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Sample records for affect balance scale

  1. Scaling the metabolic balance of the oceans

    PubMed Central

    López-Urrutia, Ángel; San Martin, Elena; Harris, Roger P.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2006-01-01

    Oceanic communities are sources or sinks of CO2, depending on the balance between primary production and community respiration. The prediction of how global climate change will modify this metabolic balance of the oceans is limited by the lack of a comprehensive underlying theory. Here, we show that the balance between production and respiration is profoundly affected by environmental temperature. We extend the general metabolic theory of ecology to the production and respiration of oceanic communities and show that ecosystem rates can be reliably scaled from theoretical knowledge of organism physiology and measurement of population abundance. Our theory predicts that the differential temperature-dependence of respiration and photosynthesis at the organism level determines the response of the metabolic balance of the epipelagic ocean to changes in ambient temperature, a prediction that we support with empirical data over the global ocean. Furthermore, our model predicts that there will be a negative feedback of ocean communities to climate warming because they will capture less CO2 with a future increase in ocean temperature. This feedback of marine biota will further aggravate the anthropogenic effects on global warming. PMID:16731624

  2. The Balance-Scale Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Jay, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the reflections of students on a problem given in May, 1996 issue of this journal in order to share the thinking of middle school students. The problem concerned weighing on a double per balance if given a clump of clay, and a 20-gram and 50-gram balance. (ASK)

  3. Newton's Third Law on a Scale Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Huntula, Jiradawan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a series of experiments involving balance readings of an object naturally floating or forced to be partially or fully immersed in water contained in a beaker sitting on an electronic scale balance. Students were asked to predict, observe and explain each case. The teacher facilitated the learning by asking probing questions, giving…

  4. Newton's third law on a scale balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Huntula, Jiradawan

    2009-09-01

    We propose a series of experiments involving balance readings of an object naturally floating or forced to be partially or fully immersed in water contained in a beaker sitting on an electronic scale balance. Students were asked to predict, observe and explain each case. The teacher facilitated the learning by asking probing questions, giving hints and helping in the drawing of the free body diagrams. From this guided enquiry, students improved their understanding of the involvement of Newton's third law in each experiment.

  5. Athletic footwear affects balance in men.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E; Gouw, G J; McClaran, J

    1994-01-01

    Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we performed an experiment using similar methods on a younger population. We tested the hypothesis that midsole thickness is negatively, and hardness positively related to dynamic equilibrium, in 17 healthy adult men (mean(s.d.) age 33(11.13) years) via a balance beam method. Subjects walked along a 9-m long beam at 0.5 m s-1 once barefoot and six times wearing identical pairs of experimental shoes which differed only in midsole hardness and thickness which spanned the respective ranges currently available in footwear. Falls from the beam (balance failures) were quantified. Balance failures varied significantly in relation to midsole hardness and thickness, and there was a strong trend toward interaction of these variables (P = 0.09). Midsole hardness was positively related to stability, and midsole thickness was negatively related, which confirms the previous report. Hence, shoes with thick-soft soles, similar to modern athletic footwear and 'walking shoes', destabilize men, and shoes with thin-hard soles provide superior stability. The pair with the poorest stability (A 15-thick; 12.34 balance failures per 100 m) produced 217% more balance failures than those associated with the best stability (A 50-thin; 3.89 balance failures per 100 m). Since most types of athletic footwear and many other shoes incorporate midsoles with hardness and thickness associated with poor stability, we conclude that both athletic performance and public safety could be enhanced through stability optimized footwear. PMID:7921911

  6. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001) and 0.98 (P < 0.001), respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001) and 0.97 (P < 0.001), respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  7. Capacity of adolescents with cerebral palsy on paediatric balance scale and Berg balance scale.

    PubMed

    Jantakat, Chanada; Ramrit, Sirinun; Emasithi, Alongkot; Siritaratiwat, Wantana

    2014-10-15

    The Berg balance scale (BBS) and the paediatric balance scale (PBS) are reliable tools for measuring balance ability. However, reports of BBS and PBS scores in adolescent cerebral palsy have been limited. The objectives of this study were to investigate functional balance capacities, as tested with the BBS and PBS in adolescents with cerebral palsy, to compare the total PBS and BBS scores between Gross Motor Function Classification System-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R) levels and to compare the static balance PBS and BBS scores within each GMFCS-E&R level. Fifty-eight school-aged adolescents with cerebral palsy between the ages of 12 and 18 years with GMFCS-E&R levels of I to IV were recruited. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to compare the median scores for the PBS and BBS between the different GMFCS-E&R levels. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to examine the differences in the static balance scores between the PBS and the BBS within the same GMFCS-E&R levels. The results reveal that there were differences in the BBS and PBS scores among the four GMFCS-E&R levels. A significant difference was found between the BBS and PBS scores only among the patients with cerebral palsy and level III GMFCS-E&R. The BBS and PBS are valid and reliable tools for clinical examination and for distinguishing between levels of functional balance in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

  8. Balance models for equatorial planetary-scale dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ian Hiu-Fung

    This thesis aims at advancing our understanding of large-scale dynamics in the tropics, specifically the characterization of slow planetary-scale motions through a balance theory; current balance theories in the tropics are unsatisfactory as they filter out Kelvin waves, which are an important component of variability, along with fast inertia-gravity (IG) waves. Recent studies have shown that estimations of tropical variability (particularly Kelvin waves) differ significantly between different reanalysis datasets, and we hypothesize that this discrepancy is largely driven by the lack of suitable balance relations that maximize information obtained from observations. The first part of the thesis concerns the derivation of a balance model that filters out IG waves, but retains slow Rossby and Kelvin waves. Our theory relies on the anisotropy of planetary-scale motions in the tropics, where the zonal scale is typically much larger than the meridional scale. We show that the dynamics of the balance model reproduces planetary-scale dynamics well, but an important point is that the balance relations can also accurately describe the slow dynamics even in the isotropic regime. Moreover, the method can be generalized to cases with strong nonlinearity, diabatic heating, or to more realistic models of the atmosphere. From a practical perspective, our model is an improvement over existing theories as in addition to accurately capturing Kelvin wave dynamics, it also has the potential to provide better constraints on diabatic heating, which is a significant source of uncertainty in tropical variability at present. In the second part of the thesis we explore how our balance theory can be applied to data assimilation systems. Through `identical twin' experiments, we determined that our theory can be used in an ensemble Kalman filter system to produce more accurate and balanced analyses. This is achieved by using a modified localization function and analysis schemes that partition

  9. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

  10. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  11. Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

    PubMed

    Battle, Christopher; Broedersz, Chase P; Fakhri, Nikta; Geyer, Veikko F; Howard, Jonathon; Schmidt, Christoph F; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-04-29

    Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues. PMID:27126047

  12. Do Balanced Scales Assess Bipolar Constructs? The Case of the STAI Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vautier, Stephane; Pohl, Steffi

    2009-01-01

    Balanced scales, that is, scales based on items whose content is either negatively or positively polarized, are often used in the hope of measuring a bipolar construct. Research has shown that usually balanced scales do not yield 1-dimensional measurements. This threatens their construct validity. The authors show how to test bipolarity while…

  13. Acquiescent Responding in Balanced Multidimensional Scales and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Personality tests often consist of a set of dichotomous or Likert items. These response formats are known to be susceptible to an agreeing-response bias called acquiescence. The common assumption in balanced scales is that the sum of appropriately reversed responses should be reasonably free of acquiescence. However, inter-item correlation (or…

