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Sample records for affect atmospheric circulation

  1. Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns affect midcontinent wetlands sensitive to climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.; Winter, T.C.; Swanson, G.A.; Rosenberry, D.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven years of data from midcontinent wetlands indicate that the response of these wetlands to extremes in precipitation-drought and deluge-persists beyond the extreme events. Chemical changes transcend such simple relations as increased salinity during dry periods because drought provides mechanisms for removal of salt by deflation and seepage to groundwater. Inundation of vegetation zones including rooted or floating mats of cattail (Typha glauca) can stimulate sulfate reduction and shift the anion balance from sulfate to bicarbonate dominance. Disruptions in the circulation of moisture-laden air masses over the midcontinent, as in the drought of 1988 and the deluge of 1993, have a major effect on these wetlands, which are representatives of the primary waterfowl breeding habitat of the continent.

  2. Patterns in atmospheric circulation affect emission sources contributing to nitrogen deposition in the Columbia River Gorge, Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Chung, S. H.; Welker, J. M.; Harlow, B.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge separating Oregon and Washington provides an ideal setting to investigate how atmospheric circulation patterns determine types of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition. Up-gorge and down-gorge atmospheric circulation patterns each provide a different suite of emission sources. Up-gorge airflow originates in the Portland-Vancouver metro area dominated by urban and industrial sources. Down-gorge patterns originate in the Columbia River basin, which is dominated by agricultural production. We tested the dependence of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition on circulation patterns by measuring the isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) in 2003-2004 precipitation samples from the WA98-Columbia River Gorge NADP & USNIP site. Circulation patterns were determined using back-trajectory analysis with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model using the archived EDAS meteorological dataset. We observed a significant difference (P=0.01) between up-gorge and down-gorge patterns with mean δ15N-NO3- of +1.8 and -2.1‰ for up- and down-gorge, respectively. The differences observed between these two patterns is likely tied to the different emission sources of N found in these different geographic areas. The lower δ15N of down-gorge sources is due to the large amount of agricultural production in the Columbia River basin. Observed values for the up-gorge patterns likely result from industrial and fossil fuel emissions of NOx, the precursor of deposited NO3-, in the Portland-Vancouver area. The significantly greater amount of NO3- in precipitation from up-gorge patterns (0.72 mg/L) compared to down-gorge patterns (0.36 mg/L, P=0.01) supports the influence of urban sources rather than relatively clean marine air which characteristically has low amounts of NO3-. No significant differences are found in δ18Onitrate or Δ17Onitrate between the two patterns, suggesting that atmospheric chemistry

  3. Monsoon circulation and atmospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrgian, A. Kh.; Nguyen, Van Thang

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the Indonesian-Australian winter monsoon, proceeding from the Asian continent to the south, on the atmospheric ozone is examined. It is shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation phenomena caused by monsoons in the tropical regions of Australia and in south-eastern Asia can cause significant falls in atmospheric ozone concentrations. The common occurrence of such phenomena might explain the higher-than-average incidence of skin cancer in Australia.

  4. Uranus atmospheric dynamics and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Beebe, Reta F.; Conrath, Barney J.; Hinson, David P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1991-01-01

    The observations, models, and theories relevant to the atmospheric dynamics and meteorology of Uranus are discussed. The available models for the large-scale heat transport and atmospheric dynamics as well as diagnostic interpretations of the Voyager data are reviewed. Some pertinent ideas and questions regarding the global circulation balance are considered, partly in comparison with other planetary atmospheres. The available data indicate atmospheric rotation at midlatitudes nearly 200 m/s faster than that of the planetary magnetic field. Analysis of the dynamical deformation of the shape and size of isobaric surfaces measured by the Voyager radio-occultation experiment suggests a subrotating equator at comparable altitudes. Infrared temperature retrievals above the cloud deck indicate a smaller equator-to-pole contrast than expected for purely radiative-convective equilibrium, but show local variations implying a latitudinally correlated decrease with altitude in the cloud-tracked wind.

  5. Understanding and Portraying the Global Atmospheric Circulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, John, Jr.; Oliver, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines teaching models of atmospheric circulation and resultant surface pressure patterns, focusing on the three-cell model and the meaning of meridional circulation as related to middle and high latitudes. Addresses the failure of the three-cell model to explain seasonal variations in atmospheric circulation. Suggests alternative models. (CMK)

  6. Evolution and Atmospheric Circulation of "Pegasi Planets"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, T.; Showman, A.

    About one-quarter of the extrasolar giant planets discovered so far have orbital distances smaller than 0.1 AU. Among those are the first genuine giant planet detected outside our solar system, 51 Peg b, and the first characterized extrasolar planet, HD 209458b (also in the Pegasus constellation). These ``Pegasi planets'' form a class of objects whose evolution and structure is strongly affected by stellar irradiation and tides. We show in particular that the radius of HD 209458b cannot be reproduced by conventional evolution models unless its atmosphere is assumed to be unrealistically hot. We argue that the combination of the synchronization by stellar tides and the strong irradiation yield an atmosphere that has significant temperature variations and strong winds. The kinetic energy thus generated can be transported in the deep interior and slow the planet's contraction. We also discuss the consequences of the atmospheric circulation on the chemistry.

  7. Atmospheric circulation of eccentric extrasolar giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole Kae

    This dissertation explores the three-dimensional coupling between radiative and dynamical processes in the atmospheres of eccentric extrasolar giant planets GJ436b, HAT-P-2b, and HD80606b. Extrasolar planets on eccentric orbits are subject to time-variable heating and probable non-synchronous rotation, which results in significant variations in global circulation and thermal patterns as a function of orbital phase. Atmospheric simulations for the low eccentricity (e=0.15) Neptune sized planet GJ436b reveal that when Neptune-like atmospheric compositions are assumed day/night temperature contrasts and equatorial jet speeds are significantly increased relative to models that assume a solar-like composition. Comparisons between our theoretical light curves and recent observations support a high metallicity atmosphere with disequilibrium carbon chemistry for GJ436b. The analysis of full-orbit light curve observations at 3.6 and 4.5 microns of the HAT-P-2 system reveal swings in the planet's temperature of more than 900 K during its significantly eccentric ( e=0.5) orbit with a four to six hour offset between periapse passage and the peak of the planet's observed flux. Comparisons between our atmospheric model of HAT-P-2b and the observed light curves indicate an increased carbon to oxygen ratio in HAT-P-2b's atmosphere compared to solar values. Atmospheric simulations of the highly eccentric (e=0.9) HD80606b show that flash-heating events completely alter planetary thermal and jet structures and that assumptions about the rotation period of this planet could affect the shape of light curve observations near periapse. Our simulations of HD80606b also show the development an atmospheric shock on the nightside of the planet that is associated with an observable thermal signature in our theoretical light curves. The simulations and observations presented in this dissertation mark an important step in the exploration of atmospheric circulation on the more than 300

  8. An online educational atmospheric global circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, T.; Schott, C.; Forget, F.

    2015-10-01

    As part of online courses on exoplanets of Observatoire de Paris, an online tool designed to vizualise outputs of the Laboratoire de Métérologie Dynamique (LMD) Global Circulation Model (GCM) for various atmospheric circulation regimes has been developed. It includes the possibility for students to visualize 1D and 2D plots along with animations of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, winds, surface pressure, mass flux, etc... from a state-of-the-art model.

  9. Midlatitudes precipitation and the global atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluis, O.; Czaja, A.; Korty, R.; Laliberte, F.

    2008-12-01

    The global atmospheric circulation transports energy from the equatorial regions to higher latitudes. Due to the turbulent nature of the flow, describing a 'mean' circulation depends strongly on the averaging method and coordinates system. When averaged in isentropic coordinates, the circulation appears as a single overturning cell with a poleward flow of high entropy air and return flow at lower entropy. However, the entropy of a parcel of moist air is not uniquely defined, and different expression for the entropy yield different mean circulations. Here, the global circulation in the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis is computed on surfaces of constant potential temperature, or dry isentropes, and on surfaces of constant equivalent potential temperature, or moist isentropes. The two analyses are qualitatively similar but differ quantitatively in that the circulation on moist isentropes is between 1.5 and 3 times larger than the circulation on dry isentropes. It is shown that the additional mass transport on moist isentropes corresponds to a poleward flow of warm, moist air near the Earth's surface that moves from the subtropics into the midlatitudes and rises in the upper troposphere within the stormtracks. In the subtropics, this flow is characterized by a low potential temperature but a much higher equivalent potential temperature. It does not appear in the circulation on dry isentropes, as it is hidden by the presence of a larger equatorward flow of drier air at same potential temperature. However, as the equivalent potential temperature in this low-level poleward flow is close to the potential temperature of the air near the tropopause, it is included in the total circulation on moist isentropes. The thermodynamic properties of this low-level poleward flow indicates that these poleward moving air parcels should ascend into the upper troposphere within the midlatitude stormtracks. Based on these findings, we propose a revised version of the global circulation. We argue that

  10. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  11. Atmospheric circulation of hot Jupiters and super Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany

    This dissertation explores the atmospheric circulation of extrasolar planets ranging from hot Jupiters to super Earths. For each of these studies, I utilize a three-dimensional circulation model coupled to a state-of-the-art, plane-parallel, two-stream, non-grey radiative transfer model dubbed the SPARC/MITgcm. First, I present models of the atmospheric circulation of eccentric hot Jupiters, a population which undergoes large variations in flux throughout their orbits. I demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits. For a select number of model integrations, I generate full-orbit lightcurves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what is seen in infrared (IR) lightcurves. Next, I present circulation models of WASP-43b, a transiting hot Jupiter that is joining the ranks of HD 189733b and HD 209458b as a 'benchmark' hot Jupiter, with a wide array of observational constraints from the ground and space. Here I utilize the robust dataset of spectrophotometric observations taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to interpret my model results. I find that an atmospheric composition of 5x solar provides the best match to the data, particularly in emission. Lastly, I present atmospheric simulations of the super Earth GJ 1214b, exploring the planet's circulation as a function of atmospheric metallicity and composition. I find that atmospheres with a low mean-molecular weight have strong day-night temperature variations at pressures above the infrared photosphere that lead to equatorial superrotation. For these atmospheres, the enhancement of atmospheric opacities with increasing metallicity leads to shallower atmospheric heating, larger day-night temperature variations and hence stronger superrotation. In comparison, atmospheres with a high mean-molecular weight have larger

  12. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  13. Tropical atmospheric circulations with humidity effects

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Chun-Hsiung; Lin, Chang-Shou; Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to study the effect of the moisture on the planetary scale atmospheric circulation over the tropics. The modelling we adopt is the Boussinesq equations coupled with a diffusive equation of humidity, and the humidity-dependent heat source is modelled by a linear approximation of the humidity. The rigorous mathematical analysis is carried out using the dynamic transition theory. In particular, we obtain mixed transitions, also known as random transitions, as described in Ma & Wang (2010 Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 26, 1399–1417. (doi:10.3934/dcds.2010.26.1399); 2011 Adv. Atmos. Sci. 28, 612–622. (doi:10.1007/s00376-010-9089-0)). The analysis also indicates the need to include turbulent friction terms in the model to obtain correct convection scales for the large-scale tropical atmospheric circulations, leading in particular to the right critical temperature gradient and the length scale for the Walker circulation. In short, the analysis shows that the effect of moisture lowers the magnitude of the critical thermal Rayleigh number and does not change the essential characteristics of dynamical behaviour of the system. PMID:25568615

  14. Structure and circulation of the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Covey, C.; del Genio, A.; Elson, L. S.; Keating, G.; Seiff, A.; Young, R. E.; Apt, J.; Counselman, C. C.; Kliore, A. J.; Limaye, S. S.; Revercomb, H. E.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Suomi, V. E.; Taylor, F.; Woo, R.; von Zahn, U.

    1980-12-01

    The Pioneer Venus data relevant to the dynamics and thermodynamics of the atmosphere is summarized and interpreted. On the day side there is a thermosphere in which temperatures increase with height to an exospheric temperature of about 300 K. On the night side there is a cryosphere in which temperatures decrease with height to an exospheric temperature of about 100 K. The atmosphere is stratified stably from the highest altitudes down to about 28 km except for a layer in the clouds between about 50 and 55 km which is nearly adiabatic. Horizontal thermal contrasts are approximately 1 to 2% in the deep atmosphere and 100% in the upper atmosphere. The temperatures generally decrease with latitude at and below the clouds on constant pressure surfaces. Above the clouds there is a reversed zonally averaged latitudinal temperature gradient. The dominant circulation of the atmosphere above the lowest one or two scale heights is a zonal retrograde motion with 100 m/s winds at 60 km altitude. There is also a superrotation at altitudes of 150 km and above.

  15. Ice sheet collapse affects ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-06-01

    As Earth's climate warms and ice melts, freshwater input to oceans could weaken the large-scale Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which acts as an important conveyor of heat and has significant effects on climate. Green et al. used an intermediate complexity climate model to study how freshwater input to oceans can affect the meridional overturning circulation. They applied their model to the collapse of the Barents ice sheet about 140,000 years ago—the first study of this kind for the time period—which resulted in a huge influx of freshwater to the North Atlantic Ocean as large icebergs calved off of the ice sheet. (Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/ 2010PA002088, 2011)

  16. Atmospheric General Circulation Changes under Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palipane, Erool

    The work in this thesis is mainly two-fold. First we study the internal variability of the general circulation and focus our study on the annular modes and how important it is to simulate the subsynoptic scales in the circulation. In the next major section we will try to understand the mechanisms of the forced response and the mechanisms leading towards the jet shift from transient evolution in Atmospheric general circulation models. In the first part, in an attempt to assess the benefit of resolving the sub-synoptic to mesoscale processes, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Annular Modes (AMs), in particular those related to the troposphere-stratosphere interaction, are evaluated for moderate- and high-horizontal resolution simulations with a global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), in comparison with the ERA40 re- analysis. Relative to the CMIP-type climate models, the IFS AGCM demonstrates notable improvement in capturing the key characteristics of the AMs. Notably, the performance with the high horizontal resolution version of the model is systematically superior to the moderate resolution on all metrics examined, including the variance of the AMs at different seasons of the year, the intrinsic e-folding time scales of the AMs, and the downward influence from the stratosphere to troposphere in the AMs. Moreover, the high-resolution simulation with a greater persistence in the intrinsic variability of the SAM projects an appreciably larger shift of the surface westerly wind during the Southern Hemisphere summer under climate change. In the second part, the response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation

  17. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  18. Comparing the Degree of Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Four Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Ijpelaar, Ruben; Tyahla, Lori; Cox, Peter; Suarez, Max J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Land-atmosphere feedback, by which (for example) precipitation-induced moisture anomalies at the land surface affect the overlying atmosphere and thereby the subsequent generation of precipitation, has been examined and quantified with many atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). Generally missing from such studies, however, is an indication of the extent to which the simulated feedback strength is model dependent. Four modeling groups have recently performed a highly controlled numerical experiment that allows an objective inter-model comparison of land-atmosphere feedback strength. The experiment essentially consists of an ensemble of simulations in which each member simulation artificially maintains the same time series of surface prognostic variables. Differences in atmospheric behavior between the ensemble members then indicates the degree to which the state of the land surface controls atmospheric processes in that model. A comparison of the four sets of experimental results shows that feedback strength does indeed vary significantly between the AGCMs.

  19. Global thermohaline circulation. Part 1: Sensitivity to atmospheric moisture transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Stone, P.H.; Marotzke, J.

    1999-01-01

    A global ocean general circulation model of idealized geometry, combined with an atmospheric model based on observed transports of heat, momentum, and moisture, is used to explore the sensitivity of the global conveyor belt circulation to the surface freshwater fluxes, in particular the effects of meridional atmospheric moisture transports. The numerical results indicate that the equilibrium strength of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation increases as the global freshwater transports increase. However, the global deep water formation--that is, the sum of the NADW and the Southern Ocean Deep Water formation rates--is relatively insensitive to changes of the freshwater flux. Perturbations to the meridional moisture transports of each hemisphere identify equatorially asymmetric effects of the freshwater fluxes. The results are consistent with box model results that the equilibrium NADW formation is primarily controlled by the magnitude of the Southern Hemisphere freshwater flux. However, the results show that the Northern Hemisphere freshwater flux has a strong impact on the transient behavior of the North Atlantic overturning. Increasing this flux leads to a collapse of the conveyor belt circulation, but the collapse is delayed if the Southern Hemisphere flux also increases. The perturbation experiments also illustrate that the rapidity of collapse is affected by random fluctuations in the wind stress field.

  20. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  1. Doppler Wind Measurements of Mars Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.

    2003-05-01

    The late August 2003 opposition of Mars, which occurs very near Mars perihelion, presents its largest angular diameter (25 arcsec) over the previous and subsequent 20 years. Sub-millimeter observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on August 27 (also scheduled for September 3) will provide 345 Ghz CO line integrations at five beam positions on the Mars disk. Differencing spectral line absorptions observed at east, west, south, and north offset positions from a disk center spectrum yields highly accurate measurements of projected doppler velocities relative to the disk center. As demonstrated in similar Venus mesospheric (90-110 km altitude) wind measurements obtained from JCMT in March 2001 and November 2002 (Clancy et al., 2002), this method provides excellent sensitivity (5 m/sec at 40-80 km altitudes) for short integration periods (10-15 minutes). Systematic uncertainties associated with the absorption lineshape and spectrometer baseline and channel characteristics are minimized, and the steep sub-millimeter line core shapes provide improved doppler shift sensitivity relative to millimeter measurements. Direct wind measurements for the Mars atmosphere are extremely important for validation of Mars general circulation models (GCM, e.g. Forget et al., 1999), yet remain beyond current spacecraft mission capabilities. Lellouch et al. (1993) obtained equinoctial (Ls=200) wind determinations in significant disagreement with Mars GCM predictions, employing 230 Ghz CO doppler line shifts from IRAM. JCMT sub-millimeter CO doppler shifts observed during the August 2003 Mars opposition should be much more accurate, with critical zonal and meridional resolution during the key southern summer season. Atmospheric pressure-temperature profiles (0-75km) will also be retrieved from each disk position 12CO spectrum, complementing the Ls dependence of disk average measurements obtained from previous whole disk JCMT Mars 12CO observations. In addition to doppler

  2. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

  3. How life affects the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of life on the atmosphere is examined through a discussion of the budgets of important atmospheric constituents and the processes that control their concentrations. Life profoundly influences oxygen and a number of minor atmospheric constituents, but many important gases, including those with the greatest effect on global climate, appear to be little altered by biological processes, at least in the steady state.

  4. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, Raymond E.; Heller, Thomas J.; Bush, Stuart A.

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  5. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  6. Isotopic composition of precipitation during different atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina; Vreča, Polona

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. There are several approaches in which atmospheric circulation patterns are classified as elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM; in our approach we have applied Dzerdzeevskii classification. Two types of models of relation between ECM and isotopic composition of precipitation are proposed; first is based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values with precipitation amount weighted average (Brenčič et al., 2015) and the second new one is based on the multiple regression approach. Both approaches make possible also to estimate empirical distributions' dispersion parameters. Application of the models is illustrated on the precipitation records from Ljubljana and Portorož GNIP stations, Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Brenčič, M., Kononova, N.K., Vreča, P., 2015: Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. Journal of Hydrology 529, 1422-1432: doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.040

  7. Diversity of Planetary Atmospheric Circulations and Climates in a Simplified General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yixiong; Read, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The parametric dependence of terrestrial planetary atmospheric circulations and climates on characteristic parameters is studied. A simplified general circulation model-PUMA is employed to investigate the dynamic effects of planetary rotation rate and equator-to-pole temperature difference on the circulation and climate of terrestrial planetary atmospheres. Five different types of circulation regime are identified by mapping the experimental results in a 2-D parameter space defined by thermal Rossby number and frictional Taylor number. The effect of the transfer and redistribution of radiative energy is studied by building up a new two-band semi-gray radiative-convective scheme, which is capable of modelling greenhouse and anti-greenhouse effects while keeping the tunable parameters as few as possible. The results will provide insights into predicting the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets.

  8. A destabilizing thermohaline circulation-atmosphere-sea ice feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Jayne, S.R.; Marotzke, J.

    1999-02-01

    Some of the interactions and feedbacks between the atmosphere, thermohaline circulation, and sea ice are illustrated using a simple process model. A simplified version of the annual-mean coupled ocean-atmosphere box model of Nakamura, Stone, and Marotzke is modified to include a parameterization of sea ice. The model includes the thermodynamic effects of sea ice and allows for variable coverage. It is found that the addition of sea ice introduces feedbacks that have a destabilizing influence on the thermohaline circulation: Sea ice insulates the ocean from the atmosphere, creating colder air temperatures at high latitudes, which cause larger atmospheric eddy heat and moisture transports and weaker oceanic heat transports. These in turn lead to thicker ice coverage and hence establish a positive feedback. The results indicate that generally in colder climates, the presence of sea ice may lead to a significant destabilization of the thermohaline circulation. Brine rejection by sea ice plays no important role in this model`s dynamics. The net destabilizing effect of sea ice in this model is the result of two positive feedbacks and one negative feedback and is shown to be model dependent. To date, the destabilizing feedback between atmospheric and oceanic heat fluxes, mediated by sea ice, has largely been neglected in conceptual studies of thermohaline circulation stability, but it warrants further investigation in more realistic models.

  9. Variability of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns associated with Major Baltic Inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Piia; Lehmann, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Due to the narrow and shallow Danish Straits the water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is greatly restrained. As a consequence the salt flux into the Baltic Sea is reduced, so that during stagnation periods where no strong inflows occur the permanent halocline weakens, and even disappears in some basins. Only Major Baltic inflows (MBIs), when large volumes of highly saline and oxygenated water invade over the sills, are capable to flow as dense bottom currents into the central deeps and replace the stagnant water there, simultaneously improving living conditions to biota. MBIs are typically forced by a sequence of easterly winds lasting for about 20 days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased, and they were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. As the major inflows are mainly forced by the atmosphere, the reason for this kind of change is assumed to be connected to variations in the atmospheric circulation. There have been several studies where the changes in regional atmospheric circulation have been described through local wind climatology or modes of large scale low-frequency circulation variability, defined by means of principal component analysis. Another way to describe atmospheric circulation patterns is by classifying them into different atmospheric circulation types. The latter are well suited for describing sequences of circulation patterns in appropriate temporal (in hours) and spatial (regional to local) scales. Circulation types reflect real circulation patterns, which are easy to interpret, unlike the modes of variability, that cannot be considered as typical patterns of airflow, but just as building bricks for describing variability of the atmospheric circulation. Hence, our aim was to characterize the variability of sequences of atmospheric circulation patterns at the time of MBIs, to use this

  10. Global thermohaline circulation and ocean-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli

    1997-09-01

    A global ocean general circulation model (GCM) with idealized geometry (two basins of equal size, Marotzke and Willebrand, 1991) is coupled to an energy balance atmospheric model with nonlinear parameterizations of meridional atmospheric transports of heat and moisture. With the coupled model that prescribes the atmospheric heat and moisture transports, the North Atlantic meridional mass overturning rates at equilibrium increases as the global hydrological cycle strength increases. Furthermore, the equilibrium overturning rate is primarily controlled by the hydrological cycle of the Southern Hemisphere, whereas the Northern Hemispheric hydrological cycle has little impact. The transition of the thermohaline circulation from the conveyor belt to the southern sinking state is controlled by two factors, the hydrological cycle in Northern Hemisphere, and the ratio of hydrological cycle strengths between the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing either of them destabilizes the thermohaline circulation. The large-scale dynamics of the North Atlantic overturning is mainly interhemispheric, with the bulk of the overturning rising in the Southern Hemisphere. Multiple intermediate states exist that are only quantitatively different, under very small salinity perturbations. The coupled feedbacks between the thermohaline circulation and the atmospheric heat and moisture transports are demonstrated to exist in the coupled model, and all of them are positive. In addition, it is identified that the coupled feedbacks associated with the atmospheric transports in the Southern Hemisphere are also positive. Two different flux adjustments are used in the coupled model, with one adjusting the atmospheric transports efficiencies, the other adjusting the surface fluxes. Different flux adjustments influence the coupled feedback intensities, and hence the stability of the thermohaline circulation. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14

  11. Numerical simulation of the circulation of the atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hourdin, F.; Levan, P.; Talagrand, O.; Courtin, Regis; Gautier, Daniel; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) of Titan's atmosphere is described. Initial results obtained with an economical two dimensional (2D) axisymmetric version of the model presented a strong superrotation in the upper stratosphere. Because of this result, a more general numerical study of superrotation was started with a somewhat different version of the GCM. It appears that for a slowly rotating planet which strongly absorbs solar radiation, circulation is dominated by global equator to pole Hadley circulation and strong superrotation. The theoretical study of this superrotation is discussed. It is also shown that 2D simulations systemically lead to instabilities which make 2D models poorly adapted to numerical simulation of Titan's (or Venus) atmosphere.

  12. Feasibility study: Atmospheric general circulation experiment, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homsey, R. J. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility analysis of the atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) are documented. The analysis performed in each technical area, the rationale and substantiation for the design approaches selected for the hardware, and the design details for the baseline AGCE are presented.

  13. Destabilization of the thermohaline circulation by atmospheric eddy transports

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.; Stone, P.H.; Marotzke, J.

    1994-12-01

    Simple process models have been developed to investigate the role of atmosphere-ocean feedbacks in the stability of the current mode of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic. A positive feedback between the meridional atmospheric transport of moisture and the high-latitude sinking thermohaline circulation (EMT feedback) has been found to help destabilize the latter. The minimum perturbation required to shut off the high latitude sinking is considerably smaller when this feedback is included. Also, the high-latitude sinking is shut off much faster with this feedback than without it, given a perturbation of the same magnitude. There is also a strong positive feedback between atmospheric heat transport and the thermohaline circulation, but this can be modeled accurately on the global scale by using a properly tuned Newtonian cooling law for the surface heat flux. Idealized flux adjustment experiments suggest that the sensitivity of the real climate is not represented well in coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models that require O(1) adjustments in the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater to simulate the current climate.

  14. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF ECCENTRIC HOT NEPTUNE GJ436b

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Lodders, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    GJ436b is a unique member of the transiting extrasolar planet population being one of the smallest and least irradiated and possessing an eccentric orbit. Because of its size, mass, and density, GJ436b could plausibly have an atmospheric metallicity similar to Neptune (20-60 times solar abundances), which makes it an ideal target to study the effects of atmospheric metallicity on dynamics and radiative transfer in an extrasolar planetary atmosphere. We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models that include realistic non-gray radiative transfer for 1, 3, 10, 30, and 50 times solar atmospheric metallicity cases of GJ436b. Low metallicity models (1 and 3 times solar) show little day/night temperature variation and strong high-latitude jets. In contrast, higher metallicity models (30 and 50 times solar) exhibit day/night temperature variations and a strong equatorial jet. Spectra and light curves produced from these simulations show strong orbital phase dependencies in the 50 times solar case and negligible variations with orbital phase in the 1 times solar case. Comparisons between the predicted planet/star flux ratio from these models and current secondary eclipse measurements support a high metallicity atmosphere (30-50 times solar abundances) with disequilibrium carbon chemistry at play for GJ436b. Regardless of the actual atmospheric composition of GJ436b, our models serve to illuminate how metallicity influences the atmospheric circulation for a broad range of warm extrasolar planets.

  15. Global thermohaline circulation. Part 2: Sensitivity with interactive atmospheric transports

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Stone, P.H.; Marotzke, J.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid coupled ocean-atmospheric model is used to investigate the stability of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to an increase in the surface freshwater forcing in the presence of interactive meridional transports in the atmosphere. The ocean component is the idealized global general circulation model used in Part 1. The atmospheric model assumes fixed latitudinal structure of the heat and moisture transports, and the amplitudes are calculated separately for each hemisphere from the large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) and SST gradient, using parameterizations based on baroclinic stability theory. The ocean-atmosphere heat and freshwater exchanges are calculated as residuals of the steady-state atmospheric budgets. Owing to the ocean component`s weak heat transport, the model has too strong a meridional SST gradient when driven with observed atmospheric meridional transports. When the latter are made interactive, the conveyor belt circulation collapses. A flux adjustment is introduced in which the efficiency of the atmospheric transports is lowered to match the too low efficiency of the ocean component. The feedbacks between the THC and both the atmospheric heat and moisture transports are positive, whether atmospheric transports are interactive in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere, or both. However, the feedbacks operate differently in the northern and southern Hemispheres, because the Pacific THC dominates in the Southern Hemisphere, and deep water formation in the two hemispheres is negatively correlated. The feedbacks in the two hemisphere do not necessarily reinforce each other because they have opposite effects on low-latitude temperatures. The model is qualitatively similar in stability to one with conventional additive flux adjustment, but quantitatively more stable.

  16. Atmospheric Circulation and Composition of GJ1214b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menou, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    The exoplanet GJ1214b presents an interesting example of compositional degeneracy for low-mass planets. Its atmosphere may be composed of water, super-solar or solar metallicity material. We present atmospheric circulation models of GJ1214b for these three compositions, with explicit gray radiative transfer and an optional treatment of MHD bottom drag. All models develop strong, superrotating zonal winds (~1-2 km s-1). The degree of eastward heat advection, which can be inferred from secondary eclipse and thermal phase curve measurements, varies greatly between the models. These differences are understood as resulting from variations in the radiative times at the thermal photosphere, caused by separate molecular weight and opacity effects. Our GJ1214b models illustrate how atmospheric circulation can be used as a probe of composition for similar tidally locked exoplanets in the mini-Neptune/waterworld class.

  17. A general circulation model of a Venus-like atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossow, W. B.

    1983-02-01

    Heat and momentum budgets are investigated for a three-dimensional general circulation model of a Venus-like, massive and slowly rotating atmosphere which is forced with an axisymmetric radiative heating/cooling distribution. Model results confirm the suggestions of Gierasch (1975) and Rossow and Williams (1979), with a mean meridional circulation which, despite its multicellular form, interacts with quasi-barotropic eddies produced by zonal flow shear instability to yield a weak superrotation of the entire model atmosphere. This process is sufficiently general to encourage the conclusion that it will occur in all slowly rotating atmospheres. Whether it can accelerate wind speeds as large as those observed on Venus cannot presently be determined.

  18. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND COMPOSITION OF GJ1214b

    SciTech Connect

    Menou, Kristen

    2012-01-15

    The exoplanet GJ1214b presents an interesting example of compositional degeneracy for low-mass planets. Its atmosphere may be composed of water, super-solar or solar metallicity material. We present atmospheric circulation models of GJ1214b for these three compositions, with explicit gray radiative transfer and an optional treatment of MHD bottom drag. All models develop strong, superrotating zonal winds ({approx}1-2 km s{sup -1}). The degree of eastward heat advection, which can be inferred from secondary eclipse and thermal phase curve measurements, varies greatly between the models. These differences are understood as resulting from variations in the radiative times at the thermal photosphere, caused by separate molecular weight and opacity effects. Our GJ1214b models illustrate how atmospheric circulation can be used as a probe of composition for similar tidally locked exoplanets in the mini-Neptune/waterworld class.

  19. Feasibility study: Atmospheric general circulation experiment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homsey, R. J. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) uses a rotating fluid flow cell assembly. The key technical areas affecting the feasibility of the design and operation of the AGCE are investigated. The areas investigated include materials for the flow cell assembly, thermal design, high voltage power supply design, effective retrieval and handling of experiment data and apparatus configuration. Several materials, DMSO and m-tolunitrile, were selected as candidate fluids for the flow cell principally for their high dielectric constant which permits the high voltage power supply design to be held to 15 kV and still simulate terrestrial gravity. Achievement of a low dissipation factor in the fluid to minimize internal heating from the applied electrical field depends strongly on purification and handling procedures. The use of sapphire as the outer hemisphere for the flow cell provides excellent viewing conditions without a significant impact on attaining the desired thermal gradients. Birefringent effects from sapphire can be held to acceptably low limits. Visualization of flow fluid is achieved through the motion of a dot matrix formed by photochromic dyes. Two dyes found compatible with the candidate fluids are spiropyran and triarylmethane. The observation of the dot motion is accomplished using a flying spot scanner.

  20. Quasi-axisymmetric circulation and superrotation in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.

    1983-05-01

    Atmospheric superrotation is ubiquitous in the solar system, and numerous theoretical models have been proposed to describe the effect. However, no model is fully accepted. Problems are primarily related to an understanding of the angular momentum and the energy budgets. In connection with the present investigation, attention is given to hybrid models, where three-dimensional models may describe eddy processes and two-dimensional symmetric models may describe the global scale circulation in the framework of a viscous medium. It is believed that the concept of an axisymmetric circulation is still useful. It is the main purpose of the current investigation to explore some of the properties of the circulation in planetary atmospheres. It is assumed that the eddy transports are downgradient or diffusive in nature. Energy and momentum are perceived to cascade from the global scale circulation driven by the sun to the smaller scale eddies which in turn determine the diffusive properties. A numerical model of the Venusian circulation is presented, and results are discussed for different conditions of static stability.

  1. A Study on Planetary Atmospheric Circulations using THOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, João; Grosheintz, Luc; Lukas Grimm, Simon; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The large variety of planetary parameters observed leads us to think that exoplanets may show a large range of possible climates. It is therefore of the uttermost importance to investigate the influence of astronomical and planetary bulk parameters in driving the atmospheric circulations. In the solar system the results from planetary spacecraft missions have demonstrated how different the planetary climate and atmospheric circulations can be. The study of exoplanets will require probing a far wider range of physical and orbital parameters than the ones of our neighbor planets. For this reason, such a study will involve exploring an even larger diversity of circulation and climate regimes. Our new atmospheric model, THOR, is intended to be extremely flexible and to explore the large diversity of planetary atmospheres.THOR is part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform, and is a project of the Exoplanet and Exoclimes Group (see www.exoclime.org). THOR solves the complex atmospheric fluid equations in a rotating sphere (fully compressible - nonhydrostatic system) using an icosahedral grid. The main advantages of using our new platform against other recent exoplanet models is that 1) The atmospheric fluid equations are completely represented and no approximations are used that could compromise the physics of the problem; 2) The model uses for the first time in exoplanet studies, a specific icosahedral grid that solves the pole problem; 3) The interface is user friendly and can be easily adapted to a multitude of atmospheric conditions; 4) By using GPU computation, our code greatly improves the typical code running time.We will present and discuss the first detailed results of our simulations, more specifically of two benchmark tests that are a representative sample of the large range of exoplanetary parameters: Earth-like conditions (the Held-Suarez test) and a tidally locked hot-Jupiter. THOR has successfully passed these tests and is able to determine the main

  2. Clouds and the atmospheric circulation response to warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Paulo; Hartmann, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    We study the effect of clouds on the atmospheric circulation response to CO2 quadrupling in an aquaplanet model with a slab-ocean lower boundary. The cloud effect is isolated by locking the clouds to either the control or 4xCO2 state in the shortwave (SW) or longwave (LW) radiation schemes. In our model, cloud-radiative changes explain more than half of the total poleward expansion of the Hadley cells, midlatitude jets, and storm tracks under CO2 quadrupling, even though they cause only one-fourth of the total global-mean surface warming. The effect of clouds on circulation results mainly from the SW cloud-radiative changes, which strongly enhance the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient at all levels in the troposphere, favoring stronger and poleward-shifted midlatitude eddies. By contrast, quadrupling CO2 while holding the clouds fixed causes strong polar amplification and weakened midlatitude baroclinicity at lower levels, yielding only a small poleward expansion of the circulation. Our results show that (a) the atmospheric circulation responds sensitively to cloud-driven changes in meridional and vertical temperature distribution, and (b) the spatial structure of cloud feedbacks likely plays a dominant role in the circulation response to greenhouse gas forcing. While the magnitude and spatial structure of the cloud feedback are expected to be highly model-dependent, an analysis of 4xCO2 simulations of CMIP5 models shows that the SW cloud feedback likely forces a poleward expansion of the tropospheric circulation in most climate models.

  3. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF BROWN DWARFS: JETS, VORTICES, AND TIME VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-06-10

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprised of east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared light curves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds.

  4. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knietzsch, M.-A.; Schröder, A.; Lucarini, V.; Lunkeit, F.

    2015-09-01

    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized Earth-like aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is on the atmospheric mean meridional circulation and global thermodynamic properties. The atmosphere counterbalances to a large extent the imposed changes in the oceanic heat transport, but, nonetheless, significant modifications to the atmospheric general circulation are found. Increasing the strength of the oceanic heat transport up to 2.5 PW leads to an increase in the global mean near-surface temperature and to a decrease in its equator-to-pole gradient. For stronger transports, the gradient is reduced further, but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. Additionally, a stronger oceanic heat transport leads to a decline in the intensity and a poleward shift of the maxima of both the Hadley and Ferrel cells. Changes in zonal mean diabatic heating and friction impact the properties of the Hadley cell, while the behavior of the Ferrel cell is mostly controlled by friction. The efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased oceanic heat transport. This suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production as the enhanced oceanic transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fluids with different temperatures, thus reducing the available energy in the climate system and bringing it closer to a state of thermal equilibrium.

  5. Cloud Feedback in Atmospheric General Circulation Models: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M. H.; Ingram, W. J.; Potter, G. L.; Alekseev, V.; Barker, H. W.; Cohen-Solal, E.; Colman, R. A.; Dazlich, D. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dix, M. R.; Dymnikov, V.; Esch, M.; Fowler, L. D.; Fraser, J. R.; Galin, V.; Gates, W. L.; Hack, J. J.; Kiehl, J. T.; LeTreut, H.

    1996-01-01

    Six years ago, we compared the climate sensitivity of 19 atmospheric general circulation models and found a roughly threefold variation among the models; most of this variation was attributed to differences in the models' depictions of cloud feedback. In an update of this comparison, current models showed considerably smaller differences in net cloud feedback, with most producing modest values. There are, however, substantial differences in the feedback components, indicating that the models still have physical disagreements.

  6. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS: INSENSITIVITY TO INITIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Beibei; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-10

    The ongoing characterization of hot Jupiters has motivated a variety of circulation models of their atmospheres. Such models must be integrated starting from an assumed initial state, which is typically taken to be a wind-free, rest state. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of hot-Jupiter atmospheric circulation to initial conditions with shallow-water models and full three-dimensional models. Those models are initialized with zonal jets, and we explore a variety of different initial jet profiles. We demonstrate that, in both classes of models, the final, equilibrated state is independent of initial condition-as long as frictional drag near the bottom of the domain and/or interaction with a specified planetary interior are included so that the atmosphere can adjust angular momentum over time relative to the interior. When such mechanisms are included, otherwise identical models initialized with vastly different initial conditions all converge to the same statistical steady state. In some cases, the models exhibit modest time variability; this variability results in random fluctuations about the statistical steady state, but we emphasize that, even in these cases, the statistical steady state itself does not depend on initial conditions. Although the outcome of hot-Jupiter circulation models depend on details of the radiative forcing and frictional drag, aspects of which remain uncertain, we conclude that the specification of initial conditions is not a source of uncertainty, at least over the parameter range explored in most current models.

  7. Autoregressive logistic regression applied to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanche, Y.; Mínguez, R.; Méndez, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Autoregressive logistic regression models have been successfully applied in medical and pharmacology research fields, and in simple models to analyze weather types. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a general framework to study atmospheric circulation patterns capable of dealing simultaneously with: seasonality, interannual variability, long-term trends, and autocorrelation of different orders. To show its effectiveness on modeling performance, daily atmospheric circulation patterns identified from observed sea level pressure fields over the Northeastern Atlantic, have been analyzed using this framework. Model predictions are compared with probabilities from the historical database, showing very good fitting diagnostics. In addition, the fitted model is used to simulate the evolution over time of atmospheric circulation patterns using Monte Carlo method. Simulation results are statistically consistent with respect to the historical sequence in terms of (1) probability of occurrence of the different weather types, (2) transition probabilities and (3) persistence. The proposed model constitutes an easy-to-use and powerful tool for a better understanding of the climate system.

  8. Atmospheric Circulation of Hot Jupiters: Dayside–Nightside Temperature Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Showman, Adam P.

    2016-04-01

    The full-phase infrared light curves of low-eccentricity hot Jupiters show a trend of increasing dayside-to-nightside brightness temperature difference with increasing equilibrium temperature. Here, we present a three-dimensional model that explains this relationship, in order to provide insight into the processes that control heat redistribution in tidally locked planetary atmospheres. This three-dimensional model combines predictive analytic theory for the atmospheric circulation and dayside–nightside temperature differences over a range of equilibrium temperatures, atmospheric compositions, and potential frictional drag strengths with numerical solutions of the circulation that verify this analytic theory. The theory shows that the longitudinal propagation of waves mediates dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres, analogous to the wave adjustment mechanism that regulates the thermal structure in Earth’s tropics. These waves can be damped in hot Jupiter atmospheres by either radiative cooling or potential frictional drag. This frictional drag would likely be caused by Lorentz forces in a partially ionized atmosphere threaded by a background magnetic field, and would increase in strength with increasing temperature. Additionally, the amplitude of radiative heating and cooling increases with increasing temperature, and hence both radiative heating/cooling and frictional drag damp waves more efficiently with increasing equilibrium temperature. Radiative heating and cooling play the largest role in controlling dayside–nightside temperature differences in both our analytic theory and numerical simulations, with frictional drag only being important if it is stronger than the Coriolis force. As a result, dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres increase with increasing stellar irradiation and decrease with increasing pressure.

  9. Interactions between clouds and atmospheric circulation in the extratropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Paulo

    In climate models, the simulation of clouds is known to be particularly problematic, leading to important biases in the climatological energy balance on regional scales, as well as to large uncertainties in the future amount of warming in response to greenhouse gas increase. This thesis explores the connections between clouds and atmospheric circulation in extratropical regions. In particular, we investigate the impacts of clouds and their uncertainties on atmospheric circulation and its response to global warming. We find that clouds have very substantial effects both on the mean circulation and on its future response to warming in climate models. In the mean state, the position of the midlatitude jet correlates well with the midlatitude shortwave cloud-radiative effect (SW CRE), which suffers from very large biases in models. Models in which midlatitude SW CRE is too negative have anomalously cold midlatitudes, leading to an anomalously equatorward jet position. This result is supported by idealized model experiments and appears consistent with the effect of midlatitude baroclinicity changes on eddy activity. This means that an accurate representation of clouds and their radiative effects is essential to correctly portray the mean circulation. In the context of greenhouse gas--forced change, we demonstrate that cloud-radiative changes have a surprisingly large impact on the atmospheric circulation response. This results mainly from the SW cloud feedback, whose specific spatial structure induces low-latitude warming and high-latitude cooling, enhancing midlatitude baroclinicity and favoring a strengthening and poleward shift of the midlatitude jet. This opposes the effects of other major feedbacks (e.g., the water vapor feedback and the longwave cloud feedback), which produce polar-amplified warming and weakened midlatitude baroclinicity. For this reason, cloud-radiative changes explain the majority of the poleward expansion of atmospheric circulation in our model

  10. Relations between winter precipitation and atmospheric circulation simulated by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J., Jr.; Dettinger, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) simulations of atmospheric circulation are more reliable than GCM simulations of temperature and precipitation. In this study, temporal correlations between 700 hPa height anomalies simulated winter precipitation at eight locations in the conterminous United States are compared with corresponding correlations in observations. The objectives are to 1) characterize the relations between atmospheric circulation and winter precipitation simulated by the GFDL, GCM for selected locations in the conterminous USA, ii) determine whether these relations are similar to those found in observations of the actual climate system, and iii) determine if GFDL-simulated precipitation is forced by the same circulation patterns as in the real atmosphere. -from Authors

  11. The Breath of Planet Earth: Atmospheric Circulation. Assimilation of Surface Wind Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert; Bloom, Stephen; Otterman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Differences in air pressure are a major cause of atmospheric circulation. Because heat excites the movement of atoms, warm temperatures cause, air molecules to expand. Because those molecules now occupy a larger space, the pressure that their weight exerts is decreased. Air from surrounding high-pressure areas is pushed toward the low-pressure areas, creating circulation. This process causes a major pattern of global atmosphere movement known as meridional circulation. In this form of convection, or vertical air movement, heated equatorial air rises and travels through the upper atmosphere toward higher latitudes. Air just above the equator heads toward the North Pole, and air just below the equator moves southward. This air movement fills the gap created where increased air pressure pushes down cold air. The ,cold air moves along the surface back toward the equator, replacing the air masses that rise there. Another influence on atmospheric. circulation is the Coriolis force. Because of the Earth's rotation, large-scale wind currents move in the direction of this axial spin around low-pressure areas. Wind rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. just as the Earth's rotation affects airflow, so too does its surface. In the phenomenon of orographic lifting, elevated topographic features such as mountain ranges lift air as it moves up their surface.

  12. Cloud-radiative effects on implied oceanic energy transport as simulated by atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleckler, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Boer, G.; Colman, R.; Dix, M.; Galin, V.; Helfand, M.; Kiehl, J.; Kitoh, A.; Lau, W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the ocean surface net energy flux simulated by fifteen atmospheric general circulation models constrained by realistically-varying sea surface temperatures and sea ice as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. In general, the simulated energy fluxes are within the very large observational uncertainties. However, the annual mean oceanic meridional heat transport that would be required to balance the simulated surface fluxes is shown to be critically sensitive to the radiative effects of clouds, to the extent that even the sign of the Southern Hemisphere ocean heat transport can be affected by the errors in simulated cloud-radiation interactions. It is suggested that improved treatment of cloud radiative effects should help in the development of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.

  13. Simulation of seasonal anomalies of atmospheric circulation using coupled atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstykh, M. A.; Diansky, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.; Kiktev, D. B.

    2014-03-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean model intended for the simulation of coupled circulation at time scales up to a season is developed. The semi-Lagrangian atmospheric general circulation model of the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, SLAV, is coupled with the sigma model of ocean general circulation developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS), INMOM. Using this coupled model, numerical experiments on ensemble modeling of the atmosphere and ocean circulation for up to 4 months are carried out using real initial data for all seasons of an annual cycle in 1989-2010. Results of these experiments are compared to the results of the SLAV model with the simple evolution of the sea surface temperature. A comparative analysis of seasonally averaged anomalies of atmospheric circulation shows prospects in applying the coupled model for forecasts. It is shown with the example of the El Niño phenomenon of 1997-1998 that the coupled model forecasts the seasonally averaged anomalies for the period of the nonstationary El Niño phase significantly better.

  14. Atmospheric circulation and storm events in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, G. V.; Arkhipkin, Victor S.; Kislov, Alexander V.

    2015-09-01

    The storm events in the Baltic Sea are examined in connection with the main weather patterns grouped into the circulation types (CTs), and their changes in present climate. A calendar of storms was derived from results of wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) experiments for 1948-2011. Based on this calendar, a catalogue of atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP) fields was prepared for CTs from the NCEP/NCAR dataset. SLP fields were then analyzed using a pattern recognition algorithm which employed empirical orthogonal decomposition and cluster analysis. For every CT we conducted an analysis of their seasonal and interannual changes, along with their role in storm event formation. An increase of the storm CTs' frequency in the second part of the 20th century was shown to be in a close agreement with teleconnection circulation patterns such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavian blocking.

  15. Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics (VADY) - connections between planetary waves and atmospheric circulation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Benjamin; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The climate research program "Medium-range Climate Predictions" (MiKlip), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF), has the aim to develop a climate model system (MPI-ESM) that can provide reliable decadal predictions of climate, including extreme weather events. A substantial part of the development process is a comprehensive model validation. Within MiKlip, it includes comparisons of model simulations and observations in order to allow statements about the performance of the model and to give particular recommendations for the further development of the model. The research project "Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics" (VADY), conducted by the cooperation partners "Institute of Geography at the University of Augsburg" (IGUA) and the "German Aerospace Centre" (DLR), contributes to model validation within MiKlip with a special focus on atmospheric waves and circulation dynamics. Within the framework of VADY, DLR validates the representation of atmospheric waves on different levels and scales based on suitable activity indices (e.g. the so-called large-scale dynamical activity index (LDAI), which is a measure for the activity of planetary waves). The focus of IGUA is on the model validation with respect to the representation of atmospheric circulation types, dynamical modes and the teleconnectivity of the atmospheric circulation. Currently, the connection between LDAI and atmospheric circulation types on different levels and for different seasons in the North Atlantic-European region is analysed by considering, in particular, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Results will be shown for the connection between LDAI and atmospheric circulation types and subsequently for the representation of the identified connections in the decadal-prediction model system of MPI-ESM.

  16. DOPPLER SIGNATURES OF THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION ON HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Shabram, Megan

    2013-01-01

    The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation-and Doppler signature-of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows toward Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blueshifted and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps these waves and inhibits jet formation. As a result, this second regime exhibits a circulation dominated by high-altitude, day-to-night airflow, leading to a predominantly blueshifted Doppler signature during transit. We present state-of-the-art circulation models including non-gray radiative transfer to quantify this regime shift and the resulting Doppler signatures; these models suggest that cool planets like GJ 436b lie in the first regime, HD 189733b is transitional, while planets hotter than HD 209458b lie in the second regime. Moreover, we show how the amplitude of the Doppler shifts constrains the strength of frictional drag in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters. If due to winds, the {approx}2 km s{sup -1} blueshift inferred on HD 209458b may require drag time constants as short as 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} s, possibly the result of Lorentz-force braking on this planet's hot dayside.

  17. Evidence for a fluctuation theorem in an atmospheric circulation model.

    PubMed

    Schalge, B; Blender, R; Wouters, J; Fraedrich, K; Lunkeit, F

    2013-05-01

    An investigation of the distribution of finite time trajectory divergence is performed on an atmospheric global circulation model. The distribution of the largest local Lyapunov exponent shows a significant probability for negative values over time spans up to 10 days. This effect is present for resolutions up to wave numbers ℓ=42 (≈250 km). The probability for a negative local largest Lyapunov exponent decreases over time, similarly to the predictions of the fluctuation theorem for entropy production. The model used is hydrostatic with variable numbers of vertical levels and different horizontal resolutions. PMID:23767493

  18. Evidence for a fluctuation theorem in an atmospheric circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalge, B.; Blender, R.; Wouters, J.; Fraedrich, K.; Lunkeit, F.

    2013-05-01

    An investigation of the distribution of finite time trajectory divergence is performed on an atmospheric global circulation model. The distribution of the largest local Lyapunov exponent shows a significant probability for negative values over time spans up to 10 days. This effect is present for resolutions up to wave numbers ℓ=42 (≈250 km). The probability for a negative local largest Lyapunov exponent decreases over time, similarly to the predictions of the fluctuation theorem for entropy production. The model used is hydrostatic with variable numbers of vertical levels and different horizontal resolutions.

  19. Wind Streaks on Venus: Clues to Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Schubert, Gerald; Limonadi, Daniel; Bender, Kelly C.; Newman, William I.; Thomas, Peggy E.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Wall, Stephen D.

    1994-01-01

    Magellan images reveal surface features on Venus attributed to wind processes. Sand dunes, wind-sculpted hills, and more than 5830 wind streaks have been identified. The streaks serve as local "wind vanes," representing wind direction at the time of streak formation and allowing the first global mapping of near-surface wind patterns on Venus. Wind streaks are oriented both toward the equator and toward the west. When streaks associated with local transient events, such as impact cratering, are deleted, the westward component is mostly lost but the equatorward component remains. This pattern is consistent with a Hadley circulation of the lower atmosphere.

  20. Global atmospheric circulation statistics, 1000-1 mb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The atlas presents atmospheric general circulation statistics derived from twelve years (1979-90) of daily National Meteorological Center (NMC) operational geopotential height analyses; it is an update of a prior atlas using data over 1979-1986. These global analyses are available on pressure levels covering 1000-1 mb (approximately 0-50 km). The geopotential grids are a combined product of the Climate Analysis Center (which produces analyses over 70-1 mb) and operational NMC analyses (over 1000-100 mb). Balance horizontal winds and hydrostatic temperatures are derived from the geopotential fields.

  1. A zonally symmetric model for volcanic influence upon atmospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of volcanic activity upon zonal wind flow in a model atmosphere are considered. A low latitude volcanic eruption could lower the tropospheric pole to equator temperature difference and thereby affect the atmospheric motions. When the temperature contrast decreases, the zonal wind velocities at high altitudes are reduced. To conserve angular momentum, the velocities in the lower atmosphere near the surface must increase, thus providing a momentum source for ocean currents. It is suggested that this momentum source may have played a role as a trigger for inducing the 1982-83 anomalous El Nino and possibly other climate changes.

  2. Core Cracking and Hydrothermal Circulation Profoundly Affect Ceres' Geophysical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2014-11-01

    The dwarf planet (1)Ceres is about to be visited by the Dawn spacecraft [1]. In addition to a recent report of water vapor emission [2], observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock [3,4].Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code [5], we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia [4], by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The heating effect from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via “temperature resets”, global cooling events lasting ~50 Myr, followed by ~1 Gyr periods during which Ceres' interior is nearly isothermal and its hydrosphere largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) suggests that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter [1] could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.References:[1] Russell C. T. & Raymond C. A. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 3-23.[2] Küppers M. et al. (2014) Nature 505, 525-527.[3] Rivkin A. et al. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 95-116.[4] Castillo-Rogez J. C. & Mc

  3. A parallel coupled oceanic-atmospheric general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, M.F.; Bourgeois, A.J.; Eltgroth, P.G.; Duffy, P.B.; Dannevik, W.P.

    1994-12-01

    The Climate Systems Modeling group at LLNL has developed a portable coupled oceanic-atmospheric general circulation model suitable for use on a variety of massively parallel (MPP) computers of the multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) class. The model is composed of parallel versions of the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model, the GFDL modular ocean model (MOM) and a dynamic sea ice model based on the Hiber formulation extracted from the OPYC ocean model. The strategy to achieve parallelism is twofold. One level of parallelism is accomplished by applying two dimensional domain decomposition techniques to each of the three constituent submodels. A second level of parallelism is attained by a concurrent execution of AGCM and OGCM/sea ice components on separate sets of processors. For this functional decomposition scheme, a flux coupling module has been written to calculate the heat, moisture and momentum fluxes independent of either the AGCM or the OGCM modules. The flux coupler`s other roles are to facilitate the transfer of data between subsystem components and processors via message passing techniques and to interpolate and aggregate between the possibly incommensurate meshes.

  4. The atmospheric circulation of ultra-short period exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2015-01-01

    Even though ultra-short period exoplanets comprise only a small fraction of the total exoplanet population, they present a useful probe into the role of fast rotation rates and small orbital distances on atmospheric dynamics. In this regime, advective timescales are longer than radiative timescales such that the temperature contrasts from dayside to nightside are large (>500 K at photospheric pressures); this strong day-night forcing, coupled with the planet's fast rotation rate (and hence small Rossby deformation radius) yields multiple, narrow (~40 degrees) jets in the atmosphere. Here we will present two cases illustrative of the dynamical regime for ultra-short period exoplanets, and how we can use general circulation models to constrain observations of their atmospheres. First, we will present models of WASP-43b, a Jupiter-mass planet in a 19.5-hour orbit around a K7 star. Because WASP-43b has an equilibrium temperature similar to that of HD 209458b, we can explore the role of rotation rate on the dynamics at a fixed stellar flux. We then compare our models to spectrophotometric observations obtained with HST/WFC3 and show how our 5× solar model provides the best match to the data. Next, we explore the dynamical regime of 55 Cnc e, a 7 Earth-mass, 2 Earth-radius planet in a 0.7 day orbit around a K star. Because smaller planets have a large diversity in possible compositions, we compare hydrogen-, water- and carbon dioxide-dominated models and show how differences in opacity structure lead to differences in temperature structure and circulation. We also demonstrate how future observations can distinguish between these possible compositions of 55 Cnc e, particularly in emission.

  5. The Atmospheric Circulation of the Eccentric Hot-Jupiter HAT-P-2b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Knutson, H.; Marley, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    The hot-Jupiter HAT-P-2b has become a prime target for Spitzer Space Telescope observations aimed at understanding the atmospheric response of exoplanets on highly eccentric orbits. Here we present a suite of three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models for HAT-P-2b that investigates the effects of assumed atmospheric composition and rotation rate on global scale winds and thermal patterns. We compare and contrast atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b which assume one and five times solar metallicity, both with and without TiO/VO as atmospheric constituents, along with models which assume a rotation period half and twice the nominal pseudo-synchronous rotation period. We find that changes in assumed atmospheric metallicity and rotation rate do not significantly affect model predictions of the planetary flux as a function of orbital phase. However, models in which TiO/VO are present in the atmosphere develop a transient temperature inversion between the transit and secondary eclipse events that results in significant variations in the timing and magnitude of the peak of the planetary flux compared with models in which TiO/VO are omitted from the opacity tables. We find that no one single atmospheric model can reproduce the recently observed full and partial orbit phase curves at 3.6, 4.5 and 8.0 microns, which is likely due to non-equilibrium chemical processes not captured by our current atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b.

  6. Decadal Periodicities in a Venus Atmosphere General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Helen; Schubert, G.; Covey, C.; Walterscheid, R.; Grossman, A.; Lebonnois, S.

    2010-10-01

    We have modified a 3-dimensional Earth-based climate model, CAM (Community Atmosphere Model), to simulate the dynamics of Venus' atmosphere. We have removed Earth-related processes and introduced parameters appropriate for Venus. We use a simplified Newtonian cooling approximation for the radiation scheme, without seasonal or diurnal cycles or topography. We use a high resolution (1 degree in latitude and longitude) to take account of small-scale dynamical processes that might be important on Venus. Rayleigh friction is used to represent surface drag and to prevent upper boundary wave reflection. The simulations generate superrotation at cloud heights with wind velocities comparable to those found in measurements. We find a significant decadal oscillation in the zonal winds at cloud top heights and below. A vacillation cycle is seen in the cloud top mid-latitude zonal jets which wax and wane on an approximate 10 year cycle. The decadal oscillations we find may be excited by an instability near the surface, possibly a symmetric instability. Analyses of angular momentum transport show that the jets are built up by poleward transport by a meridional circulation while angular momentum is redistributed to lower latitudes primarily by transient eddies. Observations suggest that a cyclic variation similar to that found in the model might occur in the real Venus atmosphere. Observations by Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus, and Venus Express reveal variability in cloud top wind magnitudes and in the structure of Venus' cloud level mid-latitude jets with timescales of 5 to 10 years. Oscillations in CO composition and in temperature above the cloud tops also exhibit a periodicity around 10 years and changes in the atmospheric SO2 content over 40 years show a periodicity around 20 to 25 years. Venus' atmosphere must be observed over multi-year time scales and below the clouds if we are to understand its dynamics.

  7. Direct EPP Affects on the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant direct constituent changes in the mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The HOx increases result in direct ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The NOx family has a considerably longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone directly, if produced in the stratosphere. Ozone decreases from the EPPs lead to a reduction in atmospheric heating and, subsequent atmospheric cooling. Conversely, EPPs can cause direct atmospheric heating through Joule heating. Measured HOx constituents OH and HO2 showed increases due to solar protons. Observed NOx constituents NO and NO2 were enhanced due to both solar protons and precipitating electrons. Other hydrogen- and nitrogen-ocntaining constituents were also measured to be directly influenced by EPPs, including N2O, HNO3, HO2NO2, N2OS, H2O2, ClONO2, HCl, and HOCl. Observed constituents ClO and CO were directly affected by EPPs as well. Many measurements indicated significant direct ozone decreases. A significant number of satellites housed instruments, which observed direct EPP-caused atmospheric effects, including Nimbus 4 (BUV), Nimbus 7 (SBUV), several NOAA platforms (SBUV/2), SME, UARS (HALOE, CLAES), SCISAT-1 (ACE-FTS), Odin (OSIRIS), Envisat-l (GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY), and Aura (MLS). Measurements by rockets and ground-based radar also indicated EPP direct

  8. Thermodynamic Properties of Atmospheric Instability Associated With The Generation of Local Thunderstorms In Atmospheric Local Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Jinno, K.; Kawamura, A.; Wakimizu, K.

    During a summer season after a rainy season in Japan, local thunderstorms occur in- land in the afternoon due to sun radiation and the subsequent development of local circulation including sea breeze or valley wind under the influence of the Pacific high pressure system. Some of the thunderstorms develop due to strong atmospheric in- stability and cause heavy precipitation and the resultant local flood. In our previous study, the observation of thunderstorms has been carried out using the meteorological radar and satellite images and, the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition Sys- tem (AMeDAS), which is the ground observational network of the Japan Meteorolog- ical Agency, in the Northern Kyushu located in the west of Japan islands. AMeDAS consists of four elements, which are wind velocity and direction, temperature, rain- fall, duration of sunshine. Since AMeDAS has the fine resolution of approximately 20 km by 20 km and records these data every 10 minutes, it can be a useful tool for detecting the generation of local thunderstorms. These observations showed that tem- perature near the ground increased due to sun radiation and the subsequent sea breeze penetration towards inland formed convergence zone before the generation of local thunderstorms. It is inferred that the development of the atmospheric instability in the convergence zone around the sea breeze front was closely associated with the gen- eration of the local thunderstorms. This means that sea breeze circulation can trans- form atmospheric instability in the morning into more unstable situation. Therefore, it should be noted that the development of atmospheric instability with the movement and strength of sea breeze circulation is important factor for the generation of thun- derstorms. In this study, thermodynamic properties of atmospheric instability in a sea breeze circulation were investigated using a two-dimensional numerical model. Con- sequently, it could be confirmed that the increase of

  9. Exceptional atmospheric circulation during the “Dust Bowl”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Stickler, A.; Griesser, T.; Ewen, T.; Grant, A. N.; Fischer, A. M.; Schraner, M.; Peter, T.; Rozanov, E.; Ross, T.

