose; BA = 800 mg + 8 g dextrose) and supplemented 4 times per day for 28 days. ISO, HG, and body composition were evaluated at baseline and at the same day/time each week over the 28-day intervention. No differences existed between groups at baseline or at the 7, 14, and 21 days time points for any variables (p > 0.05). When evaluating ISO (isokinetic) after 28 days, total work performed during the final third of the assessment (24.0 vs. -16.8% change) in flexion and average peak torque (5.4 vs. 2.9% change) in extension were significantly increased from baseline in BA compared with PLA (p ≤ 0.05). No differences existed for HG or body composition after supplementation. Twenty-eight days of BA supplementation increased peak torque and work completed, indicating BA improves lower-body exercise performance in female MA. PMID:26110349

  5. Economy Affects Students' Academic Performance as Well as Spending Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Like many Americans caught up in the economic downturn, college students are worried about money. Now research indicates that financial worries may affect their academic performance. The author presents the results of this year's National Survey of Student Engagement. The survey reveals that more than a third of seniors and more than a quarter of…

  6. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Determinants of Performance: A Process Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Peter W.; Stephan, Walter G.

    Literature from organizational and social psychology has suggested that three types of factors influence performance, i.e., cognitive, affective and behavioral. A model was developed to test a set of propositions concerning the relationship between the three kinds of factors, and included attributions, expectancies, general emotional responses to…

  7. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  8. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  9. Sibsize, Family Environment, Cognitive Performance, and Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    Incorporates measures of family environment (parent-child interaction) into research methodology to study the effects of sibsize (family size and birth order) on a child's cognitive performance and affective behavior. Provides tentative support for the confluence model of sibsize influences on children's behaviors. (RL)

  10. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  11. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  12. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  13. Liability, Athletic Equipment, and the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Richard

    Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…

  14. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  15. The Effects of a Prophylactic Knee Brace and Two Neoprene Knee Sleeves on the Performance of Healthy Athletes: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2±1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee. PMID:23185549

  16. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  17. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  18. Socially triggered negative affect impairs performance in simple cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Svenja; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of a social-evaluative context on simple cognitive tasks. While another person present in the room evaluated photographs of beautiful women or landscapes by beauty/attractiveness, female participants had to perform a combination of digit-categorization and spatial-compatibility task. There, before every trial, one of the women or landscape pictures was presented. Results showed selective performance impairments: the numerical distance effects increased on trials that followed women pictures but only, if another person concurrently evaluated these women pictures. In a second experiment, using the affective priming paradigm, the authors show that female pictures have a more negative connotation when they are concurrently evaluated by another person (social-evaluative context) than when they are not evaluated (neutral context). Together, these results suggest that the social-evaluative context triggers mild negative affective reactions to women pictures which then impair performance in an unrelated task. PMID:23423348

  19. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have

  20. Thigh Muscle Strength in Senior Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group × gender × age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables ([alpha] = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study. PMID:19972628

  1. Rates and predictors of invalid baseline test performance in high school and collegiate athletes for three computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs): ANAM, Axon, and ImPACT

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsay D.; Pfaller, Adam Y.; Rein, Lisa E.; McCrea, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preseason baseline testing is increasingly performed on athletes using computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs). Adequate effort is critical to establish valid estimates of ability, yet many users do not evaluate performance validity, and the conditions that impact validity are not well understood across the available CNTs. Purpose We examined the rates and predictors of invalid baseline performance for three popular CNTs: ANAM (Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics), Axon Sports, and ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Cognitive Assessment and Testing). Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods High school and collegiate athletes (N = 2,063) completed two of three CNTs each during pre-season evaluations. All possible pairings were present across the sample, and order of administration was randomized. Examiners gave one-on-one, scripted pre-test instructions emphasizing the importance of good effort. Profile validity was determined by the manufacturers’ standard criteria. Results The overall percentage of tests flagged as of questionable validity was lowest for ImPACT (2.7%) and higher for ANAM and Axon (10.8% and 11.3%, respectively). The majority of invalid baselines were flagged as such due to failure on only one validity criterion. Several athlete and testing factors (e.g., attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder/ADHD, estimated general intellectual ability, administration order) predicted validity status for one or more CNTs. Considering only first CNT administrations and participants without ADHD and/or learning disability (n = 1,835) brought the rates of invalid baselines to 2.1%, 8.8%, and 7.0%, for ImPACT, ANAM, and Axon, respectively. Invalid profiles on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) were rare (1.8% of subjects) and demonstrated poor correspondence to CNT validity outcomes. Conclusion These CNTs’ validity criteria may not identify the same causes of invalidity or be equally sensitive to effort. The validity indicators

  2. Sport-Specific Conditioning Variables Predict Offensive and Defensive Performance in High-Level Youth Water Polo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Kontic, Dean; Esco, Michael R; Zenic, Natasa; Milanovic, Zoran; Zvan, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Specific-conditioning capacities (SCC) are known to be generally important in water polo (WP), yet the independent associations to offensive and defensive performance is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether offense and defense abilities in WP were independently associated with SCC and anthropometrics. The participants were 82 high-level male youth WP players (all 17-19 years of age; body height, 186.3 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 84.8 ± 9.6 kg). The independent variables were body height and body mass, and 5 sport-specific fitness tests: sprint swimming over 15 meters; 4 × 50-meter anaerobic-endurance test; vertical in-water-jump; maximum intensity isometric force in upright swimming using an eggbeater kick; and test of throwing velocity. The 6 dependent variables comprised parameters of defensive and offensive performance, such as polyvalence, i.e., ability to play on different positions in defensive tasks (PD) and offensive tasks (PO), efficacy in primary playing position in defensive (ED) and offensive (EO) tasks, and agility in defensive (AD) and offensive (AO) tasks. Analyses showed appropriate reliability for independent (intraclass coefficient of 0.82-0.91) and dependent variables (Cronbach alpha of 0.81-0.95). Multiple regressions were significant for ED (R = 0.25; p < 0.01), EO (R = 0.21; p < 0.01), AD (R = 0.40; p < 0.01), and AO (R = 0.35; p < 0.01). Anaerobic-swimming performance was positively related to AD (β = -0.26; p ≤ 0.05), whereas advanced sprint swimming was related to better AO (β = -0.38; p ≤ 0.05). In-water-jumping performance held the significant positive relationship to EO (β = 0.31; p ≤ 0.05), ED (β = 0.33; p ≤ 0.05), and AD (β = 0.37; p ≤ 0.05). Strength and conditioning professionals working in WP should be aware of established importance of SCC in performing unique duties in WP. The SCC should be specifically developed to meet the needs of offensive and defensive performance in young WP athletes. PMID:26439788

  3. Video Analysis of Athletic Training Student Performance: Changing Educational Competency into Clinical Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawaguchi, Jeffrey K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Assessing clinical proficiency and documenting learning over time is quite challenging. Educators must look for unique ways to effectively examine students' performance and archive evidence of their academic progress. Objective: To discuss the use of video analysis to bridge the gap from educational competency to clinical proficiency, and…

  4. Confidence, Concentration, and Competitive Performance of Elite Athletes: A Natural Experiment in Olympic Gymnastics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandjean, Burke D.; Taylor, Patricia A.; Weiner, Jay

    2002-01-01

    During the women's all-around gymnastics final at the 2000 Olympics, the vault was inadvertently set 5 cm too low for a random half of the gymnasts. The error was widely viewed as undermining their confidence and subsequent performance. However, data from pretest and posttest scores on the vault, bars, beam, and floor indicated that the vault…

  5. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance. PMID:23738307

  6. Explanatory style among elite ice hockey athletes.

    PubMed

    Davis, H; Zaichkowsky, L

    1998-12-01

    Mentally tough' athletes show resilience and an ability to compete during adverse conditions. The present study investigated mental toughness and assessed causal explanations for positive and negative reactions to imagined events using Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire. Pessimistic Explanatory style on this scale is a risk factor for negative affect and behavior following negative events. 38 elite athletes in ice hockey were rated for mental toughness by the National Hockey League's scouts on consensually derived criteria. The comparison of players above and below the median split on mental toughness showed composite explanations for negative events that were more internal, stable and global for players above the median. Contrary to predictions, these results suggest that a Pessimistic Explanatory style may benefit hockey performance. PMID:9885080

  7. Athletic Trainers' Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual National Collegiate Athletic Association Student-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Kristine A.; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M.; Ridpath, B. David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). Objective: To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: E-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. Results: With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P < .01 for all comparisons). Age and total score were related (P < .01). A difference was seen in the ATLGB scores between ATs who were aware of LGB student-athletes on their teams and ATs who were not (P < .001). Conclusions: Many ATs hold positive attitudes toward LGB student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes. PMID:21214353

  8. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p < .05). Gymnasts' performance was positively correlated with age (p = .001), sport practice (p = .024), number of daily training hours (p = .000), number of hours of training/week (p = .000), waist circumference (WC) (p = .008) and sleep duration (p = .005). However, it was negatively correlated with WC/hip circumference (p = .000), ESS (p = .000), PSQI (p = .042), SCAT-A (p = .002), protein g/kg (p = .028), EA (p = .002) and exercise energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability. PMID:26505326

  9. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle signaling pathways and human athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Camera, Donny M; Smiles, William J; Hawley, John A

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly malleable tissue capable of altering its phenotype in response to external stimuli including exercise. This response is determined by the mode, (endurance- versus resistance-based), volume, intensity and frequency of exercise performed with the magnitude of this response-adaptation the basis for enhanced physical work capacity. However, training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle are variable and unpredictable between individuals. With the recent application of molecular techniques to exercise biology, there has been a greater understanding of the multiplicity and complexity of cellular networks involved in exercise responses. This review summarizes the molecular and cellular events mediating adaptation processes in skeletal muscle in response to exercise. We discuss established and novel cell signaling proteins mediating key physiological responses associated with enhanced exercise performance and the capacity for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to modulate training adaptation responses. We also examine the molecular bases underpinning heterogeneous responses to resistance and endurance exercise and the dissociation between molecular 'markers' of training adaptation and subsequent exercise performance. PMID:26876650