  14. Performance of Children on the Community Balance and Mobility Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Marilyn J.; Bos, Cecily

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the performance of children 8-11 years of age on the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M) and associations between performance and age, body mass index (BMI), and sex. A convenience sample of 84 was recruited. The CB&M was administered using instructions we developed for children. Mean CB&M total scores (95% confidence…

  15. Large-scale violation of detailed balance in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, Chase; Battle, Christopher; Fakhri, Nikta; Mackintosh, Fred; Schmidt, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Living systems are out of equilibrium. A fundamental manifestation of non-equilibrium dynamics in biological systems is the violation of detailed balance: at the microscopic level, enzymatic processes such as kinetic proofreading or molecular motor activity clearly violate detailed balance. We study how such non-equilibrium dynamics emerge at macroscopic scales in cellular assemblies. We measure the steady-state dynamics of two systems, beating flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and mechanosensitive primary cilia protruding from epithelial kidney cells. The flagellum exhibits clear non-equilibrium driving, whereas fluctuations in the primary cilium are difficult to differentiate from Brownian motion. We parameterize the shapes of the flagellum and primary cilium using a low-dimensional representation of their configuration phase space, and use the measured dynamics to infer the steady-state probability distributions and probability currents. For both the flagellum and the primary cilium we find significant, coherent circulating probability currents, demonstrating that these systems violate detailed balance at the mesoscopic scale.

  16. A catchment scale water balance model for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, E. F.; Sivapalan, M.; Thongs, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    A catchment scale water balance model is presented and used to predict evaporation from the King's Creek catchment at the First ISLSCP Field Experiment site on the Konza Prairie, Kansas. The model incorporates spatial variability in topography, soils, and precipitation to compute the land surface hydrologic fluxes. A network of 20 rain gages was employed to measure rainfall across the catchment in the summer of 1987. These data were spatially interpolated and used to drive the model during storm periods. During interstorm periods the model was driven by the estimated potential evaporation, which was calculated using net radiation data collected at site 2. Model-computed evaporation is compared to that observed, both at site 2 (grid location 1916-BRS) and the catchment scale, for the simulation period from June 1 to October 9, 1987.

  17. Quantitative PPARγ expression affects the balance between tolerance and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Nan-Shih; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Hsu, Shih-Wen; Chen, Wen-Chung; Sung, Junne-Ming; Maeda, Nobuyo; Tsai, Pei-Jane

    2016-01-01

    PPARγ modulates energy metabolism and inflammation. However, its specific functions in the balance of immunity in vivo have been explored incompletely. In this study, by the age of 14 mo, PpargC/− mice with PPARγ expression at 25% of the normal level exhibited high autoantibody levels and developed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, which resembled systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like autoimmune disease. These symptoms were preceded by splenomegaly at an early age, which was associated with increases in splenocyte accumulation and B-cell activation but not with relocation of hematopoiesis to the spleen. The mechanism of splenic lymphocyte accumulation involved reduced sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) expression and diminished migration toward S1P in the PpargC/− splenocytes, which impeded lymphocyte egression. Mechanistically, increased Th17 polarization and IL-17 signaling in the PpargC/− CD4+ T cells contributed to B-cell hyperactivation in the spleen. Finally, the activation of the remaining PPARγ in PpargC/− mice by pioglitazone increased S1P1 levels, reduced the Th17 population in the spleen, and ameliorated splenomegaly. Taken together, our data demonstrated that reduction of Pparg expression in T-helper cells is critical for spontaneous SLE-like autoimmune disease development; we also revealed a novel function of PPARγ in lymphocyte trafficking and cross talk between Th17 and B cells. PMID:27221351

  18. Factors Affecting Scale Adhesion on Steel Forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitterman, J. A.; Bacco, R. P.; Boggs, W. E.

    1982-04-01

    Occasionally, undesirable "sticky" adherent scale forms on low-carbon steel during reheating for hot forging. The mechanical abrading or chemical pickling required to remove this scale adds appreciably to the fabrication cost. Characterization of the steel-scale system by metallographic examination, x-ray diffraction, and electron-probe microanalysis revealed that nickel, silicon, and/or sulfur might be involved in the mechanism of sticky-scale formation. Laboratory reheating tests were conducted on steels with varied concentrations of nickel and silicon in atmospheres simulating those resulting from burning natural gas or sulfur-bearing fuels. Subsequent characterization of the scale formed during the tests tends to confirm that the composition of the steel, especially increased nickel and silicon contents, and the presence of the sulfur in the furnace atmosphere cause the formation of this undesirable scale.

  19. Abnormal sensory integration affects balance control in hemiparetic patients within the first year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clarissa B.; Medeiros, Ítalo R. T.; Greters, Mario G.; Frota, Norberto A. F.; Tavares Lucato, Leandro; Scaff, Milberto; Conforto, Adriana B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Impairments in balance can be a consequence of changes in the motor, sensory, and integrative aspects of motor control. Abnormal sensory reweighting, i.e., the ability to select the most appropriate sensory information to achieve postural stability, may contribute to balance impairment. The Sensory Organization Test is a component of Computerized Dynamic Posturography that evaluates the impact of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs, as well as sensory reweighting, under conditions of sensory conflict. The aim of this study is to compare balance control in hemiparetic patients during the first year post-stroke and in age-matched neurologically normal subjects using the Berg Balance Scale and Computerized Dynamic Posturography. METHODS: We compared the Berg Balance Scale and Sensory Organization Test scores in 21 patients with hemiparesis after first-ever ischemic stroke and in 21 age-matched, neurologically normal subjects. An equilibrium score was defined for each Sensory Organization Test condition. RESULTS: Berg Balance Scale scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects. Equilibrium scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects for those Sensory Organization Test conditions that did not provide appropriate somatosensory information and under conditions of sensory conflict. A history of falls was more frequent in patients with lower equilibrium scores. CONCLUSION: During the first year after a stroke, defective sensory reweighting significantly impacts balance control in hemiparetic patients. These results are important for the planning of effective rehabilitation interventions. PMID:22189728

  20. The dual task-cost of standing balance affects quality of life in mildly disabled MS people.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Letizia; De Luca, Francesca; Marchetti, Maria Rita; Sellitto, Giovanni; Fanelli, Fulvia; Prosperini, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlations between the dual-task cost (DTC) of standing balance and quality of life (QoL) in mildly disabled patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, patients affected by MS with an expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score of 3.0 or less and without an overt balance impairment were tested by means of static posturography under eyes-opened (single-task condition) and while performing the Stroop word-color test (dual-task condition), to estimate the DTC of standing balance. The self-reported 54-item MS quality of life questionnaire (MSQoL-54) was also administered to obtain a MS-specific assessment of health-related QoL. Among the 120 screened patients, 75 (53 women, 22 men) were tested. Although there was no impact of the DTC of standing balance on the physical and mental composite scores of MSQoL-54, patients who had a greater DTC of standing balance scored worse on role limitations due to physical problems (p = 0.007) and social function (p < 0.001), irrespective of demographic and other clinical characteristics including walking performance and cognitive status. However, the EDSS step and fatigue also contributed to reduced scores in these two QoL domains (p-values < 0.01). In conclusion, the phenomenon of cognitive-motor interference, investigated as DTC of standing balance, may affect specific QoL domains even in mildly disabled patients with MS and in the absence of an overt balance dysfunction.