    2009-04-01

    The three-dimensional, regional and large-scale atmospheric circulation during the “Dust Bowl” is analyzed based on newly available historical upper-air data and reconstructed upper-level fields. The Great Plains Low Level Jet, transporting moisture into the region, was weakened on its eastern side, shallower, and penetrated less far north than during wet years. Nocturnal convection was likely suppressed by increased stability. Strong mid-tropospheric ridging was found over the Great Plains, and upper-tropospheric flow anomalies extended from the North Pacific across North America to the Atlantic. These findings provide a dynamical view of the “Dust Bowl” droughts, some aspects of which are distinct from other droughts. It is demonstrated that this is important for assessing predictive capabilities of current modeling systems.

  10. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute`s decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  11. Rotating-fluid experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, J. E.; Pitcher, E. J.; Malone, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine features of rotating fluid flow that are dependent on the geometry, rotating annulus-type experiments are carried out with a numerical model in spherical coordinates. Rather than constructing and testing a model expressly for this purpose, it is found expedient to modify an existing general circulation model of the atmosphere by removing the model physics and replacing the lower boundary with a uniform surface. A regime diagram derived from these model experiments is presented; its major features are interpreted and contrasted with the major features of rotating annulus regime diagrams. Within the wave regime, a narrow region is found where one or two zonal wave numbers are dominant. The results reveal no upper symmetric regime; wave activity at low rotation rates is thought to be maintained by barotropic rather than baroclinic processes.

  12. Atmospheric general circulation and its low frequency variance - Radiative influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1987-01-01

    The possible effects of radiation on the evolution of the atmosphere on time scales ranging from about a week to about 90 days are examined with reference to the available observational and modeling studies. The clear-sky and cloud radiative processes are shown to exert significant vertical, latitudinal, and longitudinal gradients in the diabatic heating within the troposphere and the stratosphere. The meridional heating gradient, which drives the general circulation, is altered significantly by clouds. The major conclusion of the study is that the observed negative anomalies in the outgoing IR radiation following intense warm episodes of tropicl sea-surface temperature (El Nino) are indeed anomalies in the cloud-radiative forcing.

  13. Development of an advanced finite difference atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, D. A.

    1994-11-01

    The essence of this research is further development of the Colorado State University (CSU) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Although the CSU AGCM is currently evolving rapidly, is also being used in a variety of 'applications' in which the results of simulation performed with the model are analyzed to gain better understanding of the climate system. In parallel, a GCM development effort is also under way at UCLA. The CSU GCM was derived from the UCLA GCM of 1982, but has evolved to the point that the two models are now really quite distinct. The key distinguishing elements of the CSU model are briefly summarized. The goal of CHAMMP is 'to accelerate the development of more accurate and useful climate prediction capabilities to forecast climate change on sub-continental and smaller scales over time periods ranging from a decade to several centuries'.

  14. Stochastic resonance on a global atmospheric circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Munuzuri, V.; Deza, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Kirk, E.; Lunkeit, F.

    2003-04-01

    Seeking for alternative sources of the observed climatic variability, and in the spirit of both classic (Nicolis, 1982; Benzi et al., 1982) and recent work (Ganopolski and Rahmstorg, 2002; Vélez-Belch&{acute;i} et al., 2001), we have added a space-independent, Gaussian and uncorrelated stochastic perturbation with amplitude eta, to the temperature equation of a simplified atmospheric global circulation model, the so-called PUMA (Portable University Model of the Atmosphere) (Frisius et al., 1998; Pérez-Muñuzuri et al., 2003). In the latter model, diabatic processes are parameterized by a Newtonian cooling term with typical timescale τ_c, whose reference temperature profile T_R(λ,μ,σ;t) (representing the ``equilibrium'' profile induced by solar heating) is given by T_R=overline{T}_R(λ,μ,σ)+ hat{T}_R \\cos[(2pi/Tac)t+Pac]. We show that the time averages of several forecasting magnitudes (like temperature and horizontal vorticity) at a point on the 300 hPa surface, undergo a non-monotonic behavior with regard to eta. Moreover, the normalized variance R=sqrt{-^2}/ of the interval t_p between the passage at the point of cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation regions exhibits an ``anticoherence resonance'' effect, thus maximizing climatic variability for some intermediate value of eta. A theoretical explanation is advanced in terms of activated processes with competing time scales. begin{itemize} C. Nicolis, Tellus 34, 1 (1982); Benzi et al., Tellus 34, 10 (1982). A. Ganopolski and S. Rahmstorg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 038501 (2002); P. Vélez-Belch&{acute;i} et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2053 (2001). T. Frisius, F. Lunkeit, K. Fraedrich and I.N. James. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1019 (1998); V. Pérez-Muñuzuri et al. Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. (submitted) (2003).

  15. Arctic Storms in a Regionally Refined Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesler, E. L.; Taylor, M.; Boslough, M.; Sullivan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Regional refinement in an atmospheric general circulation model is a new tool in atmospheric modeling. A regional high-resolution solution can be obtained without the computational cost of running a global high-resolution simulation as global climate models have increasing ability to resolve smaller spatial scales. Previous work has shown high-resolution simulations, i.e. 1/8 degree, and variable resolution utilities have resolved more fine-scale structure and mesoscale storms in the atmosphere than their low-resolution counterparts. We will describe an experiment designed to identify and study Arctic storms at two model resolutions. We used the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5, with the Spectral Element dynamical core at 1/8-degree and 1 degree horizontal resolutions to simulate the climatological year of 1850. Storms were detected using a low-pressure minima and vorticity maxima - finding algorithm. It was found the high-resolution 1/8-degree simulation had more storms in the Northern Hemisphere than the low-resolution 1-degree simulation. A variable resolution simulation with a global low resolution of 1-degree and a high-resolution refined region of 1/8 degree over a region in the Arctic is planned. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND NO. 2014-16460A

  16. Regional atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum and its links to precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Patrick; Schaffernicht, Erik; Shao, Yaping; Pinto, Joaquim

    2016-04-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exhibits different large-scale atmospheric patterns compared to present-day climate due to altered boundary conditions. The impacts on the regional atmospheric circulation and associated precipitation patterns over Europe for the LGM are characterized for the first time with a weather typing approach (circulation weather types, CWT) from (paleo-) climate simulations. While the CWTs over Western Europe are prevailing westerly for both present-day and LGM conditions, considerable differences are identified elsewhere: Southern Europe experienced more frequent westerly and cyclonic CWTs under LGM conditions, while Central and Eastern Europe was predominantly affected by southerly and easterly flow patterns. Precipitation patterns under LGM conditions show increased rainfall in Western Europe but are reduced over most of Central and Eastern Europe. These differences are explained by changing CWT frequencies and evaporation patterns over the North Atlantic Ocean. The regional differences of the CWTs and precipitation patterns are linked to the North Atlantic storm track, which was stronger over Europe in all considered models during LGM, explaining the overall increase of the cyclonic CWT. Enhanced evaporation over the North Atlantic lead to an increased amount of available moisture over the ocean. Despite the overall cooling during the LGM, this explains the enhanced precipitation amounts over southwestern parts of Europe, particularly Iberia. This study links large scale atmospheric dynamics to the regional circulation and associated precipitation patterns and provides an improved regional assessment for climate conditions in Europe under LGM conditions.

  17. Regional atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum and its links to precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Patrick; Schaffernicht, Erik J.; Shao, Yaping; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-03-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exhibits different large-scale atmospheric conditions compared to present-day climate due to altered boundary conditions. The regional atmospheric circulation and associated precipitation patterns over Europe are characterized for the first time with a weather typing approach (circulation weather types, CWT) for LGM paleoclimate simulations. The CWT approach is applied to four representative regions across Europe. While the CWTs over Western Europe are prevailing westerly for both present-day and LGM conditions, considerable differences are identified elsewhere: Southern Europe experienced more frequent westerly and cyclonic CWTs under LGM conditions, while Central and Eastern Europe was predominantly affected by southerly and easterly flow patterns. Under LGM conditions, rainfall is enhanced over Western Europe but is reduced over most of Central and Eastern Europe. These differences are explained by changing CWT frequencies and evaporation patterns over the North Atlantic Ocean. The regional differences of the CWTs and precipitation patterns are linked to the North Atlantic storm track, which was stronger over Europe in all considered models during the LGM, explaining the overall increase of the cyclonic CWT. Enhanced evaporation over the North Atlantic leads to higher moisture availability over the ocean. Despite the overall cooling during the LGM, this explains the enhanced precipitation over southwestern Europe, particularly Iberia. This study links large-scale atmospheric dynamics to the regional circulation and associated precipitation patterns and provides an improved regional assessment of the European climate under LGM conditions.

  18. Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with strong wind events in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aran, M.; Peña, J. C.; Amaro, J.

    2009-09-01

    Although the advance of powerful computers has improved the outputs of meteorological models, a good synoptic classification (SC) can be very useful for long-range forecasting. In this way, the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya (SMC) is working on elaborating an accurate SC for extreme events. Catalonia is a region affected by high impact weather, mainly strong wind (SW) and heavy rain events. Not far from now, this last winter happened one of the worst wind events with high social impact. Within the framework of MEDEX project SMC has been collaborating in improving the knowledge of these events. Following this line of work, the aim of this study is to characterise the SW events in Catalonia. According to the guidelines of MEDEX project we have used its strong wind event database for the period June 1995 to May 2004. The used methodology is based on principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering techniques. In this study it was applied the PCA technique based on S-mode for SLP, temperature 850 hPa and geopotential 500 hPa. The semi-objective classification was carried out using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis. Furthermore, a wind velocity matrix was also used to take into account some mesoscale aspects. These data were obtained from the automatic weather stations of SMC network. Then, cluster analysis was applied to the component scores to obtain the atmospheric patterns. At the end, a discriminant analysis was applied to the clusters to improve the classification and to evaluate its goodness. This methodology was applied to two geographical domains: the MEDEX domain (30N-48N; 9W-15E) and a synoptic domain (30N-70N; 30W-20E). The obtained results showed that the small domain was not enough suitable to discern the main low and high centres. On the other hand, the synoptic domain resolved better the main situation for each season. The results obtained working with the synoptic domain show seven patterns. The strongest event is related to the Alps cyclogenesis and an

  19. Physically-Derived Dynamical Cores in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Lin, Shian-Kiann

    1999-01-01

    The algorithm chosen to represent the advection in atmospheric models is often used as the primary attribute to classify the model. Meteorological models are generally classified as spectral or grid point, with the term grid point implying discretization using finite differences. These traditional approaches have a number of shortcomings that render them non-physical. That is, they provide approximate solutions to the conservation equations that do not obey the fundamental laws of physics. The most commonly discussed shortcomings are overshoots and undershoots which manifest themselves most overtly in the constituent continuity equation. For this reason many climate models have special algorithms to model water vapor advection. This talk focuses on the development of an atmospheric general circulation model which uses a consistent physically-based advection algorithm in all aspects of the model formulation. The shallow-water model of Lin and Rood (QJRMS, 1997) is generalized to three dimensions and combined with the physics parameterizations of NCAR's Community Climate Model. The scientific motivation for the development is to increase the integrity of the underlying fluid dynamics so that the physics terms can be more effectively isolated, examined, and improved. The expected benefits of the new model are discussed and results from the initial integrations will be presented.

  20. Physically-Derived Dynamical Cores in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Lin, Shian-Jiann

    1999-01-01

    The algorithm chosen to represent the advection in atmospheric models is often used as the primary attribute to classify the model. Meteorological models are generally classified as spectral or grid point, with the term grid point implying discretization using finite differences. These traditional approaches have a number of shortcomings that render them non-physical. That is, they provide approximate solutions to the conservation equations that do not obey the fundamental laws of physics. The most commonly discussed shortcomings are overshoots and undershoots which manifest themselves most overtly in the constituent continuity equation. For this reason many climate models have special algorithms to model water vapor advection. This talk focuses on the development of an atmospheric general circulation model which uses a consistent physically-based advection algorithm in all aspects of the model formulation. The shallow-water model is generalized to three dimensions and combined with the physics parameterizations of NCAR's Community Climate Model. The scientific motivation for the development is to increase the integrity of the underlying fluid dynamics so that the physics terms can be more effectively isolated, examined, and improved. The expected benefits of the new model are discussed and results from the initial integrations will be presented.

  1. Exploring ``Freeze Out'' on Mars using an Atmospheric Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, Michael

    2006-10-01

    In addition to observational research, computational models like the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) are used for efficient and often detailed representations of physical quantities. Using this GCM model, I am studying the effects of the distribution and density of frozen carbon-dioxide located at the polar caps. I have paid attention to the effects of the resulting ground temperature, surface pressure, and ground ice through time-based 2D and 3D animations. Also, I have modified the planet's axis between 5 and 50 degrees, changed the pressure by orders of magnitude from zero to two magnitudes, and studied conditions that result to a time frame of nearly 4 billion years ago. Preliminary results show that low pressures with low degrees of tilt have resulting pressures that approach zero, often ending simulations early. The remaining frozen carbon-dioxide remains airborne which could explain the possibility of an atmospheric phenomenon called a ``freeze out.'' This type of atmospheric computational data is often tedious and cumbersome to interface between numerical data and visual format. To counteract this problem, I have built an interface using IDL to interact with raw Mars GCM data. This interface allows researchers to increase the time to study actual science and minimize the time to find and decipher data to a visual format. This interface allows modification of initial variables to allow for cold starts of the Mars GCM model as well as create new maps and view them in an animation sequence to study changes in time.

  2. Comparison of Cenozoic atmospheric general circulation model simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Paleocene, Eocene, Miocene and present day (with polar ice) geography are specified as the lower boundary condition in a mean annual, energy balance ocean version of the Community Climate Model (CCM), a spectral General Circulation Model of the Atmosphere developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. This version of the CCM has a 4.5/sup 0/ latitudinal and 7.5/sup 0/ longitudinal resolution with 9 vertical levels and includes predictions for pressure, winds, temperature, evaporation, precipitation, cloud cover, snow cover and sea ice. The model simulations indicate little geographically-induced climates changes from the Paleocene to the Miocene, but substantial differences between the Miocene and the present simulations. The simulated climate differences between the Miocene and present day include: 1) cooler present temperatures (2/sup 0/C in tropics, 15-35 C in polar latitudes) with the exception of warmer subtropical desert conditions, 2) a generally weaker present hydrologic cycle, with greater subtropical aridity, 3) strengthened present day westerly jets with a slight poleward displacement, and 4) the largest regional climate changes associated with Antarctica. The results of the climate model sensitivity experiments have considerable implications for understanding how geography influences climate.

  3. The Energetic Constraints on the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulations in the Tropics, Midlatitudes, and High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yen-Ting

    In this doctoral thesis, I have studied the processes that affect the atmospheric energy budget and their coupling relationships with atmospheric circulations. The equator-to-pole radiation gradient at the top of the atmosphere is the fundamental driver of atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Any anomaly in the energy budget due to variations in different climate components (such as clouds, aerosols, atmospheric properties, and land surfaces) will have an effect on the atmospheric and oceanic circulations and energy transport. Variations in the energy budget of extratropical regions have a non-local effect on tropical climate and vice versa. We first investigated climate components that affect the atmospheric energy budget and their coupled relationships with the atmospheric energy transport, using CMIP multi-model ensembles. We studied how individual components affect energy transport in three latitude bands: (1) at 70 degrees, where increasing poleward energy transport may cause polar amplification, (2) at 40 degrees, where eddies are the strongest, and (3) in the deep tropics, where global climate models (GCMs) do not agree on the changes in transport in global warming scenarios. In high latitudes, positive radiative effects from melting sea ice decrease the equator-to-pole temperature gradient and prevent poleward fluxes from increasing. Models that have more melting ice tend to predict a smaller increase in the energy transport, which is counterintuitive based on the argument that increasing poleward transport can lead to melting sea ice. The cooling effect of increasing low clouds over newly open ocean along the ice edge sharpens the temperature gradient and increases the energy transport in midlatitudes. Clouds and sea ice in the extratropics can also influence energy transport at the equator. We then shifted our focus to the tropical rain belt, built on the first part that demonstrated a directly linkage from hemispheric asymmetry of the atmospheric energy

  4. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P < 0.05), and then its levels in housed and grazing cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P < 0.05). In contrast, the miR-451 level was up-regulated in the grazing cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  5. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P < 0.05), and then its levels in housed and grazing cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P < 0.05). In contrast, the miR-451 level was up-regulated in the grazing cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  6. Atmospheric Circulation of Eccentric Hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Knutson, Heather A.; Marley, Mark S.

    2014-11-01

    The hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b has become a prime target for Spitzer Space Telescope observations aimed at understanding the atmospheric response of exoplanets on highly eccentric orbits. Here we present a suite of three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models for HAT-P-2b that investigate the effects of assumed atmospheric composition and rotation rate on global scale winds and thermal patterns. We compare and contrast atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b, which assume one and five times solar metallicity, both with and without TiO/VO as atmospheric constituents. Additionally we compare models that assume a rotation period of half, one, and two times the nominal pseudo-synchronous rotation period. We find that changes in assumed atmospheric metallicity and rotation rate do not significantly affect model predictions of the planetary flux as a function of orbital phase. However, models in which TiO/VO are present in the atmosphere develop a transient temperature inversion between the transit and secondary eclipse events that results in significant variations in the timing and magnitude of the peak of the planetary flux compared with models in which TiO/VO are omitted from the opacity tables. We find that no one single atmospheric model can reproduce the recently observed full orbit phase curves at 3.6, 4.5 and 8.0 μm, which is likely due to a chemical process not captured by our current atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b. Further modeling and observational efforts focused on understanding the chemistry of HAT-P-2b's atmosphere are needed and could provide key insights into the interplay between radiative, dynamical, and chemical processes in a wide range of exoplanet atmospheres.

  7. Atmospheric circulation of eccentric hot Jupiter HAT-P-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Knutson, Heather A.; Marley, Mark S.

    2014-11-10

    The hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b has become a prime target for Spitzer Space Telescope observations aimed at understanding the atmospheric response of exoplanets on highly eccentric orbits. Here we present a suite of three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models for HAT-P-2b that investigate the effects of assumed atmospheric composition and rotation rate on global scale winds and thermal patterns. We compare and contrast atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b, which assume one and five times solar metallicity, both with and without TiO/VO as atmospheric constituents. Additionally we compare models that assume a rotation period of half, one, and two times the nominal pseudo-synchronous rotation period. We find that changes in assumed atmospheric metallicity and rotation rate do not significantly affect model predictions of the planetary flux as a function of orbital phase. However, models in which TiO/VO are present in the atmosphere develop a transient temperature inversion between the transit and secondary eclipse events that results in significant variations in the timing and magnitude of the peak of the planetary flux compared with models in which TiO/VO are omitted from the opacity tables. We find that no one single atmospheric model can reproduce the recently observed full orbit phase curves at 3.6, 4.5 and 8.0 μm, which is likely due to a chemical process not captured by our current atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b. Further modeling and observational efforts focused on understanding the chemistry of HAT-P-2b's atmosphere are needed and could provide key insights into the interplay between radiative, dynamical, and chemical processes in a wide range of exoplanet atmospheres.

  8. Gravitational Separation in the Stratosphere - A New Tracer of Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishidoya, S.; Sugawara, S.; Morimoto, S.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Honda, H.; Murayama, S.

    2012-12-01

    As a basic knowledge of atmospheric science, it has been believed that the gravitational separation of atmospheric components is observable only in the atmosphere above the turbopause. Despite this common perception, we found, from high-precision measurements not only of the isotopic ratios of N2, O2 and Ar but also of the concentration of Ar, that the gravitational separation occurs significantly even in the stratosphere; their observed vertical profiles are in good agreement with those expected theoretically from molecular mass differences. The O2/N2 ratio observed in the middle stratosphere, corrected for the gravitational separation, showed the same mean air age as estimated from the CO2 concentration. Simulations with a 2-dimensional NCAR model (SOCRATES) also indicated that a relationship between the gravitational separation and the air age in the stratosphere would be affected by an enhancement of the Brewer-Dobson circulation due to global warming. Therefore, the gravitational separation would be usable as a new tracer for an understanding of atmospheric circulation in the stratosphere.

  9. Cloud-radiative effects on implied oceanic energy transports as simulated by atmospheric general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Randall, D.A.; Boer, G.

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports on energy fluxes across the surface of the ocean as simulated by fifteen atmospheric general circulation models in which ocean surface temperatures and sea-ice boundaries are prescribed. The oceanic meridional energy transport that would be required to balance these surface fluxes is computed, and is shown to be critically sensitive to the radiative effects of clouds, to the extent that even the sign of the Southern Hemisphere ocean energy transport can be affected by the errors in simulated cloud-radiation interactions.

  10. Southwestern Tropical Atlantic coral growth response to atmospheric circulation changes induced by ozone depletion in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, H.; Wainer, I.; Sifeddine, A.; Corrège, T.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Lamounier, S.; Godiva, D.; Shen, C.-C.; Le Cornec, F.; Turcq, B.; Lazareth, C. E.; Hu, C.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    Climate changes induced by stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica have been recognized as an important consequence of the recently observed Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. Here we present evidences that the Brazilian coast (Southwestern Atlantic) may have been impacted from both winds and sea surface temperature changes derived from this process. Skeleton analysis of massive coral species living in shallow waters off Brazil are very sensitive to air-sea interactions, and seem to record this impact. Growth rates of Brazilian corals show a trend reversal that fits the ozone depletion evolution, confirming that ozone impacts are far reaching and potentially affect coastal ecosystems in tropical environments.

  11. Response of Atmospheric Circulation of the Southern Hemisphere to the South Asian High Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Wang, C.; Guo, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Existing as a strong and steady high pressure system at the top of the troposphere, the South Asia High (SAH) has a significant impact on the weather - climate of the northern hemisphere. However, how the SAH affects the climate of the southern hemisphere remains unclear. In order to find out how atmospheric circulation of the Southern Hemisphere changes in response to the SAH,a numerical simulation model, Community Earth System Model (CESM) , and a set of 40-year reanalyzed data were used. As the SAH is sustained by the surface heating of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the SAH is weakened with a lower TP. Therefore, two experiments were designed with the altitude of TP set to 50% and 100% of the modern height respectively. The simulation results show that when the SAH is stronger with the modern TP, the subtropical highs over the southern hemisphere and the TP-southern Indian Ocean circulation appear to strengthen. The result from the 40-year ECMWF reanalyzed data analysis shows that the SAH have a significant positive correlation with subtropical highs over the southern hemisphere. It is concluded that with the condition of a stronger SAH, the atmospheric circulation over southern hemisphere strengthens significantly. As a consequence, this climatic change may lead to Antarctica warming and the drying of the southern hemisphere. Keywords: South Asia High; CESM; Climate change; Subtropical high

  12. Interannual variability in the stratospheric-tropospheric circulation in a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Kitoh, Akio; Koide, Hiroshi; Kodera, Kunihiko

    1996-03-01

    The authors look for interannual variations in circulation patterns in the stratosphere/troposphere circulation and sea surface temperatures within the Meteorological Research Institute coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. They are able to identify two modes in this model which exhibit this type of variability. One involves the stratospheric polar vortex, coupled via tropospheric circulation to SST variations. The second mode involves El Nino type phenomena coupled into the tropospheric subtropical jet.

  13. Atmospheric General Circulations of Synchronously Rotating Terrestrial Planets: Dependence on Planetary Rotation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Noda, S.; Ishiwatari, M.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Takehiro, S.; Morikawa, Y.; Nishizawa, S.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2012-06-01

    Using a general circulation model, we investigate how climate over water covered, synchronously rotating planet vary as planetary rotation rate change. We find large variety of circulation, which, however, does not affect zonal heat transport.

  14. Influence of solar forcing, climate variability and atmospheric circulation patterns on summer floods in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. C.; Schulte, L.; Badoux, A.; Barriendos, M.; Barrera-Escoda, A.

    2014-12-01

    The higher frequency of severe flood events in Switzerland in recent decades has given fresh impetus to the study of flood patterns and their possible forcing mechanisms, particularly in mountain environments. This paper presents an index of summer flood damage that considers severe and catastrophic summer floods in Switzerland between 1800 and 2009, and explores the influence of solar and climate forcings on flood frequencies. In addition, links between floods and low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns are examined. The flood damage index provides evidence that the 1817-1851, 1881-1927, 1977-1990 and 2005-present flood clusters occur mostly in phase with palaeoclimate proxies. The cross-spectral analysis documents that the periodicities detected in the coherency and phase spectra of 11 (Schwabe cycle) and 104 years (Gleissberg cycle) are related to a high frequency of flooding and solar activity minima, whereas the 22 year cyclicity detected (Hale cycle) is associated with solar activity maxima and a decrease in flood frequency. The analysis of atmospheric circulation patterns shows that Switzerland lies close to the border of the summer principal mode: the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation. The Swiss river catchments situated on the centre and southern flank of the Alps are affected by atmospherically unstable areas defined by the positive phase of the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation pattern, while those basins located in the northern slope of the Alps are predominantly associated with the negative phase of the pattern. Furthermore, a change in the low-frequency atmospheric circulation pattern related to the major floods occurred over the period from 1800 to 2009: the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation persists in negative phase during the last cool pulses of the Little Ice Age (1817-1851 and 1881-1927 flood clusters), whereas the positive phases of SNAO prevail during warmer climate of the last four decades (flood clusters from 1977 to present).

  15. Primary reasoning behind the double ITCZ phenomenon in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianglong; Zhang, Xuehong; Yu, Yongqiang; Dai, Fushan

    2004-12-01

    This paper investigates the processes behind the double ITCZ phenomenon, a common problem in Coupled ocean-atmosphere General Circulation Models (CGCMs), using a CGCM—FGCM-0 (Flexible General Circulation Model, version 0). The double ITCZ mode develops rapidly during the first two years of the integration and becomes a perennial phenomenon afterwards in the model. By way of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) for SST, sea surface pressure, and sea surface wind, some air-sea interactions are analyzed. These interactions prompt the anomalous signals that appear at the beginning of the coupling to develop rapidly. There are two possible reasons, proved by sensitivity experiments: (1) the overestimated east-west gradient of SST in the equatorial Pacific in the ocean spin-up process, and (2) the underestimated amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast in CCM3 (the Community Climate Model, Version Three). The overestimated east-west gradient of SST brings the anomalous equatorial easterly. The anomalous easterly, affected by the Coriolis force in the Southern Hemisphere, turns into an anomalous westerly in a broad area south of the equator and is enhanced by atmospheric anomalous circulation due to the underestimated amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast simulated by CCM3. The anomalous westerly leads to anomalous warm advection that makes the SST warm in the southeast Pacific. The double ITCZ phenomenon in the CGCM is a result of a series of nonlocal and nonlinear adjustment processes in the coupled system, which can be traced to the uncoupled models, oceanic component, and atmospheric component. The zonal gradient of the equatorial SST is too large in the ocean component and the amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast is too low in the atmosphere component.

  16. Venusian Polar Vortex reproduced in an Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Hiroki; Imamura, Takeshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Kashimura, Hiroki

    The Venus atmosphere has a polar vortex rotating in the retrograde direction with a period of about three days. The vortex has a warm feature surrounded by a cold collar (e.g., Taylor et al. 1980; Piccioni et al. 2006). Although the Venusian polar vortex has been reported by many observations, its mechanism is still unknown. Elson (1982, 1989) examined the structure of the polar vortex by linear calculations. However, the background zonal wind assumed in the calculations was much stronger or weaker than those retrieved in the previous measurements (e.g., Peralta et al. 2008; Kouyama et al. 2012). Lee et al. (2010) and Yamamoto and Takahashi (2012) performed numerical simulations with general circulation models (GCMs) of the Venus atmosphere and obtained vertical structure in the polar region. However, the models included artificial forcing of Kelvin and/or Rossby waves. We have developed a new Venusian GCM by modifying the Atmospheric GCM For the Earth Simulator (Sugimoto et al. 2012; 2013). The basic equations of the GCM are primitive ones in the sigma coordinate on a sphere without topography. The model resolution is T42 (i.e., about 2.8 deg x 2.8 deg grids) and L60 (Deltaz is about 2 km). Rayleigh friction (sponge layer) in the upper layer (>80 km) is applied to prevent the reflection of waves, whose effect increases gradually with height. In the model, the atmosphere is dry and forced by the solar heating and Newtonian cooling. The vertical profile of the solar heating is based on Crisp (1986), and zonally averaged distribution is used. In addition diurnal component of the solar heating, which excites the diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, is also included. Newtonian cooling relaxes the temperature to the zonally uniform basic temperature which has a virtual static stability of Venus with almost neutral layers, and its coefficient is based on Crisp (1986). To prevent numerical instability, the biharmonic hyper-diffusion is included with 0.8 days of e-folding time

  17. Circulation and rainfall climatology of a 10-year (1979 - 1988) integration with the Goddard Laboratory for atmospheres general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Sud, Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A 10-year (1979-1988) integration of Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model (GCM) under Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is analyzed and compared with observation. The first momentum fields of circulation variables and also hydrological variables including precipitation, evaporation, and soil moisture are presented. Our goals are (1) to produce a benchmark documentation of the GLA GCM for future model improvements; (2) to examine systematic errors between the simulated and the observed circulation, precipitation, and hydrologic cycle; (3) to examine the interannual variability of the simulated atmosphere and compare it with observation; and (4) to examine the ability of the model to capture the major climate anomalies in response to events such as El Nino and La Nina. The 10-year mean seasonal and annual simulated circulation is quite reasonable compared to the analyzed circulation, except the polar regions and area of high orography. Precipitation over tropics are quite well simulated, and the signal of El Nino/La Nina episodes can be easily identified. The time series of evaporation and soil moisture in the 12 biomes of the biosphere also show reasonable patterns compared to the estimated evaporation and soil moisture.

  18. Impact of atmospheric circulation fluctuations on the zoobenthos dynamics in the Sea of Azov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Gargopa, Yu. M.; Sarvilina, S. V.

    2010-02-01

    The impact of atmospheric circulation fluctuations (Vangengeim’s classification) on the zoobenthos dynamics in the Sea of Azov was studied. The “western” circulation processes lead to zoobenthos biomass decrease, and the opposite pattern was observed when “eastern” circulation processes prevail. A quasiperiodicity with 3-7 to 10-15 year cycles is revealed for the zoobenthos biomass dynamics. These changes are closely connected with the climatically induced increase of the zoobenthos biomass in the Sea of Azov.

  19. Performance Analysis and Optimization on a Parallel Atmospheric General Circulation Model Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, J. Z.; Farrara, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the primary factors influencing the performance of a parallel implementation of the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) on distributed-memory, massively parallel computer systems.

  20. Internal versus SST-forced atmospheric variability as simulated by an atmospheric general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Harzallah, A.; Sadourny, R.

    1995-03-01

    The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing. The two modes of variability are identified by performing an ensemble of seven independent long-term simulations of the atmospheric response to observed SST (1970-1988) with the LMD atmospheric general circulation model. The forced variability is defined from the analysis of the ensemble mean and the internal variability from the analysis of deviations from the ensemble mean. Emphasis is put on interannual variability of sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere winter. In view of the large systematic errors related to the relatively small number of realizations, unbiased variance estimators have been developed. Although statistical significance is not reached in some extratropical regions, large significant extratropical responses are found at the North Pacific-Alaska sector for SLP and over western Canada and the Aleutians for 500-hPa geopotential height. The influence of SST variations on internal variability is also examined by using a 7-year simulation using the climatological SST seasonal cycle. It is found that interannual SST changes strongly influence the geographical distribution of internal variability; in particular, it tends to increase it over oceans. EOF decompositions, showing that the model realistically simulates the leading observed variability modes. The geographical structure of internal variability patterns is found to be similar to that of total variability, although similar modes tend to evolve rather differently in time. The zonally symmetric seesaw dominates the internal variability for both observed and climatologically prescribed SST. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Atmospheric transport and diffusion mechanisms in coastal circulation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaleel, R.J.; Shearer, D.L.; MacRae, B.L.

    1983-06-01

    This study defines the cyclical aspects of coastal atmospheric behavior that are important to the transport and diffusion (dispersion) of radionuclides. The report is developed around discussions of the meteorological dynamics of the cyclical and (cellular) atmospheric coastal phenomena and the atmospheric transport/diffusion mechanisms along with an assessment of the measurements accompanying both. Further, the efforts directed to modeling both the atmospheric and transport/diffusion processes are summarized and evaluated. Lastly, the review is summarized through a set of conclusions about the current level of understanding of coastal atmospheric phenomena. Recommendations are offered which identify certain aspects of local scale cyclical coastal phenomena that are important to the NRC.

  2. The water cycle in the general circulation model of the martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaposhnikov, D. S.; Rodin, A. V.; Medvedev, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Within the numerical general-circulation model of the Martian atmosphere MAOAM (Martian Atmosphere: Observation and Modeling), we have developed the water cycle block, which is an essential component of modern general circulation models of the Martian atmosphere. The MAOAM model has a spectral dynamic core and successfully predicts the temperature regime on Mars through the use of physical parameterizations typical of both terrestrial and Martian models. We have achieved stable computation for three Martian years, while maintaining a conservative advection scheme taking into account the water-ice phase transitions, water exchange between the atmosphere and surface, and corrections for the vertical velocities of ice particles due to sedimentation. The studies show a strong dependence of the amount of water that is actively involved in the water cycle on the initial data, model temperatures, and the mechanism of water exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. The general pattern and seasonal asymmetry of the water cycle depends on the size of ice particles, the albedo, and the thermal inertia of the planet's surface. One of the modeling tasks, which results from a comparison of the model data with those of the TES experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor, is the increase in the total mass of water vapor in the model in the aphelion season and decrease in the mass of water ice clouds at the poles. The surface evaporation scheme, which takes into account the turbulent rise of water vapor, on the one hand, leads to the most complete evaporation of ice from the surface in the summer season in the northern hemisphere and, on the other hand, supersaturates the atmosphere with ice due to the vigorous evaporation, which leads to worse consistency between the amount of the precipitated atmospheric ice and the experimental data. The full evaporation of ice from the surface increases the model sensitivity to the size of the polar cap; therefore, the increase in the

  3. Role of a cumulus parameterization scheme in simulating atmospheric circulation and rainfall in the nine-layer Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Chao, Winston C.; Walker, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of a cumulus convection scheme on the simulated atmospheric circulation and hydrologic cycle is investigated by means of a coarse version of the GCM. Two sets of integrations, each containing an ensemble of three summer simulations, were produced. The ensemble sets of control and experiment simulations are compared and differentially analyzed to determine the influence of a cumulus convection scheme on the simulated circulation and hydrologic cycle. The results show that cumulus parameterization has a very significant influence on the simulation circulation and precipitation. The upper-level condensation heating over the ITCZ is much smaller for the experiment simulations as compared to the control simulations; correspondingly, the Hadley and Walker cells for the control simulations are also weaker and are accompanied by a weaker Ferrel cell in the Southern Hemisphere. Overall, the difference fields show that experiment simulations (without cumulus convection) produce a cooler and less energetic atmosphere.

  4. Probability of Atmospheric Circulation Pattern Occurrence in Pre-Industrial, Historical, and Future Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, D. E.; Mankin, J. S.; Singh, D.; Swain, D. L.; Johnson, N. C.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of extreme weather and climate events is dependent on the spatial and temporal confluence of a host of meteorological ingredients. Primary among these ingredients is the circulation pattern of the atmosphere. Research indicates that synoptic- to regional-scale circulation patterns dictate the atmospheric environment, and that the likelihood of an extreme event changes depending on the circulation pattern type present. It follows then, that changes in the frequency and/or duration of particular circulation patterns may alter the frequency or severity of extreme events. Recent work analyzing reanalysis data identified robust multi-decadal trends in the occurrence and duration of some circulation pattern types over select regional mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere domains. Despite the detection of circulation pattern trends, their attribution to internal variability and/or anthropogenic forcing remains unresolved. Here, in an initial step toward attribution, we examine the likelihood of detecting robust circulation pattern trends in pre-industrial, historical, and future climate simulations using the CESM1 (CAM5) Large Ensemble (LENS) Community Project single-model, multi-realization framework. To identify seasonal atmospheric circulation patterns and determine their temporal variation, we analyze mid-atmospheric geopotential heights using self-organizing map (SOM) cluster analysis. Within the LENS framework, we quantify the probability of detecting seasonal circulation pattern trends in climate systems devoid of human influence, with observed human influence, and with RCP8.5 projected forcing. In addition to pattern trend assessment, for each regional domain, we quantify the likelihood that a particular circulation pattern type, e.g., an anticyclonic blocking circulation, will change in frequency or duration due to increased radiative forcing.

  5. Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.

    1994-01-01

    Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

  6. Factors affecting the enterohepatic circulation of oral contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Orme, M L; Back, D J

    1990-12-01

    Oral contraceptive steroids may undergo enterohepatic circulation, but it is relevant for only estrogens, because these compounds can be directly conjugated in the liver. Animal studies show convincing evidence of the importance of the enterohepatic circulation, but studies in humans are much less convincing. The importance of the route and the rate of metabolism of ethinyl estradiol are reviewed. Some antibiotics have been reported anecdotally to reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptive steroids, but controlled studies have not confirmed this observation. Although gut flora are altered by oral antibiotics, the blood levels of ethinyl estradiol are not reduced, and one antibiotic at least (cotrimoxazole) enhances the activity of ethinyl estradiol. PMID:2256523

  7. Change of the Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Over the North Hemisphere During 1900-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martazinova, V.

    2014-12-01

    The change of atmospheric circulation over the North Hemisphere from decade to decade during the XX century until recent decade was studied. The Fourier series expansion of fields of pressure at the middle level of the troposphere is used in the analysis of change of atmospheric circulation in time and space. The shift of the atmospheric circulation from decade to decade at ± 20 degrees from its position of the 1930-1939 was found. The period of shift between the east (+20 degrees) and the west (-20 degrees) positions is about 50-60 years. The displacement of circulation to the west corresponds to the cold winters over the Northern Hemisphere (as it was at the middle of the 20th century) and displacement to the east corresponds to the warming (as it was at the end of the century). The displacement of the large-scale circulation of atmosphere to the east at the end of the century over the Northern Hemisphere corresponds to the warming. In the beginning of the twenty-first century large-scale atmospheric circulation again shifted to the west to the circulation with the colder winters. That is the reason for appearance of the frosty winters in the recent years. Continuing displacement of the circulation over the North Hemisphere to the west direction will correspond to the colder winters in future. The influence of new factors of the climate change of the hemisphere is also shown. They are the "bands of heat" (elongated positive anomaly of surface temperature) which have appeared on the background of the general atmospheric circulation in last decades. They have the permanent geographical position during the month and more. These "bands of heat" differ from moving warm air flows from the south and also they caused increasing of temperature in the troposphere. The synoptic conditions along the bands form the dangerous weather events.

  8. Venus Atmospheric Circulation from Digital Tracking of VMC Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, S.; Moissl, R.; Markiewicz, W.; Titov, D.

    2008-09-01

    the core region of the Venus vortex. References [1] Limaye, S. S. Venus atmospheric circulation: Known and unknown, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E04S09, doi:10.1029/2006JE002814 (2007). [2] Piccioni, G, Drossart, P., Sanchez-Lavega, A., Hueso, R., Taylor, F., Wilson, C., Grassi, D., Zasova, L., Moriconi, M., Adriani, A., Lebonnois, S., Coradini, A., Bézard, B., Angrilli, F., Arnold, G., Baines, K. H., Bellucci, G., Benkhoff, J., Bibring, J. P., Blanco, A., Blecka, M. I., Carlson, R. W., Di Lellis, A., Encrenaz, T., Erard, S., Fonti1, S., Formisano, V., Fouchet, T., Garcia1, R., Haus, R., J. Helbert, J., Ignatiev, N. I., Irwin, P., Langevin,Y.,Lopez-Valverde, M. A., Luz, D., Marinangeli, L., Orofino, V., Rodin, A. V., Roos-Serote, M. C., Saggin, B., ,Stam, D. M., Titov, D., Visconti, G., and Zambelli M. South-polar features on Venus similar to those near the north, Nature, 450, 637-640, doi:10.1038/nature06209 (2007).

  9. The atmospheric circulation of the super Earth GJ 1214b: Dependence on composition and metallicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2014-04-20

    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of GJ 1214b, a 2.7 Earth-radius, 6.5 Earth-mass super Earth detected by the MEarth survey. Here we explore the planet's circulation as a function of atmospheric metallicity and atmospheric composition, modeling atmospheres with a low mean molecular weight (MMW; i.e., H{sub 2}-dominated) and a high MMW (i.e., water- and CO{sub 2}-dominated). We find that atmospheres with a low MMW have strong day-night temperature variations at pressures above the infrared photosphere that lead to equatorial superrotation. For these atmospheres, the enhancement of atmospheric opacities with increasing metallicity lead to shallower atmospheric heating, larger day-night temperature variations, and hence stronger superrotation. In comparison, atmospheres with a high MMW have larger day-night and equator-to-pole temperature variations than low MMW atmospheres, but differences in opacity structure and energy budget lead to differences in jet structure. The circulation of a water-dominated atmosphere is dominated by equatorial superrotation, while the circulation of a CO{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere is instead dominated by high-latitude jets. By comparing emergent flux spectra and light curves for 50× solar and water-dominated compositions, we show that observations in emission can break the degeneracy in determining the atmospheric composition of GJ 1214b. The variation in opacity with wavelength for the water-dominated atmosphere leads to large phase variations within water bands and small phase variations outside of water bands. The 50× solar atmosphere, however, yields small variations within water bands and large phase variations at other characteristic wavelengths. These observations would be much less sensitive to clouds, condensates, and hazes than transit observations.

  10. The Atmospheric Circulation of the Super Earth GJ 1214b: Dependence on Composition and Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2014-04-01

    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of GJ 1214b, a 2.7 Earth-radius, 6.5 Earth-mass super Earth detected by the MEarth survey. Here we explore the planet's circulation as a function of atmospheric metallicity and atmospheric composition, modeling atmospheres with a low mean molecular weight (MMW; i.e., H2-dominated) and a high MMW (i.e., water- and CO2-dominated). We find that atmospheres with a low MMW have strong day-night temperature variations at pressures above the infrared photosphere that lead to equatorial superrotation. For these atmospheres, the enhancement of atmospheric opacities with increasing metallicity lead to shallower atmospheric heating, larger day-night temperature variations, and hence stronger superrotation. In comparison, atmospheres with a high MMW have larger day-night and equator-to-pole temperature variations than low MMW atmospheres, but differences in opacity structure and energy budget lead to differences in jet structure. The circulation of a water-dominated atmosphere is dominated by equatorial superrotation, while the circulation of a CO2-dominated atmosphere is instead dominated by high-latitude jets. By comparing emergent flux spectra and light curves for 50× solar and water-dominated compositions, we show that observations in emission can break the degeneracy in determining the atmospheric composition of GJ 1214b. The variation in opacity with wavelength for the water-dominated atmosphere leads to large phase variations within water bands and small phase variations outside of water bands. The 50× solar atmosphere, however, yields small variations within water bands and large phase variations at other characteristic wavelengths. These observations would be much less sensitive to clouds, condensates, and hazes than transit observations.

  11. Validation of winter atmospheric circulation over Europe and the North Atlantic in CMIP5 global circulation model outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryhal, Jan; Huth, Radan

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of winter atmospheric circulation over Europe is carried out based on outputs of historical runs of thirty-two CMIP5 global circulation models (GCMs) (1961-2000). GCMs are validated against five reanalysis datasets, in terms of the frequency and persistence of circulation types (CTs). Previous research has shown that diverse results can be obtained if different classification methods are employed. Therefore, to achieve reliable results, CTs are successively defined by eight methods included in the COST733 software and for four domains (Europe, British Isles, Central Europe, and Eastern Mediterranean). The multi-model ensemble median in most cases shows an overestimation of CTs with (south)western advection over Europe, and over- and underestimation of cyclonic and anticyclonic types, respectively, both in their frequency and spatial extent of the respective pressure systems. The size and significance of these biases are, however, considerably dependent on the chosen classification method, domain, and even the reanalysis dataset.

  12. How Circulation of Water Affects Freezing in Ponds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Theresa; Lamontagne, Robert; Letzring, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    One means of preventing the top of a pond from freezing involves running a circulating pump near the bottom to agitate the surface and expose it to air throughout the winter months. This phenomenon is similar to that of the flowing of streams in subzero temperatures and to the running of taps to prevent pipe bursts in winter. All of these cases…

  13. The observational influence of the North Atlantic SST tripole on the early spring atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhe; Luo, Feifei; Wan, Jianghua

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the forcing of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) tripole on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like circulation in early spring (February-April) in observations. Corresponding to an SST tripole forcing in early spring, the atmospheric circulation is very weak and insignificant. However, further analyses indicate that the observational effect of the SST anomalies on the NAO-like circulation is disturbed by the concomitant sea ice anomalies. With the linear effects of sea ice anomalies removed, there is an equivalent barotropic NAO-like circulation in early spring related to a North Atlantic SST tripole.

  14. Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme temperature trends.

    PubMed

    Horton, Daniel E; Johnson, Nathaniel C; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2015-06-25

    Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some extreme weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking changes in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of extreme events. However, observed evidence of long-term change in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface temperature extremes over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot extremes over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold extremes over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed change in extreme temperature occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic changes, the risk of extreme temperatures over some regions has also been altered by recent changes in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns. PMID:26108856

  15. Some effects of global dust storms on the atmospheric circulation of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Pollack, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A zonally symmetric primitive equation modelled on a sphere is used to numerically simulate the Martian atmosphere's response to various dust loads, as well as the ability of its meridional circulation to transport dust globally, where the circulation is driven by heating due to the absorption of solar and IR radiation by dust and CO2, in addition to sensible heat exchange with the ground. A preliminary experiment shows the model distribution of winds and temperature to compare favorably with zonally averaged values from a general circulation model. Experiments simulating the evolution of global dust storms show that dust is effectively transported by the zonal mean circulation, which rapidly intensifies as the dust spreads, and that the basic structure of the circulation is relatively insensitive to details, being mostly dependent on the heating of the tropical and subtropical atmosphere.

  16. Daily near-surface large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns over the wider Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadee, Xsitaaz T.; Clarke, Ricardo M.

    2015-05-01

    The day-to-day variability of the atmospheric circulation over the Caribbean region is investigated in this work through the extraction of frequently occurring atmospheric circulation types. A two-stage cluster analysis technique using Ward's agglomerative algorithm followed by the k-means algorithm was applied to daily circulation defined by the NCEP/DOE reanalysis wind components at the 850 hPa level for the period 1979-2010. Seven atmospheric circulation types (CTs) were extracted. The daily circulation types are distinguished through the extension and location of the well-known quasi-stationary Atlantic and Pacific anticyclones. However, three of the circulation types show a third anticyclonic feature, a Gulf of Mexico anticyclone which is not observed on monthly scales because it is transient with a mean lifetime of 2-3 days and rarely occurs in the July-September period. Other notable characteristics include the decrease in annual frequency of a circulation type defined by the transient Gulf of Mexico anticyclone, a neutral area over the Greater Antilles islands and weaker than average easterly winds. In addition, a second type with south-easterly winds throughout the Caribbean increases in annual frequency. This latter type also had events lasting as long as 85 days. The monthly frequency of the CTs that prevail during the dry season is correlated with several Atlantic and Pacific based teleconnections. The resulting daily atmospheric circulation types in this work comprise the first atmospheric circulation catalogue, of many to come, for the Caribbean region and may be useful in statistical-dynamical downscaling applications to explain the variability of surface weather variables such as wind speeds.

  17. Relationship Between Atmospheric circulation and Snowpack in theWestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jiming; Miller, Norman L.; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Gao, Xiaogang

    2004-06-02

    Snow anomalies in the western United States (U.S.) have beenwidely investigated by many researchers due to its impact on wateravailability. This study focuses on how anomalous atmospheric circulationaffects snowpack accumulation in the western U.S. using observations andoutput from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CommunityClimate Model version 3 (CCM3). Our results indicate that themid-latitude atmospheric circulation anomalies induced by the ElNino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) tend to drive winter precipitationshifts, leading to an anomalous snowpack distribution in the western U.S.The warm phase of ENSO produces increased snowpack in the Southwest,while the cold phase of ENSO generates increased snowpack in theNorthwest. Temperature has a secondary impact on the anomalous snowpackdistribution during ENSO episodes. Additionally, the non-linearatmospheric dynamics-related Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern isfound to strongly affect snow anomalies in the western U.S. independentfrom ENSO. The positive phase of the PNA pattern produces coldertemperature and stronger precipitation due to the lower pressure in theregion, leading to an above normal snowpack. Conversely, the negativephase of the PNA pattern generates warmer temperature and weakerprecipitation resulting from the higher pressure, producing a below thannormal snowpack in the western U.S. In general, the NCAR-CCM3 reproducesthe observed processes. However, model biases are identified andreported. The information provided in this study strengthens ourunderstanding of climate and water supply variability in the westernU.S.

  18. Martian atmospheric gravity waves simulated by a high-resolution general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) significantly affect temperature and wind fields in the Martian middle and upper atmosphere. They are also one of the observational targets of the MAVEN mission. We report on the first simulations with a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) and present a global distributions of small-scale GWs in the Martian atmosphere. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. For the northern winter solstice, the model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered upon propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates a body force per unit mass of tens of m s^{-1} per Martian solar day (sol^{-1}), which tends to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCMs.

  19. Variability of the thermohaline circulation in a simple coupled atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, J. J.; Lorenzo, M. N.

    2003-04-01

    The behavior of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is essential to a better understanding of climate change. Paleoclimatic studies suggest that this circulation has experimented repeated changes throughout the history of the Earth associated to climate changes [1]. The coupled 3-dimensional climate models are useful in quantitatively assessing the details of the thermohaline circulation and for comparison with observations. However, the currently available computing capacity reduces the possibility of carry out exhaustive parametric studies of the THC. Models of reduced complexity can help overcome this difficulty and make valuable contributions to a better understanding of parameter space. Moreover, these models are most useful as exploratory tools for hypothesis building. Here we study a low-order coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model in order to understand the behavior of the thermohaline circulation through different changes on the interaction between atmosphere-ocean [1,2]. The atmosphere is represented by a low-order atmospheric "general circulation" model introduced by Lorenz in 1984 [3] and the ocean model considered here is a 3-box model which simulates the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [2]. [1] Broecker W.S. (1997) Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles Heel of our climate system: will man-made CO_2 upset the current balance?. Science, 278, 1582-1588. [2] Roebber, P.J. (1995) Climate variability in a low-order coupled atmosphere-ocean model. Tellus, 47A, 473-494. [3] Lorenz, E.N. (1984) Irregularity. A fundamental property of the atmosphere. Tellus, 36A, 98-110.

  20. The Atmospheric General Circulation of Synchronously Rotating Planets: Dependence on Planetary Rotation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Ishiwatari, M.; Nakajima, K.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Morikawa, Y.; Nishizawa, S.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2011-10-01

    We numerically investigate general circulation of moist atmosphere on synchronously rotating planets to examine the dependence of the atmospheric structure on planetary rotation rate. Three representative surface temperature patterns associated with different structure of heat transport appear. However, total amount of energy transport from dayside to nightside has only weak dependence on planetary rotation rate.

  1. Uncertainties in Carbon Dioxide Radiative Forcing in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M.-H.; Potter, G. L.; Gates, W. L.; Taylor, K. E.; Barker, H. W.; Colman, R. A.; Fraser, J. R.; McAvaney, B. J.; Dazlich, D. A.; Randall, D. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Lacis, A. A.; Esch, M.; Roeckner, E.; Galin, V.; Hack, J. J.; Kiehl, J. T.; Ingram, W. J.; LeTreut, H.

    1993-01-01

    Global warming, caused by an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases, is the direct result of greenhouse gas-induced radiative forcing. When a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is considered, this forcing differed substantially among 15 atmospheric general circulation models. Although there are several potential causes, the largest contributor was the carbon dioxide radiation parameterizations of the models.

  2. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. 1990 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

  3. Relationship between Atmospheric Pollution Processes and Atmospheric Circulation in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Zhang, J.; Cong, J.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Severe haze weather occurred in Shanghai in the beginning of 2013. In this paper,spatial-temporal characteristics of the smog days was analyzed using the data of 10 stations in the downtown, the suburb & the outer suburb of Shanghai from 2002-2013. In addition, we discussed the correlation between PM2.5, PM10, SO2 & NO2 and the smog days. At last, the situation of atmospheric circulation during a severe haze weather process between Jan, 2, 2013 to Feb, 4, 2013 was studied. Results show that: (1) from 2002 to 2012, the average smog days in Shanghai and in the outer suburb of Shanghai show a trend of fluctuating decrease generally with the rates of 6.031d/a and 5.89d/a, respectively. The smog days in the downtown of Shanghai decrease most quickly, with the rate of 15.418d/a. The smog days in the suburb of Shanghai decreased most slowly, with the rate of 2.495d/a. Smog happens most frequently in January, November and December (accounting for 31%) and least in August and September. The inter-annual variation of smog days shows the trend of decreasing in all four seasons. The smog days decreases most slowly in spring, with the ratio of 1.16d/a, it decreases most quickly in winter, with the ratio of 1.65d/a, and decreases at the medium ratio of 1.58d/a and 1.49d/a in summer and autumn respectively. (2) The number of monthly average smog days is positively related to the monthly average concentration of PM10, SO2, PM2.5 and NO2. The correlative coefficient between the number of monthly average smog days and the monthly average PM10 and NO2 concentrations are 0.756 and 0.610, respectively. (3) Atmospheric circulation analysis shows that stable west straight current in the air, weak high pressure on the ground and sufficient supplement of water steam are good for the formation and maintenance of haze weather.

  4. The puzzling Venusian polar atmospheric structure reproduced by a general circulation model

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Takagi, Masahiro; Kashimura, Hiroki; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuda, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the polar vortices observed in the Earth, Mars and Titan atmospheres, the observed Venus polar vortex is warmer than the midlatitudes at cloud-top levels (∼65 km). This warm polar vortex is zonally surrounded by a cold latitude band located at ∼60° latitude, which is a unique feature called ‘cold collar' in the Venus atmosphere. Although these structures have been observed in numerous previous observations, the formation mechanism is still unknown. Here we perform numerical simulations of the Venus atmospheric circulation using a general circulation model, and succeed in reproducing these puzzling features in close agreement with the observations. The cold collar and warm polar region are attributed to the residual mean meridional circulation enhanced by the thermal tide. The present results strongly suggest that the thermal tide is crucial for the structure of the Venus upper polar atmosphere at and above cloud levels. PMID:26832195

  5. The puzzling Venusian polar atmospheric structure reproduced by a general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Takagi, Masahiro; Kashimura, Hiroki; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuda, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the polar vortices observed in the Earth, Mars and Titan atmospheres, the observed Venus polar vortex is warmer than the midlatitudes at cloud-top levels (∼65 km). This warm polar vortex is zonally surrounded by a cold latitude band located at ∼60° latitude, which is a unique feature called 'cold collar' in the Venus atmosphere. Although these structures have been observed in numerous previous observations, the formation mechanism is still unknown. Here we perform numerical simulations of the Venus atmospheric circulation using a general circulation model, and succeed in reproducing these puzzling features in close agreement with the observations. The cold collar and warm polar region are attributed to the residual mean meridional circulation enhanced by the thermal tide. The present results strongly suggest that the thermal tide is crucial for the structure of the Venus upper polar atmosphere at and above cloud levels. PMID:26832195

  6. Sensitivity of two Iberian lakes to North Atlantic atmospheric circulation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Jerez, Sonia; Rico-Herrero, Mayte; Vega, José C.; Jambrina-Enríquez, Margarita; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts a major influence on the climate of the North Atlantic region. However, other atmospheric circulation modes (ACMs), such as the East Atlantic (EA) and Scandinavian (SCAND) patterns, also play significant roles. The dynamics of lakes on the Iberian Peninsula are greatly controlled by climatic parameters, but their relationship with these various ACMs has not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we analyze monthly meteorological and limnological long-term datasets (1950-2011 and 1992-2011, respectively) from two lakes on the northern and central Iberian Peninsula (Sanabria and Las Madres) to develop an understanding of the seasonal sensitivity of these freshwater systems to the NAO, EA and SCAND circulation modes. The limnological variability within Lake Sanabria is primarily controlled by fluctuations in the seasonal precipitation and wind, and the primary ACMs associated with the winter limnological processes are the NAO and the SCAND modes, whereas only the EA mode appears to weakly influence processes during the summer. However, Lake Las Madres is affected by precipitation, wind and, to a lesser extent, temperature, whereas the ACMs have less influence. Therefore, we aim to show that the lakes of the Iberian Peninsula are sensitive to these ACMs. The results presented here indicate that the lake dynamics, in some cases, have a higher sensitivity to variations in the ACMs than single local meteorological variables. However, certain local features, such as geography, lake morphology and anthropic influences, are crucial to properly record the signals of these ACMs.

  7. Variability in the general atmospheric circulation, precipitation and runoff in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Sergiy; Svetlitchnyi, Alexander; Matygin, Alexander; Ivus, Galina; Palamarchuk, Julia

    2010-05-01

    Using different databases, changes of atmospheric circulation, regional precipitation, and runoff in Eastern Europe are analysed. The focus of the study is to search relationships between large-scale atmospheric flow characteristics and wet days as well as subsequent runoff in major rivers of the region. Unfortunately, various precipitation datasets developed in the last decades show significant differences in spatial and temporal distribution of available information that is difficult to reconcile. Nevertheless, results indicate that regional precipitation changes can be attributed to changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation. In particular, the zonal shift in storm tracks and associated atmospheric water vapor transfer changes cause a decrease in precipitation over the southern part of Eastern Europe, in particular, over the Danube River Basin. On the other hand, precipitation over the northern half of Eastern Europe increases, with largest increases over the Eastern European Plateau and the Dnepr River Basin. Thermodynamic changes also contribute to precipitation changes, mainly due to an increase in atmospheric precipitable water in the cold season (and, thus, increase in snowfall) in response to rising temperatures. Runoff of the major rivers in Eastern Europe correlates with precipitation over their basins less than it may be expected. Moreover, for the last decades the opposite tendencies in precipitation and runoff for Danube have been observed. This can be explained by the anthropogenic impact on the runoff for which the dynamics do not coincide with the tendencies in the natural factors responsible for runoff formation. In 1990, the fresh water withdrawal in the Ukraine was around 30 km3 that is comparable to local runoff resources of the nation. At the same time, the water consumption was around 11 km3. For socio-economic reasons, in the 1990s the water withdrawal and consumption sharply decreased when their minimums were reached only in 2004, being

  8. Recent results from the GISS model of the global atmosphere. [circulation simulation for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Large numerical atmospheric circulation models are in increasingly widespread use both for operational weather forecasting and for meteorological research. The results presented here are from a model developed at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and described in detail by Somerville et al. (1974). This model is representative of a class of models, recently surveyed by the Global Atmospheric Research Program (1974), designed to simulate the time-dependent, three-dimensional, large-scale dynamics of the earth's atmosphere.

  9. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. Annual report, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association`s NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  10. Active Upper-atmosphere Chemistry and Dynamics from Polar Circulation Reversal on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Nixon, Conor A.; DeKok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B.; Flasar, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the colocation of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Herewe report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures.

  11. Impacts of four northern-hemisphere teleconnection patterns on atmospheric circulations over Eurasia and the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tao; Yu, Jin-yi; Paek, Houk

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of four teleconnection patterns on atmospheric circulation components over Eurasia and the Pacific region, from low to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), were investigated comprehensively in this study. The patterns, as identified by the Climate Prediction Center (USA), were the East Atlantic (EA), East Atlantic/Western Russia (EAWR), Polar/Eurasia (POLEUR), and Scandinavian (SCAND) teleconnections. Results indicate that the EA pattern is closely related to the intensity of the subtropical high over different sectors of the NH in all seasons, especially boreal winter. The wave train associated with this pattern serves as an atmospheric bridge that transfers Atlantic influence into the low-latitude region of the Pacific. In addition, the amplitudes of the EAWR, SCAND, and POLEUR patterns were found to have considerable control on the "Vangengeim-Girs" circulation that forms over the Atlantic-Eurasian region in winter or spring. The EA and EAWR mainly affect the westerlies in winter and spring and the POLEUR and SCAND, respectively, in summer and winter. Strong westerlies confine the extension of the North Polar vortex, which generally results in a small weak vortex and a shallow East Asian trough located in a position further east than normal. Furthermore, the North Polar vortex presents significant connections with the patterns during winter and summer. Analyses in this work suggest that the teleconnection patterns in summer could be driven, at least partly, by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, which to some degree might transmit the influence of the Atlantic Ocean to Eurasia and the Pacific region.