  10. Approach to the Underperforming Athlete.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Mary L; Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2016-03-01

    Children and adolescents who participate in intense sports training may face physical and psychologic stresses. The pediatric health care provider can play an important role in monitoring an athlete's preparation by obtaining a proper sports history, assessing sleep hygiene, discussing nutrition and hydration guidelines, and evaluating physiologic causes of fatigue. Educating parents and athletes on the potential risks of high-intensity training, inadequate rest and sleep, and a poor diet may improve the athlete's performance and prevent symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis must also be considered a cause of fatigue among adolescents. The signs and symptoms of overtraining and burnout are discussed in this article. PMID:27031317

  11. The adolescent. Athletics and development.

    PubMed

    Masland, R P

    1983-01-01

    An appreciation of adolescent growth and development is essential to the understanding of problems faced by the adolescent athlete. Early adolescence (ages 10-15 years) can be characterized as the body period. Physical growth is genetically determined and can be influenced by disease, injury, and nutrition. Early maturers are subject to adult expectations which may lead to either failure or excessive acclaim. Middle adolescence (ages 15-18 years) is the sexuality period, with special emphasis on gender identity. Friendships are critical, and athletics can be a focal point for showing love and affection without social fear. Late adolescence (ages 18-22 years) is the separation period. Young people with athletic skills leave home to face greater athletic and academic pressure and competition in college. Adjustment to this final adolescent period is achieved through learning to lose as well as win with grace and dignity. PMID:6833060

  12. Voluntary fluid intake, hydration status, and aerobic performance of adolescent athletes in the heat.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

    2010-12-01

    We determined whether beverage flavoring and composition would stimulate voluntary drink intake, prevent dehydration, and maintain exercise performance in heat-acclimated adolescent males running in the heat. Eight adolescent (age, 13.7 ± 1.1 years) runners (peak oxygen uptake, 59.5 ± 4.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) underwent at least four 80-min exercise heat-acclimation sessions before completing 3 experimental sessions. All sessions were performed at 30 °C and 60%-65% relative humidity. Each experimental session consisted of five 15-min treadmill runs at a speed eliciting 65% peak oxygen uptake, with a 5 min rest prior to each run. Ten minutes after the final run, a time to exhaustion test was performed at a speed eliciting 90% peak oxygen uptake. Counterbalanced experimental sessions were identical, except for fluid intake, which consisted of tap water (W), flavored water (FW), and FW with 6% carbohydrate and 18 mmol·L-1 NaCl (CNa) consumed ad libitum. Fluid intake and body weight were monitored to calculate dehydration. Voluntary fluid intake was similar to fluid losses in W (1032 ± 130 vs. 1340 ± 246 g), FW (1086 ± 86 vs. 1451 ± 253 g), and CNa (1259 ± 119 vs. 1358 ± 234 g). As a result, significant dehydration was avoided in all trials (-0.45% ± 0.68% body weight in W, -0.66% ± 0.50% body weight in FW, and -0.13% ± 0.71% body weight in CNa). Core temperature increased by ~1 °C during exercise, but was not different between trials. Time to exhaustion was not different between trials and averaged 8.8 ± 1.7 min. Under exercise conditions more closely reflecting real-life situations, heat-acclimatized adolescent male runners can appropriately gauge fluid intake regardless of the type of beverage made available, resulting in consistency in exercise performance. PMID:21164555

  13. Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Moller-Holst S.

    1998-11-01

    Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

  14. Low Back Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Javad; Zebardast, Jayran; Mirzashahi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Context: Low Back Pain (LBP) in athletes is common and has a broad spectrum of differential diagnoses that must be taken in to account when a clinician approaches the patient with LBP. The physicians should take into account spinal and extra spinal causes of low back pain in athletes. Evidence Acquistion: A literature review was performed for the years 1951 through 2013. Keywords used were Low Back Pain and Athletes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, PUBMED, the Cochrane Library, ELSEVIER, and the references of reviewed articles, for English-language of Low Back Pain in Athletes. Results: The two most common causes of LBP arising from spine in athletes are degenerative disc disease and spondylolysis with or without listhesis. Although most athletes, respond well to conservative treatment, surgical treatment is indicated when conservative treatment failes. Conclusions: The major concern in athletes with LBP is return to play and previous level of their activity after treatment. There is insufficient evidence regarding this issue in literature to define the optimal time of return to play following treatment. PMID:26448841

  15. The Influence of Athlete Sex, Context, and Performance on High School Basketball Coaches' Use of Regret Messages during Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turman, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined video footage (i.e., pregame, halftime, and postgame) of high school basketball coaches' interactions with their male and female athletes during competition, focusing on coaches' use of various regret messages. Participants included 20 high school basketball coaches who were found to use a combination of regret messages:…

  16. The Anemias of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnosing anemia in athletes is complicated because athletes normally have a pseudoanemia that needs no treatment. Athletes, however, can develop anemia from iron deficiency or footstrike hemolysis, which require diagnosis and treatment. (Author/MT)

  17. Coach-athlete attachment and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship: implications for athlete's well-being.

    PubMed

    Davis, Louise; Jowett, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether athletes' attachment styles with the coach were linked to aspects of the coach-athlete relationship quality and, in turn, whether relationship quality was linked to athletes' well-being. One hundred and ninety-two athletes completed a questionnaire measuring their attachment styles and relationship quality with the coach as well as their feelings of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis found athletes' avoidant and secure attachment styles to be associated with aspects of coach-athlete relationship quality such as social support, relationship depth, and interpersonal conflict. Interpersonal conflict appeared to play a key role in athletes' PA and NA. From a practical perspective, an understanding of conflict management could provide a resource that allows athletes (and coaches) to enhance the quality of their sporting relationships. Specifically, an awareness of proactive strategies (e.g., steps to clarify expectations) and reactive strategies (e.g., cooperation during the discussion of disagreements) could potentially lead both coaches and athletes to "broaden" their viewpoints and in turn "build" connections that are capable of generating positive emotions including interest, excitement, happiness, and zeal. PMID:24713087

  18. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. Methods 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs) were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps) before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes’ usual diet (a typically western diet, WD). A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. Results No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg) and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p < 0.001) with a non-significant increase in muscle mass. Conclusions Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have

  19. Self-esteem: its application to eating disorders and athletes.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, A K

    1994-09-01

    Self-esteem, a hierarchical and multifactorial perception, can be described as the extent to which a person feels positive about himself or herself. Social factors such as life satisfaction, sex, age, and strongly held values can affect self-esteem. Low self-esteem is a well-recognized trait of those with eating disorders and may be associated with a heightened self-awareness. Body dissatisfaction, common among women in Western society, may enhance this awareness. Athletes, especially those with eating disorders, are perfectionists and have acute body awareness and a sense of loss of control. Control is a crucial issue with these athletes. Before any nutrition counseling starts, readiness to listen should be assessed in conjunction with a mental health professional. Various tools are available to assess the eating disordered athlete's self-esteem, body image, and eating behavior. Nutrition counseling can help the athlete overcome an eating disorder by clarifying misconceptions and focusing on the role of nutrition in promoting health and athletic performance. PMID:7987359

  20. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  1. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  2. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  3. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Hulkko, A.; Jormakka, E.

    1981-01-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. Images p229-a p229-b p229-c PMID:6797496

  4. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E

    1981-12-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. PMID:6797496

  5. An Examination of College and University Athletic Directors' Perception of Management Models Utilized to Operate Intercollegiate Athletic Arenas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmero, Mauro R.

    2010-01-01

    Demands for enhanced accountability and effectiveness in higher education have also affected athletic departments, requiring a more cost-efficient managerial approach to the administration of athletic facilities, especially arenas. The purpose of this study was to examine athletic directors' perceptions towards the arena management models they…

  6. Asthma and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Fitch, K D; Godfrey, S

    1976-07-12

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a manifestation of bronchial hyper-reactivity that poses a special problem for the asthmatic engaging in competitive and recreational sports. Recent Olympic successes by swimmers with asthma are not surprising in view of the lessened asthmogenicity of swimming. Neither the cause of EIA nor the reason why some forms of exercise have a greater propensity to provoke EIA is known. Preexercise prophylactic medication with selective beta 2-sympathomimetic agents or cromolyn sodium will reduce or abolish EIA in the majority of asthmatics if administered just before the event. Other agents are less effective or as yet not fully evaluated. With suitable control of exercise-induced asthma, asthmatics should not be unnecessarily restricted, and competitive sports or physical recreation can then occupy an identical role in their lives as it does for their non-asthmatic contemporaries. PMID:819668

  7. Traumatic injuries to athletes.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Bourguignon, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The timeliness of treatment after dental trauma is crucial to successful tooth preservation. This article focuses on the emergency treatment of common forms of dental trauma in athletes, both at the site of the injury and at the dental office. When dental injuries happen to young patients, saving the tooth is an absolute priority, because few long-term replacement solutions can be performed in a growing child. Preserving pulpal vitality of immature teeth is essential to allow continued root development. PMID:26545271

  8. Can small shifts in circadian phase affect performance?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Legasto, Carlo S.; Fogg, Louis F.; Smith, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Small shifts in circadian timing occur frequently as a result of daylight saving time or later weekend sleep. These subtle shifts in circadian phase have been shown to influence subjective sleepiness, but it remains unclear if they can significantly affect performance. In a retrospective analysis we examined performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test before bedtime and after wake time in 11 healthy adults on fixed sleep schedules based on their habitual sleep times. The dim light melatonin onset, a marker of circadian timing, was measured on two occasions. An average 1.1 hour shift away from a proposed optimal circadian phase angle (6 hours between melatonin onset and midpoint of sleep) significantly slowed mean, median and fastest 10% reaction times before bedtime and after wake time (p<0.05). These results add to previous reports that suggest that humans may be sensitive to commonly occurring small shifts in circadian timing. PMID:22695081