  1. Evaluation of a distributed catchment scale water balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troch, Peter A.; Mancini, Marco; Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    The validity of some of the simplifying assumptions in a conceptual water balance model is investigated by comparing simulation results from the conceptual model with simulation results from a three-dimensional physically based numerical model and with field observations. We examine, in particular, assumptions and simplifications related to water table dynamics, vertical soil moisture and pressure head distributions, and subsurface flow contributions to stream discharge. The conceptual model relies on a topographic index to predict saturation excess runoff and on Philip's infiltration equation to predict infiltration excess runoff. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Richards equation describing flow in variably saturated porous media, and handles seepage face boundaries, infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff production, and soil driven and atmosphere driven surface fluxes. The study catchments (a 7.2 sq km catchment and a 0.64 sq km subcatchment) are located in the North Appalachian ridge and valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic data collected during the MACHYDRO 90 field experiment are used to calibrate the models and to evaluate simulation results. It is found that water table dynamics as predicted by the conceptual model are close to the observations in a shallow water well and therefore, that a linear relationship between a topographic index and the local water table depth is found to be a reasonable assumption for catchment scale modeling. However, the hydraulic equilibrium assumption is not valid for the upper 100 cm layer of the unsaturated zone and a conceptual model that incorporates a root zone is suggested. Furthermore, theoretical subsurface flow characteristics from the conceptual model are found to be different from field observations, numerical simulation results, and theoretical baseflow recession characteristics based on Boussinesq's groundwater equation.

  2. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  3. Measuring Mathematics Anxiety: Psychometric Analysis of a Bidimensional Affective Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan; Wang, LihShing; Pan, Wei; Frey, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretically and methodologically sound bidimensional affective scale measuring mathematics anxiety with high psychometric quality. The psychometric properties of a 14-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R) adapted from Betz's (1978) 10-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale were empirically analyzed on a…

  4. Energy balance affected by electrolyte recirculation and operating modes in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    Energy recovery and consumption in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) can be significantly affected by the operating conditions. This study investigated the effects of electrolyte recirculation and operation mode (continuous vs sequence batch reactor) on the energy balance in a tubular MFC. It was found that decreasing the anolyte recirculation also decreased the energy recovery. Because of the open environment of the cathode electrode, the catholyte recirculation consumed 10 to 50 times more energy than the anolyte recirculation, and resulted in negative energy balances despite the reduction of the anolyte recirculation. Reducing the catholyte recirculation to 20% led to a positive energy balance of 0.0288 kWh m(-3). The MFC operated as a sequence batch reactor generated less energy and had a lower energy balance than the one with continuous operation. Those results encourage the further development of MFC technology to achieve neutral or even positive energy output.

  5. Helicity, geostrophic balance and mixing in rotating stratified turbulence: a multi-scale problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouquet, A.; Marino, R.; Mininni, P.; Rorai, C.; Rosenberg, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Helicity, geostrophic balance and mixing in rotating stratified turbulence: a multi-scale problem A. Pouquet, R. Marino, P. D. Mininni, C. Rorai & D. Rosenberg, NCAR Interactions between winds and waves have important roles in planetary and oceanic boundary layers, affecting momentum, heat and CO2 transport. Within the Abyssal Southern Ocean at Mid latitude, this may result in a mixed layer which is too shallow in climate models thereby affecting the overall evolution because of poor handling of wave breaking as in Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities: gravity waves couple nonlinearly on slow time scales and undergo steepening through resonant interactions, or due to the presence of shear. In the oceans, sub-mesoscale frontogenesis and significant departure from quasi-geostrophy can be seen as turbulence intensifies. The ensuing anomalous vertical dispersion may not be simply modeled by a random walk, due to intermittent structures, wave propagation and to their interactions. Conversely, the energy and seeds required for such intermittent events to occur, say in the stable planetary boundary layer, may come from the wave field that is perturbed, or from winds and the effect of topography. Under the assumption of stationarity, weak nonlinearities, dissipation and forcing, one obtains large-scale geostrophic balance linking pressure gradient, gravity and Coriolis force. The role of helicity (velocity-vorticity correlations) has not received as much attention, outside the realm of astrophysics when considering the growth of large-scale magnetic fields. However, it is measured routinely in the atmosphere in order to gauge the likelihood of supercell convective storms to strengthen, and it may be a factor to consider in the formation of hurricanes. In this context, we examine the transition from a wave-dominated regime to an isotropic small-scale turbulent one in rotating flows with helical forcing. Using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) on a 3072^3 grid with Rossby and

  6. Coherent Structure Patterns Affect Energy Balance Closure: Evidence from Virtual Measurements for a Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; De Roo, F.; Heinze, R.; Eder, F.; Huq, S.; Schmidt, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Mauder, M.

    2015-12-01

    The energy balance closure problem is a well-known issue of eddy-covariance measurements. However, the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that organized low-frequency motion contributes significantly to the energy balance residual, because the associated transport cannot be captured by a point measurement. In this study, we carry out virtual measurements using a PArallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM). In order to represent specific measurement days of the field campaign "High definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction" (HD(CP)²), which was part of the project "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction"(HOPE) in 2013, the simulations were driven by synoptic-scale COSMO-DE reanalysis data. Planet boundary layer height, the vertical profiles of variance and skewness of vertical wind were analyzed and a comparison with Doppler-lidar observations shows good agreement. Furthermore, simulated energy imbalances were compared with real-world imbalances from two eddy-covariance stations in the model domain. Particularly poor energy balance closure was found for a day with cellular organized structures in the surface layer, while the energy balance closure was better on other days with roll-like structures. This finding might be one explanation why the energy balance closure generally tends to improve with increasing friction velocity, since roll-like structures are typically associated with higher wind speeds. In order to gain insight into the partitioning of the energy balance residual between the sensible and latent heat fluxes, we further employed a control volume method within the numerical simulation. Hence, advection and storage terms were identified as the most important causes for the lack of energy balance closure by the eddy-covariance method. The results of the virtual measurements indicate that the "missing" part of the surface energy mainly comes from the

  7. The Development of the Meta-Affective Trait Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Meta-Affective Trait Scale (MATS) to measure the meta-affective inclinations related to emotions that students have while they are studying for their classes. First, a pilot study was performed with 380 10th-grade students. Results of the exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure of the…

  8. Towards Better Computational Models of the Balance Scale Task: A Reply to Shultz and Takane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Maas, Han L. J.; Quinlan, Philip T.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to Shultz and Takane [Shultz, T.R., & Takane, Y. (2007). Rule following and rule use in the balance-scale task. "Cognition", in press, doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2006.12.004.] we do not accept that the traditional Rule Assessment Method (RAM) of scoring responses on the balance scale task has advantages over latent class analysis (LCA):…

  9. Combining Flux Balance and Energy Balance Analysis for Large-Scale Metabolic Network: Biochemical Circuit Theory for Analysis of Large-Scale Metabolic Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Daniel A.; Liang, Shou-Dan; Qian, Hong; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Predicting behavior of large-scale biochemical metabolic networks represents one of the greatest challenges of bioinformatics and computational biology. Approaches, such as flux balance analysis (FBA), that account for the known stoichiometry of the reaction network while avoiding implementation of detailed reaction kinetics are perhaps the most promising tools for the analysis of large complex networks. As a step towards building a complete theory of biochemical circuit analysis, we introduce energy balance analysis (EBA), which compliments the FBA approach by introducing fundamental constraints based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Fluxes obtained with EBA are thermodynamically feasible and provide valuable insight into the activation and suppression of biochemical pathways.