  12. Projections of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grainger, Simon; Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Zheng, Xiaogu

    2016-05-01

    An analysis is made of the coherent patterns, or modes, of interannual variability of Southern Hemisphere 500 hPa geopotential height field under current and projected climate change scenarios. Using three separate multi-model ensembles (MMEs) of coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, the interannual variability of the seasonal mean is separated into components related to (1) intraseasonal processes; (2) slowly-varying internal dynamics; and (3) the slowly-varying response to external changes in radiative forcing. In the CMIP5 RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 experiments, there is very little change in the twenty-first century in the intraseasonal component modes, related to the Southern annular mode (SAM) and mid-latitude wave processes. The leading three slowly-varying internal component modes are related to SAM, the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO), and the South Pacific wave (SPW). Structural changes in the slow-internal SAM and ENSO modes do not exceed a qualitative estimate of the spatial sampling error, but there is a consistent increase in the ENSO-related variance. Changes in the SPW mode exceed the sampling error threshold, but cannot be further attributed. Changes in the dominant slowly-varying external mode are related to projected changes in radiative forcing. They reflect thermal expansion of the tropical troposphere and associated changes in the Hadley Cell circulation. Changes in the externally-forced associated variance in the RCP8.5 experiment are an order of magnitude greater than for the internal components, indicating that the SH seasonal mean circulation will be even more dominated by a SAM-like annular structure. Across the three MMEs, there is convergence in the projected response in the slow-external component.

  13. Does Changing Atmospheric Model Resolution Affect Atmospheric Feedbacks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tett, S. F.; Wehner, M. F.; Stone, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Simulations of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) at horizontal resolutions of approximately 2, 1 and 0.25 degrees driven with climatological sea surface temperatures (SST) and 1990 forcings were carried out. The 1 and 2 degree CAM5.1 configurations used the default parameter values with the 0.25 degree CAM5.1 using the 1 degree configuration except the physics timestep being halved. Perturbed experiments, using CAM5.1, in which either SST is uniformly increased by 2K or CO2 doubled werealso carried out using the same configurations. A ``Cess'' type feedback analysis (twice change in 2xCO2/change in 2K simulations) was used to diagnose a ``Cess'' sensitivity. This sensitivity increased slightly with resolution due to changes in both the response to the uniform SST increase and to doubling CO2. This appears to arise from differing changes in tropical cloudsas resolution increases. Our results suggest that uncertainty in climate sensitivity is not strongly impacted by changing horizontal resolution up to 25 km. Thus, uncertainty in parameterisation likely remain the leading source of uncertainty in climate sensitivity.

  14. A January angular momentum balance in the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J.-W.; Grady, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the atmospheric angular momentum balance, based on the simulation data of the Oregon State University two-level atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). An attempt is also made to gain an understanding of the involved processes. Preliminary results on the angular momentum and mass balance in the AGCM are shown. The basic equations are examined, and questions of turbulent momentum transfer are investigated. The methods of analysis are discussed, taking into account time-averaged balance equations, time and longitude-averaged balance equations, mean meridional circulation, the mean meridional balance of relative angular momentum, and standing and transient components of motion.

  15. A proposal for the intercomparison of the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Held, I.M. ); Suarez, M.J. )

    1994-10-01

    A benchmark calculation is proposed for evaluating the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models independently of the physical parameterizations. The test focuses on the long-term statistical properties of a fully developed general circulation; thus, it is particularly appropriate for intercomparing the dynamics used in climate models. To illustrate the use of this benchmark, two very different atmospheric dynamical cores - one spectral, one finite difference - are compared. It is found that the long-term statistics produced by the two models are very similar. Selected results from these calculations are presented to initiate the intercomparison. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  16. A proposal for the intercomparison of the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.

    1994-01-01

    A benchmark calculation is proposed for evaluating the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) independently of the physical parameterizations. The test focuses on the long-term statistical properties of a fully developed general circulation; thus, it is particularly appropriate for intercomparing the dynamics used in climate models. To illustrate the use of this benchmark, two very different atmospheric dynamical cores--one spectral, one finite difference--are compared. It is found that the long-term statistics produced by the two models are very similar. Selected results from these calculations are presented to initiate the intercomparison.

  17. The Numerical Studies Program for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE) for Spacelab Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W. (Editor); Davis, M. H. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) numerical design for Spacelab flights was studied. A spherical baroclinic flow experiment which models the large scale circulations of the Earth's atmosphere was proposed. Gravity is simulated by a radial dielectric body force. The major objective of the AGCE is to study nonlinear baroclinic wave flows in spherical geometry. Numerical models must be developed which accurately predict the basic axisymmetric states and the stability of nonlinear baroclinic wave flows. A three dimensional, fully nonlinear, numerical model and the AGCE based on the complete set of equations is required. Progress in the AGCE numerical design studies program is reported.

  18. Climatology and natural variability of the global hydrologic cycle in the GLA atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.-M.; Mehta, V. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    Time average climatology and low-frequency variabilities of the global hydrologic cycle (GHC) in the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model (GCM) were investigated in the present work. A 730-day experiment was conducted with the GLA GCM forced by insolation, sea surface temperature, and ice-snow undergoing climatological annual cycles. Ifluences of interactive soil moisture on time average climatology and natural variability of the GHC were also investigated by conducting 365-day experiments with and without interactive soil moisture. Insolation, sea surface temperature, and ice-snow were fixed at their July levels in the latter two experiments. Results show that the model's time average hydrologic cycle variables for July in all three experiments agree reasonably well with observations. Except in the case of precipitable water, the zonal average climates of the annual cycle experiment and the two perpetual July experiments are alike, i.e., their differences are within limits of the natural variability of the model's climate. Statistics of various components of the GHC, i.e., water vapor, evaporation, and precipitation, are significantly affected by the presence of interactive soil moisture. A long-term trend is found in the principal empirical modes of variability of ground wetness, evaporation, and sensible heat. Dominant modes of variability of these quantities over land are physically consistent with one another and with land surface energy balance requirements. The dominant mode of precipitation variability is found to be closely related to organized convection over the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The precipitation variability has timescales in the range of 2 to 3 months and can be identified with the stationary component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The precipitation mode is not sensitive to the presence of interactive soil moisture but is closely linked to both the rotational and divergent components of atmospheric

  19. A general circulation model study of atmospheric carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Rind, D.; Russell, G. L.; Lerner, J. A.; Hansen, J. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Hameed, S.

    1983-01-01

    The carbon monoxide cycle is studied by incorporating the known and hypothetical sources and sinks in a tracer model that uses the winds generated by a general circulation model. Photochemical production and loss terms, which depend on OH radical concentrations, are calculated in an interactive fashion. The computed global distribution and seasonal variations of CO are compared with observations to obtain constraints on the distribution and magnitude of the sources and sinks of CO, and on the tropospheric abundance of OH. The simplest model that accounts for available observations requires a low latitude plant source of about 1.3 x 10 to the 15th g/yr, in addition to sources from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and oxidation of methane. The globally averaged OH concentration calculated in the model is 750,000/cu cm. Models that calculate globally averaged OH concentrations much lower than this nominal value are not consistent with the observed variability of CO. Such models are also inconsistent with measurements of CO isotopic abundances, which imply the existence of plant sources.

  20. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Abels, H. A.; Lai, Z.; Guo, Z.; Abell, J.; Giesler, D.

    2016-08-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42-33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat.

  1. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance

    PubMed Central

    Licht, A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Abels, H. A.; Lai, Z.; Guo, Z.; Abell, J.; Giesler, D.

    2016-01-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42–33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat. PMID:27488503

  2. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance.

    PubMed

    Licht, A; Dupont-Nivet, G; Pullen, A; Kapp, P; Abels, H A; Lai, Z; Guo, Z; Abell, J; Giesler, D

    2016-01-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42-33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat. PMID:27488503

  3. Global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models in LASG/IAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongqiang, Yu; Xuehong, Zhang; Yufu, Guo

    2004-06-01

    Coupled ocean-atmospheric general circulation models are the only tools to quantitatively simulate the climate system. Since the end of the 1980s, a group of scientists in the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), have been working to develop a global OGCM and a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM). From the original flux anomaly-coupling model developed in the beginning of the 1990s to the latest directly-coupling model, LASG scientists have developed four global coupled GCMs. This study summarizes the development history of these models and describes the third and fourth coupled GCMs and selected applications. Strengths and weaknesses of these models are highlighted.

  4. The influence of glacial ice sheets on Atlantic meridional overturning circulation through atmospheric circulation change under glacial climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherriff-Tadano, Sam; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Oka, Akira; Chan, Wing-Le

    2016-04-01

    Recent coupled modeling studies have shown that the existence of the glacial ice sheets intensifies the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Since this may play an important role in maintaining a strong AMOC over the last glacial period, which is suggested by recent reconstruction study, it is very important to understand the process by which glacial ice sheets intensify the AMOC. Here, a decoupled simulation is conducted to investigate the effect of wind change due to glacial ice sheets on the AMOC, the crucial region where wind modifies the AMOC and the mechanism, which remained elusive in previous studies. First, from atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments, the effect of glacial ice sheets on the surface wind is evaluated. Second, from ocean general circulation model (OGCM) experiments, the influence of the wind stress change on the AMOC is evaluated by applying only the changes in the surface wind as a boundary condition, while leaving surface heat and freshwater fluxes unchanged. Moreover, several sensitivity experiments are conducted. Using the AGCM, glacial ice sheets are applied individually. Using the OGCM, changes in the wind are applied regionally or at different magnitudes, ranging from the full glacial to modern levels. These experiments demonstrate that glacial ice sheets intensify the AMOC through an increase in the wind stress curl mainly at the North Atlantic mid-latitudes. This intensification is caused by the increased Ekman upwelling and gyre transport of salt while the change in sea ice transport works as a negative, though minor, feedback.

  5. A parallel Atmosphere-Ocean Global Circulation Model of intermediate complexity for Earth system climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. A.; Schmittner, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present the evolution of an Earth System model of intermediate complexity featuring an ocean global circulation model to include a fully coupled 3D primitive equations atmospheric model. The original Earth System climate model, UVic ESCM (Weaver et al. 2001), uses an ocean global circulation model coupled to a one layer atmospheric energy-moisture balance model. It also comprises a viscous-plastic rheology sea ice model, a mechanical land ice model, land surface, oceanic and terrestrial carbon models and a simple 3D marine ecosystem model (Schmittner et al. 2005). A spectral atmospheric, model, PUMA (Fraedrich et al. 2005), was coupled to the UVic ESCM to provide an atmosphere with nonlinear dynamics in target resolutions of T21, T31 and T42, as required. The coupling with the atmosphere, which involves data transfer, preprocessing and interpolation, is done through the OASIS3 coupler. During a run there are 2 + 2N parallel processes: the UVic ESCM, the Oasis3 coupler and the PUMA model with its domain split across 2N processes. The choice of N allows to balance more or less complex configurations of UVic model (e.g. higher level marine ecosystem model or number of biogeochemical tracers) with the atmospheric model at different resolutions, in order to maintain computational efficiency. The relatively simple parameterizations make this new atmosphere-ocean global circulation model much faster than a state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean Global Circulation Model, and so optimally geared for decadal to millennial scale integrations. The latter require special care with the conservation of fluxes during coupling. A second order conservative interpolation method was applied (Jones 1999) and this is compared with the use of typical non-conservative methods.

  6. Seasonal changes in the atmospheric heat balance simulated by the GISS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.; Chow, S.; Helfand, H. M.; Quirk, W. J.; Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the ability of numerical general circulation models to simulate the atmosphere have focussed so far on simulations of the January climatology. These models generally present boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature, but this does not prevent testing their ability to simulate seasonal changes in atmospheric processes that accompany presented seasonal changes in boundary conditions. Experiments to simulate changes in the zonally averaged heat balance are discussed since many simplified models of climatic processes are based solely on this balance.

  7. Effects of latent heating on driving atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-12-01

    Growing observations of brown dwarfs (BDs) and directly imaged extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), such as brightness variability and surface maps have provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these worlds. Previous studies that serve to understand the atmospheric circulation of BDs include modeling of convection from the interior and its interactions with stably stratified atmospheres. These models show that such interactions can drive an atmospheric circulation, forming zonal jets and/or vortices. However, these models are dry, not including condensation of various chemical species. Latent heating from condensation of water has previously been shown to play an important role on driving the zonal jets on four giant planets in our solar system. As such, condensation cycles of various chemical species are believed to be an important source in driving the atmospheric circulation of BDs and directly imaged EGPs. Here we present results from three-dimensional simulations for the atmospheres of BDs and EGPs based on a general circulation model that includes the effect of a condensate cycle. Large-scale latent heating and molecular weight effect due to condensation of a single species are treated explicitly. We examine the circulation patterns caused by large-scale latent heating which results from condensation of silicate vapor in hot dwarfs and water vapor in the cold dwarfs. By varying the abundance of condensable vapor and the radiative timescale, we conclude that under normal atmospheric conditions of BDs (hot and thus with relatively short radiative timescale), latent heating alone by silicate vapor is unable to drive a global circulation, leaving a quiescent atmosphere, because of the suppression to moist instability by downward transport of dry air. Models with relatively long radiative timescale, which may be the case for cooler bodies, tend to maintain an active hydrological cycle and develop zonal jets. Once condensation happens, storms driven by

  8. The Influence of Glacial Ice Sheets on Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Through Atmospheric Circulation Change under Glacial Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherriff-Tadano, S.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Yoshimori, M.; Oka, A.; Chan, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that glacial ice sheets (Laurentide, Fennoscandian and Antarctic ice sheets) exert a large influence on the climate including the atmospheric circulation. Moreover, recent climate modeling studies suggest that glacial ice sheets have a large impact on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, the process by which the ice sheets impact on the AMOC is not yet fully understood. On the other hand, recent studies showed that surface wind changes play a crucial role on changes to the AMOC under glacial climate. Therefore, in this study, we investigate in detail, the process by which the ice sheet modifies the AMOC through surface wind change. Here we conduct numerical experiments using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) separately. Our method consists of 2 steps. First, from AGCM experiments, we evaluate the effect of glacial ice sheets on the surface wind. Second, from OGCM experiments, we evaluate the influence of the wind stress change on the AMOC by applying the surface wind change as a boundary condition, while leaving other boundary conditions (surface heat and water fluxes) unchanged. In addition, we conduct several sensitivity experiments. Using the AGCM, we explore individual ice sheet effect, ice sheet topography effect and albedo effect on surface wind change. Moreover, using the OGCM, we change the surface wind gradually or apply the surface wind change only at a specific region in order to explore the wind change effect in detail. We find that glacial ice sheets largely intensify the AMOC by surface wind change under glacial climate. Compare to other regions, it reveals that the wind change at the North Atlantic (NA) is a key region. There, the northern glacial ice sheet topography intensifies the Icelandic Low and anti-cyclonic circulation over the Laurentide ice sheet. However, this wind effect is effective only when the NA is not widely covered by sea ice

  9. Destabilization of the thermohaline circulation by atmospheric transports: An analytic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovskiy, Y.P.; Stone, P.H.

    1998-07-01

    The four-box coupled atmosphere-ocean model of Marotzke is solved analytically, by introducing the approximation that the effect of oceanic heat advection on ocean temperatures is small (but not negligible) compared to the effect of surface heat fluxes. The solutions are written in a form that displays how the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the relationship between atmospheric meridional transports of heat and moisture and the meridional temperature gradient. In the model, these relationships are assumed to be power laws with different exponents allowed for the dependence of the transports of heat and moisture on the gradient. The approximate analytic solutions are in good agreement with Marotzke`s exact numerical solutions, but show more generally how the destabilization of the thermohaline circulation depends on the sensitivity of the atmospheric transports to the meridional temperature gradient. The solutions are also used to calculate how the stability of the thermohaline circulation is changed if model errors are corrected by using conventional flux adjustments. Errors like those common in GCMs destabilize the model`s thermohaline circulation, even if conventional flux adjustments are used. However, the resulting errors in the magnitude of the critical perturbations necessary to destabilize the thermohaline circulation can be corrected by modifying transport efficiencies instead.

  10. A simple-physics global circulation model for Venus: Sensitivity assessments of atmospheric superrotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Young, R. E.; Schubert, G.; Covey, C.; Grossman, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    A 3D global circulation model is adapted to the atmosphere of Venus to explore the nature of the planet's atmospheric superrotation. The model employs the full meteorological primitive equations and simplified forms for diabatic and other nonconservative forcings. It is therefore economical for performing very long simulations. To assess circulation equilibration and the occurrence of atmospheric superrotation, the climate model is run for 10,000-20,000 day integrations at 4° × 5° latitude-longitude horizontal resolution, and 56 vertical levels (denoted L56). The sensitivity of these simulations to imposed Venus-like diabatic heating rates, momentum dissipation rates, and various other key parameters (e.g., near-surface momentum drag), in addition to model configuration (e.g., low versus high vertical domain and number of atmospheric levels), is examined. We find equatorial superrotation in several of our numerical experiments, but the magnitude of superrotation is often less than observed. Further, the meridional structure of the mean zonal overturning (i.e., Hadley circulation) can consist of numerous cells which are symmetric about the equator and whose depth scale appears sensitive to the number of vertical layers imposed in the model atmosphere. We find that when realistic diabatic heating is imposed in the lowest several scales heights, only extremely weak atmospheric superrotation results.

  11. Atmospheric Diabatic Heating in Different Weather States and the General Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, William B.; Zhang, Yuanchong; Tselioudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of multiple global satellite products identifies distinctive weather states of the atmosphere from the mesoscale pattern of cloud properties and quantifies the associated diabatic heating/cooling by radiative flux divergence, precipitation, and surface sensible heat flux. The results show that the forcing for the atmospheric general circulation is a very dynamic process, varying strongly at weather space-time scales, comprising relatively infrequent, strong heating events by ''stormy'' weather and more nearly continuous, weak cooling by ''fair'' weather. Such behavior undercuts the value of analyses of time-averaged energy exchanges in observations or numerical models. It is proposed that an analysis of the joint time-related variations of the global weather states and the general circulation on weather space-time scales might be used to establish useful ''feedback like'' relationships between cloud processes and the large-scale circulation.

  12. The nonlinear thermodynamics of meteors, noctilucent clouds, enhanced airglow and global atmospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajchl, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of fundamental topological junctions of elements are deduced from a nonlinear thermodynamical model. Using this scheme, the possibility of a causal relation between fireballs and faint meteors as nonlinear sources on the one hand, and noctilucent clouds (NC) and Hoffmeister's enhanced airglow (EA) as complementary formative processes in the middle atmosphere and ionosphere, on the other hand, is examined. The principal role of the global atmospheric circulation in this relation is demonstrated. Such circulation in the mesosphere appears to prevent the neutral dust dissipated by fireballs from becoming an efficient agent in NLC generation. In this case, the behavior of ionized material deposited by both the bright and faint meteors is more probably controlled, as shown from the annual variation of the E sub s layer by the darkness of lunar eclipses and the global circulation of the lower thermosphere. The role of fireballs and neutral dust might be more significant as a source of EA phenomenon.

  13. Differential rotation in a solar-driven quasi-axisymmetric circulation. [of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Chan, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of a quasi-axisymmetric circulation is used to explore the global scale dynamics of planetary atmospheres. A numerical circulation model applicable to Jupiter is presented, and an analytical study is performed elucidating the conditions leading to differential rotation in an atmosphere which is convectively unstable. A linear system forced by solar differential heating is considered, with nonlinear effects arising from advection being represented in the form of eddy diffusion. An empirical, latitudinal spectrum of the observed zonal wind field on Jupiter is discussed. Numerical solutions are presented which reveal banded wind fields with alternating and equatorial zonal jets and a multicellular Ferrel-Thomson meridional circulation consistent with the observed cloud striations on Jupiter. The vertical derivatives are parameterized to construct a simplified one-layer model.

  14. Numerical simulation of the general circulation of the atmosphere of Titan.

    PubMed

    Hourdin, F; Talagrand, O; Sadourny, R; Courtin, R; Gautier, D; McKay, C P

    1995-10-01

    The atmospheric circulation of Titan is investigated with a general circulation model. The representation of the large-scale dynamics is based on a grid point model developed and used at Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique for climate studies. The code also includes an accurate representation of radiative heating and cooling by molecular gases and haze as well as a parametrization of the vertical turbulent mixing of momentum and potential temperature. Long-term simulations of the atmospheric circulation are presented. Starting from a state of rest, the model spontaneously produces a strong superrotation with prograde equatorial winds (i.e., in the same sense as the assumed rotation of the solid body) increasing from the surface to reach 100 m sec-1 near the 1-mbar pressure level. Those equatorial winds are in very good agreement with some indirect observations, especially those of the 1989 occultation of Star 28-Sgr by Titan. On the other hand, the model simulates latitudinal temperature contrasts in the stratosphere that are significantly weaker than those observed by Voyager 1 which, we suggest, may be partly due to the nonrepresentation of the spatial and temporal variations of the abundances of molecular species and haze. We present diagnostics of the simulated atmospheric circulation underlying the importance of the seasonal cycle and a tentative explanation for the creation and maintenance of the atmospheric superrotation based on a careful angular momentum budget. PMID:11538593

  15. Interhemispheric comparison of atmospheric circulation features as evaluated from Nimbus satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, E. R.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Lovill, J. E.; Adler, R.; Srivatsangam, S.; Fields, A.

    1972-01-01

    The report includes a complete analyses of O3 data inferred from Nimbus-3 measurements, a discussion of future areas of study, description of the regression and inversion methods developed to infer atmospheric temperature and tropopause characteristics, as well as the plan to process the satellite data for a systematic study of the relative circulation differences between Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  16. Ideas and perspectives: Southwestern tropical Atlantic coral growth response to atmospheric circulation changes induced by ozone depletion in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Heitor; Wainer, Ilana; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Corrège, Thierry; Cordeiro, Renato C.; Lamounier, Saulo; Godiva, Daniely; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Le Cornec, Florence; Turcq, Bruno; Lazareth, Claire E.; Hu, Ching-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Recent Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric circulation, predominantly driven by stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica, has caused changes in climate across the extratropics. Here, we present evidence that the Brazilian coast (southwestern Atlantic) may have been impacted from both wind and sea-surface temperature changes derived from this process. Skeleton analysis of massive coral species living in shallow waters off Brazil are very sensitive to air-sea interactions, and seem to record this impact. Growth rates of Brazilian corals show a trend reversal that fits the ozone depletion evolution, confirming that ozone impacts are far reaching and potentially affect coastal ecosystems in tropical environments.

  17. ­­­The Role of the Tibetan Plateau in the South Asian Monsoon Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Arango, S.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    The role of the Tibetan Plateau in the South Asian Monsoon circulation is the focus of this study. Typically, the Tibetan Plateau is thought to affect the circulation by acting as an elevated heat source (Molnar et al. 1993). Through radiative effects, the Tibetan Plateau would induce a meridional pressure gradient at upper levels initiating the monsoon circulation. Indeed, numerical experiments have shown that global orography affects the timing of the monsoon onset (Chakraborty et al. 2006), and observations have shown significant correlations between the moist static energy of the Tibetan Plateau's lower atmosphere and the summer monsoon rainfall around the onset and withdraw periods (Rajagopalan and Molnar 2013). Yet, this notion has been recently questioned, and the shielding effect of the orography has been suggested to be the dominant effect in the circulation. This latter theory is supported by numerical experiments suggesting that summer precipitation does not change considerably when removing the Plateau while retaining the Himalayas (Boos and Kuang 2010). Nonetheless, both the Himalayas and the Plateau are likely to play important roles, and further experiments are needed. In this study we construct numerical experiments to further study the role of the Tibetan Plateau in the atmospheric circulation. For the experiments we use SPEEDY, a global climate model of intermediate complexity developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Molteni 2003). The experiments are conducted with different regional orographic conditions, so that we can evaluate the impact orography has in determining the characteristics of the monsoon circulation. In all experiments the atmosphere is started from a state of rest and we avoid using climatological fields for sea surface temperature, diabatic heating, and land temperature. This setup is particularly important as we wish to evaluate how the system evolves under different conditions without imposing

  18. Atmospheric water vapor flux, bifurcation of the thermohaline circulation, and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Birchfield, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    Latitudinal heat transport in the ocean and atmosphere represents a fundamental process of the Earth`s climate system. The ocean component of heat transport is effected by the thermohaline circulation. Changes in this circulation have a significant effect on global climate. Paleoclimate evidence from the Greenland ice and deep sea sediment core suggests during much of glacial time the climate system oscillated between two different states. The role of atmospheric hydrological cycle on the global thermohaline circulation and the feedback to the climate system through changes in the ocean`s latitudinal heat transport, with a simple coupled ocean-atmosphere energy-salt balance model is addressed here. Two components of the atmospheric hydrological cycle, i.e., latitudinal water vapor transport and the net flux of water vapor from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean appear to play separate roles. If the inter-basin transport is sufficiently large, small changes in water vapor transport over the North Atlantic can effect bifurcation or a rapid transition between two different equilibria in the global thermohaline circulation. If the inter-basin transport is from the Pacific to the Atlantic and sufficiently large, latitudinal vapor transport in the North Pacific controls the bifurcations. For intermediate values of inter-basin transport, no rapid transitions occur in either basin. For estimated values of water vapor transport for the present climate the model asserts that while vapor transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean is sufficiently large to make the North Atlantic the dominant region for deep water production, latitudinal water vapor transport is sufficiently low that the thermohaline circulation appears stable, i.e., far from a bifurcation point. This conclusion is supported to some extent by the fact that the high latitude temperature of the atmosphere as recorded in the Greenland ice cores has changes little over the last 9000 years. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Available energy of symmetric circulations with application to the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codoban, Sorin

    We present a theory of available energy for symmetric circulations of a rotating, stratified fluid. The theory is a generalization of the classical theory of available potential energy (APE), in that it accounts for both the momentum and the thermal constraints on the circulation. The generalization relies on the Hamiltonian structure of the conservative dynamics, although (as with classical APE) it still defines the energetics in a non-conservative framework. The energy budget is derived for the circulation transverse to a given balanced reference flow. For a simple example, it is shown that by including momentum constraints, the available energy of the transverse circulation to a symmetrically stable flow is zero, while the energetics of a mechanically driven symmetric circulation properly reflect its causality. The theory is then applied in the context of the primitive equations in spherical coordinates, to diagnose the available energy of the residual mean meridional circulation of the middle atmosphere. Both simulated fields from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model and the ERA-40 re-analysis data are used for diagnostic comparison. With the non-resting reference state constructed using the radiative equilibrium temperature the available energy diagnostic robustly identifies the circulation as being thermally damped and mechanically forced, in both the stratosphere and mesosphere, which agrees with its causality. The boundary flux term and the thermal forcing are both negative, with the mechanical forcing, due to deposition of momentum by the waves breaking in-situ, being identified as the driving agent; this agrees with the gyroscopic pumping mechanism as the driving process of the middle atmosphere meridional circulation. In contrast, with the resting (Lorenz-like) reference state the thermal forcing is seen as driving the circulation in the stratosphere (along with the boundary flux), with mechanical forcing being identified as a damping. In the mesosphere

  20. Mars Pathfinder meteorological observations on the basis of results of an atmospheric global circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, Francois; Hourdin, F.; Talagrand, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Meteorological Package (ASI/MET) will measure the local pressure, temperature, and winds at its future landing site, somewhere between the latitudes 0 deg N and 30 deg N. Comparable measurements have already been obtained at the surface of Mars by the Viking Landers at 22 deg N (VL1) and 48 deg N (VL2), providing much useful information on the martian atmosphere. In particular the pressure measurements contain very instructive information on the global atmospheric circulation. At the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), we have analyzed and simulated these measurements with a martian atmospheric global circulation model (GCM), which was the first to simulate the martian atmospheric circulation over more than 1 year. The model is able to reproduce rather accurately many observed features of the martian atmosphere, including the long- and short-period oscillations of the surface pressure observed by the Viking landers. From a meteorological point of view, we think that a landing site located near or at the equator would be an interesting choice.

  1. Saharan Dust Export towards the Caribbean: Dust Sources and Atmospheric Circulation over North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepanski, Kerstin; Heinold, Bernd; Groß, Silke; Schäfler, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; Walser, Adrian; Tegen, Ina

    2015-04-01

    Studies analysing satellite observations illustrate the spatial and temporal distribution of emitting dust sources. Results show that high surface wind speeds related to the break-down of the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) occurring during the morning hours are frequent driving mechanism for dust uplift in the Sahara desert. Here, we present a study investigating atmospheric circulation pattern over North Africa favouring (a) dust entrainment into the boundary layer and (b) dust export towards the Caribbean Sea. Satellite-based information on the spatio-temporal distribution of dust source activation (DSA) events inferred from 15-minute Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) dust observations are linked to atmospheric circulation regimes over North Africa. By means of air-mass trajectories, which map the dust export from North Africa toward the SALTRACE ground observation site at Barbados, cases are selected which link DSA regions with dust events observed at Barbados. These cases are then examined with regard to the atmospheric conditions during dust emission and geomorphologic dust source characteristic. Dust properties inferred from LIDAR observation using the POLIS system and measurements taken during Falcon research flights are compared to the different dust source locations and atmospheric conditions during dust emission. Altogether, the results from this study aim at illustrating the relevance of knowing the dust source locations in concert with the atmospheric circulation. Ultimately, this study addresses the question of what is finally transported across the Atlantic towards the Caribbean from which dust source region.

  2. Paleoclimate and Amerindians: Evidence from stable isotopes and atmospheric circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovvorn, M.B.; Frison, G.C.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    Two Amerindian demographic shifts are attributed to climate change in the northwest plains of North America: at ???11,000 calendar years before present (yr BP), Amerindian culture apparently split into foothills-mountains vs. plains biomes; and from 8,000-5,000 yr BP, scarce archaeological sites on the open plains suggest emigration during xeric "Altithermal" conditions. We reconstructed paleoclimates from stable isotopes in prehistoric bison bone and relations between weather and fractions of C4 plants in forage. Further, we developed a climate-change model that synthesized stable isotope, existing qualitative evidence (e.g., palynological, erosional), and global climate mechanisms affecting this midlatitude region. Our isotope data indicate significant warming from ???12,400 to 11,900 yr BP, supporting climate-driven cultural separation. However, isotope evidence of apparently wet, warm conditions at 7,300 yr BP refutes emigration to avoid xeric conditions. Scarcity of archaeological sites is best explained by rapid climate fluctuations after catastrophic draining of the Laurentide Lakes, which disrupted North Atlantic Deep Water production and subsequently altered monsoonal inputs to the open plains.

  3. Paleoclimate and Amerindians: Evidence from stable isotopes and atmospheric circulation

    PubMed Central

    Lovvorn, Marjorie Brooks; Frison, George C.; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2001-01-01

    Two Amerindian demographic shifts are attributed to climate change in the northwest plains of North America: at ≈11,000 calendar years before present (yr BP), Amerindian culture apparently split into foothills–mountains vs. plains biomes; and from 8,000–5,000 yr BP, scarce archaeological sites on the open plains suggest emigration during xeric “Altithermal” conditions. We reconstructed paleoclimates from stable isotopes in prehistoric bison bone and relations between weather and fractions of C4 plants in forage. Further, we developed a climate-change model that synthesized stable isotope, existing qualitative evidence (e.g., palynological, erosional), and global climate mechanisms affecting this midlatitude region. Our isotope data indicate significant warming from ≈12,400 to 11,900 yr BP, supporting climate-driven cultural separation. However, isotope evidence of apparently wet, warm conditions at 7,300 yr BP refutes emigration to avoid xeric conditions. Scarcity of archaeological sites is best explained by rapid climate fluctuations after catastrophic draining of the Laurentide Lakes, which disrupted North Atlantic Deep Water production and subsequently altered monsoonal inputs to the open plains. PMID:11226265

  4. Longitudinal biases in the Seychelles Dome simulated by 35 ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagura, Motoki; Sasaki, Wataru; Tozuka, Tomoki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Behera, Swadhin K.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    Seychelles Dome refers to the shallow climatological thermocline in the southwestern Indian Ocean, where ocean wave dynamics efficiently affect sea surface temperature, allowing sea surface temperature anomalies to be predicted up to 1-2 years in advance. Accurate reproduction of the dome by ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) is essential for successful seasonal predictions in the Indian Ocean. This study examines the Seychelles Dome as simulated by 35 CGCMs, including models used in phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Among the 35 CGCMs, 14 models erroneously produce an upwelling dome in the eastern half of the basin whereas the observed Seychelles Dome is located in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The annual mean Ekman pumping velocity in these models is found to be almost zero in the southern off-equatorial region. This result is inconsistent with observations, in which Ekman upwelling acts as the main cause of the Seychelles Dome. In the models reproducing an eastward-displaced dome, easterly biases are prominent along the equator in boreal summer and fall, which result in shallow thermocline biases along the Java and Sumatra coasts via Kelvin wave dynamics and a spurious upwelling dome in the region. Compared to the CMIP3 models, the CMIP5 models are even worse in simulating the dome longitudes.

  5. Discussion of the Ionian and Levantine Seas, NATO workshop on atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the Mediterranean basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, T.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) is the most critical water mass in the thermohaline heart of the Mediterranean. It is comprised of North Atlantic Water (NAW) which was transformed to salty water (36.2 to 39.2 ppt). In the eastern Mediterranean (EMED) the NAW changes to a warm saline surface layer and a cool less saline layer. Much of the LIW is produced from winter cooling of surface waters. The distribution is patchy, dependant on original surface type, circulation, and atmospheric exposure. Convective depths range to 400 m; the densest water not necessarily correlated with the deepest convective layers. Survival of the LIW depends on circulation and density. The circulation of the EMED is barotropically controlled by sea level. The annual low frequency signal is a trough extending zonally south of center and deepening eastward. The resulting cyclonic circulation is skewed to the south and east. The westerly winds exaggerate the African eastward coastal flow. Wind stress, positive curl in northern Levantine and negative curl in the Gulf of Sirte, contribute to the circulations. Higher frequency variations in water loss impose barotropic noise on the lower-frequency pattern; higher frequency wind energy affects surface circulations and deeper barotropic flows. The internal pressure gradient, resulting from the denser LIW, causes the westward return flow on the northern side within the LIW layer. The deep layers lack potential to drive baroclinic shear; consequently, they react to any unadjusted barotropic pressure gradients. This is substantial even at low frequencies. Deep Water tends to follow the basic barotropic pattern, flowing eastward along the African coast beneath the NAW. 22 references, 11 figures.

  6. The Atmospheric Circulation of a Nine-hot-Jupiter Sample: Probing Circulation and Chemistry over a Wide Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Sing, David K.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Visscher, Channon; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-04-01

    We present results from an atmospheric circulation study of nine hot Jupiters that compose a large transmission spectral survey using the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. These observations exhibit a range of spectral behavior over optical and infrared wavelengths, suggesting diverse cloud and haze properties in their atmospheres. By utilizing the specific system parameters for each planet, we naturally probe a wide phase space in planet radius, gravity, orbital period, and equilibrium temperature. First, we show that our model “grid” recovers trends shown in traditional parametric studies of hot Jupiters, particularly equatorial superrotation and increased day–night temperature contrast with increasing equilibrium temperature. We show how spatial temperature variations, particularly between the dayside and nightside and west and east terminators, can vary by hundreds of kelvin, which could imply large variations in Na, K, CO and {{{CH}}}4 abundances in those regions. These chemical variations can be large enough to be observed in transmission with high-resolution spectrographs, such as ESPRESSO on VLT, METIS on the E-ELT, or MIRI and NIRSpec aboard JWST. We also compare theoretical emission spectra generated from our models to available Spitzer eclipse depths for each planet and find that the outputs from our solar-metallicity, cloud-free models generally provide a good match to many of the data sets, even without additional model tuning. Although these models are cloud-free, we can use their results to understand the chemistry and dynamics that drive cloud formation in their atmospheres.

  7. The effect of local circulations on the variation of atmospheric pollutants in the northwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Pay-Liam Lin; Hsin-Chih Lai

    1996-12-31

    A field experiment was held in the northwestern Taiwan as a part of a long-term research program for studying Taiwan`s local circulation. The program has been named as Taiwan Regional-circulation Experiment (TREX). The particular goal of this research is to investigate characteristics of boundary layer and local Circulation and their impact on the distribution and Variation of pollutants in the northwestern Taiwan during Mei-Yu season. It has been known for quite sometime that land-sea breeze is very pronounced under hot and humid conditions. Extensive network includes 11 pilot ballon stations, 3 acoustic sounding sites, and 14 surface stations in about 20 km by 20 km area centered at National Central University, Chung-Li. In addition, there are ground temperature measurements at 3 sites, Integrated Sounding System (ISS) at NCU, air plane observation, tracer experiment with 10 collecting stations, 3 background upper-air sounding stations, 2 towers etc. NOAA and GMS satellite data, sea surface temperature radar, and precipitation data are collected. The local circulations such as land/sea breezes and mountain/valley winds, induced by thermal and topographical effects often play an important role in transporting, redistributing and transforming atmospheric pollutants. This study documents the effects of the development of local circulations and the accompanying evolution of boundary layer on the distribution and the variation of the atmospheric pollutants in the north western Taiwan during Mei-Yu season.

  8. Future changes in atmospheric circulation types and related precipitation extremes in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Markus; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The statistical evaluation of the relationships between atmospheric circulation types and areal precipitation events took place in the context of an international project called WETRAX (Weather patterns, storm tracks and related precipitation extremes). The aim of the project was to estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under enhanced climate change conditions. For parts of southern Central Europe, a gridded daily precipitation set with 6km horizontal resolution has been generated for the period 1951-2006 by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG). To determine regions with similar precipitation variability, a S-mode principal component analysis has been applied. Extreme precipitation events are defined by the 95% percentile, based on regional arithmetic means of daily precipitation. Large-scale atmospheric circulation types have been derived by different statistical methods and variables using the COST733 classification software and gridded daily NCEP1 reanalysis data. To evaluate the performance of a particular circulation type classification with respect to regional precipitation extremes, multiple regression models have been derived between the circulation type frequencies as predictor variables and monthly frequencies of extreme precipitation as well as monthly rainfall amounts from these events. To estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under enhanced climate change conditions, multiple regression models are applied to different projected GCM predictor data. Thus, future changes in circulation type occurrence frequencies are transferred into assessments of future changes in precipitation extremes on a regional scale.

  9. Temperature Structure and Atmospheric Circulation of Dry Tidally Locked Rocky Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-07-01

    Next-generation space telescopes will observe the atmospheres of rocky planets orbiting nearby M-dwarfs. Understanding these observations will require well-developed theory in addition to numerical simulations. Here we present theoretical models for the temperature structure and atmospheric circulation of dry, tidally locked rocky exoplanets with gray radiative transfer and test them using a general circulation model (GCM). First, we develop a radiative-convective (RC) model that captures surface temperatures of slowly rotating and cool atmospheres. Second, we show that the atmospheric circulation acts as a global heat engine, which places strong constraints on large-scale wind speeds. Third, we develop an RC-subsiding model which extends our RC model to hot and thin atmospheres. We find that rocky planets develop large day–night temperature gradients at a ratio of wave-to-radiative timescales up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the value suggested by work on hot Jupiters. The small ratio is due to the heat engine inefficiency and asymmetry between updrafts and subsidence in convecting atmospheres. Fourth, we show, using GCM simulations, that rotation only has a strong effect on temperature structure if the atmosphere is hot or thin. Our models let us map out atmospheric scenarios for planets such as GJ 1132b, and show how thermal phase curves could constrain them. Measuring phase curves of short-period planets will require similar amounts of time on the James Webb Space Telescope as detecting molecules via transit spectroscopy, so future observations should pursue both techniques.

  10. Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, E; Chipperfield, M P; Notholt, J; Reddmann, T; Anderson, J; Bernath, P F; Blumenstock, T; Coffey, M T; Dhomse, S S; Feng, W; Franco, B; Froidevaux, L; Griffith, D W T; Hannigan, J W; Hase, F; Hossaini, R; Jones, N B; Morino, I; Murata, I; Nakajima, H; Palm, M; Paton-Walsh, C; Russell, J M; Schneider, M; Servais, C; Smale, D; Walker, K A

    2014-11-01

    The abundance of chlorine in the Earth's atmosphere increased considerably during the 1970s to 1990s, following large emissions of anthropogenic long-lived chlorine-containing source gases, notably the chlorofluorocarbons. The chemical inertness of chlorofluorocarbons allows their transport and mixing throughout the troposphere on a global scale, before they reach the stratosphere where they release chlorine atoms that cause ozone depletion. The large ozone loss over Antarctica was the key observation that stimulated the definition and signing in 1987 of the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty establishing a schedule to reduce the production of the major chlorine- and bromine-containing halocarbons. Owing to its implementation, the near-surface total chlorine concentration showed a maximum in 1993, followed by a decrease of half a per cent to one per cent per year, in line with expectations. Remote-sensing data have revealed a peak in stratospheric chlorine after 1996, then a decrease of close to one per cent per year, in agreement with the surface observations of the chlorine source gases and model calculations. Here we present ground-based and satellite data that show a recent and significant increase, at the 2σ level, in hydrogen chloride (HCl), the main stratospheric chlorine reservoir, starting around 2007 in the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, in contrast with the ongoing monotonic decrease of near-surface source gases. Using model simulations, we attribute this trend anomaly to a slowdown in the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, occurring over several consecutive years, transporting more aged air to the lower stratosphere, and characterized by a larger relative conversion of source gases to HCl. This short-term dynamical variability will also affect other stratospheric tracers and needs to be accounted for when studying the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. PMID:25373680

  11. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS ON HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2013-04-10

    Of the over 800 exoplanets detected to date, over half are on non-circular orbits, with eccentricities as high as 0.93. Such orbits lead to time-variable stellar heating, which has major implications for the planet's atmospheric dynamical regime. However, little is known about the fundamental dynamical regime of such planetary atmospheres, and how it may influence the observations of these planets. Therefore, we present a systematic study of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits using the SPARC/MITgcm, a model which couples a three-dimensional general circulation model (the MITgcm) with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. In our study, we vary the eccentricity and orbit-average stellar flux over a wide range. We demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits; the planets possess a superrotating equatorial jet and exhibit large day-night temperature variations. As in Showman and Polvani, we show that the day-night heating variations induce momentum fluxes equatorward to maintain the superrotating jet throughout its orbit. We find that as the eccentricity and/or stellar flux is increased (corresponding to shorter orbital periods), the superrotating jet strengthens and narrows, due to a smaller Rossby deformation radius. For a select number of model integrations, we generate full-orbit light curves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what we see in infrared (IR) light curves; the peak in IR flux can lead or lag secondary eclipse depending on the geometry. For those planets that have large temperature differences from dayside to nightside and rapid rotation rates, we find that the light curves can exhibit 'ringing' as the planet's hottest region rotates in and out of view from Earth. These results can be used to explain future observations of eccentric transiting exoplanets.

  12. Circulation of the atmosphere from the surface to 100 km. [for Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Limaye, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    A reference model of the atmospheric circulation on Venus based on available observations is presented. The reference atmosphere has the following main features: (1) the entire atmosphere below 85 km moves predominantly from east to west in the planet's reference system (in the same direction as the rotation of the solid planet itself) with the possible exception of the lowest 10 km where velocities are low, (2) a jet is present near the cloud-top level at 45 deg latitude in both hemispheres, with a magnitude of approximately 100 m/s, (3) a weak meridional (north-south component) flow directed towards either pole is superimposed on the zonal (east-west motion at cloud-top level (about 68 km) altitudes, and, (4) eddies or wave motions are present in the atmosphere, with amplitudes of less than 16/ms in the upper atmosphere.

  13. Atmospheric circulation modeling of super Earths and terrestrial extrasolar planets using the SPARC/MITgcm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Haberle, R. M.; Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J. J.; Freedman, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The field of exoplanets continues to be a booming field of research in astronomy and planetary science, with numerous ground-based (e.g., SuperWASP, HARPS-N and S) and space-based surveys (e.g., Kepler) that detect and characterize planets ranging from hot Jupiters, Jovian-sized planets orbiting less than 0.1 AU from their star, to super Earths and terrestrial exoplanets, planets that have masses equal to or less than 10 times that of Earth with a range of orbital distances. Atmospheric circulation modeling plays an important role in the characterization of these planets, helping to constrain observations that probe their atmospheres. These models have proven successful in understanding observations of transiting exoplanets (when the planet passes in front of the star along our line of sight) particularly when the planet is passing through secondary eclipse (when the planet's dayside is visible). In modeling super Earths and terrestrial exoplanets, we must consider not only planets with thick fluid envelopes, but also traditional terrestrial planets with solid surfaces and thinner atmospheres. To that end, we present results from studies investigating the atmospheric circulation of these classes of planets using the SPARC/MITgcm, a state-of-the-art model which couples the MIT General Circulation Model with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. We will present results from two studies, the first focusing on the circulation of GJ 1214b, a super-Earth detected by the MEarth ground-based survey, and a second study which explores the circulation of terrestrial exoplanets orbiting M-dwarfs.

  14. Simulation of West African monsoon circulation in four atmospheric general circulation models forced by prescribed sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moron, Vincent; Philippon, Nathalie; Fontaine, Bernard

    2004-12-01

    The mean evolution of the West African monsoon (WAM) circulation and its interannual variability have been studied using an ensemble of 21 simulations (common period 1961-1994) performed with four different atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) (European Center/Hamburg (ECHAM) 3, ECHAM 4, Action de Recherche Petite Echelle Grande Echelle (ARPEGE), and Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)) and forced by the same observed sea surface temperature (SST) data set. The results have been compared with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalyses (ERA-40). The climatological means of WAM winds for the AGCMs are similar to the ERA-40 ones. However, the AGCMs tend to underestimate the southern wind component at low levels around 10°N compared to the ERA-40. The simulated Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) is usually shifted northward and also too weak for ECHAM 3 and ECHAM 4 compared to ERA-40. The interannual variability of an atmospheric WAM index (WAMI) is quite successfully reproduced (the correlations between the mean ensemble of each AGCM and ERA-40 time series over 1961-1994 range between 0.51 and 0.64). In particular, the four AGCMs reproduce quite well the mean teleconnection structure with El Niño-Southern Oscillation, i.e., a strong (weak) monsoon during La Niña (El Niño) events, even if the largest absolute correlations between WAMI and SST in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific are weaker than in ERA-40. On a yearly basis, WAMI is more predictable and skillful during the cold ENSO years than during the warm ENSO ones. The unskillful warm ENSO events are associated with a significant cooling over the equatorial Atlantic and Western Pacific Ocean and a significant warming in the tropical Indian Ocean.

  15. The Atmospheric Circulation of Eccentric Hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole; Knutson, H.; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Agol, E.; Burrows, A.; Charbonneau, D.; Cowan, N. B.; Deming, D.; Desert, J.; Langton, J.; Laughlin, G.; Mighell, K.

    2011-09-01

    The Spitzer warm mission has already greatly expanded the field of exoplanet characterization with over 3000 hours of time dedicated to exoplanet observations. Observations of eclipsing systems with Spitzer are at the heart of these advances, as they allow us to move beyond simple mass and period estimates to determine planetary radius, dayside emission, and emission variations as a function of orbital phase. The eclipsing system HAT-P-2 is of special interest because the massive Jovian sized planet in this system is on a highly eccentric orbit (e=0.5171). Because HAT-P-2b's orbit is eccentric, the planet is subject to time variable heating and probable non-synchronous rotation. Circulation patterns that we expect to develop in HAT-P-2b's atmosphere will likely vary with both planetary local time and orbital phase. Here we present an analysis of two full-orbit light curves for the HAT-P-2 system obtained at 3.6 and 4.5 microns during the first two years of the Spitzer warm mission and discuss the observational constraints imposed on the atmospheric circulation of HAT-P-2b. Additionally, three-dimensional atmospheric models that incorporate realistic radiative transfer will be presented to further elucidate possible global scale circulations patterns present in the atmosphere of HAT-P-2b. Support for this work was provided by NASA.

  16. Atmospheric General Circulations of Synchronously Rotating Terrestrial Planets: Dependence on Planetary Rotation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Ishiwatari, M.; Nakajima, K.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Morikawa, Y.; Nishizawa, S.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    In order to investigate a variety of climates of synchronously rotating terrestrial planets, a parameter study on the dependence on planetary rotation rate Ω is performed by using a general circulation model (GCM) with simplified hydrologic and radiative processes. The planetary rotation rate is varied from zero to the Earth's value, and other parameters such as orbital parameters, planetary radius, solar constant are set to the Earth's values. The results show that there emerge four typical atmospheric states in ascending order of planetary rotation rate as follows: States in which dayside-nightside direct circulations dominate States in which weak super rotation emerges States in which strong super rotation emerges and meridionally asymmetric patterns oscillate States in which precipitation disturbances emerge in nightside midlatitudinal regions The atmospheric state is gradually accompanied by a qualitative circulation change from state (1) to state (3) with increasing Ω from zero, although Merlis and Schneider (2010) which performed similar GCM experiments lump together cases with small planetary rotation rates under the term "slowly rotating atmospheres". For cases for planetary rotation rate with the values of 0.75-0.85 times of the terrestrial value, multiple equilibrium solutions of state (3) and state (4) are obtained. It is shown that, in addition to dry atmosphere (Edson et al., 2011), moist atmospheres on synchronously rotating planet also have multiple equilibrium solutions. Although circulation patterns and amount of sensible/latent heat transport from the dayside to the nightside changes with the change of Ω, summation of sensible heat transport and latent heat transport almost remains unchanged, and the dependence of dayside to nightside temperature contrast on Ω is small.

  17. Spatial variability of trends in hydrological extremes induced by orographically enhanced rainfall events due to westerly atmospheric circulations.

    PubMed

    Pfister, L; Drogue, G; Poirier, C; Hoffmann, L

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the number of days with westerly atmospheric circulations has strongly increased during winter months. As a consequence, rainfall totals, rainfall event duration and intensity have been subject to significant positive trends throughout the Mosel river basin. However, the trends identified through the non-parametrical test named Kendall's tau have shown to be spatially varying. The intensity of the trends appears to be directly linked to orographic obstacles that are well known to have a strong influence on average rainfall totals. A direct consequence of the changes having affected winter rainfall under westerly atmospheric circulations on the one hand and the spatial variability of these changes on the other hand, is a spatially varying positive trend in maximum winter streamflow. Thus, even though a clear large-scale change has affected winter rainfall over the past decades, its intensity is either strongly moderated or enhanced by orographic obstacles. The related changes in streamflow are directly dependent on the spatial variability of the changed rainfall characteristics. PMID:15918354

  18. European rain rate modulation enhanced by changes in the NAO and atmospheric circulation regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg M.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to classify the circulation patterns in the Atlantic-European sector and to reveal linkages between anomalies in the pressure field over the North Atlantic (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)) and its respective circulation pattern occurrence over continents on the one hand and rain fields on the other hand. Changes in atmospheric circulation over Europe during the past 50 years were examined using both objective (modes of low-frequency variability inferred by regression analysis and objective cluster classification of circulation types—fuzzy logic) and subjective (Hess-Brezowsky classification of weather types) methods. The grid monthly geopotential (H700), wind zonal and meridional velocity components (U850 and V850) as well as the surface atmosphere pressure (SAP) and precipitation fields acquired from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset (for 1948-1998) were employed in this study. Joint regression analysis and fuzzy logic classification of these fields was a basic tool for finding major circulation regimes. The fuzzy set analysis of these fields revealed that the major circulation regimes over eastern North Atlantic and Europe were determined in summer by three vorticity poles: (1) North-western (Scandinavia), (2) Western Mediterranean and (3) Caucasian. It is worth noting that an anticyclone occurred in the western part of the North Atlantic for both seasons. The Scandinavia cyclone area explains rain rate maximums located in the 50-60° latitude European area and the lower rain rate in Southern Europe because of hot and dry African air inflow. In late fall and winter the vorticity system consists of three other poles: (1) North-western, (2) Northern Africa and (3) Northern Russia (Kara Sea). A zonal circulation type dominates in this case and more precipitation is delivered from the Atlantic. Rain rate is more uniformly distributed in the winter in various latitude belts across Europe than in summer, but more intensive precipitation

  19. Climatic characteristics of summer human thermal discomfort in Athens and its connection to atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartzokas, A.; Lolis, C. J.; Kassomenos, P. A.; McGregor, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    The climate characteristics of summer human thermal discomfort in Athens and its connection to atmospheric circulation are studied for the period 1954-2012. The human thermal discomfort is examined in terms of the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) discomfort index for calm and light wind (3 ms-1) conditions. Its inter-annual variability is characterised by a significant increase from the middle 1980s to the end of the study period. The onset and the cessation of the discomfort period are found to take place around the beginning of July and the end of August respectively, but from middle 1980s the dates of onset and cessation have slightly moved earlier and later, respectively, leading to a longer summer discomfort period. The connection between human thermal discomfort and atmospheric circulation is studied by examining the distribution of discomfort cases across six objectively defined circulation types over Europe, based on Athens weather characteristics. High values of the PMV discomfort index are mainly associated with two typical high-summer pressure patterns with the intensity of discomfort depending on the pressure gradient over the Aegean Sea. On the contrary, low PMV discomfort index values prevail mainly on days typified by the other four circulation types, which are more frequent during May, June, and September.

  20. A review of the Southern Oscillation - Oceanic-atmospheric circulation changes and related rainfall anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kousky, V. E.; Kagano, M. T.; Cavalcanti, I. F. A.

    1984-01-01

    The region of South America is emphasized in the present consideration of the Southern Oscillation (SO) oceanic and atmospheric circulation changes. The persistence of climate anomalies associated with El Nino-SO events is due to strong atmosphere-ocean coupling. Once initiated, the SO follows a certain sequence of events with clearly defined effects on tropical and subtropical rainfall. Excessive rainfall related to the SO in the central and eastern Pacific, Peru, Ecuador, and southern Brazil, are complemented by drought in Australia, Indonesia, India, West Africa, and northeast Brazil. El Nino-SO events are also associated with dramatic changes in the tropospheric flow pattern over a broad area of both hemispheres.

  1. Atmospheric freshwater fluxes and their effect on the global thermohaline circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaucker, F.; Stocker, T.F.; Broecker, W.S.

    1994-06-15

    Atmospheric water vapor fluxes were derived from a 1-year data set of horizontal wind speed and specific humidity assimilated from meteorological observations by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). Vertically integrated horizontal freshwater fluxes were compared to those of two data sets based on a climatology and on simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Zonal transports agree fairly well at all latitudes outside the tropics, where fluxes are about double for the AGCM data set. Meridional fluxes of the AGCM and ECMWF data sets show close agreement, while the climatological fluxes are generally smaller with a considerable northward shift in the southern hemisphere. Atmosphere-to-ocean freshwater fluxes were derived from the three data sets. Not only is there substantial disagreement between the data sets, but their zonal averages over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean basins show little resemblance to the respective restoring freshwater fluxes from a 2-dimensional ocean model. If the ocean model is forced with the observed and modeled atmospheric fluxes, we find that the mode of ocean circulation is determined mostly the net flux to the high-latitude oceans and the amount of freshwater exported from the Atlantic basin. The latitudinal structure of the freshwater fluxes in low-latitudes and midlatitudes has little influence on the modeled thermohaline circulation. The fluxes derived from the climatology and ECMWF permit North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation, but a strong freshwater input to the Southern Ocean inhibits Antarctic Bottom Water formation. The AGCM transports so much moisture to the Arctic Ocean that NADW formation is shut down, resulting in a ocean circulation mode of southern sinking in all three ocean basins.

  2. Land surface hydrology parameterization for atmospheric general circulation models including subgrid scale spatial variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Eagleson, P. S.

    1989-01-01

    Parameterizations are developed for the representation of subgrid hydrologic processes in atmospheric general circulation models. Reasonable a priori probability density functions of the spatial variability of soil moisture and of precipitation are introduced. These are used in conjunction with the deterministic equations describing basic soil moisture physics to derive expressions for the hydrologic processes that include subgrid scale variation in parameters. The major model sensitivities to soil type and to climatic forcing are explored.

  3. On the Relationship between Atmospheric Circulation Indices and Precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathbout, Shifa; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Martín Vide, Javier; Sánchez Rodrigo, Fernando; Rustullet, Joan Bech

    2016-04-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of precipitation in the Mediterranean is partly related to atmospheric circulation patterns (low-variability modes)such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) and the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO), among others. Most of the total precipitation amount in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) is associated with mid-latitude cyclones and this fact leads us to hypothesize that some teleconnection patterns may exert an important influence on the EM precipitation behaviour.Our database consists of 103monthlytime series, covering the1961-2013 period,located throughout theEM.To quantify the relationships between the teleconnection patterns and precipitation variabilityover the EM, we calculated linear correlations between teleconnection indices for the three above-mentionedpatterns (i.e. NAO, WeMO and MO) and time series of precipitation data for 103 stations at seasonal and annual scales during 1961-2013.The results show that the most important atmospheric low frequency variability affecting the precipitation variability in the northern parts of the EM region is NAO.Astatistically significant and negative relationship between interannual variability of the precipitation and the NAO indices was obtained forthe northern parts of the EM. Thesenegative NAO relationships are particularly strong in winter (Turkey) and partly in autumn (Turkey and Greece); in contrast, they are detectedto be weak in spring and almost non-existent in summer. In winter, overall precipitation over the EM is positively related to the WeMO and negatively to the NAO. The positive phase of WeMO has a strong effect on winter precipitation over the northern parts of the EM and the absolute correlation values with WeMO are higher than those with NAO in winter over Turkey.The MO is likely to have a significant role in affecting precipitation over the southern parts, especially in Jordan and Egypt. The positive phase of MO has a

  4. Characterizing the Atmospheric Circulation over the Colombian Orinoquia through Lagrangian Back-Trajectory Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orjuela, H. R.; Leon, G. E.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ongoing transformation of the Colombian Orinoquia (Eastern Plains) due to the rapid expansion of the agricultural frontier and oil production implies a series of new atmospheric emissions, which might negatively impact human health and ecosystems in different ways. Some air pollutants have already been detected in the region. This is the case of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which are sampled in a site of the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) network located in Arauca, Colombia. The current understanding on the origin and transport of pollutants is limited due to the lack of information on the atmospheric circulation in the Colombian Orinoquia. This research aims at generating new knowledge on the meteorology of this region mainly for weather forecasting and atmospheric pollution impact assessment. We present a conceptual model of the atmospheric circulation in the Colombian Orinoquia, including the main synoptic and mesoscale factors governing its meteorology. In order to identify the source of air masses and synoptic scale disturbances, we used Lagrangian back trajectories obtained with the model HYSPLIT 4.9 over the period 2000-2010. NCEP/NCAR and Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) reanalysis results were used as meteorological input to HYSPLIT. Prior to the Lagrangian simulation, these global datasets were evaluated for their capability to reproduce meteorological observations in the region, particularly for rain and flood-triggering conditions. The observational data included satellite images and ground level network measurements by the Colombian Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Research (IDEAM). Windgridds and other data analysis tools were used.

  5. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. PMID:25872705

  6. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Cen- ter and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical "cores" of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. ne two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical "simple physics" parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  7. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical "cores" of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. The two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical "simple physics" parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  8. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical 'cores' of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. The two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical 'simple physics' parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  9. Automated classification of the atmospheric circulation patterns that drive regional wave climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J.; Stretch, D. D.; Bárdossy, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wave climates are fundamental drivers of coastal vulnerability and changing trends in wave height, period and direction can severely impact coastlines. In a diverse storm environment, the changes in these parameters are difficult to detect and quantify. Since wave climates are linked to atmospheric circulation patterns an automated and objective classification scheme was developed to explore links between synoptic scale circulation patterns and wave climate variables, specifically wave heights. The algorithm uses a set of objective functions based on wave heights to guide the classification. Fuzzy rules define classification types that are used to detect locally high and low pressure anomalies through a process of simulated annealing. The optimized classification focuses on extreme wave events. The east coast of South Africa was used as a case study. The results show that three dominant patterns drive extreme wave events. The circulation patterns exhibit some seasonality with one pattern present throughout the year. Some 50-80% of the extreme wave events are explained by these three patterns. It is evident that strong low pressure anomalies east of the country drive a wind towards the KwaZulu-Natal coastline which results in extreme wave conditions. We conclude that the methodology can be used to link circulation patterns to wave heights within a diverse storm environment. The circulation patterns agree with qualitative observations of wave climate drivers. There are applications to the assessment of coastal vulnerability and the management of coastlines worldwide.