  9. Athlete and Non-Athlete Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jennifer; Ladda, Shawn; Geary, Colette; Fitzpatrick, Corine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined college adjustment between athletes and non-athletes at Manhattan College, a medium-sized college participating in NCAA Division I athletics located in the Bronx, New York. Groups included a total of fifty-two athletes, fifty-six non-athletes, twenty-five female athletes, twenty-seven male athletes, twenty-six female…

  10. Catheter ablation in competitive athletes: indication.

    PubMed

    Furlanello, F; Bertoldi, A; Inama, G; Fernando, F

    1995-12-01

    Some supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT), particularly if paroxysmal and/or related to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), may in some cases endanger an athlete's professional career due to hemodynamic consequences during athletic activity, which in some instances may be life-threatening. One must also take into account that in Italy the law makes antiarrhythmic drug treatment (AAD) incompatible with sport eligibility. For these reasons, the utilization of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in athletes has different indications as opposed to the normal population, since the primary goal is "the eligibility of the athlete." In our study, we discuss the criteria for indication of RFA in athletes with SVT on the basis of the data obtained from our population of athletes, studied over a 20-year period, from 1974 to the 31st of December 1993. These athletes were evaluated for arrhythmic events, utilizing a standardized cardioarrhythmological protocol: 1,325 athletes (1,125 men, 200 women, mean age 20.7 years). One subgroup included 380 athletes with WPW (28.7%), 22 athletes with aborted sudden death (1.6%), 6 of whom had WPW, 13 athletes with sudden death (0.98%), and 2 of whom had WPW. Another subgroup was formed by 116 top level elite professional athletes (TLA) (mean age 22.9 years), of which 10 of 116 (8.6%) had WPW and 12 of 116 (10.3%) had paroxysmal SVT. The most important indications for RFA in athletes are represented by: WPW asymptomatic at risk, symptomatic during athletic activity, and/or requiring AAD treatment: paroxysmal junctional reentrant tachycardia: when this condition is disabling and related to exercise and therefore compromising an athlete's performance and sports career. Paroxysmal junctional reentrant tachycardia is easily reproduced via transesophageal atrial pacing (TAP) during exercise (bicycle ergometer), common in athletes but normally the recurrences are concentrated only during the period in which the athlete is engaged in sport. Rare

  11. An Investigation of Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Janet M.

    2009-01-01

    As less than 3% of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance.…

  12. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Ponamgi, Shiva P.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes, as well as the unknown efficacy of implanted ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise, have resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. Recently, there is emerging data, derived from a few retrospective studies and a large prospective registry that demonstrates the relative safety of high-risk athletes participating in competitive sports and challenges the prohibitive nature of these guidelines. Nevertheless, the safe participation of all athletes with an ICD in competitive sports continues to be contemplated. The increased number of inappropriate shocks, damage to the ICD/pacemaker system, and the questionable efficacy of the delivered shock in the setting of vigorous physical activity are some of the main challenges faced by these athletes who choose to continue participation in competitive sports. The fear of SCD and ICD shocks faced by these athletes is also associated with a negative psychological burden and affects their quality of life, as does restricting them from all competitive sports. Therefore, shared decision making is necessary between the clinician and athlete after carefully analyzing the risks and benefits associated with competitive sports participation. PMID:26100423

  13. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  14. Improvement of cardiac screening in amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    Although not performing on a professional level, amateur athletes, nevertheless, are participating in competitive sports and thus underlie a relevant risk for exercise-related SCD which implicates the need for an adequate pre-competition cardiac screening. As many amateur athletes belong to the category of "older" individuals, particularly CAD among male athletes with risk factors has to be targeted by the screening. However, the detection of clinically silent underlying coronary heart disease is challenging and cannot be accurately achieved by a standard screening provided to young athletes (history, clinical status, ECG). An extended work-up, at least, mandates the detection of cholesterol levels to estimate the individual cardiovascular risk. The fact that only less than 10% of Swiss amateur athletes have undergone cardiac screening led to various promising approaches to improve the awareness of the issue. Exemplarily, we successfully invented an "on-site" prevention campaign that positively influenced the attitude of the athletes towards cardiac screening. PMID:25861857

  15. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26917108

  16. Effects of acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder on pitching performance of national collegiate athletic association division III baseball players.

    PubMed

    Haag, Samuel J; Wright, Glenn A; Gillette, Cordial M; Greany, John F

    2010-02-01

    Stretching is a common component of an athletic warm-up even though many studies have demonstrated that pre-event static stretching can decrease strength and power performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder on pitching velocity and accuracy of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III baseball players. Twelve collegiate baseball players, including 6 pitchers and 6 position players, participated in the study. Each participant completed 2 separate testing protocols over a span of 4-6 days. In the experimental condition (SS), 6 static stretches were applied to the throwing shoulder after an active warm-up. After a rest period of 5-10 minutes, participants were allowed 5 warm-up pitches from a pitching mound. Participants then threw 10 pitches measured for velocity and accuracy. The control condition (NS) followed the same procedure but did not include the 6 static stretches. Testing was conducted in an indoor practice facility during normal team practice. No significant differences were found in average velocity, maximum velocity, or accuracy measures when comparing the SS and NS conditions. These results suggest that acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder does not have a significant impact on baseball pitching performance. Static stretching of the shoulder may be performed during a warm-up before a throwing activity. PMID:20072054

  17. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing, Detecting, and Managing Disordered Eating in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bonci, Christine M; Bonci, Leslie J; Granger, Lorita R; Johnson, Craig L; Malina, Robert M; Milne, Leslie W; Ryan, Randa R; Vanderbunt, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, detection, and comprehensive management of disordered eating (DE) in athletes. Background: Athletes with DE rarely self-report their symptoms. They tend to deny the condition and are often resistant to referral and treatment. Thus, screenings and interventions must be handled skillfully by knowledgeable professionals to obtain desired outcomes. Certified athletic trainers have the capacity and responsibility to play active roles as integral members of the health care team. Their frequent daily interactions with athletes help to facilitate the level of medical surveillance necessary for early detection, timely referrals, treatment follow-through, and compliance. Recommendations: These recommendations are intended to provide certified athletic trainers and others participating in the health maintenance and performance enhancement of athletes with specific knowledge and problem-solving skills to better prevent, detect, and manage DE. The individual biological, psychological, sociocultural, and familial factors for each athlete with DE result in widely different responses to intervention strategies, challenging the best that athletics programs have to offer in terms of resources and expertise. The complexity, time intensiveness, and expense of managing DE necessitate an interdisciplinary approach representing medicine, nutrition, mental health, athletic training, and athletics administration in order to facilitate early detection and treatment, make it easier for symptomatic athletes to ask for help, enhance the potential for full recovery, and satisfy medicolegal requirements. Of equal importance is establishing educational initiatives for preventing DE. PMID:18335017

  18. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  19. Collegiate Athletics Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Highlights 15 trends/events in black college athletics, including championship coaches, Black Coaches Association, eligibility issues, disclosure of athlete graduation rates, athletics resource allocation, early adoption of professional athlete status, success of the Women's National Basketball Association, lack of black access to certain sports,…

  20. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  1. DIFFERENCES IN DYNAMIC BALANCE SCORES IN ONE SPORT VERSUS MULTIPLE SPORT HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Robert J.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Kiesel, Kyle; Plisky, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Researchers have previously reported on the importance of dynamic balance in assessing an individual's risk for injury during sport. However, to date there is no research on whether multiple sport participation affects dynamic balance ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dynamic balance scores in high school athletes that competed in one sport only as compared athletes who competed in multiple sports, as tested by the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ). Methods: Ninety-two high school athletes who participated in one sport were matched, by age, gender and sport played, to athletes who participated in the same sport as well as additional sports. All individuals were assessed using the YBT-LQ to examine differences in composite reach score and reach direction asymmetry between single sport and multiple sport athletes. The greatest reach distance of three trials in each reach direction for right and left lower-extremities was normalized by limb length and used for analysis. A two-way ANOVA (gender x number of sports played) was used to statistically analyze the variables in the study. Results: No significant interactions or main effects related to number of sports played were observed for any YBT-LQ score (p>0.05). Male athletes exhibited significantly greater normalized reach values for the posteromedial, posterolateral, and composite reach while also exhibiting a larger anterior reach difference when compared to the females. Athletes who participated in multiple sports had similar performances on the YBT-LQ when compared to athletes who participated in a single sport. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the number of sports played by a high school athlete does not need to be controlled for when evaluating dynamic balance with the YBT-LQ. PMID:22530189

  2. Prevalence of oral trauma in Para-Pan American Games athletes.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rafaela Amarante; Modesto, Adriana; Evans, Patricia Louise Scabell; Almeida, Anne Louise Scabell; da Silva, Juliana de Jesus Rodrigues; Guedes, Aurelino Machado Lima; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro; Ranalli, Dennis N; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey was to assess the prevalence of oral trauma in athletes representing 25 countries competing at the most recent Para-Pan American Games (III PARAPAN) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board. The examiners participated in standardization and calibration training sessions before the field phase began. Invitations were sent to >1200 participating athletes competing in eight sports and to the Medical Committee of the Para-Pan American Sports Organization before and during the III PARAPAN. A convenience sample of 120 athletes was recruited. After signing an informed consent, all athletes answered a questionnaire. Data were collected at the clinical examination and recorded in a specific trauma form. The mean age of the athletes was 32.5 years. Males comprised 79.2% of the sample; females 20.8%. The prevalence of oral trauma among the athletes was 47.5% (N = 57). However, only 15 athletes reported that these traumatic injuries were sports-related. The sport with the highest prevalence of oral trauma was judo (75%); the least was volleyball with no reported traumatic injuries. The most common traumatic injury was enamel fracture (27.4%). The teeth most affected were the maxillary permanent central incisors (N = 19), followed by the maxillary premolars (N = 8). On the basis of the results of this study of oral trauma among athletes examined at the III PARAPAN, a recommendation for enhanced educational efforts and the use of properly fitted mouthguards to prevent traumatic injuries among high-performance athletes with disabilities seems warranted. PMID:22882839