  10. Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Fuller, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    We determined the role of the hyporheic zone (the subsurface zone where stream water and shallow groundwater mix) in enhancing microbially mediated oxidation of dissolved manganese (to form manganese precipitates) in a drainage basin contaminated by copper mining. The fate of manganese is of overall importance to water quality in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona, because manganese reactions affect the transport of trace metals. The basin-scale role of the hyporheic zone is difficult to quantify because stream-tracer studies do not always reliably characterize the cumulative effects of the hyporheic zone. This study determined cumulative effects of hyporheic reactions in Pinal Creek basin by characterizing manganese uptake at several spatial scales (stream-reach scale, hyporheicflow-path scale, and sediment-grain scale). At the stream-reach scale a one-dimensional stream-transport model (including storage zones to represent hyporheic flow paths) was used to determine a reach-averaged time constant for manganese uptake in hyporheic zones, 1/??(s), of 1.3 hours, which was somewhat faster but still similar to manganese uptake time constants that were measured directly in centimeter-scale hyporheic flow paths (1/??(h) = 2.6 hours), and in laboratory batch experiments using streambed sediment (1/?? = 2.7 hours). The modeled depths of subsurface storage zones (d(s) = 4-17 cm) and modeled residence times of water in storage zones (t(s) = 3-12 min) were both consistent with direct measurements in hyporheic flow paths (d(h) = 0-15 cm, and t(h) = 1-25 min). There was also good agreement between reach-scale modeling and direct measurements of the percentage removal of dissolved manganese in hyporheic flow paths (f(s) = 8.9%, and f(h) = 9.3%). Manganese uptake experiments in the laboratory using sediment from Pinal Creek demonstrated (through comparison of poisoned and unpoisoned treatments) that the manganese removal process was enhanced by microbially mediated oxidation. The

  11. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response.

    PubMed

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D

    2013-10-01

    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance.

  12. Estimating basin scale evapotranspiration (ET) by water balance and remote sensing methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Leake, S.; Nagler, P.L.; Artan, G.; Dickinson, J.; Cordova, J.T.; Glenn, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important hydrological process that can be studied and estimated at multiple spatial scales ranging from a leaf to a river basin. We present a review of methods in estimating basin scale ET and its applications in understanding basin water balance dynamics. The review focuses on two aspects of ET: (i) how the basin scale water balance approach is used to estimate ET; and (ii) how ‘direct’ measurement and modelling approaches are used to estimate basin scale ET. Obviously, the basin water balance-based ET requires the availability of good precipitation and discharge data to calculate ET as a residual on longer time scales (annual) where net storage changes are assumed to be negligible. ET estimated from such a basin water balance principle is generally used for validating the performance of ET models. On the other hand, many of the direct estimation methods involve the use of remotely sensed data to estimate spatially explicit ET and use basin-wide averaging to estimate basin scale ET. The direct methods can be grouped into soil moisture balance modelling, satellite-based vegetation index methods, and methods based on satellite land surface temperature measurements that convert potential ET into actual ET using a proportionality relationship. The review also includes the use of complementary ET estimation principles for large area applications. The review identifies the need to compare and evaluate the different ET approaches using standard data sets in basins covering different hydro-climatic regions of the world.

  13. Immediate effects of the activation of the affected lower limb on the balance and trunk mobility of hemiplegic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Dong; Lee, Kyoung-Bo; Roh, Hyo-Lyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the activation of the affected lower limb on balance and the trunk hemiplegic mobility of stroke patients. [Subjects] The gait group (GG) consisted of 6 subjects with hemiplegia and the non-gait group (NGG) consisted of 6 hemiplegic subjects. [Methods] The subjects in both groups were given foot facilitation training once for 30 min. The Spinal Mouse was used to measure the spinal alignment and the Berg balance scale (BBS) and sensory tests were also performed. [Results] In the GG, the sacral hip in upright to flexion, the lumbar spine in upright to extension, and the sacral hip and lumbar spine in flexion to extension showed significant increases in their angles after the intervention. In addition, there was a significant increase in the angle of the lumbar spine during extension from an upright position in the NGG. The BBS scores of both groups also increased significantly. [Conclusion] The intervention resulted in improvements in the angle of anterior pelvic tilt in the GG, and subjects in the NGG showed more extension of the thorax, which was regarded as compensation to avoid falling forward when flexing from an upright position. However, when extending backward from an upright position, both groups tended to control balance by using more lumbar flexion to keep the center of mass (COM) within the base of support (BOS). Both groups had better BBS scores.

  14. Large herbivore grazing affects the vegetation structure and greenhouse gas balance in a high arctic mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Julie Maria; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Ström, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Herbivory is an important part of most ecosystems and affects the ecosystems’ carbon balance both directly and indirectly. Little is known about herbivory and its impact on the carbon balance in high arctic mire ecosystems. We hypothesized that trampling and grazing by large herbivores influences the vegetation density and composition and thereby also the carbon balance. In 2010, we established fenced exclosures in high arctic Greenland to prevent muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from grazing. During the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013 we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in these ungrazed blocks and compared them to blocks subjected to natural grazing. Additionally, we measured depth of the water table and active layer, soil temperature, and in 2011 and 2013 an inventory of the vegetation density and composition were made. In 2013 a significant decrease in total number of vascular plant (33-44%) and Eriophorum scheuchzeri (51-53%) tillers were found in ungrazed plots, the moss-layer and amount of litter had also increased substantially in these plots. This resulted in a significant decrease in net ecosystem uptake of CO2 (47%) and likewise a decrease in CH4 emission (44%) in ungrazed plots in 2013. While the future of the muskoxen in a changing arctic is unknown, this experiment points to a potentially large effect of large herbivores on the carbon balance in natural Arctic ecosystems. It thus sheds light on the importance of grazing mammals, and hence adds to our understanding of natural ecosystem greenhouse gas balance in the past and in the future.

  15. Preliminary energy balance and economics of a farm-scale ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, D.; McKinnon, T.

    1980-05-01

    The energy balance and economics of grain to ethanol plants are matters of current national interest, as we strive to deal with our liquid fuel supply problems. This report prepared at the request of the Department of Energy, examines the energy balance and economic questions for a particular farm-scale plant in Campo, Colo. It shows that such plants may have a place in our national liquid fuel supply system.

  16. SOURCES OF STRESS AND RECOVERY AS CONCURRENT PREDICTORS OF THE AFFECT BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH FIBROMYALGIA.