  10. Long-term air temperature variation in the Karkonosze mountains according to atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migała, Krzysztof; Urban, Grzegorz; Tomczyński, Karol

    2016-07-01

    The results of meteorological measurements carried out continuously on Mt Śnieżka in Karkonosze mountains since 1880 well document the warming observed on a global scale. Data analysis indicates warming expressed by an increase in the mean annual air temperature of 0.8 °C/100 years. A much higher temperature increase was recorded in the last two decades at the turn of the twenty-first century. Mean decade air temperatures increased from -0.1 to 1.5 °C. It has been shown that there are relationships between air temperature at Mt Śnieżka and global mechanisms of atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Thermal conditions of the Karkonosze (Mt Śnieżka) accurately reflect global climate trends and impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, macrotypes of atmospheric circulation in Europe (GWL) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The increase in air temperature during the 1989-2012 solar magnetic cycle may reveal a synergy effect to which astrophysical effects and atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects contribute, modified by constantly increasing anthropogenic factors.

  11. The response of an ocean general circulation model to surface wind stress produced by an atmospheric general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.; Schneider, E.K.

    1995-10-01

    Two surface wind stress datasets for 1979-91, one based on observations and the other from an investigation of the COLA atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) with prescribed SST, are used to drive the GFDL ocean general circulation model. These two runs are referred to as the control and COLA experiments, respectively. Simulated SST and upper-ocean heat contents (HC) in the tropical Pacific Ocean are compared with observations and between experiments. Both simulation reproduced the observed mean SST and HC fields as well as their annual cycles realistically. Major errors common to both runs are colder than observed SST in the eastern equatorial ocean and HC in the western Pacific south of the equator, with errors generally larger in the COLA experiment. New errors arising from the AGCM wind forcing include higher SST near the South American coast throughout the year and weaker HC gradients along the equator in boreal spring. The former is associated with suppressed coastal upwelling by weak along shore AGCM winds, and the latter is caused by weaker equatorial easterlies in boreal spring. The low-frequency ENSO fluctuations are also realistic for both runs. Correlations between the observed and simulated SST anomalies from the COLA simulation are as high as those from the control run in the central equatorial Pacific. A major problem in the COLA simulation is the appearance of unrealistic tropical cold anomalies during the boreal spring of mature El Nino years. These anomalies propagate along the equator from the western Pacific to the eastern coast in about three months, and temporarily eliminate the warm SST and HC anomalies in the eastern Pacific. This erroneous oceanic response in the COLA simulation is caused by a reversal of the westerly wind anomalies on the equator, associated with an unrealistic southward shift of the ITCZ in boreal spring during El Nino events. 66 refs., 16 figs.

  12. El Niño-related variations in the southern Pacific atmospheric circulation: model versus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, B.; Mullan, A. B.

    2002-10-01

    Our objective is two-fold: (1) to study the influence of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the southern Pacific atmospheric circulation using observations; and (2) to assess the ability of a fully comprehensive GCM to reproduce the observed ENSO-related variations. The observed circulation features were derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses of observations. The GCM used is the atmospheric component of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) unified model (UM). A detailed study of the impact of the ENSO on the seasonal mean circulation and on the intraseasonal variability on synoptic time scales has been carried out using both the model and NCEP data for austral summer season. We have also investigated the relationship between the high frequency (HF) transients and the quasi-stationary mean circulation during selected ENSO years. A regional Hadley cell intensity in the tropical Pacific has been used as an El Niño index to classify the warming and cooling years for our composite analysis. During El Niño years the regional Hadley cell acts as a medium through which the enhanced equatorial convection forces a train of Rossby waves to produce the quasi-stationary circulation anomalies in extratropics. The Hadley cell weakens during La Niña years, and the equatorial convection moves further westwards. The Rossby wave response to this situation is to reverse the phase of the quasi-stationary circulation anomalies by 180°, as expected. These features are fairly well simulated by the UM, though the extratropical circulation anomalies in response to the equatorial convection is found about 30° longitude further eastwards than observed during El Niño years. The model confirms the observational evidence that the storm track variations in the southern subtropical Pacific are largely driven by variations in the South Pacific Convergence

  13. The influence of the tropics upon the prediction of the Southern Hemisphere circulation within the GLAS GCM. [Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Paegle, J.

    1983-01-01

    An examination is undertaken of the sensitivity of short term Southern Hemisphere circulation prediction to tropical wind data and tropical latent heat release. The data assimilation experiments employ the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' fourth-order general circulation model. Two of the experiments are identical, but for the fact that one uses tropical wind data while the other does not. A third experiment contains the identical initial conditions of forecasts with tropical winds, while suppressing tropical latent heat release.

  14. Impact of oceanic circulation changes on atmospheric δ13CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menviel, L.; Mouchet, A.; Meissner, K. J.; Joos, F.; England, M. H.

    2015-11-01

    δ13CO2 measured in Antarctic ice cores provides constraints on oceanic and terrestrial carbon cycle processes linked with millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2. However, the interpretation of δ13CO2 is not straightforward. Using carbon isotope-enabled versions of the LOVECLIM and Bern3D models, we perform a set of sensitivity experiments in which the formation rates of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW), Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) are varied. We study the impact of these circulation changes on atmospheric δ13CO2 as well as on the oceanic δ13C distribution. In general, we find that the formation rates of AABW, NADW, NPDW, and AAIW are negatively correlated with changes in δ13CO2: namely, strong oceanic ventilation decreases atmospheric δ13CO2. However, since large-scale oceanic circulation reorganizations also impact nutrient utilization and the Earth's climate, the relationship between atmospheric δ13CO2 levels and ocean ventilation rate is not unequivocal. In both models atmospheric δ13CO2 is very sensitive to changes in AABW formation rates: increased AABW formation enhances the transport of low δ13C waters to the surface and decreases atmospheric δ13CO2. By contrast, the impact of NADW changes on atmospheric δ13CO2 is less robust and might be model dependent. This results from complex interplay between global climate, carbon cycle, and the formation rate of NADW, a water body characterized by relatively high δ13C.

  15. Influence of high-resolution surface databases on the modeling of local atmospheric circulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, L. M. S.; Bodstein, G. C. R.; Pimentel, L. C. G.

    2013-12-01

    Large-eddy simulations are performed using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) code at horizontal grid resolutions as fine as 300 m to assess the influence of detailed and updated surface databases on the modeling of local atmospheric circulation systems of urban areas with complex terrain. Applications to air pollution and wind energy are sought. These databases are comprised of 3 arc-sec topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, 10 arc-sec vegetation type data from the European Space Agency (ESA) GlobCover Project, and 30 arc-sec Leaf Area Index and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation data from the ESA GlobCarbon Project. Simulations are carried out for the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro using six one-way nested-grid domains that allow the choice of distinct parametric models and vertical resolutions associated to each grid. ARPS is initialized using the Global Forecasting System with 0.5°-resolution data from the National Center of Environmental Prediction, which is also used every 3 h as lateral boundary condition. Topographic shading is turned on and two soil layers with depths of 0.01 and 1.0 m are used to compute the soil temperature and moisture budgets in all runs. Results for two simulated runs covering the period from 6 to 7 September 2007 are compared to surface and upper-air observational data to explore the dependence of the simulations on initial and boundary conditions, topographic and land-use databases and grid resolution. Our comparisons show overall good agreement between simulated and observed data and also indicate that the low resolution of the 30 arc-sec soil database from United States Geological Survey, the soil moisture and skin temperature initial conditions assimilated from the GFS analyses and the synoptic forcing on the lateral boundaries of the finer grids may affect an adequate spatial description of the meteorological variables.

  16. Atmospheric circulation feedback on west Asian dust and Indian monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, Dimitris; Houssos, Elias; Gautam, Ritesh; Singh, Ramesh; Rashki, Alireza; Dumka, Umesh

    2016-04-01

    Classification of the atmospheric circulation patterns associated with high aerosol loading events over the Ganges valley, via the synergy of Factor and Cluster analysis techniques, has indicated six different synoptic weather patterns, two of which mostly occur during late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons (May to September). The current study focuses on examining these two specific clusters that are associated with different mean sea level pressure (MSLP), geopotential height at 700 hPa (Z700) and wind fields that seem to affect the aerosol (mostly dust) emissions and precipitation distribution over the Indian sub-continent. Furthermore, the study reveals that enhanced aerosol presence over the Arabian Sea is positively associated with increased rainfall over the Indian landmass. The increased dust over the Arabian Sea and rainfall over India are associated with deepening of the northwestern Indian and Arabian lows that increase thermal convection and convergence of humid air masses into Indian landmass, resulting in larger monsoon precipitation. For this cluster, negative MSLP and Z700 anomalies are observed over the Arabian Peninsula that enhance the dust outflow from Arabia and, concurrently, the southwesterly air flow resulting in increase in monsoon precipitation over India. The daily precipitation over India is found to be positively correlated with the aerosol loading over the Arabian Sea for both weather clusters, thus verifying recent results from satellite observations and model simulations concerning the modulation of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall by the Arabian dust. The present work reveals that in addition to the radiative impacts of dust on modulating the monsoon rainfall, differing weather patterns favor changes in dust emissions, accumulation as well as rainfall distribution over south Asia.

  17. Recent Trends in the Arctic Navigable Ice Season and Links to Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslanik, J.; Drobot, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the potential effects of Arctic climate warming is an increase in the navigable ice season, perhaps resulting in development of the Arctic as a major shipping route. The distance from western North American ports to Europe through the Northwest Passage (NWP) or the Northern Sea Route (NSR) is typically 20 to 60 percent shorter than travel through the Panama Canal, while travel between Europe and the Far East may be reduced by as much as three weeks compared to transport through the Suez Canal. An increase in the navigable ice season would also improve commercial opportunities within the Arctic region, such as mineral and oil exploration and tourism, which could potentially expand the economic base of Arctic residents and companies, but which would also have negative environmental impacts. Utilizing daily passive-microwave derived sea ice concentrations, trends and variability in the Arctic navigable ice season are examined from 1979 through 2001. Trend analyses suggest large increases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Beaufort Sea, with decreases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Bering Sea. Interannual variations in the navigable ice season largely are governed by fluctuations in low-frequency atmospheric circulation, although the specific annular modes affecting the length of the navigable ice season vary by region. In the Beaufort and East Siberian seas, variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation control the navigable ice season, while variations in the East Pacific anomaly play an important role in controlling the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas. In Hudson Bay, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Baffin Bay, interannual variations in the navigable ice season are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  18. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the mid-Holocene climate of Europe: a data-model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, A.; Davis, B. A. S.; Collins, P. M.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2014-10-01

    The atmospheric circulation is a key area of uncertainty in climate model simulations of future climate change, especially in mid-latitude regions such as Europe where atmospheric dynamics have a significant role in climate variability. It has been proposed that the mid-Holocene was characterized in Europe by a stronger westerly circulation in winter comparable with a more positive AO/NAO, and a weaker westerly circulation in summer caused by anti-cyclonic blocking near Scandinavia. Model simulations indicate at best only a weakly positive AO/NAO, whilst changes in summer atmospheric circulation have not been widely investigated. Here we use a new pollen-based reconstruction of European mid-Holocene climate to investigate the role of atmospheric circulation in explaining the spatial pattern of seasonal temperature and precipitation anomalies. We find that the footprint of the anomalies is entirely consistent with those from modern analogue atmospheric circulation patterns associated with a strong westerly circulation in winter (positive AO/NAO) and a weak westerly circulation in summer associated with anti-cyclonic blocking (positive SCAND). We find little agreement between the reconstructed anomalies and those from 14 GCMs that performed mid-Holocene experiments as part of the PMIP3/CMIP5 project, which show a much greater sensitivity to top-of-the-atmosphere changes in solar insolation. Our findings are consistent with data-model comparisons on contemporary timescales that indicate that models underestimate the role of atmospheric circulation in recent climate change, whilst also highlighting the importance of atmospheric dynamics in explaining interglacial warming.

  19. The dependence of wintertime Mediterranean precipitation on the atmospheric circulation response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, Giuseppe; Hoskins, Brian; Shepherd, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Climate models indicate a future wintertime precipitation reduction in the Mediterranean region which may have large socio-economic impacts. However, there is large uncertainty in the amplitude of the projected precipitation reduction and this limits the possibility to inform effective adaptation planning. We analyse CMIP5 climate model output to quantify the role of atmospheric circulation in the precipitation change and the time of emergence of the Mediterranean precipitation response. It is found that a simple circulation index, i.e. the 850 hPa zonal wind (U850) in North Africa, well describes the year to year fluctuations in the area-averaged Mediterranean precipitation, with positive (i.e. westerly) U850 anomalies in North Africa being associated with positive precipitation anomalies. Under climate change, U850 in North Africa and the Mediterranean precipitation are both projected to decrease consistently with the relationship found in the inter-annual variability. This enables us to estimate that about 85% of the CMIP5 mean precipitation response and 80% of the variance in the inter-model spread are related to changes in the atmospheric circulation. In contrast, there is no significant correlation between the mean precipitation response and the global-mean surface warming across the models. We also find that the precipitation response to climate change might already emerge from internal variability by 2025 relative to 1960-1990 according to the climate models with a large circulation response. This implies that it might soon be possible to test model projections using observations. Finally, some of the mechanisms which are important for the Mediterranean circulation response in the CMIP5 models are discussed.

  20. Automated classification of the atmospheric circulation patterns that drive regional wave climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J.; Stretch, D. D.; Bárdossy, A.

    2014-08-01

    Wave climates are fundamental drivers of coastal vulnerability; changing trends in wave heights, periods and directions can severely impact a coastline. In a diverse storm environment, the changes in these parameters are difficult to detect and quantify. Since wave climates are linked to atmospheric circulation patterns, an automated and objective classification scheme was developed to explore links between synoptic-scale circulation patterns and wave climate variables, specifically wave heights. The algorithm uses a set of objective functions based on wave heights to guide the classification and find atmospheric classes with strong links to wave behaviour. Spatially distributed fuzzy numbers define the classes and are used to detect locally high- and low-pressure anomalies. Classes are derived through a process of simulated annealing. The optimized classification focuses on extreme wave events. The east coast of South Africa was used as a case study. The results show that three dominant patterns drive extreme wave events. The circulation patterns exhibit some seasonality with one pattern present throughout the year. Some 50-80% of the extreme wave events are explained by these three patterns. It is evident that strong low-pressure anomalies east of the country drive a wind towards the KwaZulu-Natal coastline which results in extreme wave conditions. We conclude that the methodology can be used to link circulation patterns to wave heights within a diverse storm environment. The circulation patterns agree with qualitative observations of wave climate drivers. There are applications to the assessment of coastal vulnerability and the management of coastlines worldwide.

  1. Simulating influence of QBO phase on planetary waves during a stratospheric warming in a general circulation model of the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Andrey; Gavrilov, Nikolai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander; Savenkova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    One of the important factors of dynamical interactions between the lower and upper atmosphere is energy and momentum transfer by atmospheric internal gravity waves. For numerical modeling of the general circulation and thermal regime of the middle and upper atmosphere, it is important to take into account accelerations of the mean flow and heating rates produced by dissipating internal waves. The quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) of the zonal mean flow at lower latitudes at stratospheric heights can affect the propagation conditions of planetary waves. We perform numerical simulation of global atmospheric circulation for the initial conditions corresponding to the years with westerly and easterly QBO phases. We focus on the changes in amplitudes of stationary planetary waves (SPWs) and traveling normal atmospheric modes (NAMs) in the atmosphere during SSW events for the different QBO phases. For these experiments, we use the global circulation of the middle and upper atmosphere model (MUAM). There is theory of PW waveguide describing atmospheric regions where the background wind and temperature allow the wave propagation. There were introduced the refractive index for PWs and found that strongest planetary wave propagation is in areas of large positive values of this index. Another important PW characteristic is the Eliassen-Palm flux (EP-flux). These characteristics are considered as useful tools for visualizing the PW propagation conditions. Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event has significant influence on the formation of the weather anomalous and climate changes in the troposphere. Also, SSW event may affect the dynamical and energy processes in the upper atmosphere. The major SSW events imply significant temperature rises (up to 30 - 40 K) at altitudes 30 - 50 km accompanying with corresponding decreases, or reversals, of climatological eastward zonal winds in the stratosphere.

  2. Abrupt Late Holocene Shift in Atmospheric Circulation Recorded by Mineral Dust in the Siple Dome Ice Core, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffman, B. G.; Goldstein, S. L.; Kaplan, M. R.; Winckler, G.; Bory, A. J. M.; Biscaye, P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric dust directly influences Earth's climate by altering the radiative balance and by depositing micronutrients in the surface ocean, affecting global biogeochemical cycling. In addition, mineral dust particles provide observational evidence constraining past atmospheric circulation patterns. Because dust can originate from both local and distant terrestrial sources, knowledge of dust provenance can substantially inform our understanding of past climate history, atmospheric transport pathways, and differences in aerosol characteristics between glacial and interglacial climate states. Dust provenance information from Antarctic ice cores has until now been limited to sites in East Antarctica. Here we present some of the first provenance data from West Antarctica. We use Sr-Nd isotopes to characterize dust extracted from late Holocene ice (~1000-1800 C.E.) from the Siple Dome ice core. The data form a tight array in Sr-Nd isotope space, with 87Sr/86Sr ranging between ~0.7087 and 0.7102, and ɛNd ranging between ~ -7 and -16. This combination is unique for Antarctica, with low Nd and low Sr isotope ratios compared to high-elevation East Antarctic sites, requiring a dust source from ancient (Archean to early Proterozoic) and unweathered continental crust, which mixes with young volcanic material. Both components are likely sourced from Antarctica. We also observe significant, systematic variability in Sr and Nd isotopic signatures through time, reflecting changes in the mixing ratio of these sources, and hypothesize that these changes are driven by shifts in circulation patterns. A large change occurs over about 10 years at ca. 1125 C.E. (ΔɛNd = +3 and Δ87Sr/86Sr = -0.0014). This shift coincides with changes in climate proxies in Southern Hemisphere paleoclimate records reflecting variability in the Westerlies. We therefore interpret the shift in dust provenance at Siple Dome to be related to larger-scale circulation changes. In general, the observed shifts

  3. Exploring Mars' Middle Atmosphere with the Extended NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, A. S.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, M. A.; Schaeffer, J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (Mars GCM) upper boundary has been extended to ~120 km altitude (pT ~ 10-6 mbar). The extension of the Mars GCM upper boundary initiates the ability to understand the connection between the lower and upper atmosphere of Mars through the middle atmosphere. Moreover, it provides the opportunity to support missions (i.e. the 2013 MAVEN mission). A major factor in this extension is the incorporation of the Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) heating (visible) and cooling (infrared). The calculated solar heating rates (LTE heating rates) within the Mars GCM are corrected for NLTE by applying factors from Table 1 in López-Valverde et al. (1998). The CO2 15-μm cooling parameterizations is adapted from Bougher et al. (2006). This modification to the radiative transfer forcing has been significantly tested in a 1D vertical column (i.e. RT code) and now has been ported to the full 3D Mars GCM. Initial results clearly show the effects of NLTE in the upper middle atmosphere. Diagnostic of seasonal mean fields and large-scale wave activity will be shown with insight into circulation patterns in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, sensitivity tests with the resolution of the pressure and temperature grids, in which the k-coefficients are calculated upon, have been performed in the 1D RT code. Our progress on this research will be presented.

  4. Extending the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model to Explore Mars’ Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, Amanda; Hollingsworth, J.; Kahre, M.; Schaeffer, J.

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) upper boundary has been extended to ~120 km altitude (p ~10-5 mbar). The extension of the MGCM upper boundary initiates the ability to understand the connection between the lower and upper atmosphere of Mars through the middle atmosphere 70 - 120 km). Moreover, it provides the opportunity to support future missions (i.e. the 2013 MAVEN mission). A major factor in this extension is the incorporation of the Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) heating (visible) and cooling (infrared). This modification to the radiative transfer forcing (i.e., RT code) has been significantly tested in a 1D vertical column and now has been ported to the full 3D Mars GCM. Initial results clearly show the effects of NLTE in the upper middle atmosphere. Diagnostic of seasonal mean fields and large-scale wave activity will be shown with insight into circulation patterns in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, sensitivity tests with the resolution of the pressure and temperature grids, in which the k-coefficients are calculated upon, have been performed in the 1D RT code. Our progress on this research will be presented. Brecht is supported by NASA’s Postdoctoral Program at the Ames Research Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.

  5. Response of thermohaline circulation to higher atmospheric CO2 concentration and absence of ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoi, T.; Chan, W.-L.; Yih, H.

    2003-04-01

    Response of thermohaline circulation to higher CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and absence of large ice sheets are investigated by using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Two runs, named C run and x4CNIS run are carried out. The C run is control run with standard atmospheric CO2 concentration of 300 ppm and Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. The x4CNIS run has atmospheric CO2 concentration of 1200 ppm, which is 4 times that of the standard value, and no ice sheet. Both the C run and x4CNIS run are integrated for more than 10000 years until equilibrium response is completed. The intensity of thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean in x4CNIS run decreases to 3 Sv from 17 Sv during the first two hundred years and turns to gradually increasing phase from 3 Sv to 8 Sv for about 2000 years. It then increases rapidly from 8 Sv to 30 Sv within 200 years and reaches stable level of 24 Sv, which is larger than that of 17 Sv at begining, with larger oscillations. The temperatures of surface and deep waters in the sub-antarctic region and of deep tropical water are about 6.5 deg. warmer in the x4CNIS run than in the C run.

  6. Core cracking and hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' geophysical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2015-02-01

    Observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock. Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code, we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia, by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The effect of heating from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via "temperature resets," core cooling events lasting ˜50 Myr during which Ceres' interior temperature profile becomes very shallow and its hydrosphere is largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) would suggest that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter, whose arrival at Ceres is imminent, could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.

  7. An advanced method for classifying atmospheric circulation types based on prototypes connectivity graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagouras, Athanassios; Argiriou, Athanassios A.; Flocas, Helena A.; Economou, George; Fotopoulos, Spiros

    2012-11-01

    Classification of weather maps at various isobaric levels as a methodological tool is used in several problems related to meteorology, climatology, atmospheric pollution and to other fields for many years. Initially the classification was performed manually. The criteria used by the person performing the classification are features of isobars or isopleths of geopotential height, depending on the type of maps to be classified. Although manual classifications integrate the perceptual experience and other unquantifiable qualities of the meteorology specialists involved, these are typically subjective and time consuming. Furthermore, during the last years different approaches of automated methods for atmospheric circulation classification have been proposed, which present automated and so-called objective classifications. In this paper a new method of atmospheric circulation classification of isobaric maps is presented. The method is based on graph theory. It starts with an intelligent prototype selection using an over-partitioning mode of fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, proceeds to a graph formulation for the entire dataset and produces the clusters based on the contemporary dominant sets clustering method. Graph theory is a novel mathematical approach, allowing a more efficient representation of spatially correlated data, compared to the classical Euclidian space representation approaches, used in conventional classification methods. The method has been applied to the classification of 850 hPa atmospheric circulation over the Eastern Mediterranean. The evaluation of the automated methods is performed by statistical indexes; results indicate that the classification is adequately comparable with other state-of-the-art automated map classification methods, for a variable number of clusters.

  8. Climate change on the Tibetan Plateau in response to shifting atmospheric circulation since the LGM

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liping; Lü, Xinmiao; Wang, Junbo; Peng, Ping; Kasper, Thomas; Daut, Gerhard; Haberzettl, Torsten; Frenzel, Peter; Li, Quan; Yang, Ruimin; Schwalb, Antje; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is primarily influenced by the northern hemispheric middle latitude Westerlies and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The extent, long-distance effects and potential long-term changes of these two atmospheric circulations are not yet fully understood. Here, we analyse modern airborne pollen in a transition zone of seasonally alternating dominance of the Westerlies and the ISM to develop a pollen discrimination index (PDI) that allows us to distinguish between the intensities of the two circulation systems. This index is applied to interpret a continuous lacustrine sedimentary record from Lake Nam Co covering the past 24 cal kyr BP to investigate long-term variations in the atmospheric circulation systems. Climatic variations on the central TP widely correspond to those of the North Atlantic (NA) realm, but are controlled through different mechanisms resulting from the changing climatic conditions since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). During the LGM, until 16.5 cal kyr BP, the TP was dominated by the Westerlies. After 16.5 cal kyr BP, the climatic conditions were mainly controlled by the ISM. From 11.6 to 9 cal kyr BP, the TP was exposed to enhanced solar radiation at the low latitudes, resulting in greater water availability. PMID:26294226

  9. Atmospheric circulation processes contributing to a multidecadal variation in reconstructed and modeled Indian monsoon precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianru; Hu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    analysis of the recently reconstructed gridded May-September total precipitation in the Indian monsoon region for the past half millennium discloses significant variations at multidecadal timescales. Meanwhile, paleo-climate modeling outputs from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 4.0 show similar multidecadal variations in the monsoon precipitation. One of those variations at the frequency of 40-50 years per cycle is examined in this study. Major results show that this variation is a product of the processes in that the meridional gradient of the atmospheric enthalpy is strengthened by radiation loss in the high-latitude and polar region. Driven by this gradient and associated baroclinicity in the atmosphere, more heat/energy is generated in the tropical and subtropical (monsoon) region and transported poleward. This transport relaxes the meridional enthalpy gradient and, subsequently, the need for heat production in the monsoon region. The multidecadal timescale of these processes results from atmospheric circulation-radiation interactions and the inefficiency in generation of kinetic energy from the potential energy in the atmosphere to drive the eddies that transport heat poleward. This inefficiency creates a time delay between the meridional gradient of the enthalpy and the poleward transport. The monsoon precipitation variation lags that in the meridional gradient of enthalpy but leads that of the poleward heat transport. This phase relationship, and underlining chasing process by the transport of heat to the need for it driven by the meridional enthalpy gradient, sustains this multidecadal variation. This mechanism suggests that atmospheric circulation processes can contribute to multidecadal timescale variations. Interactions of these processes with other forcing, such as sea surface temperature or solar irradiance anomalies, can result in resonant or suppressed variations in the Indian monsoon precipitation.

  10. Influence of atmospheric circulation patterns on local cloud and solar variability in Bergen, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parding, Kajsa; Olseth, Jan Asle; Liepert, Beate G.; Dagestad, Knut-Frode

    2016-08-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that long-term cloud and solar observations (1965-2013) in Bergen, Norway (60.39°N, 5.33°E) are compatible with a largely cloud dominated radiative climate. Here, we explicitly address the relationship between the large scale circulation over Europe and local conditions in Bergen, identifying specific circulation shifts that have contributed to the observed cloud and solar variations. As a measure of synoptic weather patterns, we use the Grosswetterlagen (GWL), a daily classification of European weather for 1881-2013. Empirical models of cloud cover, cloud base, relative sunshine duration, and normalised global irradiance are constructed based on the GWL frequencies, extending the observational time series by more than 70 years. The GWL models successfully reproduce the observed increase in cloud cover and decrease in solar irradiance during the 1970s and 1980s. This cloud-induced dimming is traced to an increasing frequency of cyclonic and decreasing frequency of anticyclonic weather patterns over northern Europe. The changing circulation patterns in winter can be understood as a shift from the negative to the positive phase of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillation. A recent period of increasing solar irradiance is observed but not reproduce by the GWL models, suggesting this brightening is associated with factors other than large scale atmospheric circulation, possibly decreasing aerosol loads and local cloud shifts.

  11. The GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model: Mean Climate and Development from MERRA to Fortuna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea; Takacs, Lawrence; Suarez, Max; Bacmeister, Julio; Song, In-Sun; Eichmann, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This report is a documentation of the Fortuna version of the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM). The GEOS-5 AGCM is currently in use in the NASA Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for simulations at a wide range of resolutions, in atmosphere only, coupled ocean-atmosphere, and data assimilation modes. The focus here is on the development subsequent to the version that was used as part of NASA s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We present here the results of a series of 30-year atmosphere-only simulations at different resolutions, with focus on the behavior of the 1-degree resolution simulation. The details of the changes in parameterizations subsequent to the MERRA model version are outlined, and results of a series of 30-year, atmosphere-only climate simulations at 2-degree resolution are shown to demonstrate changes in simulated climate associated with specific changes in parameterizations. The GEOS-5 AGCM presented here is the model used for the GMAO s atmosphere-only and coupled CMIP-5 simulations.

  12. Acute effects of a large bolide impact simulated by a global atmospheric circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Starley L.; Crutzen, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal is to use a global three-dimensional atmospheric circulation model developed for studies of atmospheric effects of nuclear war to examine the time evolution of atmospheric effects from a large bolide impact. The model allows for dust and NOx injection, atmospheric transport by winds, removal by precipitation, radiative transfer effects, stratospheric ozone chemistry, and nitric acid formation and deposition on a simulated Earth having realistic geography. Researchers assume a modest 2 km-diameter impactor of the type that could have formed the 32 km-diameter impact structure found near Manson, Iowa and dated at roughly 66 Ma. Such an impact would have created on the order of 5 x 10 to the 10th power metric tons of atmospheric dust (about 0.01 g cm(-2) if spread globally) and 1 x 10 to the 37th power molecules of NO, or two orders of magnitude more stratospheric NO than might be produced in a large nuclear war. Researchers ignore potential injections of CO2 and wildfire smoke, and assume the direct heating of the atmosphere by impact ejecta on a regional scale is not large compared to absorption of solar energy by dust. Researchers assume an impact site at 45 N in the interior of present day North America.

  13. On the global circulation and the hurricane system of the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Meada, K.; Harris, I.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is made to support the proposal that Jupiter's red spot and the white and brown ovals are hurricanes or cyclones. Against the background of a convectively unstable troposphere, the general condition exists for the formation of hurricanes. The energy Jupiter emits must be transported upwards through the troposphere. If that transport is accelerated by the prevailing upward motions in the solar driven multicellular meridional circulation, eastward jets develop such as observed in the l region. But if that vertical transport is impeded by the prevailing downward motions in the meridional circulation, the atmosphere reacts and tends to maintain the process through the development of hurricanes. Dynamically induced by solar differential heating, an ordered latitudinal structure with alternating stability and instability is impressed on the troposphere to form alternating zonal strata where hurricanes are forbidden and permitted, respectively.

  14. Interdecadal variations of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Delworth, T.; Manabe, S.; Stouffer, R.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model is shown to have irregular oscillations of the thermohaline circulation in the NOrth Atlantic Ocean with a time scale of approximately 50 years. The irregular oscillation appears to be driven by density anomalies in the sinking region of the thermohaline circulation (approximately 52[degrees]N to 72[degrees]N) combined with much smaller density anomalies of opposite sign in the broad, rising region. The spatial pattern of sea surface temperature anomalies associated with this irregular oscillation bears an encouraging resemblance to a pattern of observed interdecadal variability in the North Atlantic. The anomalies of sea surface temperature induce model surface air temperature anomalies over the northern North Atlantic, Arctic, and northwestern Europe. 21 refs., 28 figs.

  15. The Influence of Indian Ocean Atmospheric Circulation on Warm Pool Hydroclimate During the Holocene Epoch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tierney, J.E.; Oppo, D. W.; LeGrande, A. N.; Huang, Y.; Rosenthal, Y.; Linsley, B. K.

    2012-01-01

    Existing paleoclimate data suggest a complex evolution of hydroclimate within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) during the Holocene epoch. Here we introduce a new leaf wax isotope record from Sulawesi, Indonesia and compare proxy water isotope data with ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (OAGCM) simulations to identify mechanisms influencing Holocene IPWP hydroclimate. Modeling simulations suggest that orbital forcing causes heterogenous changes in precipitation across the IPWP on a seasonal basis that may account for the differences in time-evolution of the proxy data at respective sites. Both the proxies and simulations suggest that precipitation variability during the September-November (SON) season is important for hydroclimate in Borneo. The preeminence of the SON season suggests that a seasonally lagged relationship between the Indian monsoon and Indian Ocean Walker circulation influences IPWP hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene.

  16. Theoretical and experimental design studies for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W.; Hathaway, D. H.; Miller, T. L.; Roberts, G. O.; Kopecky, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    The major criterion for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE) design is that it be possible to realize strong baroclinic instability in the spherical configuration chosen. A configuration was selected in which a hemispherical shell of fluid is subjected to latitudinal temperature gradients on its spherical boundaries and the latitudinal boundaries are insulators. Work in the laboratory with a cylindrical version of this configuration revealed more instabilities than baroclinic instability. Since researchers fully expect these additional instabilities to appear in the spherical configuration also, they decided to continue the laboratory cylindrical annulus studies. Four flow regimes were identified: an axisymmetric Hadley circulation, boundary layer convection, baroclinic waves and deep thermal convection. Regime diagrams were prepared.

  17. The atmospheric circulation and observable properties of non-synchronously rotating hot Jupiters

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Emily; Kempton, Eliza M. R.

    2014-07-20

    We study the feasibility of observationally constraining the rotation rate of hot Jupiters, planets that are typically assumed to have been tidally locked into synchronous rotation. We use a three-dimensional General Circulation Model to solve for the atmospheric structure of two hot Jupiters (HD 189733b and HD 209458b), assuming rotation periods that are 0.5, 1, or 2 times their orbital periods (2.2 and 3.3 days, respectively), including the effect of variable stellar heating. We compare two observable properties: (1) the spatial variation of flux emitted by the planet, measurable in orbital phase curves, and (2) the net Doppler shift in transmission spectra of the atmosphere, which is tantalizingly close to being measurable in high-resolution transit spectra. Although we find little difference between the observable properties of the synchronous and non-synchronous models of HD 189733b, we see significant differences when we compare the models of HD 209458b. In particular, the slowly rotating model of HD 209458b has an atmospheric circulation pattern characterized by westward flow and an orbital phase curve that peaks after secondary eclipse (in contrast to all of our other models), while the quickly rotating model has a net Doppler shift that is more strongly blueshifted than the other models. Our results demonstrate that the combined use of these two techniques may be a fruitful way to constrain the rotation rate of some planets and motivate future work on this topic.

  18. The Influence of Locally Increased Gravity Wave Drag on the Middle Atmosphere Circulation - A Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienthal, Friederike; Sacha, Petr; Jacobi, Christoph; Pisoft, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Internal gravity waves (GW) are one of the most dominant features in the middle atmosphere. They are a main contributor for energy and angular momentum transport and thus play an important role for atmospheric dynamics such as the Quasi Biennial Oscillation or the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). GPS radio occultation measurements (e.g. Sacha et al., 2015) have shown that GW can appear in local hotspots, e.g. in the lower stratosphere of the Eastern Asia/North-western Pacific (EA/NP) region. Using these data as an input for the GW parameterization of a 3D primitive equation model for the middle and upper atmosphere (MUAM) we study the dynamical effects of such a localized breaking region. We further introduce an additional artificial GW drag in the lower stratosphere EA/NP region and show that a localized GW forcing is more efficient in creating planetary waves (PWs) than zonally uniform GW forcing. We observe PWs propagating both equatorward and poleward and upward along the edge of the polar vortex. Possible consequences for the polar vortex stability and stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the tropical region are discussed. Finally, applying 3D wave activity flux and 3D residual circulation diagnostics, we investigated the possible role of this area in the longitudinal variability of the BDC with a hypothesis of its enhanced downwelling branch in this region.

  19. Are flood occurrences in Europe linked to specific atmospheric circulation types?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudhomme, C.; Genevier, M.

    2009-04-01

    Flood damages are amongst the most costly climate-related hazard damages, with annual average flood damage in Europe in the last few decades of around €4bn per year (Barredo, 2007). With such economic and sometimes human losses, it is important to improve our estimations of flood risk for time scales from a few months (for increased preparedness) and to several decades (necessary to establish long-term flood management strategies). This paper investigates links between the occurrence of flood events and the atmospheric circulation patterns that have prevailed in the days leading to the flood. With the recent advances in climate modelling, such links could be exploited to anticipate the extent of potential damages due to flood using seasonal atmospheric forecasts products or future climate projections. The research is undertaken at a pan-European scale and exploits latest research in automatic classification techniques developed within the EU research network COST733 Action. Daily flow data from over 450 sites were used, available from the Global Runoff Data Centre, the European Water Archive, the UK National River Flow Archive and the French Banque Hydro. The atmospheric circulation types were defined following the Objective GrossWetterLagen classification (OGWL) developed by (James, 2007) using the ERA-40 mslp re-analysis, similar to the Hess-Brezowsky subjective classification (Hess and Brezowsky, 1977). Flood events were here defined according to the peak-over-threshold method, selecting the highest independent peaks observed in streamflow time series. The association between flood and atmospheric circulation types is assessed using two indicators. The first indicator calculates the difference between the frequency of occurrence of a circulation type CTi during a flood event to that for any day, expressed in percent. The significance of the anomaly is assessed using the χ2 statistics. The second indicator measures the probability of finding at last k days of

  20. Association between winter precipitation and water level fluctuations in the Great Lakes and atmospheric circulation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Rodionov, S.N.

    1994-11-01

    Atmospheric precipitation in the Great Lakes basin, as a major mediating variable between atmospheric circulation and lake levels, is analyzed relative to both. The effect of cumulative winter precipitation on lake levels varies from lake to lake and depends on both the state of the lake level itself and air temperature. For periods with a quasi-stable temperature regime, the correlation coefficient between winter precipitation and changes in lake levels from November to spring months reaches 0.8. An analysis of composite maps of mean winter 700-mb heights and sea level pressure for the years with well-above and well-below normal precipitation in the lower Great Lakes basin (Lakes Michigan-Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario) has shown that changes in precipitation are associated with the wave train structure in the lower and midtroposphere that is similar to the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. During the positive phase of the PNA-like pattern, when the upper-atmospheric ridge/trough system is amplified, cyclones passing over the Great Lakes basin are frequently of Alberta (Canada) origin and carry relatively small amounts of precipitation. As a result, lake levels tend to decline. On the contrary, during the negative phase of the pattern when the atmospheric circulation is more zonal, the main storm track is oriented from the southwest to the northeast and cyclones bring enough precipitation to induce a rise in lake levels. The effect of the position of the upper-atmospheric trough over the east coast of North America on the precipitation regime in the Great Lakes basin is also demonstrated. 42 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Venus atmosphere simulated by a high-resolution general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko

    2016-07-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) for Venus on the basis of AFES (AGCM For the Earth Simulator) have been developed (e.g., Sugimoto et al., 2014a) and a very high-resolution simulation is performed. The highest resolution of the model is T319L120; 960 times 480 horizontal grids (grid intervals are about 40 km) with 120 vertical layers (layer intervals are about 1 km). In the model, the atmosphere is dry and forced by the solar heating with the diurnal and semi-diurnal components. The infrared radiative process is simplified by adopting Newtonian cooling approximation. The temperature is relaxed to a prescribed horizontally uniform temperature distribution, in which a layer with almost neutral static stability observed in the Venus atmosphere presents. A fast zonal wind in a solid-body rotation is given as the initial state. Starting from this idealized superrotation, the model atmosphere reaches a quasi-equilibrium state within 1 Earth year and this state is stably maintained for more than 10 Earth years. The zonal-mean zonal flow with weak midlatitude jets has almost constant velocity of 120 m/s in latitudes between 45°S and 45°N at the cloud top levels, which agrees very well with observations. In the cloud layer, baroclinic waves develop continuously at midlatitudes and generate Rossby-type waves at the cloud top (Sugimoto et al., 2014b). At the polar region, warm polar vortex zonally surrounded by a cold latitude band (cold collar) is well reproduced (Ando et al., 2016). As for horizontal kinetic energy spectra, divergent component is broadly (k>10) larger than rotational component compared with that on Earth (Kashimura et al., in preparation). Finally, recent results for thermal tides and small-scale waves will be shown in the presentation. Sugimoto, N. et al. (2014a), Baroclinic modes in the Venus atmosphere simulated by GCM, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 119, p1950-1968. Sugimoto, N. et al. (2014b), Waves in a Venus general

  2. Influence of Transient Atmospheric Circulation on the Surface Heating of the Pacific Warm Pool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chan, Pui-King

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of data on clouds, winds, and surface heat fluxes show that the transient behavior of basin-wide large-scale circulation has a significant influence on the warm pool sea surface temperature (SST). Trade winds converge to regions of the highest SST in the equatorial western Pacific. These regions have the largest cloud cover and smallest wind speed. Both surface solar heating and evaporative cooling are weak. The reduced evaporative cooling due to weakened winds exceeds the reduced solar heating due to enhanced cloudiness. The result is a maximum surface heating in the strong convective and high SST regions. Data also show that the maximum surface heating in strong convective regions is interrupted by transient atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Due to the seasonal variation of the insolation at the top of the atmosphere, trade winds and clouds also experience seasonal variations. Regions of high SST and low-level convergence follow the Sun, where the surface heating is a maximum. As the Sun moves away from a convective region, the strong trade winds set in, and the evaporative cooling enhances, resulting in a net cooling of the surface. During an El Nino, the maximum SST and convective region shifts eastward from the maritime continent to the equatorial central Pacific. Following the eastward shift of the maximum SST, the region of maximum cloudiness and surface heating also shift eastward. As the atmospheric and oceanic circulation returns to normal situations, the trade winds increase and the surface heating decreases. We conclude that the evaporative cooling associated with the seasonal and interannual variations of trade winds is one of the major factors that modulate the SST distribution of the Pacific warm pool.

  3. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation to paleogeographic and climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, Alexis; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Pullen, Alex; Kapp, Paul; Abels, Hemmo; Abell, Jordan; Giesler, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    At the southwestern margin of the Chinese Loess Plateau in the Xining Basin, Eocene-Oligocene red mudstones have been interpreted as isolated remnants of dust deposits based on grain-size distribution and quartz grain morphology. These deposits have not received the focus that the Plio-Quaternary Loess Plateau strata have received though they could provide an opportunity to document late Paleogene regional atmospheric circulation and the early mechanisms of central Asian aridification. Here, we used single-grain U-Pb dating of multiple detrital zircons to constrain their provenance. Red mudstone strata yield statistically different age distributions when compared to coeval fluvial sandstones from the Xining Basin, thus corroborating distal aeolian transport. Comparison with Paleogene regional age distributions indicates that provenance of the red mudstones is well-explained by a combination of surface westerly, dust-generating winds blowing along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and recycling of locally-sourced fluvial sediment. We thus propose that dust accumulation in central China has been occurring during most of the Cenozoic but that Paleogene deposits are rare because of long-term deflation and recycling into younger terrestrial loess deposits and into the Northern Pacific Ocean. The inferred Paleogene arid surface conditions along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, despite the presence of an extended seaway in central Asia -the Tarim Sea, suggest the presence of a strong subtropical high in central China. Evidence of orbitally-controlled lacustrine phases inter-fingered within the red mudstones indicates regular weakening or shifting of this subtropical high and mirrors the Plio-Quaternary monsoonal atmospheric circulation dynamics in central Asia. These findings thus indicate that synoptic-level atmospheric circulation over central Asia has changed little since middle Eocene time and suggest that the retreat of the Tarim Sea and the

  4. Response of a global atmospheric circulation model to spatio-temporal stochastic forcing: ensemble statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Montero, P.; Fraedrich, K.; Kirk, E.; Lunkeit, F.

    The response of a simplified global atmospheric circulation model (PUMA) to spatiotemporal stochastic forcing is analyzed using the statistical measures originally developed for ensemble forecast evaluation. The nontrivial effects of time and length correlations of the stochastic forcing on the ensemble scores (e.g. spread and 'error') are studied. A maximum for these scores is observed to occur for specific values of the correlation time. The effects of multiplicative and additive contributions of the correlated noise are analyzed in terms of the noise and PUMA parameters.

  5. Precipitation-climate sensitivity to initial conditions in an atmospheric general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, C., LLNL

    1997-03-01

    Atmospheric climate, in contrast to weather, is traditionally considered to be determined by boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature (SST). To test this hypothesis, we examined annual mean precipitation from an ensemble of 20 general circulation model (GCM) simulations. Ensemble members were forced with identical 10-year series of SST and sea ice, but they began with slightly differing initial conditions. A surprisingly small proportion of the variance in the output is attributable to the effects of boundary forcing. This result-and similar evidence from smaller ensembles of other GCM simulations-implies that long-term precipitation variations are mostly unpredictable, even if SST forecasts are `perfect.`

  6. Discrepancies in tropical upper tropospheric warming between atmospheric circulation models and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po-Chedley, Stephen; Fu, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have examined tropical upper tropospheric warming by comparing coupled atmosphere-ocean global circulation model (GCM) simulations from Phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) with satellite and radiosonde observations of warming in the tropical upper troposphere relative to the lower-middle troposphere. These studies showed that models tended to overestimate increases in static stability between the upper and lower-middle troposphere. We revisit this issue using atmospheric GCMs with prescribed historical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs that participated in the latest model intercomparison project, CMIP5. It is demonstrated that even with historical SSTs as a boundary condition, most atmospheric models exhibit excessive tropical upper tropospheric warming relative to the lower-middle troposphere as compared with satellite-borne microwave sounding unit measurements. It is also shown that the results from CMIP5 coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs are similar to findings from CMIP3 coupled GCMs. The apparent model-observational difference for tropical upper tropospheric warming represents an important problem, but it is not clear whether the difference is a result of common biases in GCMs, biases in observational datasets, or both.

  7. A System of Conservative Regridding for Ice-Atmosphere Coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R.; Nowicki, S.; Kelley, M.; Schmidt, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    The method of elevation classes, in which the ice surface model is run at multiple elevations within each grid cell, has proven to be a useful way for a low-resolution atmosphere inside a general circulation model (GCM) to produce high-resolution downscaled surface mass balance fields for use in one-way studies coupling atmospheres and ice flow models. Past uses of elevation classes have failed to conserve mass and energy because the transformation used to regrid to the atmosphere was inconsistent with the transformation used to downscale to the ice model. This would cause problems for two-way coupling. A strategy that resolves this conservation issue has been designed and is presented here. The approach identifies three grids between which data must be regridded and five transformations between those grids required by a typical coupled atmosphere-ice flow model. This paper develops a theoretical framework for the problem and shows how each of these transformations may be achieved in a consistent, conservative manner. These transformations are implemented in Glint2, a library used to couple atmosphere models with ice models. Source code and documentation are available for download. Confounding real-world issues are discussed, including the use of projections for ice modeling, how to handle dynamically changing ice geometry, and modifications required for finite element ice models.

  8. Influences of ENSO on the vertical coupling of atmospheric circulation during the onset of South Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boqi; Wu, Guoxiong; Ren, Roncai

    2015-10-01

    Based on multiple sources of atmospheric and oceanic data, this study performs a series of composite analysis of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) onset against ENSO events, and indicates that warm/cold ENSO events induce later/earlier onset of the SASM by modulating the vertical coupling of the upper- and lower-level circulation over the South Asia. Specifically, during the monsoon onset of Bay of Bengal (BOB), the ENSO-induced convection anomalies over the southern Philippines can modulate the position of South Asian high (SAH) in late April in the upper troposphere, which evolves to affect the monsoon onset convection by changing the upper divergence-pumping effect. In the lower troposphere, ENSO induces an anomalous zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) over the Indian-western Pacific Ocean to alter the barotropic instability which further affects the formation of BOB monsoon onset convection. During the Indian summer monsoon onset, the anomalous convection over northeastern BOB and Indochina Peninsula in late May act to change the SAH position and its relevant upper divergence-pumping over the Arabian Sea (AS). Meanwhile, the Indian monsoon onset convection is also modulated by the ENSO-induced changes in intensity of the inertial instability and the forced convection over the AS, which are related to an ENSO-induced anomalous cross-equatorial SST gradient and zonally asymmetric meridional gradient of sea level pressure, and an anomalous westerly over the central AS in the lower troposphere. Results demonstrate that during the BOB and India monsoon onset, the influences of ENSO on the upper circulation are similar, but are distinctly different on the lower-level circulation.

  9. Interannual drought index variations in Central Europe related to large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2014-05-01

    This contribution investigates the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and interannual variations of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in central Europe. To this end occurrence frequencies of circulation types (CT) derived from a variety of circulation type classifications (CTC) applied to daily sea level pressure (SLP) data and mean circulation indices of vorticity (V), zonality (Z) and meridionality (M) have been utilized as predictors within multiple regression models (MRM) for the estimation of gridded 3-month SPI values over central Europe for the period 1950 to 2010. CTC based MRMs used in the analyses comprise variants concerning the basic method for CT classification, the number of CTs, the size and location of the spatial domain used for CTCs and the exclusive use of CT frequencies or the combined use of CT frequencies and mean circulation indices as predictors. Adequate MRM predictor combinations have been identified by applying stepwise multiple regression analyses within a resampling framework. The performance (robustness) of the resulting MRMs has been quantified based on a leave-one out cross-validation procedure applying several skill scores. Furthermore the relative importance of individual predictors has been estimated for each MRM. From these analyses it can be stated that i.) the consideration of vorticity characteristics within CTCs, ii.) a relatively small size of the spatial domain to which CTCs are applied and iii.) the inclusion of mean circulation indices appear to improve model skill. However model skill exhibits distinct variations between seasons and regions. Whereas promising skill can be stated for the western and northwestern parts of the central European domain only unsatisfactorily skill is reached in the more continental regions and particularly during summer. Thus it can be concluded that the here presented approaches feature the potential for the downscaling of central European drought index

  10. Numerical predictions of the atmospheric circulations and dispersion of toxic releases in complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, K.R.; Flicker, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The South Area of Tooele Army Depot is one of the US Army`s storage facilities for its stockpile of chemical weapon agents. The Department of Defense is preparing to destroy the aging stockpiles of lethal chemical munitions, which have existed since the end of World War II. Although the danger slight, accurate predictions of the wind fields in the valley and accurate dispersion calculations are important in the event of an accident involving toxic chemicals at the depot. In order to prepare for an emergency which might involve a release of toxic agents to the atmosphere, the Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric circulations (HOTMAC) and its companion code RAndom Particle and Diffusion (RAPTAD) have been adapted for use in predicting where dangerous amounts of these chemicals may travel. Both codes have been applied to a number of air quality studies in the past, including previous dispersion studies at Tooele.

  11. A search for short-term meteorological effects of solar variability in an atmospheric circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, R. C. J.; Quirk, W. J.; Hansen, J. E.; Lacis, A. A.; Stone, P. H.

    1976-01-01

    A set of numerical experiments is carried out to test the short-range sensitivity of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies global atmospheric general-circulation model to changes in solar constant and ozone amount. These experiments consist of forecasts initiated with actual atmospheric data. One set of forecasts is made with a standard version of the model; another set uses the model modified by very different values of the solar constant (two-thirds and three-halves of the standard value) and of the ozone amount (zero and twice the standard amount). Twelve-day integrations with these very large variations show such small effects that the effects of realistic variations would almost certainly be insignificant meteorologically on this time scale.

  12. Design and Performance Analysis of a Massively Parallel Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Daniel S.; Suarez, Max J.

    1998-01-01

    In the 1990's computer manufacturers are increasingly turning to the development of parallel processor machines to meet the high performance needs of their customers. Simultaneously, atmospheric scientists study weather and climate phenomena ranging from hurricanes to El Nino to global warming that require increasingly fine resolution models. Here, implementation of a parallel atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) which exploits the power of massively parallel machines is described. Using the horizontal data domain decomposition methodology, this FORTRAN 90 model is able to integrate a 0.6 deg. longitude by 0.5 deg. latitude problem at a rate of 19 Gigaflops on 512 processors of a Cray T3E 600; corresponding to 280 seconds of wall-clock time per simulated model day. At this resolution, the model has 64 times as many degrees of freedom and performs 400 times as many floating point operations per simulated day as the model it replaces.

  13. Role of Ice Sheets in Thermohaline Circulation Changes Under High Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yih, H.; Oh, I. S.; Chan, W.; Motoi, T.

    2007-12-01

    Thermohaline circulation (THC) changes are considered for two experimental settings of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets with the atmospheric carbon dioxide of 1200 ppm in GFDL atmosphere-ocean coupled model. The experimental settings are to figure out the role of the ice sheets in global climate system, in which they are present and completely removed. The coupled model consists of the atmosphere and oceans, as well as simple models of land surfaces and sea ice. Atmospheric distribution of predicted variables is represented by Rhomboidal 15 configuration and nine vertical levels. Oceanic variables in 12 vertical levels have horizontal resolution of 4.5 degree latitude and 3.75 degree longitude. Streamfunctions of zonal mean meridional circulation in model oceans are used as representing fields of the THC, which are constructed after reaching statistical equilibrium state at 3000 model years. Same restart file is used for the two runs, which is at approximately 10000 model years of integration with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration of 300 ppm provided from GFDL/NOAA. The THC appears again, after weakening, strengthening, and rapid-increasing during the first 3000 model years. Analysis periods of the equilibrium state are from 3000 to 10000 model years. Streamfunctions of the two runs show in general similar pattern of circulation cells of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The cell of NADW occupies upper 2000 m mainly in north of 10 degree South, but the cell of AABW extends up to 50 degree North from the Antarctic continent in the layer below the deeper part of the NADW, while covering up to the surface in the south of 60 degree South. Difference-field of streamfunction between the two runs shows two core-regions. One core is located in the deeper part of Southern Ocean (i.e., the depth range of 2500-4000 m), and the other in the upper part, 500-2000 m depths, in the Northern Hemisphere. Latitudinal ranges of the two cores

  14. Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA AMES General Circulation Model. I - The zonal-mean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Barnes, J. R.; Zurek, R. W.; Leovy, C. B.; Murphy, J. R.; Lee, H.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-02-01

    The characteristics of the zonal-mean circulation and how it responds to seasonal variations and dust loading are described. This circulation is the main momentum-containing component of the general circulation, and it plays a dominant role in the budgets of heat and momentum. It is shown that in many ways the zonal-mean circulation on Mars, at least as simulated by the model, is similar to that on earth, having Hadley and Ferrel cells and high-altitude jet streams. However, the Martian systems tend to be deeper, more intense, and much more variable with season. Furthermore, the radiative effects of suspended dust particles, even in small amounts, have a major influence on the general circulation.

  15. a General Circulation Model Investigation of the Atmospheric Response to EL Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Aragao, Jose Oribe Rocha

    The observed atmospheric response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with El Nino episodes is simulated with the use of a general circulation model (GCM) of the atmosphere. A series of experiments has been performed with the Rasmusson and Carpenter six-episode (El Nino) composite SST anomaly (SSTA) in the tropical Pacific superimposed upon the prescribed climatological SST (CSST). Five independent 400-day runs were made beginning in April of the El Nino year (Year 0) and ending in May of the year after the maximum SSTA in the tropical Pacific (Year +1). Each of the integrations started from different initial conditions selected from different years in a 20 -year control run. The five-year El Nino integration was compared with the control run by analyzing the ensemble monthly, seasonal and annual mean statistics. The model's tropical response resembles the anomalous features found in previous studies. Some features are expected from the constraint imposed by the vorticity balance in the linear theory. For example, the upper level anticyclone pair and the lower level cyclonic circulation centers in the central Pacific are present for almost all months. These responses are significant and seem to be related to the location of both the maximum in CSST and the maximum in SSTA. An anomalous Walker Circulation is found in the vertical plane along the equatorial region. Rainfall departures from the long-term mean are associated with the anomalous Walker Circulation. An analysis of rainfall data over Northeast Brazil reveals sup- pressed rainfall in this area during the rainy season of Year(+1). Significant lower-than-normal rainfall is also found in the model's response during that period. This reduction in precipitation is associated with the downward branch of the anomalous Walker Circulation. The model's extratropical response is weaker than the tropical response and is not well organized. A Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern is present during the

  16. Role of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau in feedback mechanisms affecting the planetary circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.; Yi-Hui, D.

    1980-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the Qinghai-Xizang plateau is of great importance in generating planetary long-waves which, in resonance with similar waves induced by the Rocky Mountains, lead to the familiar pattern of quasi-stationary Rossby waves observed on monthly-mean upper level pressure charts. Seasonal forcing of flow patterns also appears to be particularly strong in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau region. Recent investigations suggest that the Qinghai-Xizang plateau may also be involved in feedback mechanisms which control in an important way the interannual variability of the general circulation of the atmosphere. It appears that the effects of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau on the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation over Asia are but one important manifestation of a network of feedback mechanisms, ranging from the El Nino problems along the Peruvian coast to droughts in the Sahel region. A better understanding of each of the mechanisms involved will lead us closer to successful long-range forecasting of some of the weather phenomena which have a considerable effect on local and regional economics.

  17. Tests of the higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulations (HOTMAC) at Deseret Chemical Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, K.R.

    1998-11-01

    Deseret Chemical Depot is one of the US Army`s storage facilities for its stockpile of chemical weapon agents. Congress has directed the Department of Defense to eliminate the aging stockpiles, which have existed since the end of World War II, and the US Army is destroying these lethal chemical munitions. Although the danger is slight, accurate predictions of the wind field in the valley are necessary for dispersion calculations in the event of an accident involving toxic chemicals at the depot. There are several small communities in Rush and Tooele valleys, including the town of Tooele, and Salt Lake City is located 65 km to the Northeast of Deseret Chemical Depot South area, at 1,300 m MSL and beyond the Oquirrh Mountains. The purpose of this report is to carry out three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulations in the region around Deseret Chemical Depot with the Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric Circulations (HOTMAC) and to evaluate the performance of the model. The code had been modified to assimilate local meteorological observations through the use of Newtonian nudging. The nudging scheme takes advantage of the extensive network of local observations in the valley.

  18. Amplification of El Niño by cloud longwave coupling to atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raedel, Gaby; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn; Dommenget, Dietmar; Matei, Daniela; Bellomo, Katinka; Clement, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation(ENSO) is the dominant mode of inter-annual variability, with major impacts on social and ecological systems through its influence on extreme weather, droughts and floods. The ability to forecast El Niño, as well as anticipate how it may change with warming, requires an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that drive it. Among these, the role of atmospheric processes remains poorly understood. Here we present numerical experiments with an Earth system model, with and without coupling of cloud radiative effects to the circulation, suggesting that clouds enhance ENSO variability by a factor of two or more. Clouds induce heating in the mid and upper troposphere associated with enhanced high-level cloudiness over the El Niño region, and low-level clouds cool the lower troposphere in the surrounding regions. Together, these effects enhance the coupling of the atmospheric circulation to El Niño surface temperature anomalies, and thus strengthen the positive Bjerknes feedback mechanism between west Pacific zonal wind stress and sea surface temperature gradients. Behaviour consistent with the proposed mechanisms robustly represented in other global climate models and in satellite observations. The mechanism suggests that the response of ENSO amplitude to climate change will in part be determined by a balance between increasing cloud long wave feedback and a possible reduction in the area covered by upper-level clouds.

  19. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2012-05-10

    Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest uncertainty in climate forcing and projection. Previous IPCC reported aerosol indirect forcing is negative, which does not account for aerosol-convective cloud interactions because the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead to enhanced regional convergence and a strong top-of atmosphere (TOA) warming. Aerosol invigoration effect on convection can result in a strong radiative warming in the atmosphere (+5.6 W m-2) due to strong night-time warming, a lofted latent heating, and a reduced diurnal temperature difference, all of which could remarkably impact regional circulation and modify weather systems. We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear and cloud base temperature play key roles in determining the significance of aerosol invigoration effect for convective systems.

  20. Amplification of El Niño by cloud longwave coupling to atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rädel, Gaby; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn; Dommenget, Dietmar; Matei, Daniela; Bellomo, Katinka; Clement, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of inter-annual variability, with major impacts on social and ecological systems through its influence on extreme weather, droughts and floods. The ability to forecast El Niño, as well as anticipate how it may change with warming, requires an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that drive it. Among these, the role of atmospheric processes remains poorly understood. Here we present numerical experiments with an Earth system model, with and without coupling of cloud radiative effects to the circulation, suggesting that clouds enhance ENSO variability by a factor of two or more. Clouds induce heating in the mid and upper troposphere associated with enhanced high-level cloudiness over the El Niño region, and low-level clouds cool the lower troposphere in the surrounding regions. Together, these effects enhance the coupling of the atmospheric circulation to El Niño surface temperature anomalies, and thus strengthen the positive Bjerknes feedback mechanism between west Pacific zonal wind stress and sea surface temperature gradients. Behaviour consistent with the proposed mechanism is robustly represented in other global climate models and in satellite observations. The mechanism suggests that the response of ENSO amplitude to climate change will in part be determined by a balance between increasing cloud longwave feedback and a possible reduction in the area covered by upper-level clouds.

  1. Relations between atmospheric circulation and mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, G.J.; Fountain, A.G.

    1995-08-01

    The yearly net mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, has decreased since the mid-1970s. Results show that the decrease in winter mass balance is caused, in part, by changes in winter mean atmospheric circulation that began during the mid-1970s. Approximately 60% of the variability in winter mass balance can be explained by variations in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada. Since the mid-1970s, there has been an increase in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada and the northern western contiguous United States and a decrease in winter mean 700-mb heights in the eastern North Pacific Ocean centered near the Aleutian Islands. These changes in atmospheric circulation indicate a decrease in the movement of storms and moisture from the Pacific Ocean into the western contiguous United States. In addition, the increase in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada and the northern western contiguous United States indicates an increase in subsidence, which results in a warming and drying of the air that further reduces precipitation and also increases the ratio of rain to snow during the cold season. These factors contribute to below-average winter mass balances. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Enhanced evidence in climate models for changes in extratropical atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeth, Heiko; Pollinger, Felix

    2010-10-01

    We investigate changes in extratropical atmospheric circulation as derived from the most recent multi-model ensemble of global climate projections. This internationally coordinated systematic data base allows for an accurate assessment of climate change signals against the background of model uncertainty. The multi-model mean time series of the northern-hemisphere (NAM) and southern-hemisphere (SAM) annular modes and of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are in line with the observed positive trends during the second half of the 20th century and project a further strengthening until the end of the 21st century. For SAM and NAM the simulated changes are unambiguously related to anthropogenic forcing and outperform the level of model uncertainty. This result may imply an enhanced probability for some severe regional impacts of climate change, in particular over extratropical land masses. The climate change signals are noticeably weaker under the B1 mitigation scenario than under the A2 business-as-usual scenario. Ozone forcing has a significant impact on the amplitude of future circulation changes, whereas no systematic effect is found with respect to the models' top-of-the-atmosphere.