  3. Nutrition and the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition cannot be over emphasized for both the athlete and the non-athlete. The difference is essentially in the number of calories. Both need a well balanced diet, normally taken as three meals a day. Modifications on the day of participation require planning as well as understanding. Many myths have developed from a false impression that some advantage will be gained over an opponent or that performance will be enhanced. Scientific evidence does not support these claims. The physician should be aware of the recommendations contained in the Canadian Food Guide for the basic diet. He should also be prepared to discuss variations in dietary habits which have entered the sports scene. PMID:20469286

  4. The Running Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Henning, P. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hip syndrome account for a portion of the overuse injuries that can occur in the running athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches were performed for each entity using the following keywords: snapping hip syndrome, coxa sultans, pelvic stress fracture, and osteitis pubis from 2008 to 2013. Topic reviews, case reports, case series, and randomized trials were included for review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Collectively, 188 articles were identified. Of these, 58 were included in this review. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, the majority of these overuse injuries can be managed non-operatively. Primary treatment should include removal from offending activity, normalizing regional muscle strength/length imbalances and nutritional deficiencies, and mitigating training errors through proper education of the athlete and training staff. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: C PMID:24587861

  5. Students' Interest in Surgery Affects Laparoscopic Practicing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mao Wu, Sheng; Kuei Chien, Wen; Sheng Huang, Chen; Cheng Lin, Wei; Chun Chang, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Earlier exposure to laparoscopic techniques is thought to be beneficial for medical students. Reports have demonstrated that practice improves performance in laparoscopies. In this study, we intended to evaluate whether medical students' interest in surgery is affected by the amount of practice and the performance on a laparoscopic simulator. Methods: A laparoscopic simulation curriculum was introduced at Taipei Medical University, Wan-Fang Medical Center. Study participants included 36 sixth-year and 14 seventh-year students who were divided according to whether they had indicated an interest (group A) or not (group B) in surgery. The students had twice-a-week practice sessions for 2 weeks. They underwent baseline measurement (BM) before training and posttraining measurement (PTM). Self-guided practice on the simulator was allowed. The learning outcomes were assessed comparing the BM and PTM scores by using the interquartile range (IQR) test. We also tested the correlation between total score and number of self-guided practice sessions. Results: All study participants showed improvement. No differences were observed between BM and PTM scores and between 6th- and 7th-year medical students. Significant differences were found in PTM scores between groups A and B (P < .001). Analysis of variance with a post hoc test for different groups revealed that the PTMs were significantly higher for both the 6th- and 7th-year medical students in group A than for those in group B (P < .001). Total performance scores were improved with a higher number of self-guided practice sessions. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the number of self-guided practice sessions and total performance score (P < .001). Conclusion: Those clerks and interns interested in surgery who had more sessions for self-guided practice, displayed more improvement than those not interested in surgery did. Improvement in performance correlated

  6. Lithium-oxygen batteries-Limiting factors that affect performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padbury, Richard; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2011-05-01

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have recently received attention due to their extremely high theoretical energy densities, which far exceed that of any other existing energy storage technology. The significantly larger theoretical energy density of the lithium-oxygen batteries is due to the use of a pure lithium metal anode and the fact that the cathode oxidant, oxygen, is stored externally since it can be readily obtained from the surrounding air. Before the lithium-oxygen batteries can be realized as high performance, commercially viable products, there are still many challenges to overcome, from designing their cathode structure, to optimizing their electrolyte compositions and elucidating the complex chemical reactions that occur during charge and discharge. The scientific obstacles that are related to the performance of the lithium-oxygen batteries open up an exciting opportunity for researchers from many different backgrounds to utilize their unique knowledge and skills to bridge the knowledge gaps that exist in current research projects. This article is a summary of the most significant limiting factors that affect the performance of the lithium-oxygen batteries from the perspective of the authors. The article indicates the relationships that form between various limiting factors and highlights the complex yet captivating nature of the research within this field.

  7. Neural Markers of Performance States in an Olympic Athlete: An EEG Case Study in Air-Pistol Shooting

    PubMed Central

    di Fronso, Selenia; Robazza, Claudio; Filho, Edson; Bortoli, Laura; Comani, Silvia; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the neural markers underlying optimal and suboptimal performance experiences of an elite air-pistol shooter, based on the tenets of the multi-action plan (MAP) model. According to the MAP model’s assumptions, skilled athletes’ cortical patterns are expected to differ among optimal/automatic (Type 1), optimal/controlled (Type 2), suboptimal/controlled (Type 3), and suboptimal/automatic (Type 4) performance experiences. We collected performance (target pistol shots), cognitive-affective (perceived control, accuracy, and hedonic tone), and cortical activity data (32-channel EEG) of an elite shooter. Idiosyncratic descriptive analyses revealed differences in perceived accuracy in regard to optimal and suboptimal performance states. Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization analysis supported the notion that optimal-automatic performance experiences (Type 1) were characterized by a global synchronization of cortical arousal associated with the shooting task, whereas suboptimal controlled states (Type 3) were underpinned by high cortical activity levels in the attentional brain network. Results are addressed in light of the neural efficiency hypothesis and reinvestment theory. Perceptual training recommendations aimed at restoring optimal performance levels are discussed. Key points We investigated the neural markers underlying optimal and suboptimal performance experiences of an elite air-pistol shooter. Optimal/automatic performance is characterized by a global synchronization of cortical activity associated with the shooting task. Suboptimal controlled performance is characterized by high cortical arousal levels in the attentional brain networks. Focused Event Related Desynchronization activity during Type 1 performance in frontal midline theta was found, with a clear distribution of Event Related Synchronization in the frontal and central areas just prior to shot release. Event Related Desynchronization patterns in low

  8. Training the prepubertal and pubertal athlete.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, Valerie K

    2007-06-01

    Participation of prepubertal and pubertal children in sports has increased significantly over the past decade. There is a continuing concern for their emotional and physical well-being. This review discusses concerns that coaches, trainers, parents, and athletes must confront. Young athletes are limited in their ability to perform on the playing field by both their physical and emotional maturity. Competitive sports in this age group can lead to injury and disability. Both strength training and aerobic training can have benefits for this age group but must be performed in a cautious and creative fashion. Child athletes have increased nutritional demands that require special attention. The use of performance-enhancing drugs is of special concern in this age group. Training the child athlete should be performed with the utmost concern for the athlete's safety and well-being. PMID:19202665

  9. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed Central

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night’s sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660

  10. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-02-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660

  11. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Andrew J.; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-01-01

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters’ retrospective assessments of candidates’ performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved. PMID:20615955

  12. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Andrew J; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-07-20

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters' retrospective assessments of candidates' performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved. PMID:20615955

  13. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kotarska, Katarzyna; Wunsch, Ewa; Jodko, Lukasz; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Bania, Izabela; Lawniczak, Malgorzata; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzislawa; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women) who had received a liver transplantation (LT) at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF)-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI). The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5%) had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04). A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results. PMID:27226801

  14. Effects of muscle strength asymmetry between left and right on isokinetic strength of the knee and ankle joints depending on athletic performance level

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Kyoungkyu; Chun, Sungyung; Seo, Byoungdo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to collect basic data on the effect of asymmetry on the muscle strength of the left and right knee and ankle joints of soccer players at varying athletic performance levels, to guide the development of improved exercise programs. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-nine soccer players at three athletic performance levels participated: 15 professional, 16 amateur, and 18 college. Knee extensor and flexor strength were measured at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, and ankle plantar flexor and dorsiflexor strength were measured at 30°/sec and at 120°/sec. Variables were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. [Results] College soccer players showed greater muscle strength at 60°/sec and 180°/sec in the knee extension muscles of both the right and the left sides, lower muscle strength at 30°/sec and 120°/sec in the dorsiflexor of the right ankle, and similar levels of asymmetry between left and right. The maximum muscle strength on the same side significantly differed in the right ankle joint, with asymmetry between left and right at 30°/sec and 120°/sec. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that muscle strength asymmetry in the ankle joint may lead to counterbalancing muscle strengthening of the knee joint to maintain the center of body mass. PMID:27190469

  15. Effects of muscle strength asymmetry between left and right on isokinetic strength of the knee and ankle joints depending on athletic performance level.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Kyoungkyu; Chun, Sungyung; Seo, Byoungdo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to collect basic data on the effect of asymmetry on the muscle strength of the left and right knee and ankle joints of soccer players at varying athletic performance levels, to guide the development of improved exercise programs. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-nine soccer players at three athletic performance levels participated: 15 professional, 16 amateur, and 18 college. Knee extensor and flexor strength were measured at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, and ankle plantar flexor and dorsiflexor strength were measured at 30°/sec and at 120°/sec. Variables were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. [Results] College soccer players showed greater muscle strength at 60°/sec and 180°/sec in the knee extension muscles of both the right and the left sides, lower muscle strength at 30°/sec and 120°/sec in the dorsiflexor of the right ankle, and similar levels of asymmetry between left and right. The maximum muscle strength on the same side significantly differed in the right ankle joint, with asymmetry between left and right at 30°/sec and 120°/sec. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that muscle strength asymmetry in the ankle joint may lead to counterbalancing muscle strengthening of the knee joint to maintain the center of body mass. PMID:27190469

  16. The Effects of Ingestion of Sugarcane Juice and Commercial Sports Drinks on Cycling Performance of Athletes in Comparison to Plain Water