    PubMed

    González, José Luis; López-López, Almudena; Alonso-Fernández, Miriam; Matías-Pompa, Borja; Ciudad, Noelia; Carnero, Josué Fernández

    2015-12-01

    This study examined sources of stress and recovery in a group of 107 patients with fibromyalgia (M age = 50.4 yr., SD = 11.8), in comparison to a control group of 68 healthy participants (M age = 47.8 yr., SD = 8.1) of equivalent age and marital status. Between-group differences in sources of stress and recovery were examined by means of an independent samples t test. In addition, between-groups differences in the relationship between sources of stress and recovery and affect balance were explored through a multi-group SEM analysis. The results provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that fibromyalgia patients find fewer sources of recovery and that the contribution of such sources for improving their affective well-being is lower than in healthy individuals. Relevant clinical implications were discussed. PMID:26595294

  17. Concurrent Validity and Reliability of a New Balance Scale Used in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zur, Oz; Shaki, Tamar; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Adults over the age of 70 are at risk of falling. Various balance tests have been developed to identify balance dysfunctions. Their disadvantages including ceiling effects and low sensitivity and duration led to the development of a new balance test. The present study was conducted to determine the concurrent validity, reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the Zur Balance Scale (ZBS). In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 76 senior adults were recruited from an independent senior living community and were administered the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the ZBS. The BBS was used as the standard of comparison. The ZBS includes head movements and time to maintain to balance. All the subjects completed the tests. Concurrent validity was r = 0.782 (p < 0.0001). The ZBS had high intra-test (0.897) and inter-test (0.934) correlation coefficients. Its sensitivity was 60 % and specificity 91 % for identifying falls. The dynamic portions of the ZBS capture the integration of the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, as it mimics dynamic spatial aspects of daily activities. We conclude that the ZBS is reliable compared with BBS. It is a simple, easy to administer test that may predict future risk of falls.

  18. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  19. Water Balance Defines a Threshold in Soil Chemistry at a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slessarev, E.; Bingham, N.; Lin, Y.; Schimel, J.; Chadwick, O.

    2015-12-01

    Carefully constrained studies in model landscapes demonstrate the existence of pedogenic thresholds, where small changes in external forcing lead to large changes in soil properties. One important threshold defines the relationship between water balance, the availability of nutrient cations, and soil pH. Across rainfall gradients, the loss of alkali and alkaline earth cations occurs abruptly at a critical water-balance. At this threshold, the removal of exchangeable base cations by leaching outstrips their production from weathering, causing a drop in soil pH. This leaching threshold has never been characterized at a global scale, in part because of the tremendous sampling effort required to overcome the confounding effects of rock chemistry, soil age, and topography outside of carefully constrained environmental gradients. We compile an extensive database of soil pH measurements to show that there is a mean global leaching threshold near an annual water balance of zero. Where evaporative demand exceeds precipitation, soil pH is buffered near values of 8.1, but where precipitation exceeds evaporative demand, soil pH rapidly collapses to values near 5.0. Deviations from the threshold can be explained in terms of climatic variability, soil age, and rock chemistry. Regions with arid climates and acid soil pH correspond to zones of intense, periodic leaching (e.g. strongly monsoonal climates), or to highly weathered continental surfaces that have permanently lost their stock of cations (e.g. Australia). Regions with humid climates and neutral soil pH correspond to young landscapes, or to soils derived from base-rich rock (e.g. the Pacific Rim volcanic belt). These results demonstrate that the leaching threshold is a dominant feature of the Earth's surface, with the potential to affect both natural and human-dominated ecosystems. For instance: the leaching threshold might impose a step-function on the terrestrial response to CO2 fertilization, the capacity of soils to

  20. Psychometric Testing of the Chinese Version of the Decisional Balance Scale (CDBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Huey-Shys; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chen, W. William

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct psychometric testing on the Chinese version of the decisional balance scale (CDBS) with Taiwanese seventh, eighth, and ninth graders who were recruited from the Taipei metropolitan area. A random cluster sampling method was used with 554 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Factor analysis…

  1. Unrestricted Factor Analytic Procedures for Assessing Acquiescent Responding in Balanced, Theoretically Unidimensional Personality Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo

    2003-01-01

    This article describes and proposes an unrestricted factor analytic procedure to: (a) assess the dimensionality and structure of a balanced personality scale taking into account the potential effects of acquiescent responding, and (b) correct the individual trait estimates for acquiescence. The procedure can be considered as an extension of ten…

  2. Some Strategies for Balancing Economies of Scale and Interaction in Online/Distance Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Celeste M.

    2005-01-01

    After reviewing the literature on interaction in distance education/online learning contexts, I offer some suggestions for balancing students' and teachers' needs for greater interaction with the economies of scale often achieved in such learning contexts. Specifically, I suggest that instructors' use of threaded online discussions and student…

  3. Rule Following and Rule Use in the Balance-Scale Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.; Takane, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Quinlan et al. [Quinlan, p., van der Mass, H., Jansen, B., Booij, O., & Rendell, M. (this issue). Re-thinking stages of cognitive development: An appraisal of connectionist models of the balance scale task. "Cognition", doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2006.02.004] use Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to criticize a connectionist model of development on the…

  4. Evidence for the Phase Transition from Rule I to Rule II on the Balance Scale Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments used a formal model of developmental discontinuity derived from catastrophe theory to test whether the transition from Rule I to Rule II on the balance scale task proceeds discontinuously from ages 6 to 10, focusing on five catastrophe flags. Found that bimodality, inaccessible region, hysteresis, and sudden jump were clearly…

  5. The Classification of Children's Knowledge: Development on the Balance-Scale and Inclined-Plane Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Ralph P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Applies to the inclined-plane task Siegler's (1981) observation that performance on Piagetian tasks is governed by similar rule structures. Also replicates Siegler's original observations about the development on the balance-scale task and determines the consistency in children's rule usage across tasks. (Author/AS)

  6. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  7. A case-study on the accuracy of mass balances for xenobiotics in full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Farlin, Julien; Bayerle, Michael; Gallé, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Removal efficiencies of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually evaluated from mass balance calculations using a small number of observations drawn from short sampling campaigns. Since micropollutant loads can vary greatly in both influent and effluent and reactor tanks exhibit specific hydraulic residence times, these short-term approaches are particularly prone to yield erroneous removal values. A detailed investigation of micropollutant transit times at full-scale and on how this affects mass balancing results was still lacking. The present study used hydraulic residence time distributions to scrutinize the match of influent loads to effluent loads of 10 polar micropollutants with different influent dynamics in a full-scale WWTP. Prior hydraulic modeling indicated that a load sampled over one day in the effluent is composed of influent load fractions of five preceding days. Results showed that the error of the mass balance can be reduced with increasing influent sampling duration. The approach presented leads to a more reliable estimation of the removal efficiencies of those micropollutants which can be constantly detected in influents, such as pharmaceuticals, but provides no advantage for pesticides due to their sporadic occurrence. The mismatch between sampled influent and effluent loads was identified as a major error source and an explanation was provided for the occurrence of negative mass balances regularly reported. This study indicates that the accurate determination of global removal values is only feasible in full-scale investigations with sampling durations much longer than 1 day. In any case, the uncertainty of these values needs to be reported when used in removal assessment, model selection or validation. PMID:23474799

  8. DEPTOR in POMC neurons affects liver metabolism but is dispensable for the regulation of energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Alexandre; Labbé, Sébastien M.; Mouchiroud, Mathilde; Huard, Renaud; Richard, Denis

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that specific overexpression of DEP-domain containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) protects mice against high-fat diet-induced obesity, revealing DEPTOR as a significant contributor to energy balance regulation. On the basis of evidence that DEPTOR is expressed in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the MBH, the present study aimed to investigate whether these neurons mediate the metabolic effects of DEPTOR. Here, we report that specific DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not recapitulate any of the phenotypes observed when the protein was overexpressed in the MBH. Unlike the previous model, mice overexpressing DEPTOR only in POMC neurons 1) did not show differences in feeding behavior, 2) did not exhibit changes in locomotion activity and oxygen consumption, 3) did not show an improvement in systemic glucose metabolism, and 4) were not resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. These results support the idea that other neuronal populations are responsible for these phenotypes. Nonetheless, we observed a mild elevation in fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, and alterations in liver glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice overexpressing DEPTOR in POMC neurons. Taken together, these results show that DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not affect energy balance regulation but could modulate metabolism through a brain-liver connection. PMID:27097662