  3. Seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide and atmospheric circulation in Mars' southern hemisphere as observed by neutron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T. H.; Wiens, R. C.; Reisner, J. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.

    2004-01-01

    The south polar seasonal cap consists of CO{sub 2} ice that condenses and sublimes in response to seasonal changes in insolation, advancing equatorward during the fall and winter and receding poleward during spring. Cycling of CO{sub 2} between the surface and atmosphere at high latitudes plays a significant role in global atmospheric circulation. During winter, the south polar seasonal cap may contain up to 30% of the total atmospheric mass. The rate of cap growth and recession depends on factors such as atmospheric dust optical depth, surface thermal inertia, and the albedo of the CO{sub 2} ice, all of which affect the polar energy balance. While the martian atmosphere consists primarily of CO{sub 2}, it also contains lesser amounts of noncondensable gases, including N{sub 2} and Ar. As the cap grows, mass is advected poleward from lower latitudes. Because the net flow of mass is towards the pole and CO{sub 2} is being removed from the atmosphere, an increase in the column abundance of noncondensable gases at high latitudes is expected to occur. As the CO{sub 2} ice sublimes during spring, the situation is reversed, and noncondensable gases may be depleted relative to the global average. For example, enrichment of noncondensable gases near the surface in the polar regions has been considered in interpreting observations of anomalously low condensation temperatures (cold spots) by Viking and Mars Global Surveyor; however, other possibilities such as granular ice or snowfall may also explain these observations. Dynamical weather patterns, such as the formation of a polar vortex, and turbulent phenomena such as eddy diffusion affect the enrichment and depletion of noncondensables. Thus, noncondensable gases could serve as an atmospheric tracer, providing information needed to understand these processes. The purpose of this study is to analyze data from Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer to determine the column abundance of noncondensable gases and CO{sub 2} ground

  4. Measurements Needed to Understand Superrotation and Circulation in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, H. F.; Schubert, G.; Covey, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    many satellite and ground based instruments. Recent measurements from Venus Express also indicate that the average cloud top wind speeds have steadily and significantly increased over the last six years. Variability on multi-year and shorter timescales occurs in at least one Venus general circulation model (Parish et al., 2011) for a variety of choices of input assumptions (Lebonnois et al., 2012). The same model also indicates significant hemispheric asymmetries in the zonal winds and angular momentum, related to hemispheric asymmetries in the surface topography. Accordingly, future observations must include multi-year observations and in situ measurements of the lower atmosphere that cover a full range of both latitudes and local solar times.

  5. El Nino-southern oscillation simulated in an MRI atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, T.; Tokioka, T.; Endoh, M.; Kitamura, Y. )

    1992-11-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) was time integrated for 30 years to study interannual variability in the tropics. The atmospheric component is a global GCM with 5 levels in the vertical and 4[degrees]latitude X 5[degrees] longitude grids in the horizontal including standard physical processes (e.g., interactive clouds). The oceanic component is a GCM for the Pacific with 19 levels in the vertical and 1[degrees]x 2.5[degrees] grids in the horizontal including seasonal varying solar radiation as forcing. The model succeeded in reproducing interannual variations that resemble the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with realistic seasonal variations in the atmospheric and oceanic fields. The model ENSO cycle has a time scale of approximately 5 years and the model El Nino (warm) events are locked roughly in phase to the seasonal cycle. The cold events, however, are less evident in comparison with the El Nino events. The time scale of the model ENSO cycle is determined by propagation time of signals from the central-eastern Pacific to the western Pacific and back to the eastern Pacific. Seasonal timing is also important in the ENSO time scale: wind anomalies in the central-eastern Pacific occur in summer and the atmosphere ocean coupling in the western Pacific operates efficiently in the first half of the year.

  6. Discrepancies in tropical upper tropospheric warming between atmospheric circulation models and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po-Chedley, S.; Fu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has compared CMIP3 coupled atmosphere-ocean global circulation model (GCM) simulations with satellite observations of warming in the tropical upper troposphere relative to the lower-middle troposphere (Fu et al 2011). This research showed that models tended to overestimate increases in static stability in the tropical upper troposphere. This discrepancy between satellite-borne microwave sounding unit (MSU) measurements and GCM simulations is important because it has implications for the strength of the lapse rate and water vapor feedbacks. We revisit this issue using atmospheric GCMs with prescribed historical SSTs and historical coupled GCMs that participated in CMIP5. It is demonstrated that even with historical SSTs as a boundary condition, most atmospheric models exhibit excessive tropical upper tropospheric warming relative to the lower-middle troposphere as compared with MSU measurements. It is also shown that the results from CMIP5 coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs are similar to findings from CMIP3 coupled GCMs. The apparent model-observational difference for changes in static stability in the tropical upper troposphere represents an important problem, but it is not clear whether the difference is a result of common biases in GCMs, biases in observational datasets, or both. In this work, we will use a GCM to examine the role of SST spatial patterns as well as convection in determining the lapse rate changes in the tropical upper troposphere.

  7. Linkages between atmospheric blocking, sea ice export through Fram Strait and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

    PubMed

    Ionita, M; Scholz, P; Lohmann, G; Dima, M; Prange, M

    2016-01-01

    As a key persistent component of the atmospheric dynamics, the North Atlantic blocking activity has been linked to extreme climatic phenomena in the European sector. It has also been linked to Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability, but its potential links to rapid oceanic changes have not been investigated. Using a global ocean-sea ice model forced with atmospheric reanalysis data, here it is shown that the 1962-1966 period of enhanced blocking activity over Greenland resulted in anomalous sea ice accumulation in the Arctic and ended with a sea ice flush from the Arctic into the North Atlantic Ocean through Fram Strait. This event induced a significant decrease of Labrador Sea water surface salinity and an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the 1970s. These results have implications for the prediction of rapid AMOC changes and indicate that an important part of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics at mid- and high latitudes requires a proper representation of the Fram Strait sea ice transport and of the synoptic scale variability such as atmospheric blocking, which is a challenge for current coupled climate models. PMID:27619955

  8. Development of the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model: Evolution from MERRA to MERRA2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea; Takacs, Lawrence; Suarez, Max; Bacmeister, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications-2 (MERRA2) version of the GEOS-5 (Goddard Earth Observing System Model - 5) Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) is currently in use in the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at a wide range of resolutions for a variety of applications. Details of the changes in parameterizations subsequent to the version in the original MERRA reanalysis are presented here. Results of a series of atmosphere-only sensitivity studies are shown to demonstrate changes in simulated climate associated with specific changes in physical parameterizations, and the impact of the newly implemented resolution-aware behavior on simulations at different resolutions is demonstrated. The GEOS-5 AGCM presented here is the model used as part of the GMAO's MERRA2 reanalysis, the global mesoscale "nature run", the real-time numerical weather prediction system, and for atmosphere-only, coupled ocean-atmosphere and coupled atmosphere-chemistry simulations. The seasonal mean climate of the MERRA2 version of the GEOS-5 AGCM represents a substantial improvement over the simulated climate of the MERRA version at all resolutions and for all applications. Fundamental improvements in simulated climate are associated with the increased re-evaporation of frozen precipitation and cloud condensate, resulting in a wetter atmosphere. Improvements in simulated climate are also shown to be attributable to changes in the background gravity wave drag, and to upgrades in the relationship between the ocean surface stress and the ocean roughness. The series of "resolution aware" parameters related to the moist physics were shown to result in improvements at higher resolutions, and result in AGCM simulations that exhibit seamless behavior across different resolutions and applications.

  9. Development of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model: evolution from MERRA to MERRA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molod, A.; Takacs, L.; Suarez, M.; Bacmeister, J.

    2015-05-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications-2 (MERRA2) version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is currently in use in the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at a wide range of resolutions for a variety of applications. Details of the changes in parameterizations subsequent to the version in the original MERRA reanalysis are presented here. Results of a series of atmosphere-only sensitivity studies are shown to demonstrate changes in simulated climate associated with specific changes in physical parameterizations, and the impact of the newly implemented resolution-aware behavior on simulations at different resolutions is demonstrated. The GEOS-5 AGCM presented here is the model used as part of the GMAO MERRA2 reanalysis, global mesoscale simulations at 10 km resolution through 1.5 km resolution, the real-time numerical weather prediction system, and for atmosphere-only, coupled ocean-atmosphere and coupled atmosphere-chemistry simulations. The seasonal mean climate of the MERRA2 version of the GEOS-5 AGCM represents a substantial improvement over the simulated climate of the MERRA version at all resolutions and for all applications. Fundamental improvements in simulated climate are associated with the increased re-evaporation of frozen precipitation and cloud condensate, resulting in a wetter atmosphere. Improvements in simulated climate are also shown to be attributable to changes in the background gravity wave drag, and to upgrades in the relationship between the ocean surface stress and the ocean roughness. The series of resolution-aware parameters related to the moist physics was shown to result in improvements at higher resolutions and result in AGCM simulations that exhibit seamless behavior across different resolutions and applications.

  10. Characteristics of atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme temperatures over North America in observations and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loikith, Paul C.

    Motivated by a desire to understand the physical mechanisms involved in future anthropogenic changes in extreme temperature events, the key atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme daily temperatures over North America in the current climate are identified. Several novel metrics are used to systematically identify and describe these patterns for the entire continent. The orientation, physical characteristics, and spatial scale of these circulation patterns vary based on latitude, season, and proximity to important geographic features (i.e., mountains, coastlines). The anomaly patterns associated with extreme cold events tend to be similar to, but opposite in sign of, those associated with extreme warm events, especially within the westerlies, and tend to scale with temperature in the same locations. The influence of the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern, the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on extreme temperature days and months shows that associations between extreme temperatures and the PNA and NAM are stronger than associations with ENSO. In general, the association with extremes tends to be stronger on monthly than daily time scales. Extreme temperatures are associated with the PNA and NAM in locations typically influenced by these circulation patterns; however many extremes still occur on days when the amplitude and polarity of these patterns do not favor their occurrence. In winter, synoptic-scale, transient weather disturbances are important drivers of extreme temperature days; however these smaller-scale events are often concurrent with amplified PNA or NAM patterns. Associations are weaker in summer when other physical mechanisms affecting the surface energy balance, such as anomalous soil moisture content, are associated with extreme temperatures. Analysis of historical runs from seventeen climate models from the CMIP5 database suggests that most models simulate realistic circulation patterns

  11. Recent interdecadal changes in the interannual variability of precipitation and atmospheric circulation over northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujinami, Hatsuki; Kanamori, Hironari; Ishige, Takaya; Oshima, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the interannual variability and trends in precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns over northern Eurasia using long-term Precipitation REConstruction over Land and atmospheric Japanese 55-year Reanalysis data (JRA-55) from 1958 to 2012. Special emphasis was placed on the recent increase in summer (June, July and August) precipitation around the Lena river basin in eastern Siberia. We found interdecadal modulation in the relationships between interannual variability in summer precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns among the three major Siberian river basins (Lena, Yenisei, and Ob). The interannual variations in summer precipitation over the Ob and Lena river basins were negatively correlated from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s. However, after the mid-1990s, this negative correlation became insignificant. In contrast, a significant positive correlation was apparent between the Yenisei and Lena river basins. We also found that there has been a significant increasing (positive) trend in geopotential height in the low-level troposphere since the mid-1980s over Mongolia and European Russia, resulting in an increasing trend of westerly moisture flux into the Yenisei and Lena river basins. Summer precipitation in both basins was continuously high from 2005 to 2008 under a trough that broadly extended from the Yenisei and Lena river basins, which has been a typical pattern of interannual variation since the mid-1990s. This trough increased the meridional pressure gradient between Mongolia and eastern Siberia in combination with the trend pattern. This further enhanced the eastward moisture flux towards the Lena river basin and its convergence over the basin, resulting in high summer precipitation from 2005 to 2008.

  12. Easy Aerosol - Robust and non-robust circulation responses to aerosol radiative forcing in comprehensive atmosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Aiko; Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Boucher, Olivier; Medeiros, Brian; Pincus, Robert; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Lewinschal, Anna; Bellouin, Nicolas; Yang, Young-Min

    2015-04-01

    A number of recent studies illustrated the potential of aerosols to change the large-scale atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns. It remains unclear, however, to what extent the proposed aerosol-induced changes reflect robust model behavior or are affected by uncertainties in the models' treatment of parametrized physical processes, such as those related to clouds. "Easy Aerosol", a model-intercomparison project organized within the Grand Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity of the World Climate Research Programme, addresses this question by subjecting a suite of comprehensive atmosphere general circulation models with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) to the same set of idealized "easy" aerosol perturbations. This contribution discusses the aerosol perturbations as well as their impact on the model's precipitation and surface winds. The aerosol perturbations are designed based on a global aerosol climatology and mimic the gravest mode of the anthropogenic aerosol. Specifically, the meridional and zonal distributions of total aerosol optical depth are approximated by a superposition of Gaussian plumes; the vertical distribution is taken as constant within the lowest 1250m of the atmosphere followed by an exponential decay with height above. The aerosol both scatters and absorbs shortwave radiation, but in order to focus on direct radiative effects aerosol-cloud interactions are omitted. Each model contributes seven simulations. A clean control case with no aerosol-radiative effects at all is compared to six perturbed simulations with differing aerosol loading, zonal aerosol distributions, and SSTs. To estimate the role of natural variability, one of the models, MPI-ESM, contributes a 5-member ensemble for each simulation. If the observed SSTs from years 1979-2005 are prescribed, the aerosol leads to a local depression of precipitation at the Northern Hemisphere center of the aerosol and a northward shift of the

  13. Changing correlation structures of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation from 1000 to 2100 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raible, C. C.; Lehner, F.; Gonzalez Rouco, J. F.; Fernandez Donado, L.

    2013-08-01

    Atmospheric circulation modes are important concepts to understand the variability of atmospheric dynamics. Assuming their spatial patterns to be fixed, such modes are often described by simple indices derived from rather short observational data sets. The increasing length of reanalysis products allows scrutinizing these concepts and assumptions. Here we investigate the stability of spatial patterns of Northern Hemisphere teleconnections by using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis as well as several control and transient millennium-scale simulations with coupled models. The observed and simulated centers of action of the two major teleconnection patterns, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and to some extent the Pacific North American (PNA), are not stable in time. The currently observed dipole pattern of the NAO with its center of action over Iceland and the Azores split into a North-South dipole pattern in the western Atlantic and a wave train pattern in the eastern part connecting the British Isles with West Greenland and the Eastern Mediterranean in the period 1940-1969 AD. The PNA centers of action over Canada are shifted southwards and over Florida into the Gulf of Mexico in the period 1915-1944 AD. The analysis further shows that shifts in the centers of action of either telconnection pattern are not related to changes in the external forcing applied in transient simulations of the last millennium. Such shifts in their centers of action are associated with changes in the relation of local precipitation and temperature to the overlying atmospheric mode. These findings further undermine the assumption of stationarity between local climate/proxy variability and large-scale dynamics inherent in proxy-based reconstructions of atmospheric modes and call for a more robust understanding of atmospheric variability on decadal time scales.

  14. Changing correlation structures of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation from 1000 to 2100 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raible, C. C.; Lehner, F.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Fernández-Donado, L.

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric circulation modes are important concepts in understanding the variability of atmospheric dynamics. Assuming their spatial patterns to be fixed, such modes are often described by simple indices from rather short observational data sets. The increasing length of reanalysis products allows these concepts and assumptions to be scrutinised. Here we investigate the stability of spatial patterns of Northern Hemisphere teleconnections by using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis as well as several control and transient millennium-scale simulations with coupled models. The observed and simulated centre of action of the two major teleconnection patterns, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and to some extent the Pacific North American (PNA), are not stable in time. The currently observed dipole pattern of the NAO, its centre of action over Iceland and the Azores, split into a north-south dipole pattern in the western Atlantic with a wave train pattern in the eastern part, connecting the British Isles with West Greenland and the eastern Mediterranean during the period 1940-1969 AD. The PNA centres of action over Canada are shifted southwards and over Florida into the Gulf of Mexico during the period 1915-1944 AD. The analysis further shows that shifts in the centres of action of either teleconnection pattern are not related to changes in the external forcing applied in transient simulations of the last millennium. Such shifts in their centres of action are accompanied by changes in the relation of local precipitation and temperature with the overlying atmospheric mode. These findings further undermine the assumption of stationarity between local climate/proxy variability and large-scale dynamics inherent when using proxy-based reconstructions of atmospheric modes, and call for a more robust understanding of atmospheric variability on decadal timescales.

  15. Impact of Arctic sea ice loss on large-scale atmospheric circulation based on fully-coupled sensitivity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudar, Thomas; Sanchez, Emilia; Terray, Laurent; Chauvin, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea ice decline in the recent decades has been reported in observational studies. Modeling studies have confirmed that this downward trend in Arctic sea ice is mainly caused by increasing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) concentrations into the atmosphere. The IPCC-AR5 report concluded that Arctic sea ice will continue to decrease and is projected to disappear in the middle of the 21st century, yielding to a ice-free region during boreal summer season. Arctic sea ice loss is expected to strongly impact the climate system. Recently, the climate community has conducted a number of studies to evaluate and understand the Arctic sea ice loss implications on climate. While some studies have shown that Arctic sea ice decline can significantly affect the large-scale atmospheric dynamics at high and mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, by altering the storm-tracks, the jet stream (position and strength) and the planetary waves, large uncertainties remain due to a low signal-to-noise ratio and experimental protocol differences leading to a large inter-model spread. In this work, we investigate the respective roles of Arctic sea ice loss and GHGs increase on the atmospheric dynamics by means of an idealized experimental set-up that uses the coupled model CNRM-CM5. The experimental set-up, based on a flux correction technique, will allow separating the contributions of Arctic sea ice loss from the GHGs increasing. We will focus mainly on the atmospheric circulation response in the Northern Hemisphere and on the associated synoptic variability, represented by the storm-tracks. We show that Arctic sea ice loss is responsible for an equatorward shift of the northern hemisphere jet, which is opposed to the GHGs effect. Finally we show that these shifts are consistent with the storm-tracks response.

  16. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors.

    PubMed

    Kierepko, Renata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Wershofen, Herbert; Holgye, Zoltan; Kapała, Jacek; Isajenko, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for (238)Pu and for ((239+240))Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBqm(-3), respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of (238)Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air. PMID:27450248

  17. Towards Improved Forecasts of Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations over the Complex Terrain of the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronis, Themis; Case, Jonathan L.; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Mecikalski, John R.; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasting atmospheric and oceanic circulations accurately over the Eastern Mediterranean has proved to be an exceptional challenge. The existence of fine-scale topographic variability (land/sea coverage) and seasonal dynamics variations can create strong spatial gradients in temperature, wind and other state variables, which numerical models may have difficulty capturing. The Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR) is one of the main operational centers for wave forecasting in the eastern Mediterranean. Currently, HCMR's operational numerical weather/ocean prediction model is based on the coupled Eta/Princeton Ocean Model (POM). Since 1999, HCMR has also operated the POSEIDON floating buoys as a means of state-of-the-art, real-time observations of several oceanic and surface atmospheric variables. This study attempts a first assessment at improving both atmospheric and oceanic prediction by initializing a regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model with high-resolution sea surface temperatures (SST) from remotely sensed platforms in order to capture the small-scale characteristics.

  18. The influence of atmospheric circulation types on regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltacı, H.; Kındap, T.; Ünal, A.; Karaca, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara are described for the first time by means of Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis. Daily values of winter precipitation data based on 19 meteorological stations were used for the period from 1960 to 2012. Five clusters of coherent zones were determined, namely Black Sea-Marmara, Black Sea, Marmara, Thrace, and Aegean sub-regions. To investigate the prevailing atmospheric circulation types (CTs) that cause precipitation occurrence and intensity in these five different rainfall sub-basins, objective Lamb weather type (LWT) methodology was applied to National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis of daily mean sea level pressure (MSLP) data. Precipitation occurrence suggested that wet CTs (i.e. N, NE, NW, and C) offer a high chance of precipitation in all sub-regions. For the eastern (western) part of the region, the high probability of rainfall occurrence is shown under the influence of E (SE, S, SW) atmospheric CTs. In terms of precipitation intensity, N and C CTs had the highest positive gradients in all the sub-basins of the Marmara. In addition, although Marmara and Black Sea sub-regions have the highest daily rainfall potential during NE types, high daily rainfall totals are recorded in all sub-regions except the Black Sea during NW types.

  19. A new general circulation model for Mars based on the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Richard A.; Toon, Owen B.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce and present results from a new general circulation model for Mars adapted from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 3.1 terrestrial model. The radiative transfer has been replaced with a two-stream correlated-k scheme with carbon dioxide gas absorption coefficients suited for Mars. A time-invariant dust field is assumed with a Conrath (Conrath, B.J. [1975]. Icarus 24, 34-46) vertical distribution. Carbon dioxide is allowed to sublimate and condense at the surface, and the mass is removed from the atmosphere. The topography is averaged from MOLA data. The surface albedos and thermal inertias are derived from TES observations. The model is freely distributed to interested users. Comparisons between model temperatures, and spacecraft and Lander observations show agreement within ±10 K, depending on dust concentration. The annual pressure cycle is typically within 20 Pa of Viking Lander observations, however the model underestimates the surface pressure during southern summer, possibly due to increased dust activity that is not reflected in the model. Predicted model boundary layer depths are typically within a few hundred meters of observations, and tend to depend inversely on surface pressure, agreeing with observations.

  20. The role of aerosol in altering North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in winter and air-quality feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, F. S. R.; Gaetani, M.; Messori, G.; Kloster, S.; Dentener, F. J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical model scenarios of future climate depict a global increase in temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, driven by increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Aerosol concentrations also play an important role in altering Earth's radiation budget and consequently surface temperature. Here, we use the general circulation aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM, coupled to a mixed layer ocean model, to investigate the impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies in Europe on winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. We analyze the extreme case of a maximum feasible end-of-pipe reduction of aerosols in the near future (2030), in combination with increasing GHG concentrations. Our results show a more positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mean state in the near future, together with a significant eastward shift of the southern centre of action of the sea level pressure (SLP). Moreover, we show a significantly increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. By separating the aerosol and GHG impacts, our study suggests that the aerosol abatement in the near future may be the primary driver of such circulation changes. All these concomitant modifications of the atmospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector lead to more stagnant weather conditions that favor air pollutant accumulation in the Mediterranean, especially in the western sector. These changes in atmospheric circulation should be included in future air pollution mitigation assessments. Our results suggest that an evaluation of NAO changes in individual climate model simulations will allow an objective assessment of the role of changes in wintertime circulation on future air quality.

  1. Observed Anomalous Atmospheric Circulation in Summers of Unusual Arctic Sea Ice Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Erlend; Orsolini, Yvan; Furevik, Tore; Hodges, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the atmospheric patterns (circulation, precipitation and temperature) associated with changes in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) in summertime. Significant features and dynamical linkages of the parameter fields are presented. Sea ice extent and concentration are from the National Snow & Ice Data Center (NSIDC), while sea level pressure, winds, temperature, radiation, precipitation and snowfall - used to characterize storms, cloud cover, warming/cooling effects, large-scale wave trains and jet streams - come from the European Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim) re-analysis. The storm track characteristic is analyzed using the Kevin Hodges TRACK algorithm, based on zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa. Significant patterns result from compositing anomalous high (+1 STD, 23 months) and low (-1 STD, 17 months) standardized SIE reduction months in summer (May-August, MJJA) over 1979-2013. For high SIE reduction months, a relative anticyclonic circulation over the Arctic Ocean emerges. Resulting is a tendency for storms to shun the Arctic Ocean, following a more zonal path, and hence contributing to a weakening of the climatological Arctic Ocean Cyclone Maximum. For the Arctic Ocean, a reduced cloud cover results in less precipitation, where the particular decrease in snowfall over sea ice in August lowers the albedo and hence increases the ice reduction. The warming over the continents increases the land-sea temperature contrast, resulting in increased cyclogenesis especially along the Siberian coast. In mid-latitudes, the shift in storm tracks results in an increase in storms and rainfall over northwestern Europe and southern Scandinavia. The presentation adds to the ongoing discussion on Arctic sea ice and mid-latitude extreme weather, and also contributes to the understanding of feedback mechanisms in the region. With the current declining trend in sea ice expected to continue in the coming decades, the understanding of anomalous circulation patterns

  2. Solar influences on spatial patterns of Eurasian winter temperature and atmospheric general circulation anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haishan; Ma, Hedi; Li, Xing; Sun, Shanlei

    2015-09-01

    Solar influences on spatial patterns of Eurasian winter climate and possible mechanisms are investigated based on a multiple linear regression method and multisource observational and reanalysis data. Robust and significant solar signals are detected in Eurasian surface air temperature (SAT), and strong solar activity evidently warms most area of the continent. The spatial pattern of sea level pressure (SLP) responses to solar activity is similar but not identical to that of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Compared to the NAO, geographic distribution of solar-induced SLP anomalies shifts eastward, with significantly enhanced influences over northern Eurasia. Relatively weaker solar signals were also found in mid-to-upper troposphere. The spatial pattern of 500 hPa geopotential anomalies resembles a negative Scandinavia teleconnection pattern, and the 200 hPa subtropical jet is weakened, while zonal wind at high latitudes is enhanced due to strong solar activity. The anomalous zonal circulations can be attributed to the "top-down" mechanism. During high solar activity winters, an enhanced stratospheric zonal wind anomaly propagates downward, causing zonal wind anomalies in the troposphere. However, the "bottom-up" mechanisms may provide more reasonable explanations of the distinct solar influences on Eurasian climate. Solar-induced strong warm advection in lower atmosphere tends to increase SAT but decrease SLP, resulting in enhanced solar influences over northern Eurasia. Meanwhile, change in the land-ocean thermal contrast (LOTC) could also amplify the circulation anomaly. Inhomogeneous surface heating caused by anomalous solar activity modifies LOTC, which probably enhances the solar-induced circulation patterns. Such a positive feedback may potentially strengthen the solar influences.

  3. Simulating Titan’s tropospheric circulation with the Portable University Model of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieger, B.; Segschneider, J.; Keller, H. U.; Rodin, A. V.; Lunkeit, F.; Kirk, E.; Fraedrich, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Portable University Model of the Atmosphere (PUMA) is a general circulation model of intermediate complexity. In the model setup used herein, the dynamics is driven by restoration to a prescribed temperature field. Given an observed three-dimensional field of restoration temperatures, the feedback of aerosol distribution to the radiation scheme and hence to the dynamics is excluded from calculations. PUMA is adapted to Titan conditions and used to carry out a series of experiments with temperature fields based on radio occultation and infrared spectroscopy measurements taken by Voyager 1 in 1980. The resultant winds are prograde with maximum wind speeds of about 14 m/s in the troposphere. This simulation demonstrates capabilities of a restricted complexity model and provides a contribution to the prediction of the descent trajectory of the Huygens lander in January 2005.

  4. The January and July performance of the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, M. E.; Gates, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modified version of the two-level atmospheric general circulation model has been developed and employed in the simulation of January and July global climates. The overall physical and numerical formation of the Oregon State University model is the same as that described by Gates and Schlesinger (1977), but in the new version water vapor at the upper level has been made a prognostic variable, the parameterizations of cumulus convection, large-scale condensation and evaporation, clouds, and radiative transfer have been changed, the surface snow mass and ground temperature have been made prognostic variables, and the treatment of the surface boundary layer has been revised. It is found that the model simulates most features of the large-scale distributions of observed January and July climate more accurately than before.

  5. Effects of a Total Solar Eclipse on the Mesoscale Atmospheric Circulation over Europe - A Model Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, P.; Hense, A.

    On August the 11th, 1999 Central Europe saw a spectacular astronomical event, a total solar eclipse. We present a model study concerning the meteorological effects of this eclipse in central Europe using the state-of-the-art limited area forecast model Deutschland-Modell DM from the German Weather Service DWD. Under typical summer radiation conditions very strong anomalies in the surface energy flux and temperature in screen height are simulated. The main temperature signal in the lower troposphere is delayed by about one hour with respect to the surface. Furthermore it is connected with a well defined dynamical signal which is reminiscent to a large scale land - sea circulation. The event could be used as a test case for mesoscale atmospheric models.

  6. Relations between atmospheric circulation and mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J., Jr.; Fountain, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The yearly net mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, has decreased since the mid-1970s. Resuls show that the decrease is primarily caused by a significant decrease in the winter mass balance. Changes in atmospheric circulation indicate a decrease in the movement of storms and moisture from the Pacific Ocean into the western contiguous United States. In addition, the increase in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada and the northern western contiguous United States indicates an increase in subsidence, which results in a warming and drying of the air that further reduces precipitation and also increases the ratio of rain to snow during the cold season. These factors contribute to below-average winter mass balances. -from Authors

  7. Variability in winter mass balance of Northern Hemisphere glaciers and relations with atmospheric circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Fountain, A.G.; Dyurgerov, M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of variability in the winter mass balance (WMB) of 22 glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere indicates two primary modes of variability that explain 46% of the variability among all glaciers. The first mode of variability characterizes WMB variability in Northern and Central Europe and the second mode primarily represents WMB variability in northwestern North America, but also is related to variability in WMB of one glacier in Europe and one in Central Asia. These two modes of WMB variability are explained by variations in mesoscale atmospheric circulation which are driving forces of variations in surface temperature and precipitation. The first mode is highly correlated with the Arctic Oscillation Index, whereas the second mode is highly correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index. In addition, the second mode of WMB variability is highly correlated with variability in global winter temperatures. This result suggests some connection between global temperature trends and WMB for some glaciers.

  8. Tracer water transport and subgrid precipitation variation within atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Eagleson, Peter S.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1988-01-01

    A capability is developed for monitoring tracer water movement in the three-dimensional Goddard Institute for Space Science Atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM). A typical experiment with the tracer water model follows water evaporating from selected grid squares and determines where this water first returns to the Earth's surface as precipitation or condensate, thereby providing information on the lateral scales of hydrological transport in the GCM. Through a comparison of model results with observations in nature, inferences can be drawn concerning real world water transport. Tests of the tracer water model include a comparison of simulated and observed vertically-integrated vapor flux fields and simulations of atomic tritium transport from the stratosphere to the oceans. The inter-annual variability of the tracer water model results is also examined.

  9. EFFECTS OF INITIAL FLOW ON CLOSE-IN PLANET ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thrastarson, Heidar Th.; Cho, James Y-K. E-mail: J.Cho@qmul.ac.u

    2010-06-10

    We use a general circulation model to study the three-dimensional (3D) flow and temperature distributions of atmospheres on tidally synchronized extrasolar planets. In this work, we focus on the sensitivity of the evolution to the initial flow state, which has not received much attention in 3D modeling studies. We find that different initial states lead to markedly different distributions-even under the application of strong forcing (large day-night temperature difference with a short 'thermal drag time') that may be representative of close-in planets. This is in contrast with the results or assumptions of many published studies. In general, coherent jets and vortices (and their associated temperature distributions) characterize the flow, and they evolve differently in time, depending on the initial condition. If the coherent structures reach a quasi-stationary state, their spatial locations still vary. The result underlines the fact that circulation models are currently unsuitable for making quantitative predictions (e.g., location and size of a 'hot spot') without better constrained, and well-posed, initial conditions.

  10. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng (Christopher); Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62-7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82-11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift.

  11. Variability of atmospheric circulation patterns associated with large volume changes of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, A.; Post, P.

    2015-10-01

    Salinity and stratification in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea are linked to the occurrence of Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of higher saline water of North Sea origin, which occur sporadically and transport higher saline and oxygenated water to deeper layers. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of MBIs have decreased. They were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there was no obvious decrease of larger Baltic Sea volume changes (LVCs). A LVC is defined by a total volume change of at least 100 km3. LVCs can be identified from the sea level changes at Landsort which is known to represent the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well. Strong inflows leading to LVCs are associated to a special sequence of atmospheric circulation patterns. Our analysis based on Jenkinson-Collison circulation (JCC) types confirms that most effective inflows occur if about a month before the main inflow period, eastern air flow with anticyclonic vorticity over the western Baltic prevails. These conditions reduce the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea and lead to an increased saline stratification in the Belt Sea area. An immediate period of strong to very strong westerly winds trigger the inflow and force LVCs/MBIs. The lack of MBIs coincide with a negative trend of eastern types and a parallel increase of western type JCCs.

  12. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng (Christopher); Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62–7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82–11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. PMID:25012454

  13. Migration history of air-breathing fishes reveals Neogene atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, M.

    2004-05-01

    The migration history of an air-breathing fish group (Channidae; snakehead fishes) is used for reconstructing Neogene Eurasian precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. The study shows that snakeheads are sensitive indicators of summer precipitation maxima in subtropical and temperate regions, and are present regularly if the wettest month exceeds 150 mm precipitation and 20 °C mean temperature. The analysis of 515 fossil freshwater fish deposits of the past 50 m.y. from Africa and Eurasia shows two continental-scale migration events from the snakeheads' center of origin in the south Himalayan region, events that can be related to changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation pattern. The first migration, ca. 17.5 Ma, into western and central Eurasia may have been caused by a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone that brought western Eurasia under the influence of trade winds that produced a zonal and meridional precipitation gradient in Europe. During the second migration, between 8 and 4 Ma, into Africa and East Asia, snakeheads reached their present-day distribution. This migration could have been related to the intensification of the Asian monsoon that brought summer precipitation to their migratory pathways in East Africa Arabia and East Asia.

  14. Interactions of Multiple Atmospheric Circulation Drive the Drought in Tarim River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong-Ping; Feng, Guo-Lin; Li, Bai-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is likely to cause overall drying of land surfaces and aridity increasing leading to expansion of dry climate zones. There is an increased risk of extremely arid environment and large deserts developed progressively in the central Asia. However, the key factors causing the drying in mid-Asia remain inconclusive. Here, we analyzed the relationship among precipitation, water vapor transportation in Tarim River Basin (TRB) and Multiple Atmospheric Circulation (MAC) to explore the mechanism of MAC driving the drying in TRB, through comparing MAC between abundant and scarce precipitation years. We found that Westerly Circulation (WC) and Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) are likely to promote the precipitation respectively. Whereas, they not only have their own influence but also restrict each other and facilitate the forming of peculiar water vapor transport channel for TRB, which is probably to restrain the precipitation and its distribution pattern and accelerate the drying in this region. Our results enrich the findings on mechanisms of wet places becoming wetter while dry areas getting drier under the global warming. PMID:27198665

  15. Interactions of Multiple Atmospheric Circulation Drive the Drought in Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong-Ping; Feng, Guo-Lin; Li, Bai-Lian

    2016-05-01

    Global warming is likely to cause overall drying of land surfaces and aridity increasing leading to expansion of dry climate zones. There is an increased risk of extremely arid environment and large deserts developed progressively in the central Asia. However, the key factors causing the drying in mid-Asia remain inconclusive. Here, we analyzed the relationship among precipitation, water vapor transportation in Tarim River Basin (TRB) and Multiple Atmospheric Circulation (MAC) to explore the mechanism of MAC driving the drying in TRB, through comparing MAC between abundant and scarce precipitation years. We found that Westerly Circulation (WC) and Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) are likely to promote the precipitation respectively. Whereas, they not only have their own influence but also restrict each other and facilitate the forming of peculiar water vapor transport channel for TRB, which is probably to restrain the precipitation and its distribution pattern and accelerate the drying in this region. Our results enrich the findings on mechanisms of wet places becoming wetter while dry areas getting drier under the global warming.

  16. Interactions of Multiple Atmospheric Circulation Drive the Drought in Tarim River Basin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Ping; Feng, Guo-Lin; Li, Bai-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is likely to cause overall drying of land surfaces and aridity increasing leading to expansion of dry climate zones. There is an increased risk of extremely arid environment and large deserts developed progressively in the central Asia. However, the key factors causing the drying in mid-Asia remain inconclusive. Here, we analyzed the relationship among precipitation, water vapor transportation in Tarim River Basin (TRB) and Multiple Atmospheric Circulation (MAC) to explore the mechanism of MAC driving the drying in TRB, through comparing MAC between abundant and scarce precipitation years. We found that Westerly Circulation (WC) and Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) are likely to promote the precipitation respectively. Whereas, they not only have their own influence but also restrict each other and facilitate the forming of peculiar water vapor transport channel for TRB, which is probably to restrain the precipitation and its distribution pattern and accelerate the drying in this region. Our results enrich the findings on mechanisms of wet places becoming wetter while dry areas getting drier under the global warming. PMID:27198665

  17. Local and Global Views of Systematic Errors of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechoso, C. Roberto; Wang, Chunzai; Lee, Sang-Ki; Zhang, Liping; Wu, Lixin

    2014-05-01

    Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (CGCMs) have serious systematic errors that challenge the reliability of climate predictions. One major reason for such biases is the misrepresentations of physical processes, which can be amplified by feedbacks among climate components especially in the tropics. Much effort, therefore, is dedicated to the better representation of physical processes in coordination with intense process studies. The present paper starts with a presentation of these systematic CGCM errors with an emphasis on the sea surface temperature (SST) in simulations by 22 participants in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Different regions are considered for discussion of model errors, including the one around the equator, the one covered by the stratocumulus decks off Peru and Namibia, and the confluence between the Angola and Benguela currents. Hypotheses on the reasons for the errors are reviewed, with particular attention on the parameterization of low-level marine clouds, model difficulties in the simulation of the ocean heat budget under the stratocumulus decks, and location of strong SST gradients. Next the presentation turns to a global perspective of the errors and their causes. It is shown that a simulated weak Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) tends to be associated with cold biases in the entire Northern Hemisphere with an atmospheric pattern that resembles the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. The AMOC weakening is also associated with a strengthening of Antarctic bottom water formation and warm SST biases in the Southern Ocean. It is also shown that cold biases in the tropical North Atlantic and West African/Indian monsoon regions during the warm season in the Northern Hemisphere have interhemispheric links with warm SST biases in the tropical southeastern Pacific and Atlantic, respectively. The results suggest that improving the simulation of regional processes may not suffice for a more

  18. The nonlinear variation of drought and its relation to atmospheric circulation in Shandong Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been devoted to the linear trend of drought at the decadal to inter-decadal time scale; however, the nonlinear variation of drought at multi-decadal scales and its relation to atmospheric circulation need to be further studied. The linear and nonlinear variations of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) in Shandong from 1900 to 2012 and its relations to the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Siberian high (SH) and Southern Oscillation (SO) phase changes from multi-scale are detected using linear regression, the Mann–Kendall test, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Pearson correlation analysis method. The results indicate that the PDSI shows no statistically significant linear change trend from 1900 to 2012; however, before (after) the late 1950s, PDSI shows a significant upward (downward) trend (P < 0.01) with a linear rate of 0.28/decade (−0.48/decade). From 1900 to 2012, the PDSI also exhibits a nonlinear variation trend at the inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-7-year), inter-decadal scale (quasi-14-year) and multi-decadal scale (quasi-46 and quasi-65-year). The variance contribution rate of components from the inter-annual scale is the largest, reaching 38.7%, and that from the inter-decadal scale and multi-decadal scale are 18.9% and 19.0%, respectively, indicating that the inter-annual change exerts a huge influence on the overall PDSI change. The results also imply that the effect of the four atmospheric circulations (PDO, ENSO, SH, SO) on PDSI at the multi-decadal variability scale are more important than that at the other scales. Consequently, we state that PDSI variation at the inter-annual scale has more instability, while that at the inter-decadal and multi-decadal scale is more strongly influenced by natural factors. PMID:26528402

  19. Flow Forecasting via Artificial Neural Networks - A Study for Input Variables conditioned on atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, D.; Trichakis, I.; Tsekouras, G. J.

    2012-04-01

    The paper compares the performance of different structures of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for flow forecasting of the next day in the Mesochora catchment in Northwestern Greece with respect to different input variables. The input variables are historical data of previous days, such as: (a) flows, (b) temperatures conditioned on atmospheric circulation, and (c) rainfalls conditioned on atmospheric circulation too. The training algorithm is the stochastic training back-propagation process with decreasing functions of learning rate and momentum term, for which a calibration process is conducted regarding the crucial parameters values, such as the number of neurons, the kind of activation functions, the initial values and time parameters of learning rate and momentum term etc. The performance of each structure has been evaluated by different criterions, such as (i) the root mean square error (RMSE), (ii) the correlation index (R), (iii) the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), (iv) the mean percentage error (MPE), (v) the mean percentage error (ME), (vi) the percentage volume in errors (VE), (vii) the percentage error in peak (MF), (viii) the normalized mean bias error (NMBE), (ix) the normalized root mean bias error (NRMSE), (x) the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E), (xi) the modified Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E1), (xii) the threshold statistics (TSp%) for a level of absolute relative error of p% (=1%, 2%, 5%, 25%, 50% and 100%). Here, the calibration process has been based on the voting analysis of the (i) to (xi) criterions. The time period of long-term falling flow (1972-77) is divided in two sets: one for ANN training with the 80% of data and the other for ANN parameters' calibration with the 20% data. The test set for the final verification of behaviour of ANN structures encompasses the following long-term time period with falling flow (1987-92). From the aforementioned analysis the nonlinear behaviour between forecasted

  20. Impact of atmospheric circulations on aerosol distributions in autumn over eastern China: observational evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. Y.; Fu, Y. F.; Yang, Y. J.; Liu, G. S.

    2015-11-01

    Regional heavy pollution events in eastern China (110-122° E, 28-40° N) are causing serious environmental problems. In this study, the relationship between the degree of regional pollution and the patterns of large-scale atmospheric circulation over eastern China in October is investigated using 10-year (2001-2010) Terra/MODIS aerosol optical depth and NCEP reanalysis data by both case study and composite analysis. Eighteen polluted and 10 clean episodes are selected and categorised into six polluted types and three clean types respectively. Generally speaking, weather patterns such as a uniform surface pressure field in eastern China or a steady straight westerly in the middle troposphere, particularly when being at the rear of the anticyclone at 850 hPa, are typically responsible for heavy pollution events. Meanwhile, clean episodes occur when strong southeastward cold air advection prevails below the middle troposphere or air masses are transported from sea to land. Uniform descending motion prevails over the study region, trapping pollutants in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, the value of vertical velocity averaged from 1000 to 100 hPa and divergence of wind field in the lower troposphere are used in this study to quantify the diffusion conditions in each circulation type. The results reveal that it is often a clean episode when both the mean downward motion (larger than 2.56 × 10-2 Pa s-1) and the divergence of low-level winds (larger than 1.79 × 10-2 s-1) are strong. Otherwise, it is more likely to be a polluted episode.

  1. Why was Atmospheric Circulation Decoupled from Tropical Pacific SSTs in 2014/15 winter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, P.

    2015-12-01

    In late 2014 and early 2015, although Niño3.4 index exceeded the threshold for a weak-moderate El Niño, a canonical atmospheric response to ENSO event was not observed in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. In an effort to understand why it was so, this study decomposed the DJF mean sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation rate and 200hPa stream function anomalies observed in the 2014/15 winter into the patterns related to the principal components of the DJF SST variability. It is found that the anomalies of these variables were mainly determined by the patterns related to two SST modes, one is the North Pacific Mode (NPM), and the other the El Niño and South Oscillation (ENSO) mode. The NPM was the dominant factor and was responsible for the apparent uncoupled air-sea relationship in the central equatorial Pacific and the east-west structure of the circulation anomalies over North America. The ENSO mode was important for SSTs in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific and for the circulation in the central equatorial Pacific. Further, ENSO signal likely evolved from the NPM pattern in the 2013/14 winter, however, its full development was impeded by the unusual persistence of the strong NPM throughout the year. The analysis for DJF 2014/15 winter indicates that the SST anomalies in Niño3.4 alone were not adequate for capturing the coupling of ocean and atmosphere anomalies in the tropical Pacific, due to the fact that it can't distinguish if the SST anomaly in the Niño3.4 region is associated with the ENSO mode or NPM, or both.

  2. Impacts of atmospheric circulations on aerosol distributions in autumn over eastern China: observational evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X.-Y.; Fu, Y.-F.; Yang, Y.-J.; Liu, G.-S.

    2015-02-01

    Regional heavy pollution events in East China (110-122° E, 28-40° N) are the main environmental problems recently because of the high urbanization and rapid economic development connected with too much emissions of pollutants. However, appropriate weather condition is another factor which cannot be ignored for these events. In this study, the relationship between regional pollution status and larger scale atmospheric circulations over East China in October is investigated using ten-year (2001-2010) MODIS/Terra aerosol optical depth (AOD) product and the NCEP reanalysis data together with case analysis and composite analysis. Generally, statistics in East China show values of mean AOD vary from 0.3 to 0.9 in October over the region, and larger AOD variances are accompanied with the distribution of higher average AOD. Eighteen pollution episodes (regional mean AOD > 0.6) and ten clean episodes (regional mean AOD < 0.4) are selected and then categorized into six polluted types and three clean types, respectively. Each type represents different weather pattern associated with the combination of lower and upper atmospheric circulation. Generally, the uniform surface pressure field in East China or steady straight westerly in middle troposphere, particularly the rear of anticyclone at 850 hPa, are typical weather patterns responsible for heavy pollution events, while clean episodes occur when strong southeastward cold air advection prevails below the middle troposphere or air masses are transported from sea to the mainland. The above studies are especially useful to the government decision make on balance of economic activities and pollution mitigations.

  3. The nonlinear variation of drought and its relation to atmospheric circulation in Shandong Province, East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baofu; Chen, Zhongsheng; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been devoted to the linear trend of drought at the decadal to inter-decadal time scale; however, the nonlinear variation of drought at multi-decadal scales and its relation to atmospheric circulation need to be further studied. The linear and nonlinear variations of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) in Shandong from 1900 to 2012 and its relations to the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Siberian high (SH) and Southern Oscillation (SO) phase changes from multi-scale are detected using linear regression, the Mann-Kendall test, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Pearson correlation analysis method. The results indicate that the PDSI shows no statistically significant linear change trend from 1900 to 2012; however, before (after) the late 1950s, PDSI shows a significant upward (downward) trend (P < 0.01) with a linear rate of 0.28/decade (-0.48/decade). From 1900 to 2012, the PDSI also exhibits a nonlinear variation trend at the inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-7-year), inter-decadal scale (quasi-14-year) and multi-decadal scale (quasi-46 and quasi-65-year). The variance contribution rate of components from the inter-annual scale is the largest, reaching 38.7%, and that from the inter-decadal scale and multi-decadal scale are 18.9% and 19.0%, respectively, indicating that the inter-annual change exerts a huge influence on the overall PDSI change. The results also imply that the effect of the four atmospheric circulations (PDO, ENSO, SH, SO) on PDSI at the multi-decadal variability scale are more important than that at the other scales. Consequently, we state that PDSI variation at the inter-annual scale has more instability, while that at the inter-decadal and multi-decadal scale is more strongly influenced by natural factors. PMID:26528402

  4. Influence of high-resolution surface databases on the modeling of local atmospheric circulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, L. M. S.; Bodstein, G. C. R.; Pimentel, L. C. G.

    2014-08-01

    Large-eddy simulations are performed using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) code at horizontal grid resolutions as fine as 300 m to assess the influence of detailed and updated surface databases on the modeling of local atmospheric circulation systems of urban areas with complex terrain. Applications to air pollution and wind energy are sought. These databases are comprised of 3 arc-sec topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, 10 arc-sec vegetation-type data from the European Space Agency (ESA) GlobCover project, and 30 arc-sec leaf area index and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation data from the ESA GlobCarbon project. Simulations are carried out for the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro using six one-way nested-grid domains that allow the choice of distinct parametric models and vertical resolutions associated to each grid. ARPS is initialized using the Global Forecasting System with 0.5°-resolution data from the National Center of Environmental Prediction, which is also used every 3 h as lateral boundary condition. Topographic shading is turned on and two soil layers are used to compute the soil temperature and moisture budgets in all runs. Results for two simulated runs covering three periods of time are compared to surface and upper-air observational data to explore the dependence of the simulations on initial and boundary conditions, grid resolution, topographic and land-use databases. Our comparisons show overall good agreement between simulated and observational data, mainly for the potential temperature and the wind speed fields, and clearly indicate that the use of high-resolution databases improves significantly our ability to predict the local atmospheric circulation.

  5. The influence of variations of vegetation and soil moisture on surface weather and atmospheric circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of variations of vegetation and soil moisture on surface weather and atmospheric circulation is studied through the use of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) and the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere interactions (COLA) GCM. Tests for the SiB sensitivity to the conversion of the forest to other short vegetation or bare soil were performed at Amazonian and Great Plains sites, and a North Wales spruce forest site respectively. The results show that deforestation has a significant influence on the local surface energy budget and surface weather. The influence is especially prominent at the Amazon and Great Plains sites, and larger in summer than in other seasons. The influence on the partitioning of surface incoming radiative energy is generally constrained by the local atmospheric boundary condition. The sensitivity of the COLA GCM to changes in initial soil wetness (ISW) is determined by repeating three 10-day model integrations with the same initial and boundary conditions as the control runs except the values of ISW, which are revised at 69 model grid points covering much of the continental U.S. It is found that the relations between the changes in the 5-day mean forecast surface air temperature/surface specific humidity and the changes in ISW depend upon vegetation type and the values of ISW, and can be approximated by regression equations. These relations are also confirmed with independent data. With the ISW revised based on these regression equations the surface forecasts of the revised runs are consistently improved. The spatial scale of the ISW anomaly determines the degree and range of the influence. The influence of a small regional ISW change is mainly confined to the local region and to low atmospheric levels. The influence on surface fluxes is strong and persists for more than one month, but the effects on precipitation are relatively weak, changeable, and complex, particularly when an interactive cloud scheme is used.

  6. Interactions between atmospheric circulation, nutrient deposition, and tropical forest primary production (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical forests influence regional and global climate by means of several pathways, including by modifying surface energy exchange and by forming clouds. High levels of precipitation, leaching, and soil weathering limit nutrient availability in these ecosystems. Phosphorus (P) is a key element limiting net primary production, and in some areas, including forests recovering from prior disturbance, nitrogen (N) also may limit some components of production. Here we quantified atmospheric P and N inputs to these forests from fires using satellite-derived estimates of emissions and atmospheric models. In Africa and South America, cross-biome transport of fire-emitted aerosols and reactive N gases from savannas and areas near the deforestation frontier increased deposition of P and N in interior forests. Equatorward atmospheric transport during the dry (fire) season in one hemisphere was linked with surface winds moving toward the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the other hemisphere. Deposition levels were higher in tropical forests in Africa than in South America because of large savanna areas with high levels of fire emissions in both southern and northern Africa. We conclude by describing a potential feedback loop by which equatorward transport of fire emissions, dust, and spores sustains the productivity of tropical forests. We specifically assessed evidence that savanna-to-forest atmospheric transport of nutrients increases forest productivity, height, and rates of evapotranspiration (ET). In parallel, we examined the degree to which increases in ET and surface roughness in tropical forests have the potential to strengthen several components of the Hadley circulation, including deep convection, equatorward return flow (near the surface), and the intensity of seasonal drought in the subtropics (thereby increasing fires). These interactions are important for understanding biogeochemical - climate interactions on millennial timescales and for quantifying how

  7. Using Search Algorithms and Probabilistic Graphical Models to Understand the Influence of Atmospheric Circulation on Western US Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevich, S. B.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    This work explores a new approach to quantify cool-season mid-latitude circulation dynamics as they relate western US streamflow variability and drought. This information is used to probabilistically associate patterns of synoptic atmospheric circulation with spatial patterns of drought in western US streamflow. Cool-season storms transport moisture from the Pacific Ocean and are a primary source for western US streamflow. Studies overthe past several decades have emphasized that the western US hydroclimate is influenced by the intensity and phasing of ocean and atmosphere dynamics and teleconnections, such as ENSO and North Pacific variability. These complex interactions are realized in atmospheric circulation along the west coast of North America. The region's atmospheric circulation can encourage a preferential flow in winter storm tracks from the Pacific, and thus influence the moisture conditions of a given river basin over the course of the cool season. These dynamics have traditionally been measured with atmospheric indices based on values from fixed points in space or principal component loadings. This study uses collective search agents to quantify the position and intensity of potentially non-stationary atmosphere features in climate reanalysis datasets, relative to regional hydrology. Results underline the spatio-temporal relationship between semi-permanent atmosphere characteristics and naturalized streamflow from major river basins of the western US. A probabilistic graphical model quantifies this relationship while accounting for uncertainty from noisy climate processes, and eventually, limitations from dataset length. This creates probabilities for semi-permanent atmosphere features which we hope to associate with extreme droughts of the paleo record, based on our understanding of atmosphere-streamflow relations observed in the instrumental record.

  8. Limitations When Using Proxies of Atmospheric Circulation to Infer Regional Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, E. P.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    One objective of ice core paleoclimatology is to reconstruct past variability of climate parameters such as surface air temperature. Stable isotope ratios of ice cores collected from some locations can be used with confidence to reconstruct regional air temperature. Other glaciochemical records (e.g., major ions) have been used as proxies for regional atmospheric circulation patterns, including the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific-North American pattern, typically based on the strength of semi-permanent sea level pressure centers such as the Icelandic Low and Aleutian Low. The Arctic Oscillation and Pacific North American pattern are associated with regional air temperature anomalies, and consequently ice core proxies of these circulation patterns could be used to infer paleotemperature patterns. However, detailed analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis dataset (1871-2008) for the Northern Hemisphere winter suggests that these atmospheric circulation patterns do not always result in the same regional air temperature anomalies. A principal component analysis of detrended and area-weighted winter (December-March) temperature and sea level pressure was performed, and the leading eigenmodes were compared, along with the winter mean positions of the Icelandic and Aleutian Lows. Robust results based on multiple statistical analyses were obtained only when the extreme seasonal values of these variables were examined. Although statistically significant results were obtained when looking at temperature patterns associated with specific sea level pressure patterns and the positions of the Icelandic and Aleutian Lows, more consistent relationships were found when examining sea level pressure patterns associated with the leading eigenmodes of temperature. The seasons of extreme eigenvalues of the leading temperature eigenmodes are associated with mean positions of the Icelandic and Aleutian Lows at climatologically extreme north/south and west/east locations, respectively

  9. The Influence of Arctic Amplification on Mid-Latitude Atmospheric Circulation and Extreme Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Francis, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    We expand on our recent work that provided evidence for a mechanism linking Arctic Amplification to changes in mid-latitude circulation patterns that favor extreme weather events (Francis and Vavrus, 2012). Here we analyze greenhouse-forced projections from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) to assess the future evolution of Arctic change on Northern Hemisphere weather patterns. We hypothesize that remote impacts of changes in the energy budget of the Arctic surface will influence the atmospheric circulation in middle latitudes through changes in large-scale, deep-tropospheric, meridional thickness gradients that induce generally weaker zonal flow and higher amplitude large-scale waves aloft. Because such features are slow-moving and associated with persistent weather conditions, they favor more frequent and severe extreme weather episodes resulting from prolonged cold-air outbreaks, heat waves, droughts, and heavy precipitation. The primary physical mechanism driving this change is an enhanced and seasonally varying Arctic heating: in fall/winter it is ocean-based due to substantial sea ice loss, while in warmer months it is land-based due to earlier snow melt and reduced soil moisture. Simulations by CCSM4 support our hypothesized linkages, as the projected climate changes depict a seasonally varying circulation response hinging on the enhanced warming and resulting geopotential height increases aloft in the Arctic. During boreal autumn and winter, sea ice loss leads to upper-air height increases mainly over the Arctic Ocean with compensating decreases over mid-latitudes, which reduces the poleward gradient. During spring and summer, however, the band of maximum ridging shifts southward over high-latitude land. This behavior resembles the upper-air circulation changes induced by prescribed reductions in sea ice and snow cover in previous versions of the model. The associated seasonal changes in mid-tropospheric zonal winds exhibit a nearly symmetrical

  10. On the effects of constraining atmospheric circulation in a coupled atmosphere-ocean Arctic regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Peter; Döscher, Ralf; Koenigk, Torben

    2015-08-01

    Impacts of spectral nudging on simulations of Arctic climate in coupled simulations have been investigated in a set of simulations with a regional climate model (RCM). The dominantly circumpolar circulation in the Arctic lead to weak constraints on the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the RCM, which causes large internal variability with strong deviations from the driving model. When coupled to an ocean and sea ice model, this results in sea ice concentrations that deviate from the observed spatial distribution. Here, a method of spectral nudging is applied to the atmospheric model RCA4 in order to assess the potentials for improving results for the sea ice concentrations when coupled to the RCO ocean-sea ice model. The spectral nudging applied to reanalysis driven simulations significantly improves the generated sea ice regarding its temporal evolution, extent and inter-annual trends, compared to simulations with standard LBC nesting. The method is furthermore evaluated with driving data from two CMIP5 GCM simulations for current and future conditions. The GCM biases are similar to the RCA4 biases with ERA-Interim, however, the spectral nudging still improves the surface winds enough to show improvements in the simulated sea ice. For both GCM downscalings, the spectrally nudged version retains a larger sea ice extent in September further into the future. Depending on the sea ice formulation in the GCM, the temporal evolution of the regional sea ice model can deviate strongly.

  11. On the effects of constraining atmospheric circulation in a coupled atmosphere-ocean Arctic regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Peter; Döscher, Ralf; Koenigk, Torben

    2016-06-01

    Impacts of spectral nudging on simulations of Arctic climate in coupled simulations have been investigated in a set of simulations with a regional climate model (RCM). The dominantly circumpolar circulation in the Arctic lead to weak constraints on the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the RCM, which causes large internal variability with strong deviations from the driving model. When coupled to an ocean and sea ice model, this results in sea ice concentrations that deviate from the observed spatial distribution. Here, a method of spectral nudging is applied to the atmospheric model RCA4 in order to assess the potentials for improving results for the sea ice concentrations when coupled to the RCO ocean-sea ice model. The spectral nudging applied to reanalysis driven simulations significantly improves the generated sea ice regarding its temporal evolution, extent and inter-annual trends, compared to simulations with standard LBC nesting. The method is furthermore evaluated with driving data from two CMIP5 GCM simulations for current and future conditions. The GCM biases are similar to the RCA4 biases with ERA-Interim, however, the spectral nudging still improves the surface winds enough to show improvements in the simulated sea ice. For both GCM downscalings, the spectrally nudged version retains a larger sea ice extent in September further into the future. Depending on the sea ice formulation in the GCM, the temporal evolution of the regional sea ice model can deviate strongly.