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, Kommi; Lal, Priti Rishi; Kusuma, Doddipalli Lakshmi; Khanna, Gulshan Lal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks. Methods Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (PW), sports drink (SpD) and ScJ. In each trial 3ml/kg/BW of 6 % of carbohydrate (CHO) fluid was given at every 20 min interval of exercise and a blood sample was taken to measure the hematological parameters. During recovery 200 ml of 9% CHO fluid was given and blood sample was drawn at 5, 10, 15 min of recovery. Results Ingestion of sugarcane juice showed significant increase (P<0.05) in blood glucose levels during and after exercise compared to SpD and PW. However, no significant difference was found between PW, SpD and ScJ for total exercise time, heart rate, blood lactate and plasma volume. Conclusion ScJ may be equally effective as SpD and PW during exercise in a comfortable environment (<30°C) and a more effective rehydration drink than SpD and PW in post exercise as it enhances muscle glycogen resynthesis. PMID:24427476

  17. Psychophysical Differences in Ventilatory Awareness and Breathlessness between Athletes and Sedentary Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Faull, Olivia K.; Cox, Pete J.; Pattinson, Kyle T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Breathlessness is a complex set of symptoms that are comprised of both sensory and affective (emotional) dimensions. While ventilation is now understood to be a potential limiter to performance in highly-trained individuals, the contribution of breathlessness-anxiety in those nearing maximal ventilation during intense exercise has not yet been considered as a limiter to performance. Methods: In this study, we compared the physiology and psychology of breathlessness in 20 endurance athletes with 20 untrained age- and sex-matched sedentary controls. Subjects completed baseline spirometry and anxiety questionnaires, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion and a steady-state hypercapnic ventilatory response test, with concurrent measures of breathlessness intensity and breathlessness-anxiety. Results: Compared with sedentary subjects, athletes reported equivalent breathlessness intensity but greater breathlessness-anxiety at maximal exercise (athletes vs. sedentary (mean ± SD): breathlessness intensity (0–100%) 80.7 (22.7) vs. 72.5 (17.2), p = 0.21; breathlessness-anxiety (0–100%), 45.3 (36.3) vs. 22.3 (20.0), p = 0.02). Athletes operated at higher proportions of their maximal ventilatory capacity (MVV) (athletes vs. sedentary (mean ventilation ± SD; % MVV): 101.6 (27.2) vs. 73.7 (30.1), p = 0.003). In the athletes there was a positive linear correlation between ventilation and breathlessness score during the hypercapnic challenge that was not observed in the sedentary controls. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that whilst operating at high proportions of maximal ventilation, breathlessness-anxiety becomes increasingly prominent in athletes. Our results suggest that ventilatory perception pathways may be a target for improved athletic performance in some individuals. PMID:27378940

  18. Functional coupling of parietal α rhythms is enhanced in athletes before visuomotor performance: a coherence electroencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Del Percio, C; Iacoboni, M; Lizio, R; Marzano, N; Infarinato, F; Vecchio, F; Bertollo, M; Robazza, C; Comani, S; Limatola, C; Babiloni, C

    2011-02-23

    It has been shown that elite pistol shooters are characterized by a power increase of wide cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha (about 8-12 Hz) and beta (about 14-35 Hz) rhythms during the preparation of air pistol shots, possibly related to selective attentional and "neural efficiency" processes [Del Percio C, Babiloni C, Bertollo M, Marzano N, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Lizio R, Stocchi M, Robazza C, Cibelli G, Comani S, Eusebi F (2009a) Hum Brain Mapp 30(11):3527-3540; Del Percio C, Babiloni C, Marzano N, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Vecchio F, Lizio R, Aschieri P, Fiore A, Toràn G, Gallamini M, Baratto M, Eusebi F (2009b) Brain Res Bull 79(3-4):193-200]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such processes are associated with an enhanced functional coupling of posterior cortical regions involved in task-relevant attentional processes and visuo-motor transformations. To this aim, between-electrodes spectral coherence was computed from spatially enhanced EEG data collected during a previous study (i.e. right handed 18 elite air pistol shooters and 10 matched non-athletes; augmented 10-20 system; surface Laplacian estimation). Theta (about 4-6 Hz), low-frequency alpha (about 8-10 Hz), high-frequency alpha (about 10-12 Hz), low-frequency beta (14-22 Hz), high-frequency beta (23-35 Hz), and gamma (36-44 Hz) bands were considered. Statistical results showed that intra-hemispheric low-frequency alpha (parietal-temporal and parietal-occipital regions), high-frequency alpha (parietal-temporal and parietal-occipital regions), high-frequency beta, and gamma (parietal-temporal regions) coherence values were stable in amplitude in the elite athletes but not in the non-athletes during the preparation of pistol shots. The same applies to inter-hemispheric low-frequency alpha (parietal regions), high-frequency alpha (parietal regions), high-frequency beta and gamma coherence values. These findings suggest that under the present experimental conditions, elite athletes are

  19. The eccentricity effect: target eccentricity affects performance on conjunction searches.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, M; Evert, D L; Chang, I; Katz, S M

    1995-11-01

    The serial pattern found for conjunction visual-search tasks has been attributed to covert attentional shifts, even though the possible contributions of target location have not been considered. To investigate the effect of target location on orientation x color conjunction searches, the target's duration and its position in the display were manipulated. The display was present either until observers responded (Experiment 1), for 104 msec (Experiment 2), or for 62 msec (Experiment 3). Target eccentricity critically affected performance: A pronounced eccentricity effect was very similar for all three experiments; as eccentricity increased, reaction times and errors increased gradually. Furthermore, the set-size effect became more pronounced as target eccentricity increased, and the extent of the eccentricity effect increased for larger set sizes. In addition, according to stepwise regressions, target eccentricity as well as its interaction with set size were good predictors of performance. We suggest that these findings could be explained by spatial-resolution and lateral-inhibition factors. The serial self-terminating hypothesis for orientation x color conjunction searches was evaluated and rejected. We compared the eccentricity effect as well as the extent of the orientation asymmetry in these three conjunction experiments with those found in feature experiments (Carrasco & Katz, 1992). The roles of eye movements, spatial resolution, and covert attention in the eccentricity effect, as well as their implications, are discussed. PMID:8539099

  20. Distraction affects the performance of obstacle avoidance during walking.

    PubMed

    Weerdesteyn, V; Schillings, A M; van Galen, G P; Duysens, J

    2003-03-01

    In this study, dual-task interference in obstacle-avoidance tasks during human walking was examined. Ten healthy young adults participated in the experiment. While they were walking on a treadmill, an obstacle suddenly fell on the treadmill in front of their left leg during either midswing, early stance, or late stance of the ipsilateral leg. Participants were instructed to avoid the obstacle, both as a single task and while they were concurrently performing a cognitive secondary task (dual task). Rates of failure, avoidance strategy, and a number of kinematic parameters were studied under both task conditions. When only a short response time was available, rates of failure on the avoidance task were larger during the dual task than during the single task. Smaller crossing swing velocities were found during the dual task as compared with those observed in the single task. The difference in crossing swing velocities was attributable to increased stiffness of the crossing swing limb. The results of the present study indicated that divided attention affects young and healthy individuals' obstacle-avoidance performance during walking. PMID:12724099

  1. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  2. Coaches, Athletes and Nutrition: Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis; Mandali, Swarna; Conn, James

    2005-01-01

    Athletes often adjust their dietary routines to enhance sport performance, but problems can arise when athletes turn for guidance to coaches who may not be trained in the field of nutrition, or who, themselves, are poor examples when it comes to healthy eating habits. There are many myths regarding nutrition that are spread throughout the world of…

  3. Creatine and the Male Adolescent Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…

  4. Nutrition for Athletes. A Handbook for Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook contains nutritional information for athletic coaches and others who provide this information and guidance to high school and college students. The purposes of the handbook are to review briefly the content of a sound basic diet and to analyze theories and practices that would relate to nutrition and athletic performance. The…

  5. Academic Motivation and the Student Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Van Rheenen, Derek; Covington, Martin V.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the achievement motivation of 361 university student athletes. The relationship of motivational orientation to academic performance and identification was investigated based on self-worth theory. Fear of failure plays an important role in academic motivation in both nonrevenue and revenue student athletes. (Author/GCP)

  6. Distancing Oneself from a Poor Season: Divestment of Athletic Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Britton W.; Selby, Christine L.; Linder, Darwyn E.; Petitpas, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that sport participants would reduce their self-identification with the athlete role in response to the personal loss resulting from a poor competitive season. Male intercollegiate athletes who were not satisfied with their performances during the season tended to decrease their athletic identity to a greater extent than…

  7. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Ponamgi, Shiva P; DeSimone, Christopher V; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes as well as the unknown efficacy of ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise has resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. PMID:26100423

  8. The aging athlete.

    PubMed

    Menard, D; Stanish, W D

    1989-01-01

    In summary, the purpose of this material is to demonstrate that the aging athlete does differ from the younger competitor in many facets. There are physiological, structural, and psychosocial differences which distinguish them as a unique entity in the athletic world. Despite the unavoidable alterations that the passage of time imposes on our bodies, these competitors are still capable of incredible performances of strength, skill, and endurance. In reference to injury, these athletes are at risk from both their current program and their past indiscretions. The literature strongly suggests that the greatest threat to the health of the aging athlete is not the aging process itself but rather inactivity. Astrand concurs with this and states that "there is less risk in activity than in continuous inactivity--it is more advisable to pass a careful physical examination if one intends to be sedentary in order to establish whether one's state of health is good enough to stand the inactivity." It appears that the body systems were designed to reinforce activity and when there is disuse, a large number of atrophic changes take place. It has been estimated that regular exercise may be able to retard the physiologic decline associated with old age as much as 50%. Taken in this light, exercise is truly a fountain of youth from which we can all rejuvenate ourselves. Science has proven that life does not begin at 40, but it has also demonstrated that it does not have to end there. As one author so aptly states, "Not too many years ago the words grandma and grandpa conjured images of rocking chairs and inactivity."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2667376