  9. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  10. Factors affecting the predictive validity of the Braden Scale.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, M L; McDonald, D D

    1996-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study explored the predictive validity of the Braden Scale and factors affecting it A Braden score was determined within 4 hours of admission for 50 adult medical/surgical inpatients. Independent skin assessments were made three times a week and at discharge. Fourteen patients (28%) developed pressure ulcers. A Braden score cutoff of 18 or less resulted in a 71% sensitivity, 83% specificity, 63% predictive value of a positive test, and 88% predictive value of a negative test. Three of the four patients incorrectly predicted to be not at risk scored "inadequate" on the nutrition subscale. Two of the four also were underweight. Of the six patients incorrectly predicted at risk for a pressure ulcer, three had been placed on air mattresses and were receiving levothyroxine (Synthroid). This study provides further evidence of the Braden Scale's predictive validity. The results suggest that patients who are underweight or getting inadequate nutrition be considered at increased risk for pressure ulcers.

  11. Scaling Up Family Therapy in Fragile, Conflict-Affected States.

    PubMed

    Charlés, Laurie L

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the design and delivery of two international family therapy-focused mental health and psychosocial support training projects, one in a fragile state and one in a post-conflict state. The training projects took place in Southeast Asia and the Middle East/North Africa. Each was funded, supported, and implemented by local, regional, and international stakeholders, and delivered as part of a broader humanitarian agenda to develop human resource capacity to work with families affected by atrocities. The two examples illustrate how task-shifting/task-sharing and transitional justice approaches were used to inform the scaling-up of professionals involved in each project. They also exemplify how state-citizen phenomena in each location affected the project design and delivery.

  12. Characteristics of Nitrogen Balances of Large-scale Stock Farms and Reduction of Environmental Nitrogen Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Toshihiro; Takamatsu, Rieko

    We calculated nitrogen balances on farm gate and soil surface on large-scale stock farms and discussed methods for reducing environmental nitrogen loads. Four different types of public stock farms (organic beef, calf supply and daily cows) were surveyed in Aomori Prefecture. (1) Farm gate and soil surface nitrogen inflows were both larger than the respective outflows on all types of farms. Farm gate nitrogen balance for beef farms were worse than that for dairy farms. (2) Soil surface nitrogen outflows and soil nitrogen retention were in proportion to soil surface nitrogen inflows. (3) Reductions in soil surface nitrogen retention were influenced by soil surface nitrogen inflows. (4) In order to reduce farm gate nitrogen retention, inflows of formula feed and chemical fertilizer need to be reduced. (5) In order to reduce soil surface nitrogen retention, inflows of fertilizer need to be reduced and nitrogen balance needs to be controlled.

  13. A scale value for the balance inside a historical opera house.

    PubMed

    Prodi, Nicola; Velecka, Sylvia

    2005-02-01

    In the framework of opera house acoustics, the term "balance" refers to the acoustical competition between the singer on the stage and the orchestra in the pit. The mechanism allowing the operatic singers to be heard over the orchestra has to do with their skill in enhancing the vocal emission by a peculiar use of the formant frequencies. This vital factor is sensed by the listeners and, apart from the obvious sound power ratio of the stage and the pit sources, is the main cue that helps to formulate a subjective impression of the balance. To achieve its objective qualification, two calibrated sound sources can be placed on the stage and in the pit, respectively, and their sound level difference is measured at the listeners' seats. The scope of this work is to investigate the relationship between the subjective impression and the objective indicator of the balance and to develop a scale value for the parameter in the case of a historical opera house. For this scope a set of acoustical data from the Teatro Comunale in Ferrara will be used to create synthetic sound fields with controlled conditions of the balance between the stage and the pit. This methodology employs an anechoic piece for soprano (with piano accompaniment) and is implemented in a dead room equipped with an acoustical rendering system. The sound fields are used to investigate the appropriate balance values by means of listening tests. The results of the scaling exercise show that a suitable range of values can be extracted and that the sound from the stage and the pit is perceived as balanced when the loudness difference between the two is comprised within -2.0 dBA and +2.3 dBA. PMID:15759697

  14. A scale value for the balance inside a historical opera house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodi, Nicola; Velecka, Sylvia

    2005-02-01

    In the framework of opera house acoustics, the term ``balance'' refers to the acoustical competition between the singer on the stage and the orchestra in the pit. The mechanism allowing the operatic singers to be heard over the orchestra has to do with their skill in enhancing the vocal emission by a peculiar use of the formant frequencies. This vital factor is sensed by the listeners and, apart from the obvious sound power ratio of the stage and the pit sources, is the main cue that helps to formulate a subjective impression of the balance. To achieve its objective qualification, two calibrated sound sources can be placed on the stage and in the pit, respectively, and their sound level difference is measured at the listeners' seats. The scope of this work is to investigate the relationship between the subjective impression and the objective indicator of the balance and to develop a scale value for the parameter in the case of a historical opera house. For this scope a set of acoustical data from the Teatro Comunale in Ferrara will be used to create synthetic sound fields with controlled conditions of the balance between the stage and the pit. This methodology employs an anechoic piece for soprano (with piano accompaniment) and is implemented in a dead room equipped with an acoustical rendering system. The sound fields are used to investigate the appropriate balance values by means of listening tests. The results of the scaling exercise show that a suitable range of values can be extracted and that the sound from the stage and the pit is perceived as balanced when the loudness difference between the two is comprised within -2.0 dBA and +2.3 dBA. .

  15. Negative energy balance affects imprint stability in oocytes recovered from postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Alan M; O'Gorman, Aoife; al Naib, Abdullah; Brennan, Lorraine; Daly, Edward; Duffy, Pat; Fair, Trudee

    2014-09-01

    Ovarian follicle development in post-partum, high-producing dairy cows, occurs in a compromised endogenous metabolic environment (referred to as negative energy balance, NEB). Key events that occur during oocyte/follicle growth, such as the vital process of genomic imprinting, may be detrimentally affected by this altered ovarian environment. Imprinting is crucial for placental function and regulation of fetal growth, therefore failure to establish and maintain imprints during oocyte growth may contribute to early embryonic loss. Using ovum pick-up (OPU), oocytes and follicular fluid samples were recovered from cows between days 20 and 115 post-calving, encompassing the NEB period. In a complimentary study, cumulus oocyte complexes were in vitro matured under high non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and in the presence of the methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Pyrosequencing revealed the loss of methylation at several imprinted loci in the OPU derived oocytes. The loss of DNA methylation was observed at the PLAGL1 locus in oocytes, following in vitro maturation (IVM) in the presence of elevated NEFAs and SAM. Finally, metabolomic analysis of postpartum follicular fluid samples revealed significant differences in several branched chain amino acids, with fatty acid profiles bearing similarities to those characteristic of lactating dairy cows. These results provide the first evidence that (1) the postpartum ovarian environment may affect maternal imprint acquisition and (2) elevated NEFAs during IVM can lead to the loss of imprinted gene methylation in bovine oocytes.