  12. Atmospheric circulation leading to record breaking precipitation and floods in southern Iberia in December 1876

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, R. M.; Varino, F.; Vaquero, J.; Valente, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The first week of December 1876 was marked by extreme weather conditions that affected the south-western sector of the Iberian Peninsula (IP), leading to an all-time record flow in both large international rivers running from Spain to Portugal, Tagus and Guadiana. As a direct consequence, several towns in centre and south IP suffered serious flood damage. These catastrophic floods were amplified by the occurrence of anomalously wet October and November months, as shown by recently digitised time series for both IP countries. These events resulted from the continuous pouring of precipitation registered between 29 November and 7 December, due to the consecutive Atlantic low-pressure systems and their associated frontal systems that reached the Iberian Peninsula. Using several different data sources, such as historical newspapers of that time, meteorological data recently digitised from several stations in Portugal and Spain and the recently available 20th Century Reanalysis (Compo et al., 2011), we were able (135 years afterwards), to study in detail the damage and the atmospheric circulation conditions associated with this event. The synoptic conditions were represented by 6 hourly fields of complementary variables, namely; 1) precipitation rate and mean sea level pressure (SLP); 2) precipitation rate and CAPE; 3) wind speed intensity and divergence at 250 hPa, 4) wind speed intensity and divergence also at 850 hPa; 5) air temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential height at 500 hPa; 6) wind speed barbs and specific moisture content at 850 hPa. Movies with all these variables were obtained for the 10-day sequence that spans between 29 November and 7 December. For two recently digitised stations in Portugal (Lisbon and Évora), the values of precipitation registered during those weeks were so remarkable that when we computed daily accumulated precipitation successively from 1 to 10 days, the episode of 1876 always stood as the maximum precipitation event, with the

  13. Atmospheric circulation anomalies during two persistent north american droughts: 1932-1939 and 1948-1957

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-06-01

    We use an early twentieth century (1908-1958) atmospheric reanalysis, based on assimilation of surface and sea level pressure observations, to contrast atmospheric circulation during two periods of persistent drought in North America: 1932-1939 (the `Dust Bowl') and 1948-1957. Primary forcing for both droughts is believed to come from anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs): a warm Atlantic and a cool eastern tropical Pacific. For boreal winter (October-March) in the 1950s, a stationary wave pattern originating from the tropical Pacific is present, with positive centers over the north Pacific and north Atlantic ocean basins and a negative center positioned over northwest North America and the tropical/subtropical Pacific. This wave train is largely absent for the 1930s drought; boreal winter height anomalies are organized much more zonally, with positive heights extending across northern North America. For boreal summer (April-September) during the 1930s, a strong upper level ridge is centered over the Great Plains; this feature is absent during the 1950s and appears to be linked to a weakening of the Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ). Subsidence anomalies are co-located over the centers of each drought: in the central Great Plains for the 1930s and in a band extending from the southwest to the southeastern United States for the 1950s. The location and intensity of this subsidence during the 1948-1957 drought is a typical response to a cold eastern tropical Pacific, but for 1932-1939 deviates in terms of the expected intensity, location, and spatial extent. Overall, circulation anomalies during the 1950s drought appear consistent with the expected response to the observed SST forcing. This is not the case for the 1930s, implying some other causal factor may be needed to explain the Dust Bowl drought anomalies. In addition to SST forcing, the 1930s were also characterized by massive alterations to the land surface, including regional-scale devegetation from crop

  14. Atmospheric Circulation Anomalies During Two Persistent North American Droughts: 1932-1939 and 1948-1957

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin; Seager, Richard; Miller, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We use an early twentieth century (1908-1958) atmospheric reanalysis, based on assimilation of surface and sea level pressure observations, to contrast atmospheric circulation during two periods of persistent drought in North America: 1932-1939 (the Dust Bowl) and 1948-1957. Primary forcing for both droughts is believed to come from anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs): a warm Atlantic and a cool eastern tropical Pacific. For boreal winter (October-March) in the 1950s, a stationary wave pattern originating from the tropical Pacific is present, with positive centers over the north Pacific and north Atlantic ocean basins and a negative center positioned over northwest North America and the tropical/subtropical Pacific. This wave train is largely absent for the 1930s drought; boreal winter height anomalies are organized much more zonally, with positive heights extending across northern North America. For boreal summer (April-September) during the 1930s, a strong upper level ridge is centered over the Great Plains; this feature is absent during the 1950s and appears to be linked to a weakening of the Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ). Subsidence anomalies are co-located over the centers of each drought: in the central Great Plains for the 1930s and in a band extending from the southwest to the southeastern United States for the 1950s. The location and intensity of this subsidence during the 1948-1957 drought is a typical response to a cold eastern tropical Pacific, but for 1932-1939 deviates in terms of the expected intensity, location, and spatial extent. Overall, circulation anomalies during the 1950s drought appear consistent with the expected response to the observed SST forcing. This is not the case for the 1930s, implying some other causal factor may be needed to explain the Dust Bowl drought anomalies. In addition to SST forcing, the 1930s were also characterized by massive alterations to the land surface, including regional-scale devegetation from crop

  15. Performance of a reconfigured atmospheric general circulation model at low resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xinyu; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Shaowu; Wang, Bin; Wan, Hui; Li, Jian

    2007-07-01

    Paleoclimate simulations usually require model runs over a very long time. The fast integration version of a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM), which shares the same physical and dynamical processes but with reduced horizontal resolution and increased time step, is usually developed. In this study, we configure a fast version of an atmospheric GCM (AGCM), the Grid Atmospheric Model of IAP/LASG (Institute of Atmospheric Physics/State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics), at low resolution (GAMIL-L, hereafter), and compare the simulation results with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and other data to examine its performance. GAMIL-L, which is derived from the original GAMIL, is a finite difference AGCM with 72×40 grids in longitude and latitude and 26 vertical levels. To validate the simulated climatology and variability, two runs were achieved. One was a 60-year control run with fixed climatological monthly sea surface temperature (SST) forcing, and the other was a 50-yr (1950 2000) integration with observational time-varying monthly SST forcing. Comparisons between these two cases and the reanalysis, including intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability are also presented. In addition, the differences between GAMIL-L and the original version of GAMIL are also investigated. The results show that GAMIL-L can capture most of the large-scale dynamical features of the atmosphere, especially in the tropics and mid latitudes, although a few deficiencies exist, such as the underestimated Hadley cell and thereby the weak strength of the Asia summer monsoon. However, the simulated mean states over high latitudes, especially over the polar regions, are not acceptable. Apart from dynamics, the thermodynamic features mainly depend upon the physical parameterization schemes. Since the physical package of GAMIL-L is exactly the same as the original high-resolution version of GAMIL, in which the NCAR Community

  16. On the importance of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere and their parameterization in general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLandress, C.

    1998-09-01

    This tutorial paper discusses the problem of parameterizing unresolved gravity waves in general circulation models (GCMs) of the middle atmosphere. For readers who are unfamiliar with middle atmosphere dynamics a review of the basic dynamics of both the large-scale circulation and internal gravity waves is presented. A fairly detailed and physically-based description is given of several gravity wave drag (GWD) schemes that are currently employed in middle atmosphere GCMs. These include the parameterizations of [McFarlane (1987)], [Medvedev and Klaassen (1995)], and [Hines, 1997a], [Hines, 1997b], which are used in the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model, as well as the parameterization of [Fritts and Lu (1993)], which is used in the TIME-GCM. Results from a mechanistic model and the two above mentioned GCMs are presented and discussed. This paper is not intended as a review of all GWD parameterizations nor is it meant as a quantitative comparison of the schemes that have been chosen.

  17. A general circulation model study of the atmospheric Pacific-Atlantic interaction at interdecadal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, K.; Rimbu, N.; Lohmann, G.; Lunkeit, F.

    2003-04-01

    We investigate the response of an atmospheric general circulation model to observed sea surface temperature for the instrumental period 1856-2000. The model used is the {\\underline P}ortable {\\underline U}niversity {\\underline M}odel of the {\\underline A}tmosphere (PUMA) developed at the University of Hamburg for long-term climate studies. When the model is forced with global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) the model interdecadal variability is dominated by the Atlantic Interdecadal Mode (AIM) and its associated teleconnection patterns. The modeled interdecadal variability sea surface patterns are in good agreement with analysis of observational time series in an ensemble mode integration. Positive SST anomalies and a sea level pressure (SLP) dipole pattern dominate the North Atlantic while a strong positive anomaly in SLP is characteristic for the North Pacific Ocean. Additional experiments with ''Atlantic only'' and ''Pacific only'' forcing depict strong sensitivities of the relative roles of Atlantic and Pacific SST data initiating variability at multidecadal time scales. Our results have implications for climate predictability on long time scales from observed SST data.

  18. Multidecadal Variability Simulated With an Atmospheric General Circulation Model Forced With Observed Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, K.; Rimbu, N.; Lohmann, G.; Lunkeit, F.

    2002-12-01

    We investigate the response of an atmospheric general circulation model to observed sea surface temperature for the instrumental period 1856-2000. The model used is the {nderline P}ortable {nderline U}niversity {nderline M}odel of the {nderline A}tmosphere (PUMA) developed at the University of Hamburg for long-term climate studies. When the model is forced with global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) the model interdecadal variability is dominated by the Atlantic Interdecadal Mode (AIM) and its associated teleconnection patterns. The modeled interdecadal variability sea surface patterns are in good agreement with analysis of observational time series in an ensemble mode integration. Positive SST anomalies and a sea level pressure (SLP) dipole pattern dominate the North Atlantic while a strong positive anomaly in SLP is characteristic for the North Pacific Ocean. Although the observational database is short, investigations of the typical AIM patterns before and after the climate shift in the 1970's suggest an oscillatory multidecadal mode rather than a singular event for that period. Additional experiments with ''Atlantic only'' forcing depict strong sensitivities of the relative roles of Atlantic and Pacific SST data initiating variability at multidecadal time scales. Our results have implications for climate predictability on long time scales from observed SST data.

  19. Statistical characteristics, circulation regimes and unstable periodic orbits of a barotropic atmospheric model.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, A

    2013-05-28

    The theory of chaotic dynamical systems gives many tools that can be used in climate studies. The widely used ones are the Lyapunov exponents, the Kolmogorov entropy and the attractor dimension characterizing global quantities of a system. Another potentially useful tool from dynamical system theory arises from the fact that the local analysis of a system probability distribution function (PDF) can be accomplished by using a procedure that involves an expansion in terms of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). The system measure (or its statistical characteristics) is approximated as a weighted sum over the orbits. The weights are inversely proportional to the orbit instability characteristics so that the least unstable orbits make larger contributions to the PDF. Consequently, one can expect some relationship between the least unstable orbits and the local maxima of the system PDF. As a result, the most probable system trajectories (or 'circulation regimes' in some sense) may be explained in terms of orbits. For the special classes of chaotic dynamical systems, there is a strict theory guaranteeing the accuracy of this approach. However, a typical atmospheric model may not qualify for these theorems. In our study, we will try to apply the idea of UPO expansion to the simple atmospheric system based on the barotropic vorticity equation of the sphere. We will check how well orbits approximate the system attractor, its statistical characteristics and PDF. The connection of the most probable states of the system with the least unstable periodic orbits will also be analysed. PMID:23588051

  20. Impact of the 1997-1998 El Nino on Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    1998-01-01

    The 1997-1998 E1 Nino created significant anomalies in global circulation patterns. We monitored the E1 Nino event, using TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) data, as part of the Laboratory for Atmospheres TOVS Pathfinder Data Set. TOVS has flown on the NOAA operational polar orbiting satellites from November 1978 to present. We have analyzed data from NOAA 9, 10, 11, 12, and 14, covering January 1985 to the present, using a consistent processing scheme. The data set contains 2-4 times daily global fields of land/ocean surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature-moisture profiles, cloud top pressure and fractional cloud cover, OLR and clear sky Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), and precipitation estimate. We have generated anomalies of all fields compared to a 12 year climatology of our data set, covering the period 1985-1996. Anomalies during the current E1 Nino were compared to those of other E1 Nino-La Nina episodes since 1985, with particular attention paid to tropical anomalies of surface skin and air temperature, precipitation, upper tropospheric water vapor, OLR, and clear sky OLR. All the El Nino-La Nina events produce similar patterns, but the magnitude of the current anomalies in all fields is considerably greater than those during the previous weaker surface skin temperature anomaly episodes. Significant extra-tropical anomalies were found during the current E1 Nino as well.

  1. Secular Trends and Climate Drift in Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, C C; Gleckler, P J; Phillips, T J; Bader, D C

    2004-11-23

    Coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (coupled GCMs) with interactive sea ice are the primary tool for investigating possible future global warming and numerous other issues in climate science. A long-standing problem with such models is that when different components of the physical climate system are linked together, the simulated climate can drift away from observations unless constrained by ad hoc adjustments to interface fluxes. However, eleven modern coupled GCMs--including three that do not employ flux adjustments--behave much better in this respect than the older generation of models. Surface temperature trends in control run simulations (with external climate forcing such as solar brightness and atmospheric carbon dioxide held constant) are small compared with observed trends, which include 20th century climate change due to both anthropogenic and natural factors. Sea ice changes in the models are dominated by interannual variations. Deep ocean temperature and salinity trends are small enough for model control runs to extend over 1000 simulated years or more, but trends in some regions, most notably the Arctic, are inconsistent among the models and may be problematic.

  2. The extratropical 40-day oscillation in the UCLA general circulation model. Part 1: Atmospheric angular momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, S. L.; Ghil, M.; Dickey, J. O.

    1994-01-01

    Variations in atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) are examined in a three-year simulation of the large-scale atmosphere with perpetual January forcing. The simulation is performed with a version of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) general circulation model that contains no tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). In addition, the results of three shorter experiments with no topography are analyzed. The three-year standard topography run contains no significant intraseasonal AAM periodicity in the tropics, consistent with the lack of the MJO, but produces a robust, 42-day AAM oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropics. The model tropics undergoes a barotropic, zonally symmetric oscillation, driven by an exchange of mass with the NH extratropics. No intraseasonal periodicity is found in the average tropical latent heating field, indicating that the model oscillation is dynamically rather than thermodynamically driven. The no-mountain runs fail to produce an intraseasonal AAM oscillation, consistent with a topographic origin for the NH extratropical oscillation in the standard model. The spatial patterns of the oscillation in the 500-mb height field, and the relationship of the extratropical oscillation to intraseasonal variations in the tropics, will be discussed in Part 2 of this study.

  3. On the Observed Relationships between Variability in Gulf Stream Sea Surface Temperatures and the Atmospheric Circulation in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Samantha; Thompson, David; Ciasto, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The advent of increasingly high-resolution satellite observations and numerical models has led to a series of advances in our understanding of the role of midlatitude sea surface temperature (SST) in climate variability, especially near western boundary currents (WBC). Observational analyses have suggested that ocean dynamics play a central role in driving interannual SST variability over the Kuroshio-Oyashio and Gulf Stream extensions. Numerical experiments have suggested that variations in the SST field within these WBC regions may have a much more pronounced influence on the atmospheric circulation than previously thought. In this study, the authors examine the observational support for (or against) a robust atmospheric response to midlatitude SST variability in the Gulf Stream extension. To do so, lead/lag analysis based on daily-mean data is applied to assess the evidence for two-way coupling between SST anomalies and the atmospheric circulation on transient timescales, building off of previous studies that have utilized weekly data. A novel decomposition approach is employed to demonstrate that atmospheric circulation anomalies over the Gulf Stream extension can be separated into two distinct patterns of midlatitude atmosphere/ocean interaction: 1) a pattern that peaks 2-3 weeks before the largest SST anomalies in the Gulf Stream extension, which can be viewed as the "atmospheric forcing" and 2) a pattern that peaks several weeks after the largest SST anomalies, which the authors argue can be viewed as the "atmospheric response". The latter pattern is linearly independent of the former, and is interpreted as the potential response of the atmospheric circulation to SST variability in the Gulf Stream extension.

  4. Radiative Impacts of Cloud Heterogeneity and Overlap in an Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Sud, Y. C.; Suarez, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The radiative impacts of introducing horizontal heterogeneity of layer cloud condensate, and vertical overlap of condensate and cloud fraction are examined with the aid of a new radiation package operating in the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model. The impacts are examined in terms of diagnostic top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) cloud radiative effect (CRE) calculations for a range of assumptions and parameter specifications about the overlap. The investigation is conducted for two distinct cloud schemes, the one that comes with the standard GEOS-5 distribution, and another which has been recently used experimentally for its enhanced GEOS-5 distribution, and another which has been recently used experimentally for its enhanced cloud microphysical capabilities; both are coupled to a cloud generator allowing arbitrary cloud overlap specification. We find that cloud overlap radiative impacts are significantly stronger for the operational cloud scheme for which a change of cloud fraction overlap from maximum-random to generalized results to global changes of SW and LW CRE of approximately 4 Watts per square meter, and zonal changes of up to approximately 10 Watts per square meter. This is because of fewer occurrences compared to the other scheme of large layer cloud fractions and of multi-layer situations with large numbers of atmospheric being simultaneously cloudy, conditions that make overlap details more important. The impact on CRE of the details of condensate distribution overlap is much weaker. Once generalized overlap is adopted, both cloud schemes are only modestly sensitive to the exact values of the overlap parameters. We also find that if one of the CRE components is overestimated and the other underestimated, both cannot be driven towards observed values by adjustments to cloud condensate heterogeneity and overlap alone.

  5. Short ensembles: an efficient method for discerning climate-relevant sensitivities in atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, H.; Rasch, P. J.; Zhang, K.; Qian, Y.; Yan, H.; Zhao, C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5. In the first example, the method is used to characterize sensitivities of the simulated clouds to time-step length. Results show that 3-day ensembles of 20 to 50 members are sufficient to reproduce the main signals revealed by traditional 5-year simulations. A nudging technique is applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time-step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol life cycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to find out which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. It turns out that 12-member ensembles of 10-day simulations are able to reveal the same sensitivities as seen in 4-year simulations performed in a previous study. In both cases, the ensemble method reduces the total computational time by a factor of about 15, and the turnaround time by a factor of several hundred. The efficiency of the method makes it particularly useful for the development of high

  6. An efficient method for discerning climate-relevant sensitivities in atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, H.; Rasch, P. J.; Zhang, K.; Qian, Y.; Yan, H.; Zhao, C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The first example demonstrates that the method is capable of characterizing the model cloud and precipitation sensitivity to time step length. A nudging technique is also applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol lifecycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to explore which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. Results show that in both examples, short ensembles are able to correctly reproduce the main signals of model sensitivities revealed by traditional long-term climate simulations for fast processes in the climate system. The efficiency of the ensemble method makes it particularly useful for the development of high-resolution, costly and complex climate models.

  7. ENSO Bred Vectors in Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. C.; Cai, Ming; Kalnay, E.; Rienecker, M.; Yuan, G.; Toth, ZA.

    2004-01-01

    The breeding method has been implemented in the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM) with the goal of improving operational seasonal to interannual climate predictions through ensemble forecasting and data assimilation. The coupled instability as cap'tured by the breeding method is the first attempt to isolate the evolving ENSO instability and its corresponding global atmospheric response in a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. Our results show that the growth rate of the coupled bred vectors (BV) peaks at about 3 months before a background ENSO event. The dominant growing BV modes are reminiscent of the background ENSO anomalies and show a strong tropical response with wind/SST/thermocline interrelated in a manner similar to the background ENSO mode. They exhibit larger amplitudes in the eastern tropical Pacific, reflecting the natural dynamical sensitivity associated with the presence of the shallow thermocline. Moreover, the extratropical perturbations associated with these coupled BV modes reveal the variations related to the atmospheric teleconnection patterns associated with background ENSO variability, e.g. over the North Pacific and North America. A similar experiment was carried out with the NCEP/CFS03 CGCM. Comparisons between bred vectors from the NSIPP CGCM and NCEP/CFS03 CGCM demonstrate the robustness of the results. Our results strongly suggest that the breeding method can serve as a natural filter to identify the slowly varying, coupled instabilities in a coupled GCM, which can be used to construct ensemble perturbations for ensemble forecasts and to estimate the coupled background error covariance for coupled data assimilation.

  8. Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Zhao, Chun

    2014-09-08

    This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The first example demonstrates that the method is capable of characterizing the model cloud and precipitation sensitivity to time step length. A nudging technique is also applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol lifecycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to explore which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. Results show that in both examples, short ensembles are able to correctly reproduce the main signals of model sensitivities revealed by traditional long-term climate simulations for fast processes in the climate system. The efficiency of the ensemble method makes it particularly useful for the development of high-resolution, costly and complex climate models.

  9. Lowering of glacial atmospheric CO2 in response to changes in oceanic circulation and marine biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Ganopolski, Andrey; Archer, David; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    We use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, to investigate what recent improvements in the representation of the physics and biology of the glacial ocean imply for the atmospheric concentration. The coupled atmosphere-ocean model under the glacial boundary conditions is able to reproduce the deep, salty, stagnant water mass inferred from Antarctic deep pore water data and the changing temperature of the entire deep ocean. When carbonate compensation is included in the model, we find a CO2 drawdown of 43 ppmv associated mainly with the shoaling of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and an increased fraction of water masses of southern origin in the deep Atlantic. Fertilizing the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean north of the polar front leads to a further drawdown of 37 ppmv. Other changes to the glacial carbon cycle include a decrease in the amount of carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere (540 Pg C), which increases atmospheric CO2 by 15 ppmv, and a change in ocean salinity resulting from a drop in sea level, which elevates CO2 by another 12 ppmv. A decrease in shallow water CaCO3 deposition draws down CO2 by 12 ppmv. In total, the model is able to explain more than two thirds (65 ppmv) of the glacial to interglacial CO2 change, based only on mechanisms that are clearly documented in the proxy data. A good match between simulated and reconstructed distribution of δ13C changes in the deep Atlantic suggests that the model captures the mechanisms of reorganization of biogeochemistry in the Atlantic Ocean reasonably well. Additional, poorly constrained mechanisms to explain the rest of the observed drawdown include changes in the organic carbon:CaCO3 ratio of sediment rain reaching the seafloor, iron fertilization in the subantarctic Pacific Ocean, and changes in terrestrial weathering.

  10. Plasma components affect accuracy of circulating cancer-related microRNA quantitation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ja; Linnstaedt, Sarah; Palma, Jaime; Park, Joon Cheol; Ntrivalas, Evangelos; Kwak-Kim, Joanne Y H; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth; Hastings, Michelle L; Martin, Jeffrey N; Duelli, Dominik M

    2012-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as candidate biomarkers of various diseases and conditions including malignancy and pregnancy. This approach requires sensitive and accurate quantitation of miRNA concentrations in body fluids. Herein we report that enzyme-based miRNA quantitation, which is currently the mainstream approach for identifying differences in miRNA abundance among samples, is skewed by endogenous serum factors that co-purify with miRNAs and anticoagulant agents used during collection. Of importance, different miRNAs were affected to varying extent among patient samples. By developing measures to overcome these interfering activities, we increased the accuracy, and improved the sensitivity of miRNA detection up to 30-fold. Overall, the present study outlines key factors that prevent accurate miRNA quantitation in body fluids and provides approaches that enable faithful quantitation of miRNA abundance in body fluids. PMID:22154918

  11. The role of aerosol in altering North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in winter and its impact on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, F. S. R.; Gaetani, M.; Messori, G.; Kloster, S.; Dentener, F. J.

    2015-02-01

    Numerical model scenarios of future climate depict a global increase in temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, primarily driven by increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Aerosol particles also play an important role by altering the Earth's radiation budget and consequently surface temperature. Here, we use the general circulation aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM, coupled to a mixed layer ocean model, to investigate the impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies in Europe on winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. We analyse the extreme case of a maximum feasible end-of-pipe reduction of aerosols in the near future (2030), in combination with increasing GHG concentrations. Our results show a more positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mean state by 2030, together with a significant eastward shift of the southern centre of action of sea-level pressure (SLP). Moreover, we show a significantly increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. By separating the impacts of aerosols and GHGs, our study suggests that future aerosol abatement may be the primary driver of both the eastward shift in the southern SLP centre of action and the increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. These concomitant modifications of the atmospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector lead to more stagnant weather conditions that favour air pollutant accumulation, especially in the western Mediterranean sector. Changes in atmospheric circulation should therefore be included in future air pollution mitigation assessments. The indicator-based evaluation of atmospheric circulation changes presented in this work will allow an objective first-order assessment of the role of changes in wintertime circulation on future air quality in other climate model simulations.

  12. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings, such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  13. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  14. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country. PMID:26614986

  15. Using Ancient Dust to Track Atmospheric Circulation and Orogenesis in Western Equatorial Pangaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Soreghan, M. J.; Gehrels, G. E.; Hamilton, M. A.; Link, P. K.; Fanning, C.; Evans, J. E.; Augsburger, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Dust (loess) deposits are a well-known climatic archive for the recent record, but remain underutilized for the older rock record. Some of the largest dust accumulations on the planet, however, date from Earth’s deep-time record, particularly the late Paleozoic. We have collected U-Pb geochronologic data from silt-sized detrital zircons to infer provenance from dust accumulations ranging in age from the Middle Carboniferous (basal Pennsylvanian, about 320 Ma) to the Middle Permian (about 265 Ma), and spanning western North America from Canada to the Mexican border and from the western margin (Nevada) to the Midcontinent (Oklahoma). This region encompasses the westernmost equatorial region of the Pangaean supercontinent between about 15oS and 20oN paleolatitude. Furthermore, it spans the time of development and demise of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (ARM) orogenic system, which formed orthogonal to the paleoequator and also includes the time of formation of the posited Pangaean megamonsoon. The oldest (mid Carboniferous) dusts exhibit a provenance signal reflecting derivation from Grenville (900-1300 Ma) sources and possibly then-uplifted mid-early Paleozoic (400-440 Ma) basement fragments located in present-day Mexico, with only minor contributions from ARM basement (Yavapai-Mazatzal terrane;1600-1800 Ma) sources. This provenance signature is inferred to reflect zonal atmospheric circulation with southeasterlies the dominant winds as the sampled localities lie within the southern hemisphere tropics. In contrast, dusts dating from Middle Pennsylvanian through Early Permian time exhibit a predominant ARM provenance, reflecting the prominence of these mountains, and associated dust generation, by this time. However, signals east of ARM uplifts contrast with those west of the uplifts, and evolve through time such that regions west of the ARM exhibit a significant ARM signal in older units, but lack a significant ARM signal in younger units. This contrast is inferred

  16. Atmospheric Torques on the Solid Earth and Oceans Based on the GEOS-1 General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Au, Andrew Y.

    1998-01-01

    The GEOS-1 general circulation model has been used to compute atmospheric torques on the oceans and solid Earth for the period 1980-1995. The time series for the various torque components have been analyzed by means of Fourier transform techniques. It was determined that the wind stress torque over land is more powerful than the wind stress torque over water by 55%, 42%, and 80% for the x, y, and z components respectively. This is mainly the result of power in the high frequency range. The pressure torques due to polar flattening, equatorial ellipticity, marine geoid, and continental orography were computed. The orographic or "mountain torque" components are more powerful than their wind stress counterparts (land plus ocean) by 231% (x), 191% (y), and 77% (z). The marine pressure torques due to geoidal undulations are much smaller than the orographic ones, as expected. They are only 3% (x), 4% (y), and 5% (z) of the corresponding mountain torques. The geoidal pressure torques are approximately equal in magnitude to those produced by the equatorial ellipticity of the Earth. The pressure torque due to polar flattening makes the largest contributions to the atmospheric torque budget. It has no zonal component, only equatorial ones. Most of the power of the latter, between 68% and 69%, is found in modes with periods under 15 days. The single most powerful mode has a period of 361 days. The gravitational torque ranks second in power only to the polar flattening pressure torque. Unlike the former, it does produce a zonal component, albeit much smaller (1%) than the equatorial ones. The gravitational and pressure torques have opposite signs, therefore, the gravitational torque nullifies 42% of the total pressure torque. Zonally, however, the gravitational torque amounts to only 6% of the total pressure torque. The power budget for the total atmospheric torque yields 7595 and 7120 Hadleys for the equatorial components and 966 Hadleys for the zonal. The x-component exhibits

  17. Variable-resolution frameworks for the simulation of tropical cyclones in global atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzycki, Colin

    The ability of atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) to resolve tropical cyclones in the climate system has traditionally been difficult. The challenges include adequately capturing storms which are small in size relative to model grids and the fact that key thermodynamic processes require a significant level of parameterization. At traditional GCM grid spacings of 50-300 km tropical cyclones are severely under-resolved, if not completely unresolved. This thesis explores a variable-resolution global model approach that allows for high spatial resolutions in areas of interest, such as low-latitude ocean basins where tropical cyclogenesis occurs. Such GCM designs with multi-resolution meshes serve to bridge the gap between globally-uniform grids and limited area models and have the potential to become a future tool for regional climate assessments. A statically-nested, variable-resolution option has recently been introduced into the Department of Energy/National Center for Atmospheric Research (DoE/NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) Spectral Element (SE) dynamical core. Using an idealized tropical cyclone test, variable-resolution meshes are shown to significantly lessen computational requirements in regional GCM studies. Furthermore, the tropical cyclone simulations are free of spurious numerical errors at the resolution interfaces. Utilizing aquaplanet simulations as an intermediate test between idealized simulations and fully-coupled climate model runs, climate statistics within refined patches are shown to be well-matched to globally-uniform simulations of the same grid spacing. Facets of the CAM version 4 (CAM4) subgrid physical parameterizations are likely too scale sensitive for variable-resolution applications, but the newer CAM5 package is vastly improved in performance at multiple grid spacings. Multi-decadal simulations following 'Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project' protocols have been conducted with variable-resolution grids. Climate

  18. Atmospheric Torques on the Solid Earth and Oceans Based on the GEOS-1 General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio

    1999-01-01

    The GEOS-1 general circulation model has been used to compute atmospheric torques on the oceans and solid Earth for the period 1980-1995. The time series for the various torque components have been analyzed by means of Fourier transform techniques. It was determined that the wind stress torque over land is more powerful than the wind stress torque over water by 55\\%, 42\\%, and 80\\t for the x, y, and z components respectively. This is mainly the result of power in the high frequency range. The pressure torques due to polar flattening, equatorial ellipticity, marine geoid, and continental orography were computed. The orographic or "mountain torque" components are more powerful than their wind stress counterparts (land plus ocean) by 231\\% (x), 191\\% (y), and 77\\% (z). The marine pressure torques due to geoidal undulations are much smaller than the orographic ones, as expected. They are only 3\\% (x), 4\\% (y), and 5\\% (z) of the corresponding mountain torques. The geoidal pressure torques are approximately equal in magnitude to those produced by the equatorial ellipticity of the Earth. The pressure torque due to polar flattening makes the largest contributions to the atmospheric'torque budget. It has no zonal component, only equatorial ones. Most of the power of the latter, between 68\\% and 69 %, is found in modes with periods under 15 days. The single most powerful mode has a period of 361 days. The gravitational torque ranks second in power only to the polar flattening pressure torque. Unlike the former, it does produce a zonal component, albeit much smaller (1\\ ) than the equatorial ones. The gravitational and pressure torques have opposite signs, therefore, the gravitational torque nullifies 42\\% of the total pressure torque. Zonally, however, the gravitational torque amounts to only 6\\% of the total pressure torque. The power budget for the total atmospheric torque yields 7595 and 7120 Hadleys for the equatorial components and 966 Hadleys for the

  19. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Hydroclimate, Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation over the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Wake, C. P.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S.; Birkel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    While tree ring and lake sediment core studies have revealed a great deal about North Pacific (e.g. Alaska) surface temperature variability over the past millennium, we do not have an equivalent understanding of North Pacific hydroclimate variability or temperatures at high elevations. A millennial-length precipitation proxy record is needed to place late 20th century Alaskan precipitation increases into longer context, and to evaluate hydroclimate changes during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. High-elevation summer temperature records would be valuable for understanding the sensitivity of Alaskan glaciers to past warm and cool periods. Here we present an overview of the new Denali Ice Core record collected from the summit plateau (4000 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Hunter (63° N, 151° W) in Denali National Park, Alaska. Two parallel ice cores were collected to bedrock (208 m in length) in May-June 2013, sampled using the Dartmouth continuous melter system, and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, particle concentration and size distribution, and stable isotope ratios at Dartmouth and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores are dated using robust annual oscillations in dust elements, methanesulfonate, ammonium, and stable isotopes, and validated using major volcanic eruptions recorded as sulfate, chloride and heavy metal spikes, and the 1963 nuclear weapons testing 137Cs spike. Preliminary analyses indicate a significant increase in both summer temperature and annual accumulation over the 20th century, and significant relationships with major ocean-atmospheric modes including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We compare the new Denali record to the Eclipse Icefield and Mt. Logan ice core records and develop composite records of North Pacific hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation variability over the past millennium.

  20. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.; Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM`s highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM`s experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  1. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A. ); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. ); Ellingson, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  2. Lessons from Multi-Millenium Runs of Coupled Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, M.; Lin, L.; Tung, K.; Yung, Y. L.; Sun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) are used for climate prediction on the degree of warming due to increases in greenhouse gases, and for policy recommendations on emission curbs. We first demonstrate that the currently adopted protocol for obtaining such a prediction does not yield a robust solution and therefore cannot be relied upon for policy recommendations. The range of uncertainty in such predictions may have been underreported when models participating in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) were run with their oceans at various stages of flux adjustment with their atmosphere, and could change significantly simply by running them longer. This is shown by comparing multi-millennium long runs of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies coupled model (GISS-EH) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) with what were reported to AR4. For common predictions from preindustrial condition to 2030-2100, the previously predicted warming and spatial patterns vary even in ensemble average. The commonly adopted remedy of subtracting the "climate drift" is ineffective and often leads to a wrong solution. The long model runs here also reveal the range of variability (~30%) in the Transient Climate Response (TCR) within the same model with the same Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity (ECS). Fortunately, for simulations with multi-decadal to century long time horizon, robust solutions can be obtained off thousand-year-long control runs that reach "quasi-equilibrium" using a new protocol. The problem of different quasi-equilibrium states in long runs and the memory of the solution on these states are also addressed.

  3. Insolation-driven changes in atmospheric circulation over the past 116,000 years in subtropical Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Francisco W; Burns, Stephen J; Karmann, Ivo; Sharp, Warren D; Vuille, Mathias; Cardoso, Andrea O; Ferrari, José A; Dias, Pedro L Silva; Viana, Oduvaldo

    2005-03-01

    During the last glacial period, large millennial-scale temperature oscillations--the 'Dansgaard/Oeschger' cycles--were the primary climate signal in Northern Hemisphere climate archives from the high latitudes to the tropics. But whether the influence of these abrupt climate changes extended to the tropical and subtropical Southern Hemisphere, where changes in insolation are thought to be the main direct forcing of climate, has remained unclear. Here we present a high-resolution oxygen isotope record of a U/Th-dated stalagmite from subtropical southern Brazil, covering the past 116,200 years. The oxygen isotope signature varies with shifts in the source region and amount of rainfall in the area, and hence records changes in atmospheric circulation and convective intensity over South America. We find that these variations in rainfall source and amount are primarily driven by summer solar radiation, which is controlled by the Earth's precessional cycle. The Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles can be detected in our record and therefore we confirm that they also affect the tropical hydrological cycle, but that in southern subtropical Brazil, millennial-scale climate changes are not as dominant as they are in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:15744298

  4. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in agroecosystems affects groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Torbert, H.A.; Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Schlesinger, W.H.; Mullins, G.L.; Runion, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration has led to concerns about global changes to the environment. One area of global change that has not been addressed is the effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on groundwater quality below agroecosystems. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentration alterations of plant growth and C/N ratios may modify C and N cycling in soil and affect nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) leaching to groundwater. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a legume (soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]) and a nonlegume (grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]) CO{sub 2}-enriched agroecosystems on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} movement below the root zone in a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic Paleudults). The study was a split-plot design replicated three times with plant species (soybean and grain sorghum) as the main plots and CO{sub 2} concentration ({approximately}360 and {approximately}720 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}) as subplots using open-top field chambers. Fertilizer application was made with {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to act as a fertilizer tracer. Soil solution samples were collected weekly at 90-cm depth for a 2-yr period and monitored for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations. Isotope analysis of soil solution indicated that the decomposition of organic matter was the primary source of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N in soil solution below the root zone through most of the monitoring period. Significant differences were observed for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations between soybean and grain sorghum, with soybean having the higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentration. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased total dry weight, total N content, and C/N ratio of residue returned to soil in both years. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly decreased NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations below the root zone in both soybean and grain sorghum. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The zonally averaged transport characteristics of the atmosphere as determined by a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Two dimensional modeling has become an established technique for the simulation of the global structure of trace constituents. Such models are simpler to formulate and cheaper to operate than three dimensional general circulation models, while avoiding some of the gross simplifications of one dimensional models. Nevertheless, the parameterization of eddy fluxes required in a 2-D model is not a trivial problem. This fact has apparently led some to interpret the shortcomings of existing 2-D models as indicating that the parameterization procedure is wrong in principle. There are grounds to believe that these shortcomings result primarily from incorrect implementations of the predictions of eddy transport theory and that a properly based parameterization may provide a good basis for atmospheric modeling. The existence of these GCM-derived coefficients affords an unprecedented opportunity to test the validity of the flux-gradient parameterization. To this end, a zonally averaged (2-D) model was developed, using these coefficients in the transport parameterization. Results from this model for a number of contrived tracer experiments were compared with the parent GCM. The generally good agreement substantially validates the flus-gradient parameterization, and thus the basic principle of 2-D modeling.

  6. Estimates of runoff using water-balance and atmospheric general circulation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolock, D.M.; McCabe, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of potential climate change on mean annual runoff in the conterminous United States (U.S.) are examined using a simple water-balance model and output from two atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). The two GCMs are from the Canadian Centre for Climate Prediction and Analysis (CCC) and the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research (HAD). In general, the CCC GCM climate results in decreases in runoff for the conterminous U.S., and the HAD GCM climate produces increases in runoff. These estimated changes in runoff primarily are the result of estimated changes in precipitation. The changes in mean annual runoff, however, mostly are smaller than the decade-to-decade variability in GCM-based mean annual runoff and errors in GCM-based runoff. The differences in simulated runoff between the two GCMs, together with decade-to-decade variability and errors in GCM-based runoff, cause the estimates of changes in runoff to be uncertain and unreliable.

  7. Emulation of a couple atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with a simple climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Y.; Emori, S.; Oki, T.; Shiogama, H.; Yokohata, T.; Yoshimori, M.

    2013-12-01

    Simple climate models have been used to investigate uncertainty of future projections under a very wide range of emission scenarios because the use of Atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) requires very huge computer resources to project future climate changes under many different socio-economic scenarios. We developed a simple climate model, and investigated the ability of the simple climate model to emulate global mean surface air temperature (SAT) changes of an AOGCM (MIROC5) in a representative concentration pathway (RCP8.5). Some previous research indicated that climate sensitivity, ocean vertical diffusion and anthropogenic aerosol forcing (direct and indirect effects of sulfate aerosol, black carbon and organic carbon) are essentially important factors to emulate of global mean SAT changes of AOGCMs. We, therefore, estimate these important factors in the simple climate model using a Metropolis-Hastings Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, and compared the results of the emulation of the simple climate model with those of AIM/impact[policy] simple climate model. Although root mean square error (RMSE) in decadal means of global mean SAT changes during the period of 2001-2100 in the AIM/impact[policy] simple climate model are large (0.6), the RMSE in our new simple climate model are dramatically improved (0.02). Thus, the estimation of these important factors by a MCMC is very useful for emulation of AOGCMs by the use of simple climate models.

  8. Comparison of cloud fields from atmospheric general circulation model, in situ and satellite measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Haskins, R.D.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, M.M.; Roeckner, E. ||

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the comparison of cloud amounts derived from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), Satellite-observed clouds, and Ground-based cloud observations. Unlike Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)-type comparisons it does not mix potential errors in the cloud amount with those in the radiation code embedded in the model. Long term cloud climatologies were used to compare global cloud amounts and regional seasonal cycles. The AGCM successfully reproduced the signatures of the warm pool and North Pacific seasonal cycle cloudiness but failed in the low stratus region off the coast of South America, a known problem for AGCMs. The data sets also reproduced the anomaly signature associated with El Nino in the warm pool region, but the model amounts were lower. Global results had a similar success rate, with the model generally producing lower total cloud compared to the satellite and in situ measurements. To compare cloud vertical distributions the cloud height may need to be validated using the corresponding radiation fields. Unfortunately there were also some large discrepancies between the two observed cloud data sets. While tremendously improved over the last decade the character of the observed cloud data sets, must be substantially enhanced before they will be useful in validating AGCMs by any but the crudest levels of comparison.

  9. Paleocene/Eocene boundary changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation: A Southern Hemisphere record

    SciTech Connect

    Hovan, S.A.; Rea, D.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 215 provides an expanded section across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, the most complete mid-latitude sequence from a Southern Hemisphere location in the Indo-Pacific area. The events of this transition occurred during a span of about 1.2 m.y. Oxygen isotope values derived from benthic foraminiferal calcite decrease by about 1.0{per thousand}, a decrease most likely related to warming of deep ocean waters. Turnovers of benthic foraminifera accompany {delta}{sup 18}O changes and culminate in the predominant extinction event at the end of the Paleocene Epoch. Carbon isotope ratios also shift dramatically toward lighter values near the end of the Paleocene, beginning about 0.45 m.y. after oxygen isotope values start to change. The intensity of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation as recorded by grain sizes of eolian particles shows a large and rapid reduction beginning another 0.45 m.y. later. A significant reduction of zonal wind strength at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, until now observed only at Northern Hemisphere locations, appears to have been a global phenomenon related to decreased latitudinal thermal gradients occasioned by more effective poleward heat transport via the deep ocean.

  10. MJO prediction skill, predictability, and teleconnection impacts in the Beijing Climate Center Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Ren, Hong-Li; Zuo, Jinqing; Zhao, Chongbo; Chen, Lijuan; Li, Qiaoping

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates performance of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) prediction in the Beijing Climate Center Atmospheric General Circulation Model (BCC_AGCM2.2). By using the real-time multivariate MJO (RMM) indices, it is shown that the MJO prediction skill of BCC_AGCM2.2 extends to about 16-17 days before the bivariate anomaly correlation coefficient drops to 0.5 and the root-mean-square error increases to the level of the climatological prediction. The prediction skill showed a seasonal dependence, with the highest skill occurring in boreal autumn, and a phase dependence with higher skill for predictions initiated from phases 2-4. The results of the MJO predictability analysis showed that the upper bounds of the prediction skill can be extended to 26 days by using a single-member estimate, and to 42 days by using the ensemble-mean estimate, which also exhibited an initial amplitude and phase dependence. The observed relationship between the MJO and the North Atlantic Oscillation was accurately reproduced by BCC_AGCM2.2 for most initial phases of the MJO, accompanied with the Rossby wave trains in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics driven by MJO convection forcing. Overall, BCC_AGCM2.2 displayed a significant ability to predict the MJO and its teleconnections without interacting with the ocean, which provided a useful tool for fully extracting the predictability source of subseasonal prediction.

  11. a Study of the Transport, Sources, and Sinks of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using a General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, A. Scott

    Prognostic calculation of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide (CO_2) was added to the Colorado State University (CSU) GCM. CO _2 is represented as a set of 16 passive atmospheric tracers, each of which represents the effect of a single source or sink of atmospheric CO_2 . All but one have unique maps of seasonally varying fluxes at the Earth's surface which are prescribed as boundary conditions in the simulation. One of the tracers, representing the effects of biologically driven CO_2 exchange at the land surface, has boundary fluxes calculated on-line using the Simple Biosphere (SiB2) model. The GCM was run on a six minute time step that (unlike previous studies of CO_2 transport) fully resolves the diurnal cycle of atmospheric circulation. The concentration of each tracer was initialized to be globally uniform, and the tracer calculation was integrated for 14 simulated years. Tracers with purely seasonal sources and sinks (representing seasonal photosynthesis and respiration) exhibited much stronger meridional gradients than previously simulated, because of enhanced correlations between boundary fluxes and simulated vertical mixing due to the inclusion of a variable-depth, well mixed, planetary boundary layer in the CSU GCM. The carbon budget of the atmosphere is expressed as a linear combination of the prescribed surface flux maps, with coefficients calculated by fitting the simulated tracer concentrations to observations. The best fit to observations was obtained for scenarios with a global ocean sink of about 0.9 times 10^ {12} kg of carbon yr^1 (0.9 Gt C yr^{-1}) and a sink of between 2 and 3 Gt C yr^{ -1} in the boreal forest. Tropical deforestation was calculated as a residual in this study because it has very little influence on the meridional concentration gradient, and was smaller than simulated in most previous studies (0 to 0.6 Gt C yr^{-1}). Diurnal variability of CO_2 in the lower troposphere was much more realistic as simulated in the CSU GCM than in

  12. The global residual mean circulation in the middle atmosphere for the northern winter period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, John C.; Lyjak, Lawrence V.; Smith, Anne K.

    1987-01-01

    The residual mean circulation (rmc) has been calculated from the transformed thermodynamic equation using LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data for the 100-0.1 mb region. For discussion, it has been divided into two components: the diabatic circulation, associated with the diabatic heating, and the transient circulation, more directly connected to eddy activity. The slowly varying diabatic circulation reveals an equator-to-pole circulation at lower levels in the stratosphere, usually overlain by a summer-to-winter pole circulation. However, there are strong seasonal variations, so that the pole-to-pole circulation fills the entire region at the December solstice, while the equator-to-pole circulation extends to above 0.1 mb at the equinoxes. The transient circulation is characterized by rapid variations and small vertical and horizontal scales. Though generally smaller than the diabatic circulation, it can dominate in the lower stratosphere during disturbed conditions. This circulation is consistent with the transformed momentum equation in the lower stratosphere (where drag is expected to be small) during undisturbed periods. It suggests a large drag due to small-scale waves (such as gravity waves) in the mesosphere, although the magnitudes are uncertain. The downward propagation of the semiannual oscillation causes the rmc in the tropics to vary, and it is capable of creating the equatorial water vapor maximum above 10 mb.

  13. The Effect of Surface Ice and Topography on the Atmospheric Circulation and Distribution of Nitrogen Ice on Pluto.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot; Soto, Alejandro; Michaels, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed general circulation model (GCM) for Pluto is used to investigate the unexpected and highly heterogeneous distribution of nitrogen surface ice imaged by the New Horizons spacecraft on the surface of Pluto. The GCM is based on the GFDL Flexible Modeling System (FMS) dynamical core, solved on a discretized latitude/longitude horizontal grid and a pressure-based hybrid vertical coordinate. Model physics include a 3-band radiative scheme, molecular thermal conduction within the atmosphere, subsurface thermal conduction, and a nitrogen volatile cycle. The radiative-conductive model takes into account the 2.3, 3.3 and 7.8 μm bands of CH4, including non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. The subsurface conduction model assumes a water ice regolith. In the case of nitrogen surface ice deposition, additional super-surface layers are added above the water ice regolith to properly account for conductive energy flow through the nitrogen ice. The nitrogen volatile cycle is based on a vapor pressure equilibrium assumption between the atmosphere and surface. Prior to the arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft, the expectation was that the volatile surface ice distribution on the surface of Pluto would be strongly controlled by the latitudinal temperature gradient resulting primarily from the slow seasonal variations of radiative-conductive equilibrium. If this were the case, then Pluto would have broad latitudinal bands of both ice covered surface and ice free surface, as dictated by the season. Furthermore, the circulation, and thus the transport of volatiles, was thought to be driven almost exclusively by sublimation and deposition flows (so-called "condensation flows") associated with the volatile cycle. In contrast to expectations, images from New Horizon showed an extremely complex, heterogeneous distribution of surface ices draped over topography of substantial geologic diversity. To maintain such an ice distribution, the atmospheric circulation and

  14. Future Changes Projections of Atmospheric Circulation and Precipitation and Temperature Patterns Over South America in Austral Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M. H.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric circulation is primarily driven by temperature gradients across the globe due to differential heating of Earth's surface which leads to a surplus of energy in the tropics and a deficit in the high latitudes. However, due to global warming, changes in atmospheric circulation are expected, which could result in modifications also in precipitation pattern. There are some evidences of changes in atmospheric circulation, such as the expansion of tropical belt and the poleward shift of large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, such as jet streams. These changes can be enhanced in a scenario with increasing greenhouse gases concentration. The objective of this study was to analyze future changes of atmospheric circulation and precipitation and temperature patterns in the austral summer over South America under Representative Pathway Concentration 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emission scenario. This evaluation was made according to model projections based on the coordinated climate change experiments defined by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Historical simulations were used to evaluate model performance in reproduce main climatic features over South America in the Austral Summer. This analysis showed that some models perform better than others, with a wide range of difference between simulations and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim data sets. In general, the models captured the main features of Austral Summer such as the northwest-southeast precipitation band associated with the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and the anticyclonic circulation at high levels related to Bolivian High. The projections from different models pointed out in general to a reduction of precipitation, however the signal was not the same over all the continent and for all models. For example, Met Office's HadGEM2-ES projection indicated a reduction of precipitation in most of

  15. Response of the Tropical Atmospheric Circulation to Glacial Boundary Conditions Simulated by an Ensemble of Coupled Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nezio, P. N.; Clement, A. C.; Vecchi, G. A.

    2009-12-01

    The response of the tropical atmospheric circulation to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) boundary conditions is analyzed using an ensemble of coordinated climate model experiments performed for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase II. The multi-model changes in the surface circulation of the Tropical Pacific are dominated by cross-equatorial winds flowing from the Northern hemisphere (NH) to the Southern hemisphere (SH) along with a strengthening of the easterlies over the equatorial Pacific. The anomalous cross-equatorial winds have been typically associated with an anomalous Hadley cell with the ascending branch in the SH and the descending branch in the NH compensating changes in atmospheric heat transport. However, in this ensemble of coupled General Circulation Models (GCMs) the changes in the tropical circulation result from different forcing in each hemisphere. In the NH hemisphere the changes are dominated by the topography of the ice sheets, while in the SH the changes result from cooling due to decreased CO2. The changes in circulation due to the topography of the icesheets are diagnosed using a steady s-coordinate primitive equation model linearized about a zonally symmetric basic state that solves for the eddy component of the circulation. The solutions from this model for each GCM indicate that differences in the simulation of the mean climate result in differences in the response to LGM topography. The multi-model atmospheric response in the NH is analogous to the expansion of the Aleutian low during boreal winter in the present climate, when the NH subtropical high is squeezed southeastward by an expanded Aleutian low. In the SH the models simulate an eastward expansion of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and contraction of the eastern Pacific dry zone consistent with reduced subsidence associated with a slowing down of the SH Hadley cell. This eastward shift in the mean climatology results in weakened trade winds. In addition to the

  16. Millennial-scale tropical atmospheric and Atlantic Ocean circulation change from the Last Glacial Maximum and Marine Isotope Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Them, T. R.; Schmidt, M. W.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.

    2015-10-01

    Abrupt, millennial-scale climate oscillations, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles, characterized the climate system of the last glacial period. Although proxy evidence shows that D-O cycles resulted in large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation patterns around the planet, an understanding of how Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) varied across these events remains unclear. Here, we take advantage of the fact that both tropical atmospheric circulation changes corresponding to north-south shifts in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and large-scale changes in ocean circulation associated with AMOC variability can be reconstructed in the same sediment core from the Florida Straits to examine the relationship between atmospheric and ocean circulation changes across D-O events. To reconstruct surface water conditions, Mg/Ca-paleothermometry and stable isotope measurements were combined on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white variety) from sediment core KNR166-2 JPC26 (24°19.61‧N, 83°15.14‧W; 546 m depth) to reconstruct a high-resolution record of sea surface temperature and δO18seawater (a proxy for upper mixed layer salinity) during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 2 and 3 from 20-35 ka BP. As an additional proxy for upper water column salinity change, we also generate a faunal abundance record of the salinity-sensitive planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei. Our results suggest that rapid reductions in sea surface salinity occurred at the onset of D-O interstadials, while stadials are characterized by increased surface salinities. The most likely cause of these salinity changes was variation in the strength and position of the ITCZ across D-O events. Finally, we examine the relationship between millennial-scale atmospheric circulation changes recorded in the planktonic records and ocean circulation changes inferred from the benthic δ18O record from our core. Our results provide some of the first

  17. Impact of negative affectivity and trait forgiveness on aortic blood pressure and coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; May, Ross W; Koutnik, Andrew P; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that negative affectivity (NA) may have a direct adverse effect on coronary circulation, whereas forgiveness may provide cardioprotection. This study examined whether NA and forgiveness were independently related to aortic hemodynamics and the subendocardial viability index (SVI), a marker of coronary perfusion. A sample of 131 adults (M = 21.11 years, SD = 2.52) were evaluated for NA (depression, anxiety, and anger symptoms) and forgiveness (Tendency to Forgive Scale; TTF). Aortic hemodynamic parameters via applanation tonometry were assessed at rest and during sympathostimulation (cold pressor test; CPT). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of resting values showed that NA was related to higher aortic blood pressure (ABP) and lower SVI. After controlling for demographics and for NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with decreased ABP, but increased SVI. CPT changes from baseline indicated that, after controlling for demographics and NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with SVI. Results indicate that NA significantly predicts ABP and decreased SVI. Conversely, forgiveness seems to provide cardioprotection by evoking decreased ABP while improving SVI. PMID:25195798

  18. Ultra-endurance exercise induces stress and inflammation and affects circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell function.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P

    2015-10-01

    Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration. PMID:25438993

  19. Spatiotemporal variability of the latest frosts in Korean Peninsula and causes of atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Ah; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2016-02-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of latest frost dates (LFDs) on the Korean Peninsula and the atmospheric circulation patterns that resulted in the latest frosts (LFs) were investigated through the use of historical records and modern weather observation data. During the modern observation period since 1904, the most recent record of LF was April 28, 2013 at Daegwallyeong. On average, the LF occurred in Korea between March 17 (at Wando) and May 10 (at Daegwallyeong). Positive correlations were found between LFD and altitude and latitude. Additionally, inter- annual variation of LFD showed a trend of progressively earlier dates at 32 of the 48 stations at which data were available. The historic data set consists of the following: 39 records of frosts during the Three-States Period (57 BC-998 AD): 34 records during the Goryeo Dynasty (998-1391), among which the latest record was in July of the lunar calendar: and 498 during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1928) with one LF dated August 31, 1417 on the solar calendar. Regarding LFD from The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, April has 11 records, May has 55, June has 46, July has 21, and August has 5 LFD records. Various meteorological causes of the latest LF were then established. Firstly, a cold and humid north-easterly current that originates from high latitudes of more than 50°N and passes through the East Sea is considered one of the dominant causes of LF. Secondly, strong radiative cooling under clear skies is suspected as another important cause. Thirdly, a specific pressure pattern, called the `inverted-S contour' or `North High and South Low (NHSL) pattern' was found to be a favorable condition for LF. Finally the latest LF was not found to be related to monthly or longer-term cold climate, but are instead linked to the abrupt development of a strong ridge over inland Asia and the unusual southward movement of the tall polar cyclone over the North Pacific Ocean.

  20. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  1. Future climate of the Caribbean from a super-high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Trevor C.; Sealy, Andrea M.; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Kusunoki, Shoji; Taylor, Michael A.; Chen, A. Anthony; Kitoh, Akio

    2013-07-01

    Present-day (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) simulations of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature are examined using data from the Meteorological Research Institute super-high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model. Analyses are performed over the 20-km model grid for (1) a main Caribbean basin, (2) sub-regional zones, and (3) specific Caribbean islands. Though the model's topography underestimates heights over the eastern Caribbean, it captures well the present-day spatial and temporal variations of seasonal and annual climates. Temperature underestimations range from 0.1 °C to 2 °C with respect to the Japanese Reanalysis and the Climatic Research Unit datasets. The model also captures fairly well sub-regional scale variations in the rainfall climatology. End-of-century projections under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A1B scenario indicate declines in rainfall amounts by 10-20 % for most of the Caribbean during the early (May-July) and late (August-October) rainy seasons relative to the 1979-2003 baselines. The early dry season (November-January) is also projected to get wetter in the far north and south Caribbean by approximately 10 %. The model also projects a warming of 2-3 °C over the Caribbean region. Analysis of future climate extremes indicate a 5-10 % decrease in the simple daily precipitation intensity but no significant change in the number of consecutive dry days for Cuba, Jamaica, southern Bahamas, and Haiti. There is also indication that the number of hot days and nights will significantly increase over the main Caribbean basin.

  2. An atmospheric general circulation model for Pluto with predictions for New Horizons temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalucha, Angela M.

    2016-06-01

    Results are presented from a 3D Pluto general circulation model (GCM) that includes conductive heating and cooling, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) heating by methane at 2.3 and 3.3 μm, non-LTE cooling by cooling by methane at 7.6 μm, and LTE CO rotational line cooling. The GCM also includes a treatment of the subsurface temperature and surface-atmosphere mass exchange. An initially 1 m thick layer of surface nitrogen frost was assumed such that it was large enough to act as a large heat sink (compared with the solar heating term) but small enough that the water ice subsurface properties were also significant. Structure was found in all three directions of the 3D wind field (with a maximum magnitude of the order of 10 m s-1 in the horizontal directions and 10-5 microbar s-1 in the vertical direction). Prograde jets were found at several altitudes. The direction of flow over the poles was found to very with altitude. Broad regions of up-welling and down-welling were also found. Predictions of vertical temperature profiles are provided for the Alice and Radio science Experiment instruments on New Horizons, while predictions of light curves are provided for ground-based stellar occultation observations. With this model methane concentrations of 0.2 per cent and 1.0 per cent and 8 and 24 microbar surface pressures are distinguishable. For ground-based stellar occultations, a detectable difference exists between light curves with the different methane concentrations, but not for different initial global mean surface pressures.

  3. On two small-scale circulation mechanisms of fine-aerosol transport in the atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granberg, I. G.; Artamonova, M. S.; Dobryshman, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    Small-scale processes are taken to mean the disturbances of the atmospheric basic background which are caused by the thermal inhomogeneity of the underlying surface and under which one can neglect the effects of both centripetal and Coriolis accelerations. Slight disturbances suggest the use of linearized hydrothermodynamic equations of a weakly compressible atmosphere. Two models are considered. In one of the models, circulation over a weakly sloping barchan is analyzed using a refined model of mountain—valley circulation (the well-known Prandtl model). The other model, which is a model of a thermal spot in a geostrophic flow, can conditionally be called "anticonvective." This problem is solved using the method of universal functions for parabolic equations with variable coefficients.

  4. Relationship between North American winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Lin, H.; Wu, Z. W.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2016-07-01

    The interannual relationship between North American (NA) winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation are analyzed. NA temperature anomalies are dominated by two leading maximum covariance analysis (MCA) modes of NA surface temperature and Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa geopotential anomalies. A new teleconnection index, termed the Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) pattern, is constructed from the normalized geopotential field after linearly removing the contribution of the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern. The ABNA pattern is sustained by synoptic eddy forcing. The first MCA mode of NA surface temperature is highly correlated with the PNA and ABNA teleconnections, and the second mode with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This indicates that NA temperature is largely controlled by these three large-scale atmospheric patterns, i.e., the PNA, ABNA and NAO. These temperature-circulation relationships appear stationary in the 20th century.

  5. Extreme regimes of atmospheric circulation and their role in the formation of temperature and precipitation fields in the Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irina, Kulikova; Ekaterina, Kruglova; Dmitry, Kiktev; Vladimir, Tischenco; Valentina, Khan

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the extreme regimes of atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere as well as their role in the formation of monthly and seasonal anomalies of temperature and precipitation fields over Arctic region were examined using NCEP / NCAR-2 reanalysis data. To identify extreme modes, climate indexes were quantitatively assessed. The mapping of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation fields for the different phases of indices using composite analysis was developed. It is allowed to identify allocated geographic areas in which the influence of modes of circulation for temperature and precipitation fields in Arctic is statistically significant. Quantitative estimations of contingency of atmospheric circulation modes in the Northern Hemisphere were analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the extreme episodes of the climate circulation indices, associated with formation of significant anomalies of air temperature and precipitation. The results of numerical experiments to reproduce the extreme events on monthly and seasonal time scale on the basis of the global semi-Lagrangian model SL-AV, developed in collaboration of Institute of Numerical Mathematics and Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, have been discussed. For this study the support has been provided by Grant of Russian Science Foundation (№14-37-00053).

  6. Atmospheric circulation patterns associated to the variability of River Ammer floods: evidence from observed and proxy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, Norel; Czymzik, Markus; Ionita, Monica; Lohmann, Gerrit; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between the frequency of River Ammer floods (southern Germany) and atmospheric circulation variability is investigated based on observational Ammer discharge data back to 1926 and a flood layer time series from varved sediments of the downstream Lake Ammersee for the pre-instrumental period back to 1766. A composite analysis reveals that, at synoptic time scales, observed River Ammer floods are associated with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean towards the Ammer region, a pronounced trough over Western Europe as well as enhanced potential vorticity at upper levels. We argue that this synoptic scale configuration can trigger heavy precipitation and floods in the Ammer region. Interannual to multidecadal increases in flood frequency, as recorded in the instrumental discharge record, are associated to a wave-train pattern extending from the North Atlantic to western Asia with a prominent negative center over western Europe. A similar atmospheric circulation pattern is associated to increases in flood layer frequency in the Lake Ammersee sediment record during the pre-instrumental period. Furthermore, river Ammer flood frequency variability is associated with distinct patterns in various extreme climatic indices. In particular, high frequency of river Ammer floods is accompanied by high frequency of warm days (TX90p index) and positive anomalies of absolute maximum temperature (TXx) over northeastern Europe. Such extreme temperature patterns occur in connection with low cloudiness over this region forced by flood related atmospheric circulation pattern during summer. We argue that the complete flood layer time-series from Lake Ammersee sediments covering the last 5500 years, contains information about atmospheric circulation and extreme climate indices variability on inter-annual to millennial time-scales.

  7. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter hazy pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2015-08-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter hazy pollutions (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship to the atmospheric circulations in middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter hazy pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. Both the visibility and number of hazy days can be estimated well by using the six indices and fitting and the cross-validation with leave-N-out method, respectively. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter hazy pollutions in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. However, we also noted that the statistic estimation models would be largely influenced by the artificial control of a pollutant discharge. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take actions in advance in dealing with probably severe hazy pollutions in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  8. Effects of winter atmospheric circulation on temporal and spatial variability in annual streamflow in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Winter mean 700-hectoPascal (hPa) height anomalies, representing the average atmospheric circulation during the snow season, are compared with annual streamflow measured at 140 streamgauges in the western United States. Correlation and anomaly pattern analyses are used to identify relationships between winter mean atmospheric circulation and temporal and spatial variability in annual streamflow. Results indicate that variability in winter mean 700-Hpa height anomalies accounts for a statistically significant portion of the temporal variability in annual streamflow in the western United States. In general, above-average annual streamflow is associated with negative winter mean 700-Hpa height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and/or the western United States. The anomalies produce an anomalous flow of moist air from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the western United States that increases winter precipitation and snowpack accumulations, and subsequently streamflow. Winter mean 700-hPa height anomalies also account for statistically significant differences in spatial distributions of annual streamflow. As part of this study, winter mean atmospheric circulation patterns for the 40 years analysed were classified into five winter mean 700-hPa height anomaly patterns. These patterns are related to statistically significant and physically meaningful differences in spatial distributions of annual streamflow.