  9. The effects of different pre-game motivational interventions on athlete free hormonal state and subsequent performance in professional rugby union matches.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-07-16

    We examined the effect of different pre-match motivational interventions on athlete free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations and subsequent match performance in professional rugby union. Male participants (n=12) playing at a senior or academy level in rugby union were recruited and each completed three interventions (15 min each) before a competitive game; 1) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by the player with positive coach feedback [VPCF1]; 2) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by an opposing player with cautionary coach feedback [VCCF], 3) the player left alone to self-motivate [SM1]. The first and last interventions were retested [VPCF2 and SM2]. Salivary free T and C measures were taken pre-intervention and pre-game. Within each game, players were rated by coaching staff on a key performance indicator (KPI) from identified skills and an overall performance indicator (OPI), where 1 = best performance to 5 = worst performance. The VPCF1 and VPCF2 interventions both promoted significant T responses (11.8% to 12.5%) before each game and more so than SM1, SM2 and VCCF. The VCCF approach produced the largest C response (17.6%) and this differed from all other treatments. The VPCF interventions were also associated with better game KPI (1.5 to 1.8) and OPI ratings (1.7 to 1.8) than SM1, SM2 and/or VCCF. Across all treatments, greater individual T responses and lower C responses were associated with better KPI and OPI outcomes. In conclusion, the pre-game presentation of motivational strategies to athletes involving specific video footage and coach feedback produced different outcomes on two indicators of match performance, which were also associated with changes in free hormonal state. PMID:22609482

  10. Rehabilitation of the athlete with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Standaert, Christopher J; Herring, Stanley A; Pratt, Todd W

    2004-02-01

    The rehabilitation of athletes with low back pain should be considered an essential component of their care. Comprehensive rehabilitation begins at the time of acute injury and encompasses the period of acute care through sport-specific training and return to competition. Rehabilitation of athletes with spinal pain should include a thorough psychosocial evaluation to identify potential barriers to clinical improvement. For athletes with low back pain, establishing effective core stability is central to optimizing the functional performance of the athlete. PMID:14728912

  11. Oligosaccharides Affect Performance and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Z.; Choct, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet during the 35-d trial period. The effect on FCR became less apparent when the birds got older. FOS and MOS supplementation reduced the pancreas weight as a percentage of BW, with an effect similar to that of the antibiotic, at 35 d of age. Birds given MOS tended to have a heavier bursa (p = 0.164) and lower spleen/bursa weight ratio (p = 0.102) at 35 d of age. MOS and Zn-bacitracin showed a clear improvement on flock uniformity, compared to FOS. The mortality rate was not affected by FOS or MOS. PMID:25049713

  12. Pre-Existing Rotator Cuff Tears as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Daniel; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Gomberawalla, M. Mustafa; Schroeder, Greg; LaBelle, Mark; Hollett, Brian P.; Saltzman, Matthew; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Fifty percent of all athletes at the National Football League (NFL) Combine report having had a shoulder injury at some point during their playing career. Rotator cuff tears are rare injuries in young athletes, but an increasing incidence has been noted amongst competitive football players. It is unknown how pre-existing rotator cuff tears affect career longevity and performance of NFL athletes. In Combine athletes with pre-existing rotator cuff tears, knowledge of outcomes may help athletes and physicians manage expectations of draft potential, career length and performance. Methods: The written medical evaluations of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 during the NFL Combine were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for the diagnosis of a pre-existing rotator cuff tear and stratified based on whether or not they underwent surgical intervention. Athletes with rotator cuff tears, who were selected in the NFL draft, were matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without significant documented shoulder pathology. Career statistics, including a previously established “Performance Score,” were compiled. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a Student's t-test. A Chi Squared test was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p-value < 0.05. Results: Between the years of 2003 and 2011, 2,965 consecutive athletes were evaluated. Forty-nine athletes were identified with a pre-existing rotator cuff tear; twenty-two of these athletes underwent surgical intervention for their tear and 27 were treated non-operatively. Those who attended the NFL Combine with a history of a rotator cuff tear were significantly less likely to be drafted than those without a previous injury (55.1% vs. 77.5% respectively, p = 0.002) (Table 1A). The 27 drafted athletes with pre-existing rotator cuff tears played significantly fewer years (4.3 vs

  13. Effect of flunixin meglumine on selected physiologic and performance parameters of athletically conditioned thoroughbred horses subjected to an incremental exercise stress test.

    PubMed

    Colahan, Patrick T; Bailey, James E; Chou, Chi-Chung; Johnson, Martha; Rice, Brett L; Jones, Galin L; Cheeks, Joseph P

    2002-01-01

    Twelve clinically sound, healthy, athletically conditioned Thoroughbred horses were subjected to an incremental exercise stress test to determine the effects and period of detection of a single dose of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg by intravenous injection) in serum and urine by ELISA. Flunixin concentrations, performance, and hematologic and clinical chemical parameters were measured. All horses were rotated through four treatment groups of a Latin-square design providing for each horse to serve as its own control. Flunixin meglumine reduced prostaglandin F(1alpha) and thromboxane concentrations that had been increased by intense exercise. Performance parameters did not improve and prostaglandin concentrations did not significantly correlate with total run time. Exercise did not change the flunixin elimination profile in either serum or urine, and concentrations were found to be below the detection limit of the ELISA test within 36 hours in serum and 120 hours in urine. PMID:12050827

  14. Interaction Between Optical and Neural Factors Affecting Visual Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabesan, Ramkumar

    The human eye suffers from higher order aberrations, in addition to conventional spherical and cylindrical refractive errors. Advanced optical techniques have been devised to correct them in order to achieve superior retinal image quality. However, vision is not completely defined by the optical quality of the eye, but also depends on how the image quality is processed by the neural system. In particular, how neural processing is affected by the past visual experience with optical blur has remained largely unexplored. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the interaction of optical and neural factors affecting vision. To achieve this goal, pathological keratoconic eyes were chosen as the ideal population to study since they are severely afflicted by degraded retinal image quality due to higher order aberrations and their neural system has been exposed to that habitually for a long period of time. Firstly, we have developed advanced customized ophthalmic lenses for correcting the higher order aberration of keratoconic eyes and demonstrated their feasibility in providing substantial visual benefit over conventional corrective methodologies. However, the achieved visual benefit was significantly smaller than that predicted optically. To better understand this, the second goal of the thesis was set to investigate if the neural system optimizes its underlying mechanisms in response to the long-term visual experience with large magnitudes of higher order aberrations. This study was facilitated by a large-stroke adaptive optics vision simulator, enabling us to access the neural factors in the visual system by manipulating the limit imposed by the optics of the eye. Using this instrument, we have performed a series of experiments to establish that habitual exposure to optical blur leads to an alteration in neural processing thereby alleviating the visual impact of degraded retinal image quality, referred to as neural compensation. However, it was also found that

  15. College Athletes and Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few would argue that athletic success depends on both physical and mental health. Given that, it would be reasonable to expect that college athletes avoid using alcohol and other drugs to preserve their overall health and enhance their athletic performance. In fact, college athletes use alcohol, spit tobacco, and steroids at higher rates than…

  16. Is My Patient An Athlete?

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Jack

    1974-01-01

    This article outlines the ways in which the practice of medicine is affected by patients' participation in sports, or indeed any form of physical exercise. Several instances are cited where the patient's need for a quick recovery will materially affect the treatment he is given. The family physician must be aware of these instances, from the post coronary exercise program to premenstrual tension in an Olympic athlete. PMID:20469053

  17. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations. PMID:24620037

  18. Sport Opportunities for Athletes with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)

  19. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers). PMID:18548363

  20. Applying Personal Genetic Data to Injury Risk Assessment in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Goodlin, Gabrielle T.; Roos, Andrew K.; Roos, Thomas R.; Hawkins, Claire; Beache, Sydney; Baur, Stephen; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries. PMID:25919592

  1. Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common locations for athlete's foot include: Spaces (webs) between the toes, especially between the 4th ... no worm involved.) Between the toes (the interdigital spaces), athlete's foot may appear as inflamed, scaly, and ...

  2. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... represent, engage and foster the continued growth and development of the athletic training profession and athletic trainers as unique health care providers. Professional Development Center Use the free CEUs that come with ...

  4. Athletic Identity, Vocational Identity, and Occupational Engagement in College Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Lacole L.

    2012-01-01

    Athletic departments in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision universities provide academic support services to their student-athletes. Even though student-athletes receive help including career assistance from academic counselors, some studies have found that student-athletes are behind non-athletes in career…

  5. [Arrhythmias in athlets (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, H; Jungmann, H

    1978-10-20

    380 athletes in optimal performance were examinated within 10 years between 2 and 13 times (average: 4 times): ECG were taken at rest, during breathing tests and under maximal physical load by ergometry. 88 (23.2%) of them showed arrhythmias, 32 in the same examination different forms of premature beats. All kinds of arrhythmias were seen except atrial flatter, total av-block and paroxysmal tachycardias. Breathing tests provoked most of arrhythmias followed by the recovery after maximal physical load. Follow-up studies and clinical examinations proved that in 86 sportsmen these arrhythmias were not a symptom of heart disease. Only in 2 athletes heart injury could not be excluded. But in nearly 50% extracardial inflammations, like tonsillitis, bronchitis etc., were found. It is discussed that bradycardia and vagotonia of the highly trained sportsmen cause the arrhythmias. This vagotonia is intensified by breathing tests. But arrhythmias found in athletes should cause an examination for other chronical sicknesses. PMID:703672