  16. Validation of balance-quality assessment using a modified bathroom scale.

    PubMed

    Hewson, D J; Duchêne, J; Hogrel, J-Y

    2015-02-01

    The balance quality tester (BQT), based on a standard electronic bathroom scale has been developed in order to assess balance quality. The BQT includes automatic detection of the person to be tested by means of an infrared detector and bluetooth communication capability for remote assessment when linked to a long-distance communication device such as a mobile phone. The BQT was compared to a standard force plate for validity and agreement. The two most widely reported parameters in balance literature, the area of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement and the velocity of the COP displacement, were compared for 12 subjects, each of whom was tested on ten occasions on each of the 2 days. No significant differences were observed between the BQT and the force plate for either of the two parameters. In addition a high level of agreement was observed between both devices. The BQT is a valid device for remote assessment of balance quality, and could provide a useful tool for long-term monitoring of people with balance problems, particularly during home monitoring.

  17. Effects of vegetative heterogeneity and patch-scale harvest on energy balance closure and flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. F.; Cai, X. H.; Kang, L.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, H. S.

    2009-05-01

    Based on the micrometeorological measurements at a heterogeneous farmland in South China, this work detects the effects of vegetative heterogeneity and patch-scale harvest on the energy balance closure and turbulent fluxes. As a quality control, the integral turbulent characteristics are analyzed in the framework of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Spatial representativeness of the measurements is studied in terms of footprint and source area. Firstly, in two wind sectors, the nondimensional standard deviations of turbulent quantities generally agree with some foregoing studies. Discrepancies exist in the other sectors due to the instrument-induced flow distortion. Secondly, energy balance closure is examined with two types of linear regression, which confirms that mismatching source areas between the available energy and turbulent fluxes have no preference to either energy “deficit” or “surplus”. Thirdly, turbulent fluxes exhibit greater variability when they represent smaller source areas. The patch-scale harvest adjacent to the flux mast causes notable increase and decrease in the sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, respectively, while the CO2 exchange almost vanishes after the harvest. Interestingly, energy balance closure is less influenced despite the notable effects on the turbulent fluxes and Bowen ratio, implying that the energy balance closure check may mask some variability in the turbulent fluxes. Thus, to adjust the heat fluxes with a single “closure factor” for a perfect closure is dangerous at a patchy site.

  18. Evaluation of scale invariance in physiological signals by means of balanced estimation of diffusion entropy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqing; Qiu, Lu; Xiao, Qin; Yang, Huijie; Zhang, Qingjun; Wang, Jianyong

    2012-11-01

    By means of the concept of the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy, we evaluate the reliable scale invariance embedded in different sleep stages and stride records. Segments corresponding to waking, light sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and deep sleep stages are extracted from long-term electroencephalogram signals. For each stage the scaling exponent value is distributed over a considerably wide range, which tell us that the scaling behavior is subject and sleep cycle dependent. The average of the scaling exponent values for waking segments is almost the same as that for REM segments (∼0.8). The waking and REM stages have a significantly higher value of the average scaling exponent than that for light sleep stages (∼0.7). For the stride series, the original diffusion entropy (DE) and the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy (BEDE) give almost the same results for detrended series. The evolutions of local scaling invariance show that the physiological states change abruptly, although in the experiments great efforts have been made to keep conditions unchanged. The global behavior of a single physiological signal may lose rich information on physiological states. Methodologically, the BEDE can evaluate with considerable precision the scale invariance in very short time series (∼10^{2}), while the original DE method sometimes may underestimate scale-invariance exponents or even fail in detecting scale-invariant behavior. The BEDE method is sensitive to trends in time series. The existence of trends may lead to an unreasonably high value of the scaling exponent and consequent mistaken conclusions. PMID:23214843

  19. Evaluation of scale invariance in physiological signals by means of balanced estimation of diffusion entropy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqing; Qiu, Lu; Xiao, Qin; Yang, Huijie; Zhang, Qingjun; Wang, Jianyong

    2012-11-01

    By means of the concept of the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy, we evaluate the reliable scale invariance embedded in different sleep stages and stride records. Segments corresponding to waking, light sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and deep sleep stages are extracted from long-term electroencephalogram signals. For each stage the scaling exponent value is distributed over a considerably wide range, which tell us that the scaling behavior is subject and sleep cycle dependent. The average of the scaling exponent values for waking segments is almost the same as that for REM segments (∼0.8). The waking and REM stages have a significantly higher value of the average scaling exponent than that for light sleep stages (∼0.7). For the stride series, the original diffusion entropy (DE) and the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy (BEDE) give almost the same results for detrended series. The evolutions of local scaling invariance show that the physiological states change abruptly, although in the experiments great efforts have been made to keep conditions unchanged. The global behavior of a single physiological signal may lose rich information on physiological states. Methodologically, the BEDE can evaluate with considerable precision the scale invariance in very short time series (∼10^{2}), while the original DE method sometimes may underestimate scale-invariance exponents or even fail in detecting scale-invariant behavior. The BEDE method is sensitive to trends in time series. The existence of trends may lead to an unreasonably high value of the scaling exponent and consequent mistaken conclusions.

  20. Evaluation of scale invariance in physiological signals by means of balanced estimation of diffusion entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenqing; Qiu, Lu; Xiao, Qin; Yang, Huijie; Zhang, Qingjun; Wang, Jianyong

    2012-11-01

    By means of the concept of the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy, we evaluate the reliable scale invariance embedded in different sleep stages and stride records. Segments corresponding to waking, light sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and deep sleep stages are extracted from long-term electroencephalogram signals. For each stage the scaling exponent value is distributed over a considerably wide range, which tell us that the scaling behavior is subject and sleep cycle dependent. The average of the scaling exponent values for waking segments is almost the same as that for REM segments (˜0.8). The waking and REM stages have a significantly higher value of the average scaling exponent than that for light sleep stages (˜0.7). For the stride series, the original diffusion entropy (DE) and the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy (BEDE) give almost the same results for detrended series. The evolutions of local scaling invariance show that the physiological states change abruptly, although in the experiments great efforts have been made to keep conditions unchanged. The global behavior of a single physiological signal may lose rich information on physiological states. Methodologically, the BEDE can evaluate with considerable precision the scale invariance in very short time series (˜102), while the original DE method sometimes may underestimate scale-invariance exponents or even fail in detecting scale-invariant behavior. The BEDE method is sensitive to trends in time series. The existence of trends may lead to an unreasonably high value of the scaling exponent and consequent mistaken conclusions.