  9. Recent accelerating mass loss of southeast Tibetan glaciers and the relationship with changes in macroscale atmospheric circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yao, Tandong; Zhu, Meilin; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-08-01

    The mass balance history (1980-2010) of a monsoon-dominated glacier in the southeast Tibetan Plateau is reconstructed using an energy balance model and later interpreted with regard to macroscale atmospheric variables. The results show that this glacier is characterized by significant interannual mass fluctuations over the past three decades, with a remarkably high mass loss during the recent period of 2003-2010. Analysis of the relationships between glacier mass balance and climatic variables shows that interannual temperature variability in the monsoonal season (June-September) is a primary driver of its mass balance fluctuations, but monsoonal precipitation tends to play an accentuated role for driving the observed glacier mass changes due to their covariation (concurrence of warm/dry and cold/wet climates) in the monsoon-influenced southeast Tibetan Plateau. Analysis of the atmospheric circulation pattern reveals that the predominance of anticyclonic/cyclonic circulations prevailing in the southeastern/northern Tibetan Plateau during 2003-2010 contributes to increased air temperature and decreased precipitation in the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Regionally contrasting atmospheric circulations explain the distinct mass changes between in the monsoon-influenced southeast Tibetan Plateau and in the north Tibetan Plateau/Tien Shan Mountains during 2003-2010. The macroscale climate change seems to be linked with the Europe-Asia teleconnection.

  10. Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the variability of River Ammer floods: evidence from observed and proxy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, Norel; Czymzik, Markus; Ionita, Monica; Lohmann, Gerrit; Brauer, Achim

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between the frequency of River Ammer floods (southern Germany) and atmospheric circulation variability is investigated based on observational Ammer River discharge data back to 1926 and a flood layer time series from varved sediments of the downstream Lake Ammer for the pre-instrumental period back to 1766. A composite analysis reveals that, at synoptic timescales, observed River Ammer floods are associated with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean towards the Ammer region, a pronounced trough over western Europe as well as enhanced potential vorticity at upper levels. We argue that this synoptic-scale configuration can trigger heavy precipitation and floods in the Ammer region. Interannual to multidecadal increases in flood frequency, as detected in the instrumental discharge record, are associated with a wave train pattern extending from the North Atlantic to western Asia, with a prominent negative center over western Europe. A similar atmospheric circulation pattern is associated with increases in flood layer frequency in the Lake Ammer sediment record during the pre-instrumental period. We argue that the complete flood layer time series from Lake Ammer sediments covering the last 5500 years contains information about atmospheric circulation variability on interannual to millennial timescales.

  11. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter haze pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter haze pollution (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship with the atmospheric circulations at middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter haze pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. In the raw (unfiltered) correlations, the correlation coefficients between the six indices and the winter visibility (number of hazy days) varied from 0.57 (0.47) to 0.76 (0.6) with an average of 0.65 (0.54); in the high-frequency ( < 10 years) correlations, the coefficients varied from 0.62 (0.58) to 0.8 (0.69) with an average of 0.69 (0.64). The six circulation indices together can explain 77.7 % (78.7 %) and 61.7 % (69.1 %) variances of the winter visibility and the number of hazy days in the year-to-year (inter-annual) variability, respectively. The increase in Ic (a comprehensive index derived from the six individual circulation indices) can cause a shallowing of the East Asian trough at the middle troposphere and a weakening of the Siberian high-pressure field at sea level, and is then accompanied by a reduction (increase) of horizontal advection and vertical convection (relative humidity) in the lowest troposphere and a reduced boundary layer height in BTH and its

  12. Identification and frequency of atmospheric circulation patterns causing spring frost in the northern French vineyards using the objective version of the Hess-Brezowsky classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quénol, H.; Planchon, O.; Wahl, L.

    2009-04-01

    frosts (until June). In the Loire Valley area, frost is rare as early as April. The combined effects of the continentality and the topographical features of the Upper Rhine Graben explain the hard frosts in early spring at Colmar, but also higher temperature at Colmar than at Reims from April. The Champagne area is the most exposed to frost-producing North-Westerly and Northerly atmospheric circulations in late spring (e.g. on May the 5th, 1996: minimum temperature of -1°C at Reims / Champagne and +3.8°C at Colmar). The identification and frequency of atmospheric circulation patterns causing spring frost (daily minimum temperature below 0°C) and hard frost (daily minimum temperature below -5°C) were carried out using the objective computational version of the 29-type Hess and Brezowsky Grosswetterlagen system of classifying European synoptic regimes (James, 2007). Minimum temperature data were got from the Meteo-France database (Climathèque), for the spring months (March, April and May) and for the period 1960-2007, at the weather stations of Saumur (Loire Valley), Reims (Champagne), Dijon (Burgundy) and Colmar (Alsace). More than 40% of the frost days occurring at all weather stations were associated with North-Westerly and Northerly circulation types, 27% with North-Easterly and Easterly circulation types and 16% with a main high or low pressure area over central Europe. More precisely, the cyclonic circulations involving a northerly flow over western Europe (15.6%) and Anticyclonic North-Easterly circulations (9,3%) are the most frequent circulations types associated with frost days. These circulation types bring air-masses favourable to radiation cooling, under clear sky and light wind, or cold air-masses from northern or eastern Europe causing advection cooling. The stations of eastern France can be subjected to frost events even during Westerly or Southerly circulations, while frost occurrence in the Saumur area requires a higher ratio of North-Easterly and

  13. Interannual variability of summer sea ice thickness in the Siberian and central Arctic under different atmospheric circulation regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Eicken, Hajo

    2001-03-01

    Extensive drill hole and electromagnetic induction measurements of sea ice thickness in the Siberian and central Arctic Seas in the summers of 1993, 1995, and 1996 reveal significant interannual variability. In the Laptev Sea, minimum and maximum modal first-year ice thicknesses amounted to 1.25 and 1.85 m in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Ice thickness correlates with ice extent, which reached a record minimum in August 1995 and was well above average in 1996. These differences are explained by the strength and location of a summer cyclonic atmospheric circulation pattern affecting both ice advection and surface melt. From drifting buoys deployed in 1995 and satellite radar backscatter data, first- and second-year ice regimes are delineated. Differences in first-year ice backscatter coefficients between 1993, 1995, and 1996 are explained by differences in level ice surface roughness. The Lagrangian evolution of ice thickness between 1995 and 1996 is studied. While the shape of the thickness distribution does not change significantly, the mean (modal) ice thickness of the ice field increases from 1.80 m (1.25 m) in 1995 to 2.86 m (2.25 m) in 1996. The thickness distribution of second-year ice in 1996 closely agrees with that of level multiyear ice downstream in the Transpolar Drift obtained in 1991. In 1996, mean level ice thickness increases at 0.23 and 0.16 m deg-1 with latitude in the Kara and Laptev Sea sectors of the Arctic Ocean, respectively.

  14. Relationships between atmospheric circulation indices and rainfall in Northern Algeria and comparison of observed and RCM-generated rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taibi, S.; Meddi, M.; Mahé, G.; Assani, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work aims, as a first step, to analyze rainfall variability in Northern Algeria, in particular extreme events, during the period from 1940 to 2010. Analysis of annual rainfall shows that stations in the northwest record a significant decrease in rainfall since the 1970s. Frequencies of rainy days for each percentile (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) and each rainfall interval class (1-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-50, and ≥50 mm) do not show a significant change in the evolution of daily rainfall. The Tenes station is the only one to show a significant decrease in the frequency of rainy days up to the 75th percentile and for the 10-20-mm interval class. There is no significant change in the temporal evolution of extreme events in the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. The relationships between rainfall variability and general atmospheric circulation indices for interannual and extreme event variability are moderately influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Mediterranean Oscillation. Significant correlations are observed between the Southern Oscillation Index and annual rainfall in the northwestern part of the study area, which is likely linked with the decrease in rainfall in this region. Seasonal rainfall in Northern Algeria is affected by the Mediterranean Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation in the west. The ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) are assessed using the bias method to test their ability to reproduce rainfall variability at different time scales. The Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM), Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ), and Forschungszentrum Geesthacht (GKSS) models yield the least biased results.

  15. Interannual Variability of Heat Wave in South Korea and theirs Connection with Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Lee, Myong-In

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the interannual variation of heat wave frequency (HWF) in South Korea during the past 42 years (1973-2014) and examines its connection with large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. Korean heat waves tend to develop most frequently in late summer during July and August. The leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) accounting for 50% of the total variance shows a mono-signed pattern over South Korea, suggesting that the dominant mechanisms responsible for the heat wave are linked in a spatial scale much larger than the nation. It also exhibits a regional variation with more occurrences in the southeastern inland area. The regression of the leading principal component (PC) time series of HWF with large-scale atmospheric circulation identifies a north-south dipole pattern between the South China Sea and Northeast Asia. When this large-scale circulation mode facilitates deep convection in South China Sea, it tends to weaken moisture transport from the South China Sea to Northeast Asia. Enhanced deep convection in the South China Sea triggers a source of Rossby wave train along southerly wind that generates positive geopotential height anomalies around Korea. The anomalous high pressure pattern is accompanied by large-scale subsidence in Korea, thereby providing a favorable condition for extreme hot and dry days in Korea. This study highlights that there is a decadal change of the relationship between Korean heat waves and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. The tropical forcing tends to be weakened in the recent decade, with more influences from the Arctic variability from the mid-1990s.

  16. A global satellite view of the seasonal distribution of mineral dust and its correlation with atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Sturman, A.; Zawar-Reza, P.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols make a considerable contribution to the climate system through their radiative and cloud condensation nuclei effects, which underlines the need for understanding the origin of aerosols and their transport pathways. Seasonal distribution of mineral dust around the globe and its correlation with atmospheric circulation is investigated using satellite data, and meteorological data from ECMWF. The most important sources of dust are located in North Africa, the Middle East and Southwest Asia with an observed summer maximum, and East Asia with a spring peak. Maximum dust activity over North Africa and the Middle East in summer is attributed to dry convection associated with the summertime low-pressure system, while unstable weather and dry conditions are responsible for the spring peak in dust emission in East Asia. Intercontinental transport of mineral dust by atmospheric circulation has been observed, including trans-Atlantic transport of North African dust, trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust, and transport of dust from the Middle East across the Indian Ocean. The extent of African dust over the Atlantic Ocean and its latitudinal variation with season is related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation, including seasonal changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and variation of wind patterns. North African aerosols extend over longer distances across the North Atlantic in summer because of greater dust emission, an intensified easterly low level jet (LLJ) and strengthening of the Azores-Bermuda anticyclonic circulation. Transport of East Asian aerosol is facilitated by the existence of a LLJ that extends from East Asia to the west coast of North America.

  17. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  18. Influences of Northern Hemisphere Sea-Ice Change on Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, K.; Ukita, J.; Honda, M.; Iwamoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence from both observations and model results suggests a link between changes in the Arctic sea ice conditions and atmospheric circulation in the NH mid latitudes with its possible impacts on severe winters and extreme weather events. This study investigates underlying mechanisms for this Arctic-midlatitudes climate connection based on numerical experiments using a high-top AGCM. We compare and evaluate results from two sets of perpetual simulations (60yrs run each), one with an annual cycle of sea ice conditions from the period of 1979-1983 and the other from the 2005-2009 period while other variables and parameters including SST and GHGs are fixed.Results from the numerical experiments show that the Arctic sea ice reduction leads to cold winters in the mid-latitude land areas centered in Siberia, Europe and the North America. The winter (DJF) mean temperature at 850 hPa averaged over the mid-latitude continents decreases by about 0.4 K associated due solely to sea ice reduction.The analysis based on a wave-activity flux indicates that this cooling is due to low-level cold advection. In early winter negative geopotential height anomalies over Siberia and the North America develop as a stationary Rossby wave response to anomalous turbulent surface heat fluxes associated with the sea-ice reduction in the Barents and Kala Seas. As winter progresses further wave propagation acts to intensify positive geopotential height anomalies over the high Arctic, which eventually leads to cold advections in the lower troposphere. In addition, we identify a pathway via the stratosphere which appears to aid this intensification of positive geopotential height anomalies.Observations in general support a similar relationship. For example, on interannual timescale there is a significant positive relationship between the September NH SIE time series and surface temperatures in continental regions.Our results have significant implications that sea ice can be used as a basis for mid

  19. The influence of persistence of atmospheric circulation on temperature anomalies revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahynova, Monika; Huth, Radan

    2010-05-01

    In this study we focus on the effect of persistence of circulation types on the occurrence of high and low temperatures in summer and winter, respectively, at several stations in Central Europe in the second half of the 20th century. The key question is to compare the subjective Hess-Brezowsky catalogue with its "objectivized" version, because serious concern has arisen on the credibility of the mid-1980s enhancement of persistence of the Hess-Brezowsky circulation types. For a direct comparison we have chosen an objective (automated) circulation catalogue that is based on the definition of Hess-Brezowsky types, and that also reproduces the minimum 3-day duration of circulation types. In this catalogue there is no significant upward trend in the persistence of types. We identify "hot" and "cold" circulation types and examine if there is a trend within these types, either in their frequency or temperature severity. We then determine whether the persistence of circulation types plays a role in these trends, e.g. whether the warming of "hot" types is caused rather by their longer duration or by the overall rise of their extremeness. The research is conducted within the COST733 Action "Harmonisation and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions". The Czech participation in it is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  20. The Atmospheric Circulation of the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b: Comparing Three-Dimensional Models to Spectrophotometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Line, Michael R.; Bean, Jacob L.; Désert, Jean-Michel

    2014-11-01

    While HD 189733b and HD 209458b remain two of the most well characterized transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-43b will soon be joining these ranks. This 2 Jupiter-mass, 1 Jupiter-radius planet orbits a K7 star with an orbital period of 19.5 hours, and already has an array of observational constraints. Because the planet receives a similar stellar flux as HD 209458b but has a rotation rate four times faster and a much higher gravity, studying WASP-43b serves as a test of the effect of rotation rate and gravity on the circulation of a hot Jupiter when stellar irradiation is held approximately constant. Here we present 3D atmospheric circulation models of WASP-43b using the SPARC/MITgcm, a state-of-the-art coupled radiation and circulation model, exploring the effects of composition, metallicity, and frictional drag (a crude parameterization of possible Lorentz forces) on the circulation. We find that the circulation regime of WASP-43b is not unlike other hot Jupiters, with equatorial superrotation that yields an eastward-shifted hotspot and large day-night temperature variations 600 K at photospheric pressures). We then compare our model results to the observations of Stevenson et al., which utilize the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard HST to collect spectrophotometric phase curve measurements of WASP-43b from 1.12-1.65 microns. Our results show the 5x solar model lightcurve provides a good match to the data, with a phase offset of the lightcurve flux peak and planet/star flux ratio similar to observations; however, the model nightside appears to be brighter than the observations. Nevertheless, our 5x solar model provides an excellent match to the WFC3 dayside emission spectrum. This is major success, as the result is natural outcome of the 3D dynamics, with no model tuning. This differs significantly from 1D models that generally can only match observations when appropriately tuned. In sum, these results demonstrate that 3D circulation models can provide tremendous insights in

  1. A Nonlinear Multigrid Solver for an Atmospheric General Circulation Model Based on Semi-Implicit Semi-Lagrangian Advection of Potential Vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, S.; Ruge, John W.

    1998-01-01

    This work represents a part of a project to develop an atmospheric general circulation model based on the semi-Lagrangian advection of potential vorticity (PC) with divergence as the companion prognostic variable.

  2. A Distinct Change in Atmospheric Circulation on the Central Tibetan Plateau at 16,800 Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Lü, X.; Wang, J.; Peng, P.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Kasper, T.; Daut, G.; Haberzettl, T.; Frenzel, P.; Schwalb, A.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has experienced similar environmental and climatic events as the Realm of North Atlantic Ocean (NA) since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, previous studies have not discussed in detail whether the influence is transported through the westerly crossing the Eurasian continent or by the thermohaline circulation influencing the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). Using observations in the transition zone between the westerly and the ISM on the TP, pollen assemblage variations from a lacustrine sediment record indicate changes in circulations patterns. Before 16.8 ka BP, climate on the TP was controlled by the southward westerly and the dipole-shaped tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall anomaly due to sub-polar ice sheet expanding in the NA areas. After 16.8 ka BP, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) exerted more influence to the Indian Ocean currents and then to the ISM, which was the dominant atmospheric circulation on the TP areas during the whole period.

  3. Sensitivity of the sea circulation to the atmospheric forcing in the Sicily Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Hiba; Arsouze, Thomas; Béranger, Karine; Boukthir, Moncef; Drobinski, Philippe; Lebeaupin-Brossier, Cindy; Mairech, Hanen

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the sea surface circulation in the Sicily Channel to surface winds, using a 15-year long (1994-2008) air-sea coupled numerical simulation. Analysis is based on the clustering of six main wind regimes over the Sicily Channel domain. The analysis of the corresponding sea current clusters shows that sea circulation in this area is sensitive to surface wind patterns. This wind modulates the strength of the two main branches of the sea circulation in the Sicily Channel (i.e. the Atlantic Tunisian Current and the Atlantic Ionian Stream). The modulation of these two currents depends on the wind regime, and displays a strong seasonal variability. It is also shown that the sea circulation in the Sicily Channel is strongly controlled by the thermohaline circulation and the bathymetry (geostrophic current). However, the contribution to the total current of its ageostrophic component forced by the surface winds is significant, with a correlation coefficient varying from 0.3 to 0.7.

  4. The main characteristics of atmospheric circulation over East-Central Europe from 1871 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the paper concerns the determination of the annual and multi-annual variability of air flow over East-Central Europe in the period 1871-2010. Daily mean sea-level pressure and values of physical quantities provided the basis for distinguishing 27 circulation types, i.e., eight directional cyclonic, transitional, and anticyclonic types, and one non-directional cyclonic, anticyclonic, and an undefined type. Over the area of East-Central Europe, the highest frequency is recorded for air flow from the western sector, with a maximum in the period from December to January. In spring, a higher than average frequency of cyclonic and easterly circulation is observed, and in summer—anticyclonic and northerly. Increased zonal circulation was recorded in the years 1910-1930, and particularly after 1970, and eastern at the end of the nineteenth century and in the 1930s and 1940s. An increase in the frequency of days with non-directional anticyclonic type and westerly air flow, and a simultaneous decrease in frequency of days with south-easterly and easterly circulation were observed throughout the study period. Among the three classes of circulation types, the highest persistence (particularly in winter) was recorded for anticyclonic types, i.e., when the high pressure system occurred over the Scandinavian Peninsula or East Europe.

  5. Changes in atmospheric circulation and ocean ice cover over the North Atlantic during the last 41,000 years

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.; Meeker, L.D.; Whitlow, S.; Twickler, M.S.; Morrison, M.C. ); Bloomfield, P. ); Alley, R.B. ); Gow, A.J.; Meese, D.A. ); Grootes, P.M. )

    1994-03-25

    High-resolution, continuous multivariate chemical records from a central Greenland ice core provide a sensitive measure of climate change and chemical composition of the atmosphere over the last 41,000 years. These chemical series reveal a record of change in the relative size and intensity of the circulation system that transported air masses to Greenland [defined here as the polar circulation index (PC)] and in the extent of ocean ice cover. Massive iceberg discharge events previously defined from the marine record are correlated with notable expansion of ocean ice cover and increases in PCI. During stadials without discharge events, ocean ice cover appears to reach some common maximum level. The massive aerosol loadings and dramatic variations in ocean ice cover documented in ice cores should be included in climate modeling.

  6. Structure and predictability of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation phenomenon in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, M.; Sterl, A.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Junge, M.M. )

    1993-04-01

    The space-time structure and predictability of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon was investigated. Two comprehensive datasets were analyzed by means of an advanced statistical method, one based on observational data and other on data derived from an extended-range integration performed with a coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation model. It is shown that a considerable portion of the ENSO related low-frequency climate variability in both datasets is associated with a cycle implies the possibility of climate predictions in the tropics up to lead times of about one year. This is shown by conducting an ensemble of predictions with our coupled general circulation model. For the first time a coupled model of this type was successfully applied to ENSO predictions. 34 refs., 6 figs.

  7. The Atmospheric Circulation of the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b: Comparing Three-dimensional Models to Spectrophotometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Line, Michael R.; Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L.; Désert, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    The hot Jupiter WASP-43b (2 MJ , 1 RJ , T orb = 19.5 hr) has now joined the ranks of transiting hot Jupiters HD 189733b and HD 209458b as an exoplanet with a large array of observational constraints. Because WASP-43b receives a similar stellar flux as HD 209458b but has a rotation rate four times faster and a higher gravity, studying WASP-43b probes the effect of rotation rate and gravity on the circulation when stellar irradiation is held approximately constant. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation models of WASP-43b, exploring the effects of composition, metallicity, and frictional drag. We find that the circulation regime of WASP-43b is not unlike other hot Jupiters, with equatorial superrotation that yields an eastward-shifted hotspot and large day-night temperature variations (~600 K at photospheric pressures). We then compare our model results to Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 spectrophotometric phase curve measurements of WASP-43b from 1.12 to 1.65 μm. Our results show the 5× solar model light curve provides a good match to the data, with a peak flux phase offset and planet/star flux ratio that is similar to observations; however, the model nightside appears to be brighter. Nevertheless, our 5× solar model provides an excellent match to the WFC3 dayside emission spectrum. This is a major success, as the result is a natural outcome of the 3D dynamics with no model tuning. These results demonstrate that 3D circulation models can help interpret exoplanet atmospheric observations, even at high resolution, and highlight the potential for future observations with HST, James Webb Space Telescope, and other next-generation telescopes.

  8. Paleoclimatic tracers: An investigation using an atmospheric general circulation model under ice age conditions. 1. Desert dust

    SciTech Connect

    Joussaume, S. )

    1993-02-20

    Many studies with atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) have demonstrated their usefulness in reconstructing past climates. In a new approach, the author has used an AGCM to investigate the link between tracer cycles and climate. He considers in this paper the atmospheric cyle of windblown dust material from desertic areas and in part 2 the water isotope cycles. Studies from ice cores have shown a strong increase of the dust deposits during glacial periods, both over East Antarctica and Greenland. He does not know, however, whether this past increase is global or just a local feature, where the dust came from and what are the mechanisms yielding this increase. He tries to answer these questions by using an AGCM including a model for the desert dust cycle to simulate the present-day and Last Glacial Maximum climates for February and August. The model simulates only a weak increase of the global atmospheric dust content. Stronger variations are obtained at a regional scale and are in good agreement with observations from deep-sea sediments. However, the model does not reproduce the great increase of the dust concentrations in snow that has been observed in ice cores. Several model deficiencies can induce this model-data discrepancy as, for example, inaccuracies of the circulation patterns or of the dust model. However, most likely, the model fails to simulate the actual sources of dust. 73 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Cold-air outbreaks over the ocean at high latitudes and associated mesoscale atmospheric circulations: Problems of numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechin, D. G.; Pichugin, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    A review of the current state of research in the field of numerical modelling and forecasting of cold-air outbreaks over the ocean at high latitudes and associated mesoscale circulations is presented. It is shown that the most relevant tasks are as follows: (1) the improvement of predictability and the adequacy of reproduction of polar mesocyclones, (2) a more adequate representation of the marginal sea-ice zone in the numerical models, and (3) solving problems of the parametrization and explicit reproduction of organized convection and orographic jets in numerical atmosphere models. It is demonstrated that these tasks only can be accomplished as a result of a comprehensive development of different components of the climatic system models and technology of the numerical weather prediction (NWP). One of the most promising approaches to overcome the identified problems is to develop and use methods of satellite remote sensing of the atmosphere and underlying surface in NWP technology. The high potential of analyzing the satellite multisensor data for quantifying parameters of different-scale atmospheric circulations is demonstrated using the example of cold-air outbreaks over the seas of the Far East.

  10. Seasonal variations in the frequency of atmospheric circulation types in European regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahynova, Monika; Huth, Radan

    2010-05-01

    We propose two versions of an "index of seasonality" to study the annual course in the relative frequency of circulation types in several objective and subjective classifications from the COST733 database. The objective classifications have been developed for twelve European regions (domains D00-D11) in the period 1957-2002 and have fixed numbers of types (9, 18, and 27). Both indices are based on the long-term monthly relative frequency of individual circulation types. For each type we indicate the months with the highest and the lowest relative frequency and calculate their difference (range). The first index - "average seasonality" - is an average of the ranges of all types within a given classification. It is anti-correlated with the number of types - a higher number of types means a lower average seasonality. The second index - "maximum seasonality" - only takes into account the circulation type with the highest range (that is, the type with the most pronounced annual course). This index removes the dependence on the number of circulation types in some of the used classifications. Seasonal variations in the relative frequency of circulation types based on the two indices are generally the highest in the eastern Mediterranean (D11) and in whole Europe (D00). The lowest seasonality is found over the British Isles (D04) and Iceland (D01). There are large differences in the seasonality in the individual classifications, because the degree to which the classification identifies the natural seasonal circulation patterns strongly depends on the classification algorithm used. The research is conducted within the COST733 Action "Harmonisation and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions". The Czech participation in it is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  11. Long-term trends in the frequency of atmospheric circulation types in European regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahynová, M.; Huth, R.

    2009-04-01

    We have analyzed long-term linear trends in the seasonal frequency of circulation types in the period 1957-2002 using 73 circulation classifications arising from the COST733 Action: 65 objective catalogues in Europe and 11 European regions, and 8 subjective and "objectivized" catalogues in Central Europe. The objective catalogues are based on the same gridded climatic data (ECMWF ERA40), but they differ in the classification method used and in the number of circulation types. In the objective catalogues the proportion of days that belong to circulation types with significant trends in seasonal frequency is mostly very low except for Central and Eastern Europe in winter and the Mediterranean in winter and summer. Generally, the magnitude of trends is the highest in winter. In the Mediterranean in summer the types with significant trends in frequency are the prevailing ones, whereas in other seasons and regions there is no such preference for the total occurrence of the circulation type to have a significant trend. In the subjective catalogues there is a substantial proportion of circulation types with significant trends in frequency in all seasons. The magnitude of trends is also very similar within the four seasons. Whether these long-term trends in the subjective catalogues reflect real climatic changes or result from manual data evaluation is still an open question. The research is conducted within the COST733 Action "Harmonisation and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions". The Czech participation in it is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  12. Cosmic ray decreases affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Bondo, Torsten; Svensmark, Jacob

    2009-08-01

    Close passages of coronal mass ejections from the sun are signaled at the Earth's surface by Forbush decreases in cosmic ray counts. We find that low clouds contain less liquid water following Forbush decreases, and for the most influential events the liquid water in the oceanic atmosphere can diminish by as much as 7%. Cloud water content as gauged by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) reaches a minimum ≈7 days after the Forbush minimum in cosmic rays, and so does the fraction of low clouds seen by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in the International Satellite Cloud Climate Project (ISCCP). Parallel observations by the aerosol robotic network AERONET reveal falls in the relative abundance of fine aerosol particles which, in normal circumstances, could have evolved into cloud condensation nuclei. Thus a link between the sun, cosmic rays, aerosols, and liquid-water clouds appears to exist on a global scale.

  13. Description of the atmospheric circulation in the boundary layer over a tropical island: Case study of Guadeloupe Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plocoste, Thomas; Dorville, Jean-François; Jacoby-Koaly, Sandra; Roussas, André

    2016-04-01

    Over past two decades the use of atmospheric sounding methods as Sodars, Lidar equipped drones increased sharply. Compare to weather balloon, these modern methods allow measure of profile at constant heights during long period. There are few studies using this type of equipment in tropical climates and lesser on small island. Wind regime on island of diameter less than 50 km are mostly considered as oceanic. Many author consider that thermal effect are negligible in land. But recent observations and simulations show importance of the thermal circulation at small- and meso- scales particularly in atmospheric pollution process. Up to 2009 no wind profile data were available continuously to study atmospheric circulation in Guadeloupe Archipelago (GA) which is one of the islands of the Lesser Antilles Arc. In first approximation wind was evaluated based on measures done at the most upwind island of the GA for many application as wind power and atmospheric pollution. From 2009 to 2012 a measurement campaign of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) have been performed by the University of Antilles (UA) in GA. To assess effects of dynamic of ABL on air quality in sub urban area, particularly during the sunset and sunrise, UA monitored two sites with a weather station and a doppler sodar (REMTECH PAO). Both sites are close to the sea with one in a coastal area and the other in an open landfill surrounded by densely populated building and a mangrove swamp. Thermal and chemical measurements with a portable mass spectrometer were made in the vicinity of the landfill and showed the existence of urban heat islands. This study presents the first Doppler Sodar long measurements campaign in GA. Statistical analysis of the three year of doppler sodar data (i.e. wind components and its fluctuations) allow to identified and characterized the complex circulations on the two sites in the ABL between 25 and 500m above the sea level. Orographic and thermal effects due to urban area were

  14. Regional atmospheric circulation change in the North Pacific during the Holocene inferred from lacustrine carbonate oxygen isotopes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Abbott, Mark B.; Finney, Bruce P.; Burns, Stephen J.

    2005-07-01

    Analyses of sediment cores from Jellybean Lake, a small, evaporation-insensitive groundwater-fed lake, provide a record of changes in North Pacific atmospheric circulation for the last ˜7500 yr at 5- to 30-yr resolution. Isotope hydrology data from the southern Yukon indicate that the oxygen isotope composition of water from Jellybean Lake reflects the composition of mean-annual precipitation, δ 18O p. Recent changes in the δ 18O of Jellybean sedimentary calcite (δ 18O ca) correspond to changes in the North Pacific Index (NPI), a measure of the intensity and position of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure system. This suggests that δ 18O p variability was related to the degree of fractionation during moisture transport from the Gulf of Alaska across the St. Elias Mountains and that Holocene shifts were controlled by the intensity and position of the AL. Following this model, between ˜7500 and 4500 cal yr B.P., long-term trends suggest a predominantly weaker and/or westward AL. Between ˜4500 and 3000 cal yr B.P. the AL shifted eastward or intensified before shifting westward or weakening between ˜3000 and 2000 cal yr B.P. Rapid shifts eastward and/or intensification occurred ˜1200 and 300 cal yr B.P. Holocene changes in North Pacific atmospheric circulation inferred from Jellybean Lake oxygen isotopes correspond with late Holocene glacial advances in the St. Elias Mountains, changes in North Pacific salmon abundance, and shifts in atmospheric circulation over the Beaufort Sea.

  15. Reassessing the impacts and the atmospheric circulation of the large storms over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varino, F.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The present work was made possible after the recently development of a database of flooding and landslide events that occurred in Portugal during the 20 century. This database was collected through careful analysis of most available daily Portuguese newspapers at the time, namely "Diário de Noticias" and "Século" describing the consequences of important hydro-geological hazards during the 20 century. Therefore it is possible to evaluate the impact of these events through relatively detailed reports of the most affected places, including; number of deaths, dislodged and evacuated people, and even involved rescue entities or costs. On the other hand, the analysis of meteorological conditions for these events was made possible through the recent development of the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (Compo et al., 2011), that covers the entire period in study. This long-term database allows re-evaluating the atmospheric conditions not only at the surface but also at several levels of the atmosphere, enabling a new approach to the studied events. Moreover, the new reanalysis is also more extended in time, with available data from 1871 until 2008 which makes it possible to represent and study the weather events before 1948 with a new perspective. In this work it is analysed in detail the most important and devastating storm that took place since 1871, including the strongest sequence of storms ever observed in early December 1876 that lead to catastrophic floods in river Guadiana and Tagus. Other extreme events episodes that took place throughout the 20 century and never studied before are also analysed (albeit in less detail), namely on the 22 December 1909, 20 November 1937, 23 January and 1 February 1941, 19 November 1945, 2 January 1962 and 25 November 1967 the deadliest flood ever that occurred in Portugal. For each event it was computed the sequence of 6 hourly weather fields of precipitation rate and mean sea

  16. Documentation of a ground hydrology parameterization for use in the GISS atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, J. D.; Aleano, J.; Bock, P.

    1978-01-01

    The moisture transport processes related to the earth's surface relevant to the ground circulation model GCM are presented. The GHM parametrizations considered are: (1) ground wetness and soil parameters; (2) precipitation; (3) evapotranspiration; (4) surface storage of snow and ice; and (5) runout. The computational aspects of the GHM using computer programs and flow charts are described.

  17. The inorganic geochemistry of a peat deposit on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and insights into changing atmospheric circulation in central Asia during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrat, Marion; Weiss, Dominik J.; Spiro, Baruch; Large, David

    2012-08-01

    Peat records enable the reconstruction of changes in the global biogeochemical mineral dust cycle and the detection of variations in atmospheric circulation patterns during the Holocene. They can therefore provide a key tool for understanding the relationship between the geochemical dust cycle and past climate change. Here, we present the first detailed study of the inorganic geochemistry of a peat core collected at an altitude of 3500 m from the Hongyuan peatland, on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and test its potential as an archive of atmospheric dust deposition. We find that the low accumulation rates of the peat and the presence of the extensive dust sources of northern China in the vicinity of the study site lead to approximately five times higher concentrations of mineral matter compared to temperate ombrotrophic peats. A detailed geochemical assessment of the core and surface samples from local and non-local dust sources, as well as of the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the surrounding waters, suggests that external and internal post-depositional processes have not affected the record of lithogenic elements, including the rare earth elements (REE), Sc, Y and Th. Changes in Ti-normalized major element profiles, La/Yb, Y/Tb and the Eu anomaly identify seven major shifts among the dominant dust sources and therefore potential changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Bivariate plots using the REE-based tracers La/Yb, Y/Tb, La/Th, Y/Er, Sc/La, Th/Sc and Th/ΣREE suggest that the Taklamakan desert and the Chinese loess plateau in northern China were the dominant non-local dust sources to the peat. Local dust input dominated throughout the early Holocene until 4.9 kyr BP. Increased dust input from the non-local sources thereafter suggests an enhanced influence of winds associated with the East Asian winter monsoon and the Westerly jet throughout most of the late Holocene. Sharp increases in non-local dust fluxes between 3.1-2.7 and between 1.3-0.9 kyr

  18. How can secondary electron emission from dust affect Martian atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Beranek, Martin; Vaverka, Jakub; Richterova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Growing interest to Mars connected with recent and forthcoming missions led to numerous studies dealing with behavior of dust grains on the Martian surface and within its atmosphere. The present paper discusses electrical properties of a Martian soil simulant (JSC Mars-1) involving the dust charging experiment where a single dust grain is trapped and stored for a long time in a vacuum chamber and its emission characteristics, especially the secondary electron emission, are studied. The interaction of the grain with the intense electron beam showed the grain surface potential is generally low and determined by a mean atomic number of the grain material at a low-energy range (< 1 keV), whereas it can reach a limit of the field ion emission being irradiated by more energetic electrons. Experimental results are compared with numerical simulations showing a crucial influence of the grain shape and size in the range of higher (> 2 keV) electron energies. We further discuss possible implications of the secondary electron emission from dust grains for the generation of lightnings on Mars.

  19. Dust Layering in the Atmosphere of Mars Observed by the Phoenix LIDAR and Explained Using a General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, J. A.; Daerden, F.; Komguem, L.; Neary, L.

    2014-12-01

    The LIDAR instrument on the Phoenix mission obtained measurements of atmospheric dust and clouds from the surface in the Arctic region of Mars during late-spring through mid-summer. The observed vertical distribution of dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was evenly mixed up to heights of 4 km by daytime convection and turbulence. The dust loading within the PBL was a maximum around summer solstice and then declined over the next 60 Martian days (sols). Detached layers of dust were also detected above the top of the PBL around summer solstice. An atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) was applied to simulate the variability in the total dust loading and the detached layers. The model showed that the enhanced dust loading and the detached layers around summer solstice could be traced back to dust storm activity near the edge of the north polar ice cap. The mechanisms for producing the detached dust layers will be described.

  20. A global view of gravity waves in the Martian atmosphere inferred from a high-resolution general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Yiǧit, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Global characteristics of the small-scale gravity wave (GW) field in the Martian atmosphere obtained from a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) are presented for the first time. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. The model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered, while propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates body forces of tens of m s-1 per Martian solar day (sol-1), which tend to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCM simulations.

  1. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the intensity of urban heat island and urban cold island in Poznań, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Półrolniczak, Marek; Kolendowicz, Leszek; Majkowska, Agnieszka; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2015-10-01

    The study has analyzed influence of an atmospheric circulation on urban heat island (UHI) and urban cold island (UCI) in Poznań. Analysis was conducted on the basis of temperature data from two measurement points situated in the city center and in the Ławica airport (reference station) and the data concerning the air circulation (Niedźwiedź's calendar of circulation types and reanalysis of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)). The cases with UHI constitute about 85 % of all data, and UCI phenomena appear with a frequency of 14 % a year. The intensity of UHI phenomenon is higher in the anticyclonic circulation types. During the year in anticyclonic circulation, intensity of UHI is 1.2 °C on average while in cyclonic is only 0.8 °C. The occurring of UHI phenomena is possible throughout all seasons of the year in all hours of the day usually in anticyclonic circulation types. The cases with highest UHI intensity are related mostly to nighttime. The cases of UCI phenomena occurred almost ever on the daytime and the most frequently in colder part of the year together with cyclonic circulation. Study based on reanalysis data indicates that days with large intensity of UHI (above 4, 5, and 6 °C) are related to anticyclonic circulation. Anticyclonic circulation is also promoting the formation of the strongest UCI. Results based on both reanalysis and the atmospheric circulation data (Niedźwiedź's circulation type) confirm that cases with the strongest UHI and UCI during the same day occur in strong high-pressure system with the center situated above Poland or central Europe.

  2. What are the most fire-dangerous atmospheric circulations in the Eastern-Mediterranean? Analysis of the synoptic wildfire climatology.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire management is closely linked to robust forecasts of changes in wildfire risk related to meteorological conditions. This link can be bridged either through fire weather indices or through statistical techniques that directly relate atmospheric patterns to wildfire activity. In the present work the COST-733 classification schemes are applied in order to link wildfires in Greece with synoptic circulation patterns. The analysis reveals that the majority of wildfire events can be explained by a small number of specific synoptic circulations, hence reflecting the synoptic climatology of wildfires. All 8 classification schemes used, prove that the most fire-dangerous conditions in Greece are characterized by a combination of high atmospheric pressure systems located N to NW of Greece, coupled with lower pressures located over the very Eastern part of the Mediterranean, an atmospheric pressure pattern closely linked to the local Etesian winds over the Aegean Sea. During these events, the atmospheric pressure has been reported to be anomalously high, while anomalously low 500hPa geopotential heights and negative total water column anomalies were also observed. Among the various classification schemes used, the 2 Principal Component Analysis-based classifications, namely the PCT and the PXE, as well as the Leader Algorithm classification LND proved to be the best options, in terms of being capable to isolate the vast amount of fire events in a small number of classes with increased frequency of occurrence. It is estimated that these 3 schemes, in combination with medium-range to seasonal climate forecasts, could be used by wildfire risk managers to provide increased wildfire prediction accuracy. PMID:26383855

  3. Sensitivity of Boreal-Summer Circulation and Precipitation to Atmospheric Aerosols in Selected Regions. Part 2; The Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol perturbations over selected land regions are imposed in Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) general circulation model (GCM) to assess the influence of increasing aerosol concentrations on regional circulation patterns and precipitation in four selected regions: India, Africa, and North and South America. Part 1 of this paper addresses the responses to aerosol perturbations in India and Africa. This paper presents the same for aerosol perturbations over the Americas. GEOS-4 is forced with prescribed aerosols based on climatological data, which interact with clouds using a prognostic scheme for cloud microphysics including aerosol nucleation of water and ice cloud hydrometeors. In clear-sky conditions the aerosols interact with radiation. Thus the model includes comprehensive physics describing the aerosol direct and indirect effects on climate (hereafter ADE and AIE respectively). Each simulation is started from analyzed initial conditions for 1 May and was integrated through June-July-August of each of the six years: 1982 1987 to provide a 6-ensemble set. Results are presented for the difference between simulations with double the climatological aerosol concentration and one-half the climatological aerosol concentration for three experiments: two where the ADE and AIE are applied separately and one in which both the ADE and AIE are applied. The ADE and AIE both yield reductions in net radiation at the top of the atmosphere and surface while the direct absorption of shortwave radiation contributes a net radiative heating in the atmosphere. A large net heating of the atmosphere is also apparent over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean that is attributable to the large aerosol perturbation imposed over Africa. This atmospheric warming and the depression of the surface pressure over North America contribute to a northward shift of the inter-Tropical Convergence Zone over northern America, an increase in precipitation over Central America

  4. SECHIBA, a new set of parameterizations of the hydrologic exchanges at the land-atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Ducoudre, N.I.; Laval, K. ); Perrier, A. )

    1993-02-01

    A simple parameterization of the hydrologic exchanges between the soil-vegetation system and the atmosphere (SECHIBA) has been developed for use within atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM). For each grid box of the model, eight land surface types (bare soil plus seven vegetation classes) are defined, each of them covering a fractional area of the grid box and allowed to be found simultaneously. Over each of these covers the transfers are computed: evaporation from soil, transpiration from plants through a resistance defined by the concepts of stomatal resistance and architectural resistance, and interception loss from the water reservoir over the canopy. These fluxes are then averaged over the grid box to derive the total amount of water vapor that is transferred to the first atmospheric level of the AGCM. Parameterization of soil water allows for the moistening of an upper layer, of variable depth, during a rainfall event. This new scheme is quite simple and requires prescription of a restricted number of parameters: seven for each class of vegetation and four for the soil. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that the latent heat fluxes it simulates are quite comparable to the ones simulated by the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme or calculated by Shuttleworth over the tropical rainforest of the Reserve Ducke (Amazon), with no tuning involved.

  5. The variability of extreme temperatures and their relationship with atmospheric circulation: the contribution of applying linear and quadratic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić, Stevan; Milovanović, Boško; Lužanin, Zorana; Lazić, Lazar; Dolinaj, Dragan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the homogenised mean maximum ( T max) and minimum ( T min) temperatures. The data used in the analysis were collected at eight stations in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbia) during the 1949-2008 period. The trends obtained from the slopes of the regression lines using the least square method show 0.9 °C/60 years for T max and 1.1 °C/60 years for T min; the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the statistically significant increasing trends of these two extreme parameters. In this paper, we analyse the influence of the Vangengeim-Girs classification of atmospheric circulation on the T max and T min trends in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbia) using linear and quadratic models based on the least square method. Linear stepwise regression and the forward method reveal the highest dependence of T max and T min when the W or E circulation types are included in the model. Non-linear models show a greater contribution of T max and T min at W, E and C circulation types, respectively. The correction of the variance contribution of quadratic models ranges from approximately 16 to 44 % for T max and 32 to 38 % for T min.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Categorical Time Series of Atmospheric Elementary Circulation Mechanisms - Dzerdzeevski Classification for the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899–2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future. PMID:27116375

  7. Recent increases in Arctic freshwater flux affects Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning circulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Dixon, Timothy H.; Myers, Paul G.; Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of ocean thermohaline circulation. Melting of Greenland's ice sheet is freshening the North Atlantic; however, whether the augmented freshwater flux is disrupting the AMOC is unclear. Dense Labrador Sea Water (LSW), formed by winter cooling of saline North Atlantic water and subsequent convection, is a key component of the deep southward return flow of the AMOC. Although LSW formation recently decreased, it also reached historically high values in the mid-1990s, making the connection to the freshwater flux unclear. Here we derive a new estimate of the recent freshwater flux from Greenland using updated GRACE satellite data, present new flux estimates for heat and salt from the North Atlantic into the Labrador Sea and explain recent variations in LSW formation. We suggest that changes in LSW can be directly linked to recent freshening, and suggest a possible link to AMOC weakening. PMID:26796579

  8. Recent increases in Arctic freshwater flux affects Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian; Dixon, Timothy H.; Myers, Paul G.; Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of ocean thermohaline circulation. Melting of Greenland's ice sheet is freshening the North Atlantic; however, whether the augmented freshwater flux is disrupting the AMOC is unclear. Dense Labrador Sea Water (LSW), formed by winter cooling of saline North Atlantic water and subsequent convection, is a key component of the deep southward return flow of the AMOC. Although LSW formation recently decreased, it also reached historically high values in the mid-1990s, making the connection to the freshwater flux unclear. Here we derive a new estimate of the recent freshwater flux from Greenland using updated GRACE satellite data, present new flux estimates for heat and salt from the North Atlantic into the Labrador Sea and explain recent variations in LSW formation. We suggest that changes in LSW can be directly linked to recent freshening, and suggest a possible link to AMOC weakening.

  9. Recent increases in Arctic freshwater flux affects Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning circulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Dixon, Timothy H; Myers, Paul G; Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don; van den Broeke, M R

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of ocean thermohaline circulation. Melting of Greenland's ice sheet is freshening the North Atlantic; however, whether the augmented freshwater flux is disrupting the AMOC is unclear. Dense Labrador Sea Water (LSW), formed by winter cooling of saline North Atlantic water and subsequent convection, is a key component of the deep southward return flow of the AMOC. Although LSW formation recently decreased, it also reached historically high values in the mid-1990s, making the connection to the freshwater flux unclear. Here we derive a new estimate of the recent freshwater flux from Greenland using updated GRACE satellite data, present new flux estimates for heat and salt from the North Atlantic into the Labrador Sea and explain recent variations in LSW formation. We suggest that changes in LSW can be directly linked to recent freshening, and suggest a possible link to AMOC weakening. PMID:26796579

  10. Optimized circulation and weather type classifications relating large-scale atmospheric conditions to local PM10 concentrations in Bavaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitnauer, C.; Beck, C.; Jacobeit, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decades the critical increase of the emission of air pollutants like nitrogen dioxide, sulfur oxides and particulate matter especially in urban areas has become a problem for the environment as well as human health. Several studies confirm a risk of high concentration episodes of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM10) for the respiratory tract or cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore it is known that local meteorological and large scale atmospheric conditions are important influencing factors on local PM10 concentrations. With climate changing rapidly, these connections need to be better understood in order to provide estimates of climate change related consequences for air quality management purposes. For quantifying the link between large-scale atmospheric conditions and local PM10 concentrations circulation- and weather type classifications are used in a number of studies by using different statistical approaches. Thus far only few systematic attempts have been made to modify consisting or to develop new weather- and circulation type classifications in order to improve their ability to resolve local PM10 concentrations. In this contribution existing weather- and circulation type classifications, performed on daily 2.5 x 2.5 gridded parameters of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set, are optimized with regard to their discriminative power for local PM10 concentrations at 49 Bavarian measurement sites for the period 1980 to 2011. Most of the PM10 stations are situated in urban areas covering urban background, traffic and industry related pollution regimes. The range of regimes is extended by a few rural background stations. To characterize the correspondence between the PM10 measurements of the different stations by spatial patterns, a regionalization by an s-mode principal component analysis is realized on the high-pass filtered data. The optimization of the circulation- and weather types is implemented using two representative

  11. Advanced atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion design: internally circulating AFBC. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keairns, D.L.; Altiner, H.K.; Hamm, J.R.; Ahmed, M.M.; Weeks, K.D.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Kececioglu, I.; Ulerich, N.H.; Yang, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report defines and characterizes an advanced, industrial, fluidized-bed combustion concept - the internally circulating AFBC - having superior performance and cost characteristics. The internally circulating AFBC incorporates four major innovative features (single fuel feed; jet-attrition-controlled sulfur removal; multiple air staging; and high-velocity, single vessel integral design using draft tube circulation) to achieve: high boiler thermal efficiency (approaching 90% through integral design, high combustion efficiency, and low sorbent consumption); fuel flexibility (single coal feed point, coal size up to nominal 2 in, flexible air distribution, capability of feeding and combusting gaseous and liquid fuels); high reliability (simplified fuel feed and solids handling); turndown flexibility (degree and ease of turndown achieved by integral segmented bed, staged air distribution); low sorbent requirements for high SO/sub 2/ control (Ca/S <2 for greater than 90% removal using jet-attrition-controlled sulfur removal); low NO/sub x/ emissions (0.1 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu through multiple stages of air injection and capability of maintaining high carbon content); compact design (single, shop-fabricated, rail-shippable units with capacity up to 150 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr for high-velocity operation); and low cost (simplified, integral function design with high efficiency). Westinghouse concludes that the internally circulating AFBC concept has great potential for industrial market acceptance because of its effective performance and high reliability at low steam generation costs. The concept merits further development to evolve its innovative features further and to determine its commercial design configuration and operating conditions.

  12. Role of the Atmospheric General Circulation on the Temporal Variability of the Aerosol Distribution over Dakar (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senghor, Habib; Machu, Eric; Hourdin, Frederic; Thierno Gaye, Amadou; Gueye, Moussa; Simina Drame, Mamadou

    2016-04-01

    The natural or anthropogenic aerosols play an important role on the climate system and the human health through their optical and physical properties. To evaluate the potential impacts of these aerosols, it is necessary to better understand their temporal variability in relation with the atmospheric ciculation. Some previous case studies have pointed out the influence of the sea-breeze circulation on the vertical distribution of the aerosols along the Western African coast. In the present work, Lidar (Ceilometer CL31; located at Dakar) data are used for the period 2012-2014 together with Level-3 data from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) between 2007 and 2014 for studying the seasonal cycle of the vertical distribution of aerosols over Dakar (17.5°W, 14.74°N). Both instruments show strong seasonal variability with a maximum of aerosol occurrence in May over Dakar. The CL31 shows a crucial impact of sea-breeze circulation on the diurnal cycle of the Mixed Atmospheric Boundary Layer and a strong dust signal in spring in the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) located between 500 and 1000 m altitudes over Dakar.

  13. Evolution of the large-scale atmospheric circulation in response to changing ice sheets over the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfverström, M.; Caballero, R.; Nilsson, J.; Kleman, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present modelling results of the atmospheric circulation at the cold periods of marine isotope stage 5b (MIS 5b), MIS 4 and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), as well as the interglacial. The paleo-simulations are forced by ice sheet reconstructions consistent with geological evidence and by appropriate insolation and greenhouse gas concentrations. The results suggest that the large-scale atmospheric winter circulation remained largely similar to the interglacial for a significant part of the glacial cycle. The proposed explanation is that the ice sheets were located in areas where their interaction with the mean flow is limited. However, the LGM Laurentide Ice Sheet induces a much larger planetary wave that leads to a zonalisation of the Atlantic jet. In summer, the ice sheet topography dynamically induces warm temperatures in Alaska and central Asia that inhibits the expansion of the ice sheets into these regions. The warm temperatures may also serve as an explanation for westward propagation of the Eurasian Ice Sheet from MIS 4 to the LGM.

  14. Evolution of the large-scale atmospheric circulation in response to changing ice sheets over the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfverström, M.; Caballero, R.; Nilsson, J.; Kleman, J.

    2014-07-01

    We present modelling results of the atmospheric circulation at the cold periods of marine isotope stage 5b (MIS 5b), MIS 4 and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), as well as the interglacial. The palaeosimulations are forced by ice-sheet reconstructions consistent with geological evidence and by appropriate insolation and greenhouse gas concentrations. The results suggest that the large-scale atmospheric winter circulation remained largely similar to the interglacial for a significant part of the glacial cycle. The proposed explanation is that the ice sheets were located in areas where their interaction with the mean flow is limited. However, the LGM Laurentide Ice Sheet induces a much larger planetary wave that leads to a zonalisation of the Atlantic jet. In summer, the ice-sheet topography dynamically induces warm temperatures in Alaska and central Asia that inhibits the expansion of the ice sheets into these regions. The warm temperatures may also serve as an explanation for westward propagation of the Eurasian Ice Sheet from MIS 4 to the LGM.

  15. Regional Atmospheric Circulation Change in the North Pacific During the Holocene Inferred from Lacustrine Carbonate Oxygen Isotopes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Abbott, M. B.; Finney, B. P.; Burns, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Analyses of sediment cores from Jellybean Lake, a small, hydrologically-open groundwater-fed lake, provide a record of changes in North Pacific atmospheric circulation for the last 7500 years at twenty to thirty-year resolution. A regional isotope hydrology study in the southern Yukon indicates that the oxygen isotope composition of water from Jellybean Lake reflects the oxygen isotope composition of mean annual precipitation. Thus, the oxygen isotope history of Jellybean Lake inferred from sedimentary carbonate oxygen isotope ratios suggests multi-decadal shifts in the oxygen isotope composition of mean annual precipitation superimposed on century and millennial trends. Recent fluctuations of Jellybean oxygen isotopes correlate well with changes in the North Pacific Index, a measure of the intensity and position of the Aleutian Low. We propose that oxygen isotope variability of precipitation in the interior of the Yukon is related to the degree of fractionation during moisture transport from the Gulf of Alaska across the St Elias Mountains that is ultimately controlled by the position and strength of the Aleutian Low. Following this model, Aleutian Low intensity during the early to middle Holocene was relatively reduced and increasing intensity coincided with the initial onset of Neoglacial advances. Rapid shifts during the last two millennia corresponds with glacial activity, changes in North Pacific salmon abundance, and shifts in atmospheric circulation over the Beaufort Sea.

  16. Anomalous mid-twentieth century atmospheric circulation change over the South Atlantic compared to the last 6000 years

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Turney, Chris S. M.; Jones, Richard T.; Lister, David; Jones, Phil; Williams, Alan N.; Hogg, Alan; Thomas, Zoe A.; Compo, Gilbert P.; Yin, Xungang; Fogwill, Christopher J.; et al

    2016-06-09

    Determining the timing and impact of anthropogenic climate change in data-sparse regions is a considerable challenge. Arguably, nowhere is this more difficult than the Antarctic Peninsula and the subantarctic South Atlantic where observational records are relatively short but where high rates of warming have been experienced since records began. Here we interrogate recently developed monthly-resolved observational datasets from the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and extend the records back using climate-sensitive peat growth over the past 6000 years. Investigating the subantarctic climate data with ERA-Interim and Twentieth Century Reanalysis, we find that a stepped increase in precipitation across the 1940smore » is related to a change in synoptic atmospheric circulation: a westward migration of quasi-permanent positive pressure anomalies in the South Atlantic has brought the subantarctic islands under the increased influence of meridional airflow associated with the Amundsen Sea Low. Analysis of three comprehensively multi-dated (using 14C and 137Cs) peat sequences across the two islands demonstrates unprecedented growth rates since the mid-twentieth century relative to the last 6000 years. Comparison to observational and reconstructed sea surface temperatures suggests this change is linked to a warming tropical Pacific Ocean. Lastly, our results imply 'modern' South Atlantic atmospheric circulation has not been under this configuration for millennia.« less

  17. Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central Tien Shan, Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Glacioclimatological research in the central Tien Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central Tien Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the Tien Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in Tien Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Anomalous mid-twentieth century atmospheric circulation change over the South Atlantic compared to the last 6000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Chris S. M.; Jones, Richard T.; Lister, David; Jones, Phil; Williams, Alan N.; Hogg, Alan; Thomas, Zoë A.; Compo, Gilbert P.; Yin, Xungang; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Palmer, Jonathan; Colwell, Steve; Allan, Rob; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Determining the timing and impact of anthropogenic climate change in data-sparse regions is a considerable challenge. Arguably, nowhere is this more difficult than the Antarctic Peninsula and the subantarctic South Atlantic where observational records are relatively short but where high rates of warming have been experienced since records began. Here we interrogate recently developed monthly-resolved observational datasets from the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and extend the records back using climate-sensitive peat growth over the past 6000 years. Investigating the subantarctic climate data with ERA-Interim and Twentieth Century Reanalysis, we find that a stepped increase in precipitation across the 1940s is related to a change in synoptic atmospheric circulation: a westward migration of quasi-permanent positive pressure anomalies in the South Atlantic has brought the subantarctic islands under the increased influence of meridional airflow associated with the Amundsen Sea Low. Analysis of three comprehensively multi-dated (using 14C and 137Cs) peat sequences across the two islands demonstrates unprecedented growth rates since the mid-twentieth century relative to the last 6000 years. Comparison to observational and reconstructed sea surface temperatures suggests this change is linked to a warming tropical Pacific Ocean. Our results imply ‘modern’ South Atlantic atmospheric circulation has not been under this configuration for millennia.

  19. Numerical modeling of thermally driven mesoscale circulations in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Grisogono, B.; Tjernstroem, M.

    1994-12-31

    The coastal ocean is of importance for many human activities; in a sense it represents an interface between human society and the ocean proper. It is also a physical interface between the ocean, a smooth surface characterized by a slowly varying surface temperature which is also influenced by internal circulations and the rough land surface with or without height differences with a strong diurnal cycle in surface temperature. During different times of the year this generated different types of circulations that dominates in the coastal zone; there may also be significant diurnal differences for any give time of the year. During the spring of 1989 and the autumn of 1990, the Department of Meteorology, Uppsala University, carried out an intensive field program, including airborne measurements, at the Baltic coast in Sweden. Normally, sea surface temperatures in the Baltic lags the average air temperature so that the sea is substantially cooler than the surrounding land areas during spring and early summer and vice versa during autumn. This paper deals mainly with numerical simulations of thermal circulations during spring, when the sea is substantially cooler than land during the day, however the opposite may be the case during the night.

  20. Mars' Thermal Structure From The Lower To Middle Atmosphere: NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, A. S.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Ames Mars General Ciculation Model (MGCM) has been extended to incorporate the middle atmosphere (~80 km to ~120 km). The extended MGCM simulated thermal structure will be compared to MRO-MCS and MEx-SPICAM observations.

  1. Large-scale atmospheric circulation and local particulate matter concentrations in Bavaria - from current observations to future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christoph; Weitnauer, Claudia; Brosy, Caroline; Hald, Cornelius; Lochbihler, Kai; Siegmund, Stefan; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) may have distinct adverse effects on human health. Spatial and temporal variations in PM10 concentrations reflect local emission rates, but are as well influenced by the local and synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions. Against this background, it can be furthermore argued that potential future climate change and associated variations in large-scale atmospheric circulation and local meteorological parameters will probably provoke corresponding changes in future PM10 concentration levels. The DFG-funded research project „Particulate matter and climate change in Bavaria" aimed at establishing quantitative relationships between daily and monthly PM10 indices at different Bavarian urban stations and the corresponding large-scale atmospheric circulation as well as local meteorological conditions. To this end, several statistical downscaling approaches have been developed for the period 1980 to 2011. PM10 data from 19 stations from the air quality monitoring network (LÜB) of the Bavarian Environmental Agency (LfU) have been utilized as predictands. Large-scale atmospheric gridded data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data base and local meteorological observational data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) served as predictors. The downscaling approaches encompass the synoptic downscaling of daily PM10 concentrations and several multivariate statistical models for the estimation of daily and monthly PM10, i.e.monthly mean and number of days exceeding a certain PM10 concentration threshold. Both techniques utilize objective circulation type classifications, which have been optimized with respect to their synoptic skill for the target variable PM10. All downscaling approaches have been evaluated via cross validation using varying subintervals of the 1980-2011 period as calibration and validation periods respectively. The most suitable - in terms of model skill determined from cross

  2. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  3. Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA AMES General Circulation Model. II - Transient baroclinic eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Zurek, R. W.; Lee, H.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-02-01

    A large set of experiments performed with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model is analyzed to determine the properties, structure, and dynamics of the simulated transient baroclinic eddies. There is strong transient baroclinic eddy activity in the extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere during the northern autumn, winter, and spring seasons. The eddy activity remains strong for very large dust loadings, though it shifts northward. The eastward propagating eddies are characterized by zonal wavenumbers of 1-4 and periods of about 2-10 days. The properties of the GCM baroclinic eddies in the northern extratropics are compared in detail with analogous properties inferred from Viking Lander meteorology observations.

  4. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  5. The affection analysis and compensation for atmospheric overfall in free space optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuhua; Wang, Jin; Huang, Dexiu; Liu, Deming

    2004-12-01

    The Free Space optical communication (FSO) or wireless optical communication, utilizes the atmospheric medium as transmission channel, where random variety such as fog, atomy and atmosphere flash and the atmospheric turbulence will badly affect the propagation of light, the receiving signal is easily swung and drifted with the change of weather. In this paper, we discussed the attenuation of the atmospheric channel and analyzed the signal characteristics in the condition of the atmospheric overfall, for the OOK modulation, discussed the receiving signal distribution in the atmospheric channel taking account for the noise gain of the light detector, and based on the principle of the Hartman-Shack sensor, we designed a wave-front distortion compensation system with fiber coupler. The signal fading resulted from wave-front phase distortion was compensated effectively by using the compensation system.