  6. Do Athletes Excel at Everyday Tasks?

    PubMed Central

    CHADDOCK, LAURA; NEIDER, MARK B.; VOSS, MICHELLE W.; GASPAR, JOHN G.; KRAMER, ARTHUR F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive enhancements are associated with sport training. We extended the sport-cognition literature by using a realistic street crossing task to examine the multitasking and processing speed abilities of collegiate athletes and nonathletes. Methods Pedestrians navigated trafficked roads by walking on a treadmill in a virtual world, a challenge that requires the quick and simultaneous processing of multiple streams of information. Results Athletes had higher street crossing success rates than nonathletes, as reflected by fewer collisions with moving vehicles. Athletes also showed faster processing speed on a computer-based test of simple reaction time, and shorter reaction times were associated with higher street crossing success rates. Conclusions The results suggest that participation in athletics relates to superior street crossing multitasking abilities and that athlete and nonathlete differences in processing speed may underlie this difference. We suggest that cognitive skills trained in sport may transfer to performance on everyday fast-paced multitasking abilities. PMID:21407125

  7. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

  8. Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products. PMID:24220164

  9. The Foundation of Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a coach, this author likes to share some thoughts on children and sports. After 42 years in athletics in all capacities--coach, athletic director, official, parent, athlete, and observer--he can easily say he has seen, heard, or experienced it all. Each experience has helped him gain some insights on youth and interscholastic sports. Parent of…

  10. Who Are Student Athletes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sherry K.; Moore, James L., III

    2001-01-01

    Describes and discusses student athletes' experiences and their environments from historical and current perspectives. Provides recommendations for student affairs professionals who wish to assist student athletes in reducing the tension between the students' academic and athletic worlds. (Contains 38 references.) (GCP)

  11. Women in Athletic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sandra L.; Gilmour, Suzanne L.; Kinsella, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant increased participation opportunities for girls and women in sport following the passage of Title IX, women remain underrepresented in athletic leadership roles. Thirty eight female and 158 male high school athletic directors responded to a 19-item Athletic Director Survey (ADS) designed to elicit information on the following:…

  12. Cardiovascular health in former elite male athletes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J K; Kujala, U M; Sarna, S; Karanko, H; Puukka, P J; Jula, A M

    2016-05-01

    To increase our knowledge on the effects of previous and current physical activity on cardiovascular health, we studied a group of Finnish male former elite athletes (endurance, n = 49; power, n = 50) and their 49 age and area-matched controls, aged 64-89 years. Body mass index (BMI), fasting serum glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and ultrasonography of cardiac and carotid artery structure and function were measured. Former endurance athletes smoked less, had lower prevalence of hypertension, and had higher intensity and volume of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) than the controls. No difference was detected in cardiac or carotid artery structure and function between these groups. Former athletes performing high-intensity LTPA were slightly younger (possible selection bias), had lower BMI and waist circumference, lower use of antihypertensives, lower prevalence of diabetes, lower pulse wave velocity, and higher carotid artery elasticity than former athletes not performing high-intensity LTPA. In conclusion, former athletes had a higher intensity and volume of LTPA than the controls. Athletes performing vigorous LTPA had more elastic arteries than athletes performing moderately or no LTPA. Vigorous LTPA through the whole lifetime associates with good cardiovascular health, although the previous medical history may play an important role. PMID:25919653

  13. The effects of performing the YMCA Bike protocol on general brain function in athletes with and without mild traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Michael

    Research into concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has increased significantly within the past decade. In the literature some researchers are reporting 1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occurring in sports (Langlois, 2006), mTBI accounts for 80% of all reported traumatic brain injuries (Ruff, 2011). With these alarming statistics and an increasing number of athletes suffering a concussion there has been an increased emphasis for sports medicine practitioners to properly diagnose and treat those recovering from brain injury so that they may return safely to school, sports or work. Current clinical tools available to practitioners give them the ability to assess functional recovery in clinical measures of personality change; patient self reported symptom scales; functional cognitive domains (computer based neuropsychological batteries) and clinical balance measures. These current methods of clinical measurement, diagnosis and return to play protocols have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years. In addition, there is some controversy into the application of these clinical measures within repeated measure testing as improvement does not necessarily reflect post-traumatic recovery but may instead reflect practice or "ceiling effects" of measurement. Therefore, diagnostic platforms that measure structural physiologic recovery must be implemented to assist the clinician in the 'Return to Play' process for athletic participation. In this study quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis using a 128-lead dense array system during the first aerobic challenge in a 'Return to Play' protocol was performed. Subjects recovering from concussion and normal volunteers with no history of concussion were included and their neuroelectric activity recorded before, during, after and 24 hours post light aerobic exercise on a stationary bike. Subjects recovering from concussion demonstrated altered spectral absolute power across relevant regions of interest in the frontal, central

  14. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  15. The college student-athlete: psychological considerations and interventions.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, R S; Hinz, L D; Barrow, J C

    1989-03-01

    This article reviews the literature dealing with problems brought by student-athletes to college counseling and mental health centers. Among the issues discussed are fear of success; identity conflict; social isolation; poor athletic performance; academic problems; and career or vocational concerns. In addition, the authors examine the paradox that although athletes experience as much or more psychological distress as nonathletes, research indicates that athletes use professional services less often than nonathletes. Finally, the authors review approaches to psychological intervention, including short-term psychotherapy, very brief interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and career/vocational counseling, and discuss special considerations for conducting therapy with athletes. PMID:2649528

  16. Protective role of 17-β-estradiol towards IL-6 leukocyte expression induced by intense training in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Cristina; Scala, Loredana; Silvestri, Ilaria; Vitale, Jacopo; Scurati, Raffaele; Michielon, Giovanni; Alberti, Giampietro; Venerando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Exercise performed at a competitive level could deeply modify the immune system and the cytokine response of athletes. In this report, we demonstrated that young elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 16; age: 9-15 years) showed an increase of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in comparison to girls performing the same sport at a recreational level (n = 16; age: 10-15 years). The increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNAs appeared to be directly linked to the intensity and duration of the training. Moreover, in elite athletes engaged in artistic gymnastics or in synchronised swimming (n =34; age: 9-15 years), IL-6 gene expression appeared to be modulated by the levels of circulating oestrogens: pre-pubertal athletes (n = 20; age: 11 ± 1 years) revealed a higher increase in IL-6 than pubertal athletes (n = 14; age: 14 ± 1.6 years). In pre-pubertal athletes, body mass index (BMI) percentile was inversely correlated with the increase of both IL-6 and TNF-α. The consequence of these events was the shift of the cytokine profile towards a pro-inflammatory status. These modifications, induced by training performed at an elite level, might negatively affect the growth of female children athletes. PMID:24016202

  17. Sports Nutrition Knowledge Among Collegiate Athletes, Coaches, Athletic Trainers, and Strength and Conditioning Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M.; Pritchett, Kelly L.; Zippel, Deborah; Minton, Dawn M.; Cellamare, Adam; Sibilia, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Context: Coaches, athletic trainers (ATs), strength and conditioning specialists (SCSs), and registered dietitians are common nutrition resources for athletes, but coaches, ATs, and SCSs might offer only limited nutrition information. Little research exists about sports nutrition knowledge and current available resources for nutrition information for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. Objective: To identify resources of nutrition information that athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs use; to examine nutrition knowledge among athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs; and to determine confidence levels in the correctness of nutrition knowledge questions within all groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions across the United States. Patients and Other Participants: The 579 participants consisted of athletes (n = 185), coaches (n = 131), ATs (n = 192), and SCSs (n = 71). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants answered questions about nutrition resources and domains regarding basic nutrition, supplements and performance, weight management, and hydration. Adequate sports nutrition knowledge was defined as an overall score of 75% in all domains (highest achievable score was 100%). Results: Participants averaged 68.5% in all domains. The ATs (77.8%) and SCSs (81.6%) had the highest average scores. Adequate knowledge was found in 35.9% of coaches, 71.4% of ATs, 83.1% of SCSs, and only 9% of athletes. The most used nutrition resources for coaches, ATs, and SCSs were registered dietitians. Conclusions: Overall, we demonstrated that ATs and SCSs have adequate sports nutrition knowledge, whereas most coaches and athletes have inadequate knowledge. Athletes have frequent contact with ATs and SCSs; therefore, proper nutrition education among these staff members is critical. We suggest that proper nutrition programming should be provided for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. However, a separate nutrition program

  18. Accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in Korean athletic and non-athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hee; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kim, Gwi-Sun; Park, Ji-Sun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Athletes generally desire changes in body composition in order to enhance their athletic performance. Often, athletes will practice chronic energy restrictions to attain body composition changes, altering their energy needs. Prediction of resting metabolic rates (RMR) is important in helping to determine an athlete's energy expenditure. This study compared measured RMR of athletic and non-athletic adolescents with predicted RMR from commonly used prediction equations to identify the most accurate equation applicable for adolescent athletes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 50 athletes (mean age of 16.6 ± 1.0 years, 30 males and 20 females) and 50 non-athletes (mean age of 16.5 ± 0.5 years, 30 males and 20 females) were enrolled in the study. The RMR of subjects was measured using indirect calorimetry. The accuracy of 11 RMR prediction equations was evaluated for bias, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS Until more accurate prediction equations are developed, our findings recommend using the formulas by Cunningham (-29.8 kcal/day, limits of agreement -318.7 and +259.1 kcal/day) and Park (-0.842 kcal/day, limits of agreement -198.9 and +196.9 kcal/day) for prediction of RMR when studying male adolescent athletes. Among the new prediction formulas reviewed, the formula included in the fat-free mass as a variable [RMR = 730.4 + 15 × fat-free mass] is paramount when examining athletes. CONCLUSIONS The RMR prediction equation developed in this study is better in assessing the resting metabolic rate of Korean athletic adolescents. PMID:26244075

  19. Evaluation of functional outcomes and complications following modified Latarjet reconstruction in athletes with anterior shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    van der Watt, Christelle; de Beer, Joe F

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal management of anterior shoulder instability in athletes continues to be a challenge. The present study aimed to evaluate the functional outcomes of athletes with anterior shoulder instability following modified Latarjet reconstruction through assessing the timing of return to sport and complications. Methods Retrospective assessment was performed of athletes (n = 56) who presented with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and were treated with modified congruent arc Latarjet reconstruction over a 1-year period. Rugby union was the predominant sport performed. Pre-operative instability severity index scores were assessed. Postoperative complications were recorded as was the time taken for the athlete to return to sport. Results Arthroscopic evaluation revealed that 86% of patients had associated bony lesions affecting the glenohumeral joint. The overall complication rate relating to the Latarjet reconstruction was 7%. No episodes of recurrent shoulder instability were noted. Of the patients, 89% returned to competitive sport at the same level as that prior to surgery. The mean time post surgery to returning to full training was 3.2 months. Conclusions The modified congruent arc Latarjet procedure facilitates early rehabilitation and return to sport. These results support our systematic management protocol of performing modified Latarjet surgery in contact sport athletes with recurrent anterior instability.

  20. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  1. Organizational Influences and Quality-of-Life Issues During the Professional Socialization of Certified Athletic Trainers Working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A

    2006-01-01

    Context: Health professionals are exposed to critical influences and pressures when socialized into their work environments. Little is known about the organizational socialization of certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the collegiate context. Objective: To discuss the organizational influences and quality-of-life issues as each relates to the professional socialization of ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Design: A qualitative design of in-depth interviews and follow-up electronic interviews was used to examine the organizational socialization of ATs. Setting: Participants associated with Division I athletic programs from 4 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts volunteered for the study. Participants: A total of 11 men and 5 women participated in the study, consisting of 14 ATs and 2 athletic directors. Data Collection and Analysis: Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively. A peer review, member checks, and data source triangulation were performed to establish trustworthiness. Results: Two categories emerged that provide insight into the experiences that affected the professional socialization of the ATs: organizational influences and quality-of-life issues. The data indicate that the participants in this study were heavily influenced by the bureaucratic tendencies of the Division I athletic organizations in which they worked. The participants were extremely concerned about the diminished quality of life that may result from being an AT in this context. They were, however, able to maintain a commitment to delivering quality care to the student-athletes despite these influences. High work volume and low administrative support were commonly cited as problems, thus creating concern about diminished quality of life and the fear of burnout. Conclusions: The AT's role appears not only rewarding but also challenging. The reward is working closely with patients and developing an interpersonal

  2. Cystic Adventitial Disease in Former Athlete.

    PubMed

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Maras, Dejan; Bulatovic, Nikola

    2015-09-15

    In this paper we present a 39-year old former athlete complaining with pain in his legs during long walk resembling to intermittent claudication. Color duplex scan described a popliteal artery with 10 mm in diameter with mural thrombus that caused stenosis 75% of lumen. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a stenosis of right popliteal artery. The suspicion for Cystic adventitial disease was set. The patient was operated on by posterior direct approach. After incision, a yellowish viscous material was observed in adventitia. Partial resection of the affected popliteal artery and replacement by an autogenous great saphenous vein graft was performed. Patient was dismissed on the seventh postoperative day, in good condition and without any complication. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intermittent claudication, especially in former sportsmen patients. Partial resection of the affected popliteal artery and replacement by an autogenous great saphenous vain graft produces excellent results. PMID:27275264

  3. Cystic Adventitial Disease in Former Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Maras, Dejan; Bulatovic, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a 39-year old former athlete complaining with pain in his legs during long walk resembling to intermittent claudication. Color duplex scan described a popliteal artery with 10 mm in diameter with mural thrombus that caused stenosis 75% of lumen. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a stenosis of right popliteal artery. The suspicion for Cystic adventitial disease was set. The patient was operated on by posterior direct approach. After incision, a yellowish viscous material was observed in adventitia. Partial resection of the affected popliteal artery and replacement by an autogenous great saphenous vein graft was performed. Patient was dismissed on the seventh postoperative day, in good condition and without any complication. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intermittent claudication, especially in former sportsmen patients. Partial resection of the affected popliteal artery and replacement by an autogenous great saphenous vain graft produces excellent results.

  4. Hypertension in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Sachtleben, Thomas; Fields, Karl B

    2003-04-01

    Athletes with hypertension are frequently encountered in clinical settings and during preparticipation examinations. This common condition merits special attention in athletes, as they have particular physiologic and sport-specific demands. Awareness of the pressor response to both isometric and isotonic exercise is valuable in managing hypertensive athletes. Recommendations regarding physical activity in hypertensive patients and clearance for sports participation among competitive athletes are reviewed. Nonpharmacologic measures and the use of customary antihypertensives in athletes is essential. However, knowledge of side-effect profiles and possible negative effects on exercise tolerance guide appropriate medication choices. PMID:12831663

  5. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  6. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  7. Factors Affecting the Performance of Public Schools in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Dorine M.

    2012-01-01

    By sampling extreme cases (five high-performing schools and five low-performing ones), the researcher revealed the differences in the teachers' motivation (Mattar, 2010) as well as the extent to which Principals adopted the instructional leadership style (Mattar, 2012) in the two sets of schools. Here, she looked for additional issues, within the…

  8. Learners' Metalinguistic and Affective Performance in Blogging to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The documentation of the benefits of blog use in foreign language education has proliferated since 2006. In the field of blogging to write, most studies focus on learners' linguistic performance and perceptions. To provide an analysis of learners' writing performance by using blogs, in addition to the often-researched areas, this study examines…

  9. Young Children's Knowledge About Effects of Affect on Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jean W.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the issue of whether preschoolers are aware of the connection between their emotions, their performance on a task of eye-hand coordination, and their evaluation of the task and their performance. Results indicate a developmental trend that children's predictions conform more to mood congruity theory as they grow older. (Author/DST)

  10. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  11. Growth in body size affects rotational performance in women's gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Ackland, Timothy; Elliott, Bruce; Richards, Joanne

    2003-07-01

    National and state representative female gymnasts (n = 37), aged initially between 10 and 12 years, completed a mixed longitudinal study over 3.3 years, to investigate the effect of body size on gymnastic performance. Subjects were tested at four-monthly intervals on a battery of measures including structural growth, strength and gymnastic performance. The group were divided into 'high growers' and 'low growers' based on height (> 18 cm or < 14 cm/37 months, respectively) and body mass (> 15 kg or < 12 kg/37 months, respectively) for comparative purposes. Development of gymnastic performance was assessed through generic skills (front and back rotations, a twisting jump and a V-sit action) and a vertical jump for maximum height. The results show that the smaller gymnast, with a high strength to mass ratio, has greater potential for performing skills involving whole-body rotations. Larger gymnasts, while able to produce more power and greater angular momentum, could not match the performance of the smaller ones. The magnitude of growth experienced by the gymnast over this period has a varying effect on performance. While some activities were greatly influenced by rapid increases in whole-body moment of inertia (e.g. back rotation), performance on others like the front rotation and vertical jump, appeared partly immune to the physical and mechanical changes associated with growth. PMID:14737925

  12. 'Blood doping' from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients.

    PubMed

    Plumb, James O M; Otto, James M; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin is the blood's oxygen carrying pigment and is encapsulated in red blood corpuscles. The concentration of haemoglobin in blood is dependent on both its total mass in the circulation (tHb-mass) and the total plasma volume in which it is suspended. Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the body per unit time and is one measure of physical fitness. Observations in athletes who have undergone blood doping or manipulation have revealed a closer relationship between physical fitness (aerobic capacity) and total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) than with haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Anaemia is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a haemoglobin concentration of <130 g/L for men and <120 g/L for women. Perioperative anaemia is a common problem and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity following surgery. Aerobic capacity is also associated with outcome following major surgery, with less fit patients having a higher incidence of mortality and morbidity after surgery. Taken together, these observations suggest that targeted preoperative elevation of tHb-mass may raise aerobic capacity both directly and indirectly (by augmenting preoperative exercise initiatives- 'prehabilitation') and thus improve postoperative outcome. This notion in turn raises a number of questions. Which measure ([Hb] or tHb-mass) has the most value for the description of oxygen carrying capacity? Which measure has the most utility for targeting therapies to manipulate haemoglobin levels? Do the newer agents being used for blood manipulation (to increase tHb-mass) in elite sport have utility in the clinical environment? This review explores the literature relating to blood manipulation in elite sport as well as the relationship between perioperative anaemia, physical fitness and outcome following surgery, and suggests some avenues for exploring this area further. PMID:26929820

  13. Wintering performance and how it affects carcass quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental variation undoubtedly can have the most significant impact on livestock performance in forage based production systems. Fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence herbage production and quality, maintenance requirements and intake. Producers of “forage system” products h...

  14. Factors affecting intrauterine contraceptive device performance. I. Endometrial cavity length.

    PubMed

    Hasson, H M; Berger, G S; Edelman, D A

    1976-12-15

    The relationship of endometrial cavity length to intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) performance was evaluated in 319 patients wearing three types of devices. The rate of events, defined as pregnancy, expulsion, or medical removal, increased significantly when the length of the IUD was equal to, exceeded, or was shorter by two or more centimeters than the length of the endometrial cavity. Total uterine length was found to be a less accurate prognostic indicator of IUD performance than endometrial cavity length alone. PMID:998687

  15. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  16. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    PubMed

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488

  17. How Motivation Affects Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, R. A.; Ten Cate, Th. J.; Vos, C. M. P.; Westers, P.; Croiset, G.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous…

  18. Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

  19. Does Participative Decision Making Affect Lecturer Performance in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukirno, D. S.; Siengthai, Sununta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between participation and job performance has captured the interest of not only business researchers but also education researchers. However, the topic has not gained significant attention in the educational management research arena. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of participation in…

  20. Teacher Dispositions Affecting Self-Esteem and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Carroll

    2007-01-01

    Research supports several factors related to student success. Darling-Hammond (2000) indicated that the quality of teachers, as measured by whether the teachers were fully certified and had a major in their teaching field, was related to student performance. Measures of teacher preparation and certification were the strongest predictors of student…