  6. Coastal recirculation potential affecting air pollutants in Portugal: The role of circulation weather types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.

  7. Ocean circulation off east Antarctica affects ecosystem structure and sea-ice extent.

    PubMed

    Nicol, S; Pauly, T; Bindoff, N L; Wright, S; Thiele, D; Hosie, G W; Strutton, P G; Woehler, E

    2000-08-01

    Sea ice and oceanic boundaries have a dominant effect in structuring Antarctic marine ecosystems. Satellite imagery and historical data have identified the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as a site of enhanced biological productivity. Meso-scale surveys off the Antarctic peninsula have related the abundances of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and salps (Salpa thompsoni) to inter-annual variations in sea-ice extent. Here we have examined the ecosystem structure and oceanography spanning 3,500 km of the east Antarctic coastline, linking the scales of local surveys and global observations. Between 80 degrees and 150 degrees E there is a threefold variation in the extent of annual sea-ice cover, enabling us to examine the regional effects of sea ice and ocean circulation on biological productivity. Phytoplankton, primary productivity, Antarctic krill, whales and seabirds were concentrated where winter sea-ice extent is maximal, whereas salps were located where the sea-ice extent is minimal. We found enhanced biological activity south of the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current rather than in association with it. We propose that along this coastline ocean circulation determines both the sea-ice conditions and the level of biological productivity at all trophic levels. PMID:10952309

  8. Snow/Rainfall Anomaly in Winter of Northern China and Associated Atmospheric Circulation and Aerosol Distribution Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duo, L.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data,China station precipitation data from 1960 to 2008,and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data in northern China from 1980 to 2004,this paper investigates the variability of winter snow/rainfall in northern China and the associated atmospheric circulation and aerosol distribution characteristics by using composite analysis.The results show that winter precipitation in northern China has been generally increasing since the 1960s.Among the winters of 1990-2008,the years with more rain/snow (MRSYs) are 1998,2003,and 2006,while the years with less rain/snow (LRSYs) are 2005,1997,and 2001.Composite analysis finds that the main differences of atmospheric circulation in East Asia between MRSYs and LRSYs are as follows.1) In MRSYs,strong low-level cold air over the northern polar region and Taymyr Peninsula migrates southward to northern China (Northwest,North,and Northeast China),establishing a channel favoring continuous southward transport of cold air.In LRSYs,however,this cold air channel does not exist.2) In MRSYs,the frontal zone and westerlies are over North China,and the low-level geopotential height field from eastern China to West Pacific exhibits an "east high,west low" pattern,which is conducive to easterly and southerly airflows moving northward along 110 E.In LRSYs,the 500-hPa prevailing westerly winds stay far away from China and the low-level southeasterlies move to higher latitudes,which are disadvantageous to the development of precipitation in northern China.3) In MRSYs,large-scale upward motions combined with local-scale updrafts develop into strong slanted climbing airflows,forming a vertical circulation that favors the generation of heavy snows in eastern China.In LRSYs,the vertical circulation moves eastward into the Pacific Ocean.Furthermore,the correlation analysis on AOD and winter precipitation during the period 1980-2004 in northern China reveals that AOD differs significantly between MRSYs and LRSYs and the

  9. Do GSM 900MHz signals affect cerebral blood circulation? A near-infrared spectrophotometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Martin; Haensse, Daniel; Morren, Geert; Froehlich, Juerg

    2006-06-01

    Effects of GSM 900MHz signals (EMF) typical for a handheld mobile phone on the cerebral blood circulation were investigated using near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) in a three armed (12W/kg, 1.2W/kg, sham), double blind, randomized crossover trial in 16 healthy volunteers. During exposure we observed borderline significant short term responses of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration, which correspond to a decrease of cerebral blood flow and volume and were smaller than regular physiological changes. Due to the relatively high number of statistical tests, these responses may be spurious and require further studies. There was no detectable dose-response relation or long term response within 20min. The detection limit was a fraction of the regular physiological changes elicited by functional activation. Compared to previous studies using PET, NIRS provides a much higher time resolution, which allowed investigating the short term effects efficiently, noninvasively, without the use of radioactive tracers and with high sensitivity.

  10. The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural coastal site in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation.

    PubMed

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Ceccato, Daniele; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of selected elemental tracers were determined in the aerosol of a semi-rural coastal site near Venice (Italy). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor set at 15m above ground, during the cold season (late autumn and winter), when high levels of many pollutants are known to cause risks for human health. From the experimental data, information was extracted on potential pollutant sources by investigating the relationships between elements in the different size fractions. Moreover, an approach to highlight the importance of local atmospheric circulation and air mass origin in influencing the PM composition and fractional distribution is proposed. Anthropogenic elements are strongly inter-correlated in the submicrometric (<1 μm) (S, K, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) and intermediate mode (1-4 μm) (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni) and their relationships highlight the presence of several sources (combustions, secondary aerosol, road traffic). In the intermediate mode, associations having geochemical significance exist between marine (Na, Cl and Mg) and crustal (Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and K) elements. In the coarse mode (>4 μm) Fe and Zn are well correlated and are probably linked to tire and brake wear emissions. Regarding atmospheric circulation, results show increasing levels of elements related to pollution sources (S, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) when air masses come from Central and Eastern Europe direction and on the ground wind blows from NWN-N-NE (from mainland Venice). Low wind speed and high percentage of wind calm hours favor element accumulation in the submicrometric and intermediate modes. Furthermore, strong winds favor the formation of sea-spray and the increase of Si in the coarse mode due to the resuspension of sand fine particles. PMID:25063963

  11. Monthly to seasonal trends of streamflow in Romania and their connection with large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelcea, Silvia; Ionita, Monica; Scholz, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Water resources management has become a challenging issue in the southern Europe, an area under a recurrent water stress. It is widely known that hydrologic variables, such as streamflow, are significantly influenced by various large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. The identification of relationships between the climate conditions given by these patterns and the seasonal streamflow may provide a valuable tool for long-range streamflow forecasting, adding helpful information for developing efficient water-management policies. As such, the aim of this study is to detect the trends in observed hydrological data and to look for the physical mechanisms responsible for the seasonal modes of inter-annual variability of mean streamflow over Romania in connection with teleconnections indices and atmospheric circulation patterns. The trend detection is performed for the monthly, seasonal and annual mean streamflow and the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI) for an accumulation period of 1 month at 46 stations located over the whole Romanian territory, over the period 1935 - 2010. The results of the trend analysis show increasing trends (95% confidence level) in winter, spring, autumn and at annual time scale over the north-western part of the country and decreasing trends (95% confidence level) in spring over the southern part of the country. To identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the relationships between the annual and seasonal time series of the mean streamflow and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, the potential impact of large-scale climate patterns of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in modulating streamflow variability at country level is assessed. The correlation map analysis between the annual and seasonal streamflow time series and the Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns emphasize that AO

  12. Atmospheric Circulation of Hot Jupiters: Three-dimensional Circulation Models of HD 209458b and HD 189733b with Simplified Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showman, Adam P.; Cooper, Curtis S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.

    2008-07-01

    We present global, three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulation on HD 209458b and HD 189733b and calculate the infrared spectra and light curves predicted by these simulations, which we compare with available observations. Radiative heating/cooling is parameterized with a simplified Newtonian relaxation scheme. Our simulations develop day-night temperature contrasts that vary strongly with pressure. At low pressure (<10 mbar), air flows from the substellar point toward the antistellar point, both along the equator and over the poles. At deeper levels, the flow develops an eastward equatorial jet with speeds of 3-4 km s-1, with weaker westward flows at high latitudes. This basic flow pattern is robust to variations in model resolution, gravity, radiative time constant, and initial temperature structure. Nightside spectra show deep absorption bands of H2O, CO, and/or CH4, whereas on the dayside these absorption bands flatten out or even flip into emission. This results from the strong effect of dynamics on the vertical temperature-pressure structure; the temperature decreases strongly with altitude on the nightside but becomes almost isothermal on the dayside. In Spitzer bandpasses, our predicted planet-to-star flux ratios vary by a factor of ~2-10 with orbital phase, depending on the wavelength and chemistry. For HD 189733b, where a detailed 8 μm light curve has been obtained, we correctly produce the observed phase offset of the flux maximum, but we do not explain the flux minimum and we overpredict the total flux variation. This discrepancy likely results from the simplifications inherent in the Newtonian relaxation scheme and provides motivation for incorporating realistic radiative transfer in future studies.

  13. Hemispheric asymmetries in high-latitude ionospheric convection and upper atmosphere neutral wind circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, M.; Cnossen, I.; Haaland, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations have shown that the ionospheric/thermospheric response to solar wind and IMF dependent processes in the magnetosphere can be very dissimilar in the Northern and Southern polar regions. We present statistical studies of both the high-latitude ionospheric convection and the upper thermospheric circulation patterns obtained over almost a full solar cycle during the first decade of this century by measurements of the electron drift instrument (EDI) on board the Cluster satellites and by the accelerometer on board the CHAMP spacecraft, respectively. The asymmetries are attributed to the non-dipolar portions of the Earth's magnetic field that constitute hemispheric differences in magnetic flux densities, different offsets of the invariant geomagnetic poles, and generally in different field configurations of both hemispheres. Seasonal and solar cycle effects of the asymmetries are considered and first trials to explain the effects by numerical modeling are presented.

  14. Atmospheric Rotational Effects on Mars Based on the NASA Ames General Circulation Model: Angular Momentum Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Haberle, Robert M.; Schaeffer, James

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the investigation is to determine the motion of the rotational axis of Mars as a result of mass variations in the atmosphere and condensation and sublimation of CO2 ice on the polar caps. A planet experiences this type of motion if it has an atmosphere, which is changing its mass distribution with respect to the solid body of the planet and/or it is asymmetrically changing the amount of ice at the polar caps. The physical principle involved is the conservation of angular momentum, one can get a feeling for it by sitting on a well oiled swivel chair holding a rotating wheel on a horizontal direction and then changing the rotation axis of the wheel to a vertical direction. The person holding the wheel and the chair would begin to rotate in opposite direction to the rotation of the wheel. The motions of Mars atmosphere and the ice caps variations are obtained from a mathematical model developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The model produces outputs for a time span of one Martian year, which is equivalent to 687 Earth days. The results indicate that Mars axis of rotation moves in a spiral with respect to a reference point on the surface of the planet. It can move as far away as 35.3 cm from the initial location as a result of both mass variations in the atmosphere and asymmetric ice variations at the polar caps. Furthermore the pole performs close to two revolutions around the reference point during a Martian year. This motion is a combination of two motions, one produced by the atmospheric mass variations and another due to the variations in the ice caps. The motion due to the atmospheric variations is a spiral performing about two and a half revolutions around the reference point during which the pole can move as far as 40.9 cm. The motion due to variations in the ice caps is a spiral performing almost three revolutions during which the pole can move as far as 32.8 cm.

  15. Butterflies, Black swans and Dragon kings: How to use the Dynamical Systems Theory to build a "zoology" of mid-latitude circulation atmospheric extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, D.; Yiou, P.; Alvarez-Castro, M. C. M.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of dynamical systems and statistical techniques allows for a robust assessment of the dynamical properties of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. Extremes at different spatial and time scales are not only associated to exceptionally intense weather structures (e.g. extra-tropical cyclones) but also to rapid changes of circulation regimes (thunderstorms, supercells) or the extreme persistence of weather structure (heat waves, cold spells). We will show how the dynamical systems theory of recurrence combined to the extreme value theory can take into account the spatial and temporal dependence structure of the mid-latitude circulation structures and provide information on the statistics of extreme events.

  16. Large-scale variations in observed Antarctic Sea ice extent and associated atmospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Parkinson, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The 1974 Antarctic large scale sea ice extent is studied from data from Nimbus 2 and 5 and temperature and sea level pressure fields from the Australian Meteorological Data Set. Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer data were three-day averaged and compared with 1000 mbar atmospheric pressure and sea level pressure data, also in three-day averages. Each three-day period was subjected to a Fourier analysis and included the mean latitude of the ice extent and the phases and percent variances in terms of the first six Fourier harmonics. Centers of low pressure were found to be generally east of regions which displayed rapid ice growth, and winds acted to extend the ice equatorward. An atmospheric response was also noted as caused by the changing ice cover.

  17. Evapotranspiration and runoff from large land areas: Land surface hydrology for atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    A land surface hydrology parameterization for use in atmospheric GCM's is presented. The parameterization incorporates subgrid scale variability in topography, soils, soil moisture and precipitation. The framework of the model is the statistical distribution of a topography-soils index, which controls the local water balance fluxes, and is therefore taken to represent the large land area. Spatially variable water balance fluxes are integrated with respect to the topography-soils index to yield our large topography-soils distribution, and interval responses are weighted by the probability of occurrence of the interval. Grid square averaged land surface fluxes result. The model functions independently as a macroscale water balance model. Runoff ratio and evapotranspiration efficiency parameterizations are derived and are shown to depend on the spatial variability of the above mentioned properties and processes, as well as the dynamics of land surface-atmosphere interactions.

  18. A wavelet-based approach to detect climate change on the coherent and turbulent component of the atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, Davide; Defrance, Dimitri

    2016-06-01

    The modifications of atmospheric circulation induced by anthropogenic effects are difficult to capture because wind fields feature a complex spectrum where the signal of large-scale coherent structures (planetary, baroclinic waves and other long-term oscillations) is mixed up with turbulence. Our purpose is to study the effects of climate changes on these two components separately by applying a wavelet analysis to the 700 hPa wind fields obtained in climate simulations for different forcing scenarios. We study the coherent component of the signal via a correlation analysis to detect the persistence of large-scale or long-lasting structures, whereas we use the theory of autoregressive moving-average stochastic processes to measure the spectral complexity of the turbulent component. Under strong anthropogenic forcing, we detect a significant climate change signal. The analysis suggests that coherent structures will play a dominant role in future climate, whereas turbulent spectra will approach a classical Kolmogorov behaviour.

  19. Inter-annual temperature and precipitation variations over the Litani Basin in response to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, H. H.; Ramamurthy, A. S.; Beighley, R. E.

    2012-05-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of a mid-size basin's temperature and precipitation response to different global and regional climate circulation patterns. The implication of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Monsoon and ten other teleconnection patterns of the Northern Hemisphere are investigated. A methodology to generate a basin-scale, long-term monthly surface temperature and precipitation time series has been established using different statistical tests. The Litani River Basin is the focus of this study. It is located in Lebanon, east of the Mediterranean Basin, which is known to have diverse geophysical and environmental characteristics. It was selected to explore the influence of the diverse physical and topographical features on its hydroclimatological response to global and regional climate patterns. We also examine the opportunity of conducting related studies in areas with limited long-term measured climate and/or hydrological data. Litani's monthly precipitation and temperature data have been collected and statistically extrapolated using remotely sensed data products from satellites and as well as in situ gauges. Correlations between 13 different teleconnection indices and the basin's precipitation and temperature series are investigated. The study shows that some of the annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation variance can be partially associated with many atmospheric circulation patterns. This would give the opportunity to relate the natural climate variability with the watershed's hydroclimatology performance and thus differentiate it from other anthropogenic induced climate change outcomes.

  20. The variability of winter high temperature extremes in Romania and its relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, N.; Stefan, S.; Necula, C.

    2015-07-01

    The frequency variability of extreme high winter temperature as recorded at 85 meteorological stations from Romania during 1962-2010 period and its relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation was investigated. An Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals that large part of the extreme temperature frequency variability is common to all stations suggesting a strong influence of large-scale circulation anomalies. The North Atlantic Oscillation, West Pacific, East Atlantic, and Scandinavian patterns are related with extreme temperature frequency variability. We show that the East Atlantic Oscillation controls a significant part of interannual extreme high temperature variability over Romania via advection of warm air from the west. In addition, a strong relationship between blocking activity and frequency of extreme high temperature events in Romania was found. High blocking activity in the (20°W-70°E) sector is related with relatively strong advection of cold air over the country during winter. On the other hand, low blocking activity in the same sector is related with weak advection of relatively cold air in the region. Moreover, the blocking frequency in this sector is modulated mainly by the East Atlantic Oscillation.

  1. The global distribution of natural tritium in precipitation simulated with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, A.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Risi, C.; Fourré, É.; Stenni, B.; Landais, A.

    2015-10-01

    The description of the hydrological cycle in Atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) can be validated using water isotopes as tracers. Many GCMs now simulate the movement of the stable isotopes of water, but here we present the first GCM simulations modelling the content of natural tritium in water. These simulations were obtained using a version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model enhanced by water isotopes diagnostics, LMDZ-iso. To avoid tritium generated by nuclear bomb testing, the simulations have been evaluated against a compilation of published tritium datasets dating from before 1950, or measured recently. LMDZ-iso correctly captures the observed tritium enrichment in precipitation as oceanic air moves inland (the so-called continental effect) and the observed north-south variations due to the latitudinal dependency of the cosmogenic tritium production rate. The seasonal variability, linked to the stratospheric intrusions of air masses with higher tritium content into the troposphere, is correctly reproduced for Antarctica with a maximum in winter. LMDZ-iso reproduces the spring maximum of tritium over Europe, but underestimates it and produces a peak in winter that is not apparent in the data. This implementation of tritium in a GCM promises to provide a better constraint on: (1) the intrusions and transport of air masses from the stratosphere, and (2) the dynamics of the modelled water cycle. The method complements the existing approach of using stable water isotopes.

  2. Response of atmosphere circulation on global and regional scales to the two El Niño flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznova, Irina; Gushchina, Daria

    2015-04-01

    El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the most striking anomalies in the climate system of our planet. Recently it has been established [Ashok et al., 2007; Kug et al., 2009] that El Niño appears in two different flavors: the canonical El Niño, which is characterized by the maximum SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific, and El Niño Modoki with maximum anomalies localized in the center of the Pacific Ocean, near the date line. Recent studies demonstrated [Ashok et al., 2007; Weng et al., 2009; Mo, 2010 et al.] that the remote response to the two types of El Niño is drastically different, being opposite in some areas. Based on the regression analysis the air temperature and precipitation anomalies observed during canonical and Modoki El Niño were defined. However, the structure and mechanisms of this response are fairly understood. A comprehensive analysis of the atmospheric circulation anomalies resulted from two types of El Niño may emerge the causes of different remote response associated to the two types of El Niño. The large-scale zonal atmospheric circulation response to El Niño is characterized by the poleward propagation of the signal from the equatorial and tropical latitudes. El Niño is associated with the intensification of western currents in mid latitudes and equatorial belt in the low troposphere and decreasing of the easterlies in tropics. The global circulation response is more intensive during El Niño Modoki as compare to the canonical El Niño. However, the spatial structure of the response is similar for the both types of El Niño. El Niño induces drastic anomalies in vertical circulation. It is shown that Hadley and Walker circulation anomalies associated to the Canonical and Modoki El Niño have different space localization and timing. Canonical El Niño is characterized by anomalous ascending motion in central and eastern Pacific localized near the equator and in the equatorial regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Over

  3. On the relationships among low-cloud structure, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric circulation in the summertime Northeast Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, S.A.; Hartmann, D.L.; Norris, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    The long-term record of observations from Ocean Weather Station (OWS) November (N), which operated at 30{degrees}N, 140{degrees}W from 1949 to 1974, is analyzed to document the relationships among boundary layer cloud structure, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and atmospheric circulation. During the oceanic summer season, June through September, OWS N lay in the steady trade wind flow of the northeast Pacific. Boundary layer air parcels, which pass through the location of N, are typically in transition from the solid stratus or stratocumulus of the North Pacific to trade cumulus that is characteristic of the subtropics. Cloud observations indicate that low-cloud amount is high, averaging 70%, despite the absence of a well-mixed boundary layer. Low-cloud type code 8, cumulus and stratocumulus with bases at different levels, is the most frequently reported cloud type at all hours of the day. These observations suggest that along the stratus to trade cumulus transition, high cloud amount can exist long after the boundary layer ceases to be well mixed. An analysis of summertime interannual variability suggests that low-cloud amount near ship N is better correlated with SST and upper air temperatures 24-30 h upwind than with a local SST and upper air temperature. This nonlocal relationship between boundary layer cloudiness and environmental parameters suggests that the Lagrangian histories of boundary layer air parcels must be considered for the accurate prediction of boundary layer cloudiness. These nonlocal relationships may explain the apparent propagation of SST and cloudiness anomalies along a Lagrangian trajectory. On an interannual timescale, low cloud amount at N is also correlated with many large-scale variables associated with atmospheric circulation, such as temperature advection, the strength of the subtropical high, surface wind speeds, and surface wind steadiness. 37 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Associated with Temperature Extremes as a Basis for Model Evaluation: Methodological Overview and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loikith, P. C.; Broccoli, A. J.; Waliser, D. E.; Lintner, B. R.; Neelin, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Anomalous large-scale circulation patterns often play a key role in the occurrence of temperature extremes. For example, large-scale circulation can drive horizontal temperature advection or influence local processes that lead to extreme temperatures, such as by inhibiting moderating sea breezes, promoting downslope adiabatic warming, and affecting the development of cloud cover. Additionally, large-scale circulation can influence the shape of temperature distribution tails, with important implications for the magnitude of future changes in extremes. As a result of the prominent role these patterns play in the occurrence and character of extremes, the way in which temperature extremes change in the future will be highly influenced by if and how these patterns change. It is therefore critical to identify and understand the key patterns associated with extremes at local to regional scales in the current climate and to use this foundation as a target for climate model validation. This presentation provides an overview of recent and ongoing work aimed at developing and applying novel approaches to identifying and describing the large-scale circulation patterns associated with temperature extremes in observations and using this foundation to evaluate state-of-the-art global and regional climate models. Emphasis is given to anomalies in sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height over North America using several methods to identify circulation patterns, including self-organizing maps and composite analysis. Overall, evaluation results suggest that models are able to reproduce observed patterns associated with temperature extremes with reasonable fidelity in many cases. Model skill is often highest when and where synoptic-scale processes are the dominant mechanisms for extremes, and lower where sub-grid scale processes (such as those related to topography) are important. Where model skill in reproducing these patterns is high, it can be inferred that extremes are

  5. Circulation within the primary system at TMI-2 with lowered coolant level and at atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1985-06-01

    Experiments were performed with the Three Mile Island reactor coolant system open to the atmosphere and the coolant lowered to a level above the fuel (a condition required for defueling) to ascertain the extent of coolant mixing. A principal concern for coolant decontamination during defueling is the radionuclides released and their distribution within the primary system. Analyses of radionuclide, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data taken during these experiments confirm mixing in the primary system under forced coolant flow conditions with only minimal mixing occurring during static periods.

  6. Experiments in monthly mean simulation of the atmosphere with a coarse-mesh general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R. J.; Spar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Hansen atmospheric model was used to compute five monthly forecasts (October 1976 through February 1977). The comparison is based on an energetics analysis, meridional and vertical profiles, error statistics, and prognostic and observed mean maps. The monthly mean model simulations suffer from several defects. There is, in general, no skill in the simulation of the monthly mean sea-level pressure field, and only marginal skill is indicated for the 850 mb temperatures and 500 mb heights. The coarse-mesh model appears to generate a less satisfactory monthly mean simulation than the finer mesh GISS model.

  7. The implementation and validation of improved land-surface hydrology in an atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kevin D.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1993-01-01

    New land-surface hydrologic parameterizations are implemented into the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) General Circulation Model (GCM). These parameterizations are: 1) runoff and evapotranspiration functions that include the effects of subgrid-scale spatial variability and use physically based equations of hydrologic flux at the soil surface and 2) a realistic soil moisture diffusion scheme for the movement of water and root sink in the soil column. A one-dimensional climate model with a complete hydrologic cycle is used to screen the basic sensitivities of the hydrological parameterizations before implementation into the full three-dimensional GCM. Results of the final simulation with the GISS GCM and the new land-surface hydrology indicate that the runoff rate, especially in the tropics, is significantly improved. As a result, the remaining components of the heat and moisture balance show similar improvements when compared to observations. The validation of model results is carried from the large global (ocean and land-surface) scale to the zonal, continental, and finally the regional river basin scales.

  8. The implementation and validation of improved landsurface hydrology in an atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kevin D.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1991-01-01

    Landsurface hydrological parameterizations are implemented in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) General Circulation Model (GCM). These parameterizations are: (1) runoff and evapotranspiration functions that include the effects of subgrid scale spatial variability and use physically based equations of hydrologic flux at the soil surface, and (2) a realistic soil moisture diffusion scheme for the movement of water in the soil column. A one dimensional climate model with a complete hydrologic cycle is used to screen the basic sensitivities of the hydrological parameterizations before implementation into the full three dimensional GCM. Results of the final simulation with the GISS GCM and the new landsurface hydrology indicate that the runoff rate, especially in the tropics is significantly improved. As a result, the remaining components of the heat and moisture balance show comparable improvements when compared to observations. The validation of model results is carried from the large global (ocean and landsurface) scale, to the zonal, continental, and finally the finer river basin scales.

  9. Synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation associated with intense precipitation events over the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric patterns associated with the occurrence of intense precipitation events (IPE) in different sub-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Intense rainfall cases over six sub-regions were selected from a precipitation data set for the period from 1983 to 2012. The composition technique was used to characterize the prevailing atmospheric patterns for the occurrence of IPE. In the south of the Amazon, the composition fields showed a favorable configuration for the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Along the coast, the intense precipitation events must be associated with mesoscale systems, such as squall lines. In the northwest, they are apparently associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and/or local convection. The results reveal the complexity of the synoptic environment associated with the formation and development of weather systems that produce heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin. Several factors can interfere as conditions in large-scale, local conditions and thermodynamic factors.

  10. Comparison of the Seasonal Change in Cloud-Radiative Forcing from Atmospheric General Circulation Models and Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M. H.; Potter, G. L.; Alekseev, V.; Barker, H. W.; Bony, S.; Colman, R. A.; Dazlich, D. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Deque, M.; Dix, M. R.; Dymnikov, V.; Esch, M.; Fowler, L. D.; Fraser, J. R.; Galin, V.; Gates, W. L.; Hack, J. J.; Ingram, W. J.; Kiehl, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    We compare seasonal changes in cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) at the top of the atmosphere from 18 atmospheric general circulation models, and observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). To enhance the CRF signal and suppress interannual variability, we consider only zonal mean quantities for which the extreme months (January and July), as well as the northern and southern hemispheres, have been differenced. Since seasonal variations of the shortwave component of CRF are caused by seasonal changes in both cloudiness and solar irradiance, the latter was removed. In the ERBE data, seasonal changes in CRF are driven primarily by changes in cloud amount. The same conclusion applies to the models. The shortwave component of seasonal CRF is a measure of changes in cloud amount at all altitudes, while the longwave component is more a measure of upper level clouds. Thus important insights into seasonal cloud amount variations of the models have been obtained by comparing both components, as generated by the models, with the satellite data. For example, in 10 of the 18 models the seasonal oscillations of zonal cloud patterns extend too far poleward by one latitudinal grid.

  11. A Possible Influence of Solar System Dynamics on the Circulation of the Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The inter-annual variability of the Mars atmosphere is dominated by the occasional occurrence of global-scale dust storms (GDS) in the southern summer season. The intermittent occurrence of such storms represents a major unsolved problem of atmospheric physics. To aid in studying these events, we have compiled a catalog of Mars years including such storms (n=9) and Mars years without global-scale storms (n=11) through the year 2013. We use these samples to explore the question of a possible relationship linking GDS occurrence with the variability of the orbital angular momentum of Mars with respect to the solar system barycenter (LMars). We find that a remarkably simple and direct relationship links the occurrence and non-occurrence of GDS on Mars with the variability of this dynamical quantity. All of the GDS became planet encircling during periods when LMars was increasing or near maxima. Statistical significance is obtained for the clustering tendencies of LMars waveform phases for key subsets of the catalog, including the mid-season storms (as defined below) and the years without storms. A systematic progression is found in the phasing of the LMars waveforms with respect to the annual cycle of solar irradiance for the following three GDS categories: The early season GDS (1977 and 2001, initiating near Ls=204° and Ls=185° respectively), the mid-season storms (1956, 1971, 1982, 1994, and 2007; Ls=208° through Ls=262°), and the late season GDS (1924 and 1973, Ls=310° and Ls=300°). Rising values of LMars immediately prior to and during the Mars dust storm season appear to be a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for the initiation of GDS events. Factors internal to the Mars climate system, including the spatial redistribution of dust from year to year, also appear to play an important role in determining whether a GDS may occur in any particular Mars year. A testable physical hypothesis has recently been formulated, and an effort is now underway to more

  12. Interannual tropical rainfall variability in general circulation model simulations associated with the atmospheric model intercomparison project

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K.R.; Palmer, T.N.

    1996-11-01

    The interannual variability of rainfall over the Indian subcontinent, the African Sahel, and the Nordeste region of Brazil have been evaluated in 32 models for the period 1979 - 88 as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). The interannual variations of Nordeste rainfall are the most readily captured, owing to the intimate link with Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The precipitation variations over India and the Sahel are less well simulated. Additionally, an Indian monsoon wind shear index was calculated for each model. This subset of models also had a rainfall climatology that was in better agreement with observations, indicating a link between systematic model error and the ability to simulate interannual variations. A suite of six European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) AMIP runs (differing only in their initial conditions) have also been examined. As observed, all-India rainfall was enhanced in 1988 relative to 1987 in each of these realizations. All-India rainfall variability during other years showed little or no predictability, possibly due to internal chaotic dynamics associated with intraseasonal monsoon fluctuations and/or unpredictable land surface process interactions. The interannual variations of Nordeste rainfall were best represented. The State University of New York at Albany /National Center for Atmospheric Research Genesis model was run in five initial condition realizations. In this model, the Nordeste rainfall variability was also best reproduced. However, for all regions the skill was less than that of the ECMWF model. The relationships of the all-India and Sahel rainfall/SST teleconnections with horizontal resolution, convection scheme closure, and numerics have been evaluated. 64 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Dynamics of Arctic and Sub-Arctic Climate and Atmospheric Circulation: Diagnosis of Mechanisms and Biases Using Data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Eric T. DeWeaver

    2010-01-19

    This is the final report for DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER64434 to Eric DeWeaver at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The overall goal of work performed under this grant is to enhance understanding of simulations of present-day climate and greenhouse gas-induced climate change. Enhanced understanding is desirable 1) as a prerequisite for improving simulations; 2) for assessing the credibility of model simulations and their usefulness as tools for decision support; and 3) as a means to identify robust behaviors which commonly occur over a wide range of models, and may yield insights regarding the dominant physical mechanisms which determine mean climate and produce climate change. A furthe objective is to investigate the use of data assimilation as a means for examining and correcting model biases. Our primary focus is on the Arctic, but the scope of the work was expanded to include the global climate system to the extent that research targets of opportunity present themselves. Research performed under the grant falls into five main research areas: 1) a study of data assimilation using an ensemble filter with the atmospheric circulation model of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in which both conventional observations and observations of the refraction of radio waves from GPS satellites were used to constrain the atmospheric state of the model; 2) research on the likely future status of polar bears, in which climate model simluations were used to assess the effectiveness of climate change mitigation efforts in preserving the habitat of polar bears, now considered a threatened species under global warming; 3) as assessment of the credibility of Arctic sea ice thickness simulations from climate models; 4) An examination of the persistence and reemergence of Northern Hemisphere sea ice area anomalies in climate model simulations and in observations; 5) An examination of the roles played by changes in net radiation and surface relative humidity in determine the

  14. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Tost, H.; Pozzer, A.; Brühl, C.; Buchholz, J.; Ganzeveld, L.; Hoor, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; Sander, R.; Steil, B.; Stiller, G.; Tanarhte, M.; Taraborrelli, D.; van Aardenne, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-07-01

    The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model version up to 0.01 hPa was used at T42 resolution (~2.8 latitude and longitude) to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. A Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998-2005. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated accurately, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of interannual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy submodels and the ECHAM5/MESSy1 model output are available through the internet on request.

  15. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Tost, H.; Pozzer, A.; Brühl, C.; Buchholz, J.; Ganzeveld, L.; Hoor, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; Sander, R.; Steil, B.; Stiller, G.; Tanarhte, M.; Taraborrelli, D.; van Aardenne, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-11-01

    The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model setup up to 0.01 hPa was used at spectral T42 resolution to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. With the high vertical resolution the model simulates the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. In the simulations presented here a Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998-2005. This allows an efficient and direct evaluation with satellite and in-situ data. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated well, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of inter-annual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy submodels and the

  16. Atmospheric Circulation Influence on the Winter Thermal Conditions in Poland in 2021-2050 Based on the RACMO2 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jędruszkiewicz, Joanna; Piotrowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Thermal conditions are largely determined by atmospheric circulation. Therefore, projection of future temperature changes should be considered in relation to changes in circulation patterns. This paper assess to what extent changes in circulation correspond to spatial variability of the winter temperature increase in Poland in 2021-2050 period based on the RACMO2 model. The daily data of the mean temperature and sea level pressure (SLP) from selected regional climate model and observations were used. SLP data were used to determine the advection types and circulation character. Firstly, changes in frequency of circulation types between 2021-2050 and 1971-2000 periods were examined. Then changes in air temperature for specific circulation type in relation to reference period were studied. Finally, the influence of atmospheric circulation on spatial temperature variation was discussed. Considerably high increase in cyclonic situation of more than 18%, especially from the west and south-west direction, and decrease in anticyclonic situation mainly from the west and northwest in winter was noticed. Changes in frequency of circulation types result in temperature growth. For some types it is predicted that warming can reach even 3-4°C. The cyclonic (Ec, SEc, Sc) and anticylonic (SEa, Sa, Ea) types are likely to foster the highest warming in the scenario period. Polska charakteryzuje się znacznym zróżnicowaniem przestrzennym w rozkładzie temperatury powietrza w porze zimowej. W sezonie zimowym przeważa południkowy układ izoterm co świadczy o silnym oddziaływaniu z jednej strony ciepłych, wilgotnych mas powietrza napływających znad Atlantyku, a z drugiej chłodniejszych i bardziej suchych znad kontynentu azjatyckiego. Regionalne modele klimatu opracowane dla obszaru Europy wskazują jednoznacznie na wzrost temperatury w okresie zimy na obszarze całego kontynentu, szczególnie a wschodzie i północnym-wschodzie kontynentu, nawet o 3°C. Projekcje te s

  17. The location of tropical precipitation in idealized atmospheric general circulation models forced with andes topography and surface heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroon, Elizabeth Allison

    This aquaplanet modeling study examines how ocean heat transport (OHT) and topography influence the location of tropical precipitation. Two global atmospheric general circulation models from the GFDL hierarchy of models are used to test how the atmosphere responds to the same forcing. One model (GRaM) has simplified (gray) radiation and lacks cloud and water vapor feedbacks, while the other model (AM2) has more complex radiation, cloud processes, and feedbacks; both atmospheric models are coupled to a slab ocean. In both models, adding an Andes-like mountain range or adding realistic Andes topography regionally displaces rainfall from the equator into the northern hemisphere, even when wind-evaporation feedback is disabled. The relative importance of the Andes to the asymmetric hemispheric heating of the atmosphere by ocean transport is examined by including idealized and realistic zonally-averaged surface heat fluxes (also known as q-fluxes) to the slab ocean. A hemispherically asymmetric q-flux displaces the tropical rainfall toward the hemisphere receiving the greatest heating by the ocean. In the zonal mean, the displacement of rainfall from the equator is greater in simulations with a realistic q-flux than with realistic Andes topography. Simulations with both a q-flux and topography show that the rainfall in the vicinity of the mountains is displaced slightly farther to the north in the region 50 (120) degrees to the west of the Andes in simulations using the GRaM (AM2) model than in simulations that only have a q-flux. In both models, the displacement of precipitation is always into the hemisphere receiving the greatest ocean heating, but the displacements in the simulations using the AM2 model are greater than those using GRaM. The output in GRaM shows that the atmospheric energy transport (AET) under-responds to a given OHT, while the cloud and radiative feedbacks active in AM2 result in an overcompensation of the AET. As a result, experiments using the AM

  18. Atmospheric circulation and Arctic sea ice: Forcing of sea ice loss by remote teleconnnections and central Arctic responses / feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wettstein, J. J.; Deser, C.

    2012-12-01

    Continued declines in Arctic sea ice volume and summer sea ice extent are generally anticipated for the coming decades, based upon their trajectory in available observations and within a wide variety of model projections. Substantial uncertainty regarding the magnitude of twenty-first century ice loss remains, however. Two studies focused on processes leading to uncertainty in 21st century Arctic sea ice loss projections are presented: 1) the role of large-scale atmospheric teleconnections in forcing Arctic sea ice loss and 2) coupled thermodynamic and dynamic atmospheric responses to and feedbacks on Arctic sea ice loss. A fully-coupled 39-member ensemble initialized by identical ocean, land and ice conditions and slightly different atmospheric initial conditions is the primary dataset used in these studies. Observations, reanalyses and other coupled and uncoupled simulations corroborate and add context to the large ensemble results. Internal variability is a leading factor influencing the magnitude of 21st century Arctic sea ice loss. Internal variability in ice loss is linked to a large-scale pattern of atmospheric circulation variability over the Pacific. A Rossby wavetrain emanates from the tropical Pacific and extends all the way into an ``Arctic Dipole'' sea level pressure pattern over the central Arctic. A trans-polar drift in ice velocity and ice advection out of the central Arctic through Fram Strait result. These physical ``forcing'' associations are qualitatively consistent across a wide range of time scales, in observations and in other coupled models. Arctic sea ice loss is also associated with two coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere responses and feedbacks. The first feedback involves upper ocean heating resulting from increased solar absorption directly beneath anomalous summer sea ice loss. Some of the anomalous ocean heat melts the overlying sea ice and delays winter freeze-up. A second coupled thermodynamic / dynamic feedback results because much of the

  19. The Impact of Trends in the Large Scale Atmospheric Circulation on Mediterranean Surface Turbulent Heat Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanski, Joy; Hameed, Sultan

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variations of latent heat fluxes (LHF) and sensible heat fluxes (SHF) over the Mediterranean for the boreal winter season (DJF) show positive trends during 1958-2011. Using reanalysis and satellite-based products, the variability and trends in the heat fluxes are compared with variations in three atmospheric teleconnection patterns: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the pressure and position of the Azores High (AH), and the East Atlantic-West Russia teleconnection pattern (EAWR). Comparison of correlations between the heat fluxes and teleconnections, along with analysis of composites of surface temperature, humidity, and wind fields for different teleconnection states, demonstrates that the AH explains the heat flux changes more successfully than NAO and EAWR. Trends in pressure and longitude of the Azores High show a strengthening and an eastward shift. Variations of the Azores High occur along an axis defined by lower pressure and westward location at one extreme and higher pressure and eastward location at the other extreme. The shift of the AH from predominance of the low/west state to the high/east state induces trends in Mediterranean Sea surface winds, temperature, and moisture. These, combined with sea surface warming trends, produce trends in wintertime sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  20. Role of Atmospheric Circulation and Westerly Jet Changes in the mid-Holocene East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) varies on inter-decadal to interglacial-glacial timescales. The EASM is stronger in the mid-Holocene than today, and these changes can be readily explained by orbitally-driven insolation increase during the boreal summer. However, a detailed understanding of the altered seasonal evolution of the EASM during this time is still lacking. In particular, previous work has suggested a close link between seasonal migration of the EASM and that of the mid-latitude westerlies impinging on the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we explore, this problem in PMIP3 climate model simulations of the mid-Holocene, focusing on the role of atmospheric circulation and in particular how the westerly jet modulates the East Asia summer climate on paleoclimate timescales. Analysis of the model simulations suggests that, compared to the preindustrial simulations, the transition from Mei-Yu to deep summer rainfall occurs earlier in the mid-Holocene. This is accompanied by an earlier weakening and northward shift of westerly jet away from the Tibetan Plateau. The variation in the strength and the 3-D structure of the westerly jet in the mid-Holocene is summarized. We find that changes to the monsoonal rainfall, westerly jet and meridional circulation covary on paleoclimate timescales. Meridional wind changes in particular are tied to an altered stationary wave pattern, resembling today's the so-called 'Silk Road' teleconnection pattern, riding along the westerly jet. Diagnostic analysis also reveals changes in moist static energy and eddy energy fluxes associated with the earlier seasonal transition of the EASM. Our analyses suggest that the westerly jet is critical to the altered dynamics of the East Asian summer monsoon during the mid-Holocene.

  1. The transport of nitric oxide in the upper atmosphere by planetary waves and the zonal mean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. A.; Avery, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent numerical model was developed and used to study the interaction between planetary waves, the zonal mean circulation, and the trace constituent nitric oxide in the region between 55 km and 120 km. The factors which contribute to the structure of the nitric oxide distribution were examined, and the sensitivity of the distribution to changes in planetary wave amplitude was investigated. Wave-induced changes in the mean nitric oxide concentration were examined as a possible mechanism for the observed winter anomaly. Results indicate that vertically-propagating planetary waves induce a wave-like structure in the nitric oxide distribution and that at certain levels, transports of nitric oxide by planetary waves could significantly affect the mean nitric oxide distribution. The magnitude and direction of these transports at a given level was found to depend not only on the amplitude of the planetary wave, but also on the loss rate of nitric oxide at that level.

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION MODELS OF HD 189733b AND HD 209458b WITH CONSISTENT MAGNETIC DRAG AND OHMIC DISSIPATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Emily; Menou, Kristen

    2013-02-10

    We present the first three-dimensional circulation models for extrasolar gas giant atmospheres with geometrically and energetically consistent treatments of magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation. Atmospheric resistivities are continuously updated and calculated directly from the flow structure, strongly coupling the magnetic effects with the circulation pattern. We model the hot Jupiters HD 189733b (T {sub eq} Almost-Equal-To 1200 K) and HD 209458b (T {sub eq} Almost-Equal-To 1500 K) and test planetary magnetic field strengths from 0 to 30 G. We find that even at B = 3 G the atmospheric structure and circulation of HD 209458b are strongly influenced by magnetic effects, while the cooler HD 189733b remains largely unaffected, even in the case of B = 30 G and super-solar metallicities. Our models of HD 209458b indicate that magnetic effects can substantially slow down atmospheric winds, change circulation and temperature patterns, and alter observable properties. These models establish that longitudinal and latitudinal hot spot offsets, day-night flux contrasts, and planetary radius inflation are interrelated diagnostics of the magnetic induction process occurring in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters and other similarly forced exoplanets. Most of the ohmic heating occurs high in the atmosphere and on the dayside of the planet, while the heating at depth is strongly dependent on the internal heat flux assumed for the planet, with more heating when the deep atmosphere is hot. We compare the ohmic power at depth in our models, and estimates of the ohmic dissipation in the bulk interior (from general scaling laws), to evolutionary models that constrain the amount of heating necessary to explain the inflated radius of HD 209458b. Our results suggest that deep ohmic heating can successfully inflate the radius of HD 209458b for planetary magnetic field strengths of B {>=} 3-10 G.

  3. Carbon dioxide induced ocean climatic change and tracer experiment with an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xingjian.

    1991-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to determine whether or not the penetration of a passive tracer is analogous to the penetration of a greenhouse-gas-induced heating. The Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (A-O GCM) has been used to study CO2-induced climate change and the penetration of passive tracers into the world ocean. The present climate and a 2 x CO2 climate have been simulated. The passive tracers tritium, CFC-11, CFC-12 and a 'passive CO2- induced heating' are simulated. The CO2-induced active and passive warmings are larger in the subtropics and high latitudes than in the tropics. The largest difference between the active and passive CO2-induced heatings occur in the North Atlantic deep ocean, with maximum cooling about -1.5C for the active case in layer four of the ocean (1150m). There is no hemispherically asymmetric warming as that found by Manabe et al. (1990) and Stouffer et al. (1990). The convective overturning and large-scale sinking motion are responsible for the large penetration of CO2-induced warming in high latitudes. The CO2-induced circulation changes show that the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation is significantly weakened due to the penetration of CO2-induced heating. Associated with this change, the strength of North Atlantic conveyor belt is reduced, which results in a large warming in the upper ocean and cooling in the deep layers. The characteristic response time ranges from 40-50 years for the active CO2-induced climate change, and 70-160 years for passive CO2-induced climate change. The physical processes controlling the geochemical tracer penetration are very similar to those for the CO2-induced heating. There is not a single tracer which penetrates into the ocean exactly like the active CO2-induced heating in terms of distribution, transport or physical process. CFC's may be the best candidate as a surrogate for the CO2-induced oceanic climate study.

  4. Recent changes in air temperature, heat waves occurrences, and atmospheric circulation in Northern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Bernard; Janicot, Serge; Monerie, Paul-Arthur

    2013-08-01

    study documents the time evolution of air temperature and heat waves occurrences over Northern Africa for the period 1979-2011. A significant warming (1°-3°C), appearing by the mid-1960s over Sahara and Sahel, is associated with higher/lesser frequency of warm/cold temperatures, as with longer duration and higher occurrences of heat waves. Heat waves episodes of at least 4 day duration have been examined after removing the long-term evolution. These episodes are associated with specific anomalies: (i) in spring, positive low-level temperature anomalies over the Sahel and Sahara; low and midlevel cyclonic rotation over Morocco associated with a Rossby wave pattern, lessening the Harmattan; more/less atmospheric moisture westward/eastward to 0°; upward/downward anomalies above the western/eastern regions associated with the Rossby wave pattern; (ii) in summer, a similar but weaker positive low-level temperature anomaly (up to 3°C); less moisture westward to 10°W, a cyclonic anomaly in central Sahel favoring the monsoon eastward to 0° and a midlevel anticyclonic anomaly over the Western Sahara, increasing southward the flux divergence associated with the African Easterly Jet. In March-May, two to three heat waves propagate eastward. They are preceded by an abnormal warm cell over Libya and southwesterlies over the West Sahara. A large trough stands over North Atlantic while midtropospheric subsidence and anticyclonic rotation reinforce over the continent, then migrates toward the Arabian peninsula in breaking up. These signals are spatially coherent and might suggest the role of short Rossby waves with an eastward group velocity and a baroclinic mode, possibly associated with jet stream deformation.

  5. A mesoscale modeling study of the atmospheric circulation of high southern latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, K. M.; Bromwich, David H.; Parish, T. R.

    1995-01-01

    The meteorology of high southern latitudes during winter is simulated using a cloud-free version of The Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model version 4 (MM4) with a 100-km horizontal resolution. Comparisons between idealized simulations of Antarctic with MM4 and with the mesoscale model of Parish and Waight reveal that both models produce similarly realistic velocity fields in the boundary layer. The latter model tends to produce slightly faster drainage winds over East Antarctica. The intensity of the katabatic winds produced by MM4 is sensitive to parameterizations of boundary layer fluxes. Two simulations performed with MM4 using analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for June 1988 as initial and boundary conditions. A simulation of the period from 000 UTC 2 June to 0000 UTC 8 June produces realistic synoptic phenomena including ridge development over East Antarctica, frontogenesis over the Amundsen Sea, and a katabatic surge over the Ross Ice Shelf. The simulated time-averaged fields for June 1988, particularly that of a 500-hPa height, are in good agreement with time-averaged fields analyzed by the ECMWF. The results of the simulations provide detailed features of the Antarctic winter boundary layer along the steeply sloping terrain. Highest boundary layer wind speeds averaged over the month-long simulation are approximately 20 m/s. The lack of latent heating in the simulations apparently results in some bias in the results. In particular, the cloud-free version of MM4 underpredicts the intensity of lows in the sea level pressure field.

  6. Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics (VADY) - representation of circulation types/dynamical modes in the decadal-prediction model system of MPI-ESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Benjamin; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The climate research program "Medium-range Climate Predictions" (MiKlip), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF), has the aim to improve a climate model system (MPI-ESM) in such a way that it can provide reliable decadal predictions of climate, including extreme weather events. A substantial part of the development process is a comprehensive model validation. Within MiKlip, it includes comparisons of model simulations and observations in order to allow statements about the performance of the model and to give particular recommendations for the further development of the model. The research project "Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics" (VADY), conducted by the cooperation partners "Institute of Geography at the University of Augsburg" (IGUA) and the "German Aerospace Centre" (DLR), contributes to model validation within MiKlip with a special focus on atmospheric waves (DLR) and circulation dynamics (IGUA). Within the framework of VADY, DLR validates the representation of atmospheric waves on different levels and scales based on suitable activity indices (e.g. the so-called large-scale dynamical activity index (LDAI), which is a measure for the activity of planetary waves). The focus of IGUA is on the model validation with respect to the representation of atmospheric circulation types, dynamical modes and the teleconnectivity of the atmospheric circulation. The present contribution provides results of the model validation concerning circulation types/dynamical modes. Results are shown for both the frequency of occurrence and internal characteristics (e. g. persistence or intensity), and for different classification methods (e. g. based on PCA or clustering techniques). The representation of circulation types/dynamical modes will be compared for different generations of the MPI-ESM decadal-prediction model (baseline0, baseline1, prototype) in order to clarify both advances and limitations in the development of the model. Furthermore

  7. Evaluation of North Eurasian snow-off dates in the ECHAM5.4 atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Järvinen, H.; Takala, M.; Jylhä, K.; Bulygina, O. N.; Luojus, K.; Riihelä, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Koskinen, J.; Pulliainen, J.

    2014-12-01

    The timing of springtime end of snowmelt (snow-off date) in northern Eurasia in version 5.4 of the ECHAM5 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is evaluated through comparison with a snow-off date data set based on space-borne microwave radiometer measurements and with Russian snow course data. ECHAM5 reproduces well the observed gross geographical pattern of snow-off dates, with earliest snow-off (in March) in the Baltic region and latest snow-off (in June) in the Taymyr Peninsula and in northeastern parts of the Russian Far East. The primary biases are (1) a delayed snow-off in southeastern Siberia (associated with too low springtime temperature and too high surface albedo, in part due to insufficient shielding by canopy); and (2) an early bias in the western and northern parts of northern Eurasia. Several sensitivity experiments were conducted, where biases in simulated atmospheric circulation were corrected through nudging and/or the treatment of surface albedo was modified. While this alleviated some of the model biases in snow-off dates, 2 m temperature and surface albedo, especially the early bias in snow-off in the western parts of northern Eurasia proved very robust and was actually larger in the nudged runs. A key issue underlying the snow-off biases in ECHAM5 is that snowmelt occurs at too low temperatures. Very likely, this is related to the treatment of the surface energy budget. On one hand, the surface temperature Ts is not computed separately for the snow-covered and snow-free parts of the grid cells, which prevents Ts from rising above 0 °C before all snow has vanished. Consequently, too much of the surface net radiation is consumed in melting snow and too little in heating the air. On the other hand, ECHAM5 does not include a canopy layer. Thus, while the albedo reduction due to canopy is accounted for, the shielding of snow on ground by the overlying canopy is not considered, which leaves too much solar radiation available for melting snow.

  8. Evaluation of a dynamically downscaled atmospheric reanalyse in the prospect of forcing long term simulations of the ocean circulation in the Gulf of Lions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, C.; Barnier, B.; Molines, J. M.; Fraunié, P.; Jacob, D.; Kotlarski, S.

    The paper evaluates atmospheric reanalysis as possible forcing of model simulations of the ocean circulation inter-annual variability in the Gulf of Lions in the Western Mediterranean Sea between 1990 and 2000. The sensitivity of the coastal atmospheric patterns to the model resolution is investigated using the REMO regional climate model (18 km, 1 h), and the recent global atmospheric reanalysis ERA40 (125 km, 6 h). At scales from a few years to a few days, both atmospheric data sets exhibit a very similar weather, and agreement between REMO and ERA40 is especially good on the seasonal cycle and at the daily variability scale. At smaller scales, REMO reproduces more realistic spatio-temporal patterns in the ocean forcing: specific wind systems, particular atmospheric behaviour on the shelf, diurnal cycle, sea-breeze. Ocean twin experiments (1990-1993) clearly underline REMO skills to drive dominant oceanic processes in this microtidal area. Finer wind patterns induce a more realistic circulation and hydrology of the shelf water: unique shelf circulation, upwelling, temperature and salinity exchanges at the shelf break. The hourly sampling of REMO introduces a diurnal forcing which enhances the behaviour of the ocean mixed layer. In addition, the more numerous wind extremes modify the exchanges at the shelf break: favouring the export of dense shelf water, enhancing the mesoscale variability and the interactions of the along slope current with the bathymetry.

  9. Steroid replacement in primary adrenal failure does not appear to affect circulating adipokines.

    PubMed

    Fichna, Marta; Fichna, Piotr; Gryczyńska, Maria; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Żurawek, Magdalena; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Despite continuous efforts for an optimal steroid replacement, recent observations suggest increased cardiometabolic risk and related mortality in primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). Adipokines are peptides from the adipose tissue, markers of cardiometabolic dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluate serum levels of adipokines: leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in PAI during conventional steroid substitution. The analysis comprised 63 patients (mean age 42.7 ± 14.1 years) and 63 healthy controls. Serum adipokines, lipid profile, and plasma glucose were assessed in both cohorts. ACTH, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, DHEA-S, cortisol and 24 h urinary free cortisol were determined in PAI. Body mass composition was analyzed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mean BMI in the control group was 24.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) and 23.7 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the PAI cohort. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were similar in both groups, whereas resistin appeared significantly lower among affected subjects (p = 0.0002). Its levels were weakly correlated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.048). Leptin was independently correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, BMI, and body fat (p < 0.001). At the multiple regression analysis only weight (p = 0.017), total and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.001) appeared significant predictors of adiponectin level. No adipokine correlations with serum cortisol or daily hydrocortisone dose were found. Patients receiving DHEA substitution displayed lower leptin and adiponectin levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our study did not provide evidence of an adverse adipokine profile in patients with PAI under conventional glucocorticoid replacement. Serum adipokines in treated PAI follow similar correlations to those reported in healthy subjects. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify and explain plausible excess of cardiovascular mortality in PAI. PMID:25129652

  10. Response of Northern Hemisphere storm tracks to Indian-western Pacific Ocean warming in atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Cuijiao; Yang, Xiuqun; Ren, Xuejuan; Zhou, Tianjun

    2013-04-01

    With 40 yr integration output of two atmospheric general circulation models (GAMIL/IAP and HadAM3/UKMO) forced with identical prescribed seasonally-varying sea surface temperature, this study examines the effect of the observed Indian-western Pacific Ocean (IWP) warming on the Northern Hemisphere storm tracks (NHSTs). Both models indicate that the observed IWP warming tends to cause both the North Pacific storm track (NPST) and the North Atlantic storm track (NAST) to move northward. Such a consistent effect on the two storm tracks is closely associated with the changes in the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity, high-level jet stream and upper-level geopotential height. The IWP warming can excite a wavelike circum-global teleconnection in the geopotential height that gives rise to an anticyclonic anomaly over the midlatitude North Pacific and a positive-phase NAO anomaly over the North Atlantic. These geopotential height anomalies tend to enhance upper-level zonal westerly winds north of the climatological jet axes and increase low-level baroclinicity and eddy growth rates, thus favoring transient eddy more active north of the climatological storm track axes, responsible for the northward shift of the both storm tracks. The IWP warming-induced northward shift of the NAST is quite similar to the observed, suggesting that the IWP warming can be one of key factors to cause decadal northward shift of the NAST since the 1980s. However, the IWP warming-induced northward shift of the NPST is completely opposite to the observed, implying that the observed southward shift of the NPST since the 1980s would be primarily attributed to other reasons, although the IWP warming can have a cancelling effect against those reasons. Keywords: Northern Hemisphere storm tracks, Indian-western Pacific Ocean warming, baroclinicity, eddy growth rate

  11. Response of Northern Hemisphere storm tracks to Indian-western Pacific Ocean warming in atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Cuijiao; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Ren, Xuejuan; Zhou, Tianjun

    2013-03-01

    With 40 years integration output of two atmospheric general circulation models (GAMIL/IAP and HadAM3/UKMO) forced with identical prescribed seasonally-varying sea surface temperature, this study examines the effect of the observed Indian-western Pacific Ocean (IWP) warming on the Northern Hemisphere storm tracks. Both models indicate that the observed IWP warming tends to cause both the North Pacific storm track (NPST) and the North Atlantic storm track (NAST) to move northward. Such a consistent effect on the two storm tracks is closely associated with the changes in the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity, high-level jet stream and upper-level geopotential height. The IWP warming can excite a wavelike circum-global teleconnection in the geopotential height that gives rise to an anticyclonic anomaly over the midlatitude North Pacific and a positive-phase NAO anomaly over the North Atlantic. These geopotential height anomalies tend to enhance upper-level zonal westerly winds north of the climatological jet axes and increase low-level baroclinicity and eddy growth rates, thus favoring transient eddy more active north of the climatological storm track axes, responsible for the northward shift of the both storm tracks. The IWP warming-induced northward shift of the NAST is quite similar to the observed, suggesting that the IWP warming can be one of the key factors to cause decadal northward shift of the NAST since the 1980s. However, the IWP warming-induced northward shift of the NPST is completely opposite to the observed, implying that the observed southward shift of the NPST since the 1980s would be primarily attributed to other reasons, although the IWP warming can have a cancelling effect against those reasons.

  12. Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E; Doney, Scott C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, Jefferson Keith; Mahowald, Natalie; Randerson, James T; Fung, Inez; Lamarque, Jean-Francois H; Feddema, Johan J.

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion of fundamental ecological interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in the land component of an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) leads to decreased carbon uptake associated with CO{sub 2} fertilization, and increased carbon uptake associated with warming of the climate system. The balance of these two opposing effects is to reduce the fraction of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} predicted to be sequestered in land ecosystems. The primary mechanism responsible for increased land carbon storage under radiatively forced climate change is shown to be fertilization of plant growth by increased mineralization of nitrogen directly associated with increased decomposition of soil organic matter under a warming climate, which in this particular model results in a negative gain for the climate-carbon feedback. Estimates for the land and ocean sink fractions of recent anthropogenic emissions are individually within the range of observational estimates, but the combined land plus ocean sink fractions produce an airborne fraction which is too high compared to observations. This bias is likely due in part to an underestimation of the ocean sink fraction. Our results show a significant growth in the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions over the coming century, attributable in part to a steady decline in the ocean sink fraction. Comparison to experimental studies on the fate of radio-labeled nitrogen tracers in temperate forests indicates that the model representation of competition between plants and microbes for new mineral nitrogen resources is reasonable. Our results suggest a weaker dependence of net land carbon flux on soil moisture changes in tropical regions, and a stronger positive growth response to warming in those regions, than predicted by a similar AOGCM implemented without land carbon-nitrogen interactions. We expect that the between-model uncertainty in predictions of future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and

  13. Improvement of Moist and Radiative Processes in Highly Parallel Atmospheric General Circulation Models: Validation and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, William M.; Hack, James J.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    1997-02-24

    of cloud radiative properties. An examination of the CCM2 simulation characteristics indicated that many surface temperature and warm land precipitation problems were linked to deficiencies in the specification of cloud optical properties, which allowed too much shortwave radiation to reach the surface. In-cloud liquid water path was statically specified in the CCM2 using a "prescribed, meridionally and height varying, but time independent, cloud liquid water density profile, which was analytically determined from a meridionally specified liquid water scale height. Single-column model integrations were conducted to explore alternative formulations for the cloud liquid water path diagnostic, converging on an approach that employs a similar, but state-dependent technique for determining in-cloud liquid water concentration. The new formulation, results in significant improvements to both the top-of- atmosphere and surface energy budgets. In particular, when this scheme is incorporated in the three-dimensional GCM, simulated July surface temperature biases are substantially reduced, where summer precipitation over the northern hemisphere continents, as well as precipitation rates over most all warm land areas, is more consistent with observations". This improved parameterization has been incorporated in the CCM3.

  14. Summertime land-sea thermal contrast and atmospheric circulation over East Asia in a warming climate—Part I: Past changes and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    Land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) contrast, an index of tropospheric thermodynamic structure and dynamical circulation, has shown a significant increase in recent decades over East Asia during the boreal summer. In Part I of this two-part paper, observational data and the results of transient warming experiments conducted using coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) are analyzed to examine changes in land-sea thermal contrast and the associated atmospheric circulation over East Asia from the past to the future. The interannual variability of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East for 1950-2012 was found to be tightly coupled with a characteristic tripolar pattern of tropospheric circulation over East Asia, which manifests as anticyclonic anomalies over the Okhotsk Sea and around the Philippines, and a cyclonic anomaly over Japan during a positive phase, and vice versa. In response to CO2 increase, the cold northeasterly winds off the east coast of northern Japan and the East Asian rainband were strengthened with the circulation pattern well projected on the observed interannual variability. These results are commonly found in GCMs regardless of future forcing scenarios, indicating the robustness of the East Asian climate response to global warming. The physical mechanisms responsible for the increase of the land-sea contrast are examined in Part II.

  15. Interannual Variability and Trends in Daily Temperature and Precipitation Extreme Indices in Finland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation Patterns, 1961-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irannezhad, Masoud; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Daily temperature (minimum and maximum) and precipitation datasets applied at regular grid points (10×10 km2) throughout Finland for 1961-2011 were analyzed with the aim to evaluate variability and trends in weather extremes on both national a