  1. Development of a Decisional Balance Scale for Young Adult Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Carey, Kate B.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a decisional balance scale for marijuana use in young adults. Scale development was accomplished in four phases. First, 53 participants (70% female, 68% freshman) provided qualitative data that yielded content for an initial set of 47 items. In the second phase, an exploratory factor analysis on the responses of 260 participants (52% female, 68% freshman) revealed two factors, corresponding to pros and cons. Items that did not load well on the factors were omitted, resulting in a reduced set of 36 items. In the third phase, 182 participants (49% female, 37% freshmen) completed the revised scale and an evaluation of factor structure led to scale revisions and model respecification to create a good-fitting model. The final scales consisted of 8 pros (α = 0.91) and 16 cons (α = 0.93), and showed evidence of validity. In the fourth phase (N = 248, 66% female, 70% freshman), we confirmed the factor structure, and provided further evidence for reliability and validity. The Marijuana Decisional Balance Scale enhances our ability to study motivational factors associated with marijuana use among young adults. PMID:21261405

  2. Development of a decisional balance scale for young adult marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J

    2011-03-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a decisional balance scale for marijuana use in young adults. Scale development was accomplished in four phases. First, 53 participants (70% female, 68% freshman) provided qualitative data that yielded content for an initial set of 47 items. In the second phase, an exploratory factor analysis on the responses of 260 participants (52% female, 68% freshman) revealed two factors, corresponding to pros and cons. Items that did not load well on the factors were omitted, resulting in a reduced set of 36 items. In the third phase, 182 participants (49% female, 37% freshmen) completed the revised scale and an evaluation of factor structure led to scale revisions and model respecification to create a good-fitting model. The final scales consisted of 8 pros (α = 0.91) and 16 cons (α = 0.93), and showed evidence of validity. In the fourth phase (N = 248, 66% female, 70% freshman), we confirmed the factor structure, and provided further evidence for reliability and validity. The Marijuana Decisional Balance Scale enhances our ability to study motivational factors associated with marijuana use among young adults. PMID:21261405

  3. Dietary electrolyte balance affects the nutrient digestibility and maintenance energy expenditure of Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Orozco, Z G A; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2013-12-14

    Acid-base disturbances caused by environmental factors and physiological events including feeding have been well documented in several fish species, but little is known about the impact of dietary electrolyte balance (dEB). In the present study, we investigated the effect of feeding diets differing in dEB (-100, 200, 500 or 800 mEq/kg diet) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and energy balance of Nile tilapia. After 5 weeks on the test diet, the growth of the fish was linearly affected by the dEB levels (P< 0·001), with the lowest growth being observed in the fish fed the 800 dEB diet. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of fat was unaffected by dEB, whereas the ADC of DM and protein were curvilinearly related to the dEB levels, being lowest and highest in the 200 and 800 dEB diets, respectively. Stomach chyme pH at 3 h after feeding was linearly related to the dEB levels (P< 0·05). At the same time, blood pH of the heart (P< 0·05) and caudal vein (P< 0·01) was curvilinearly related to the dEB levels, suggesting the influence of dEB on postprandial metabolic alkalosis. Consequently, maintenance energy expenditure (MEm) was curvilinearly related to the dEB levels (P< 0·001), being 54 % higher in the 800 dEB group (88 kJ/kg(0·8) per d) than in the 200 dEB group (57 kJ/kg(0·8) per d). These results suggest that varying dEB levels in a diet have both positive and negative effects on fish. On the one hand, they improve nutrient digestibility; on the other hand, they challenge the acid-base homeostasis (pH) of fish, causing an increase in MEm, and thereby reduce the energy required for growth.

  4. RSRA sixth scale wind tunnel test. Tabulated balance data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddell, A.; Flemming, R.

    1974-01-01

    Summaries are presented of all the force and moment data acquired during the RSRA Sixth Scale Wind Tunnel Test. These data include and supplement the data presented in curve form in previous reports. Each summary includes the model configuration, wing and empennage incidences and deflections, and recorded balance data. The first group of data in each summary presents the force and moment data in full scale parametric form, the dynamic pressure and velocity in the test section, and the powered nacelle fan speed. The second and third groups of data are the balance data in nondimensional coefficient form. The wind axis coefficient data corresponds to the parametric data divided by the wing area for forces and divided by the product of the wing area and wing span or mean aerodynamic chord for moments. The stability axis data resolves the wind axis data with respect to the angle of yaw.

  5. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  6. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  7. Large-scale mapping of mutations affecting zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Robert; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Albrecht, Andrea; van Bebber, Frauke; Berger, Andrea; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Dahm, Ralf; Dekens, Marcus PS; Dooley, Christopher; Elli, Alexandra F; Gehring, Ines; Geiger, Horst; Geisler, Maria; Glaser, Stefanie; Holley, Scott; Huber, Matthias; Kerr, Andy; Kirn, Anette; Knirsch, Martina; Konantz, Martina; Küchler, Axel M; Maderspacher, Florian; Neuhauss, Stephan C; Nicolson, Teresa; Ober, Elke A; Praeg, Elke; Ray, Russell; Rentzsch, Brit; Rick, Jens M; Rief, Eva; Schauerte, Heike E; Schepp, Carsten P; Schönberger, Ulrike; Schonthaler, Helia B; Seiler, Christoph; Sidi, Samuel; Söllner, Christian; Wehner, Anja; Weiler, Christian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    Background Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. Results We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM. Conclusion By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations. PMID:17212827

  8. Detecting Disturbance and its Impact on Ecosystem Carbon Balance from Global to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Anderegg, W.; Poulter, B.; Cooper, L. A.; Smith, W. K.; Miller, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the terrestrial biosphere is the removal of approximately one quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere. However, as patterns of temperature and precipitation change so is the frequency and intensity of ecosystem disturbance. Despite evidence that ecosystem disturbance regimes have shifted leading to widespread forest mortality, the net effect of disturbance on the carbon (C) balance of forest ecosystems remains uncertain. We will use satellite and atmospheric observations to deconvolve net carbon exchange (NEE) into its component fluxes of gross primary productivity and total respiration (e.g. NEE= GPP - R) at global to regional scales. At the global scale we find that NEE has increased over the last 50 years and appears to have accelerated as a result of diminished R over the last 15 years. However the variance in global NEE has also increased perhaps due to inter-annual variability in R, especially within semi-arid ecosystems. These global trends are not necessarily consistent with regional patterns in the net carbon balance, especially across the western US. Atmospheric mass balance suggests that ecosystems of North America have shifted from a net C sink to a net C source. While prolonged drought across the Western US has likely caused this shift in continental scale NEE, attributing this shift in the net C balance to any one mechanism of disturbance (e.g. drought, insect infestation, and fire) or their interactions is challenging. Lastly, we will evaluate existing observing networks, such as NOAA/ESRL and Ameriflux, and how they can be combined with nascent networks, such as NEON, EarthNetworks, and OCO-2, to identify regional disturbance processes that may be causing increasing variance in the global C cycle.

  9. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large scale ice sheet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeller, S.; Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Miller, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is currently no doubt about the existence of a wide-spread hydrological network under the Antarctic ice sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain inspired by the Gamburtsev Mountains, Antarctica. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux-basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out, that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  10. Attentional costs of walking are not affected by variations in lateral balance demands in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Masood; Roerdink, Melvyn; Duysens, Jacques; Beek, Peter J; Peper, C Lieke E

    2016-05-01

    Increased attentional costs of walking in older adults have been attributed to age-related changes in visuomotor and/or balance control of walking. The present experiment was conducted to examine the hypothesis that attentional costs of walking vary with lateral balance demands during walking in young and older adults. Twenty young and twenty older adults walked on a treadmill at their preferred walking speed under five conditions: unconstrained normal walking, walking on projected visual lines corresponding to either the participant's preferred step width or 50% thereof (i.e. increased balance demand), and walking within low- and high-stiffness lateral stabilization frames (i.e. lower balance demands). Attentional costs were assessed using a probe reaction-time task during these five walking conditions, normalized to baseline performance as obtained during sitting. Both imposed step-width conditions were more attentionally demanding than the three other conditions, in the absence of any other significant differences between conditions. These effects were similar in the two groups. The results indicate that the attentional costs of walking were, in contrast to what has been postulated previously, not influenced by lateral balance demands. The observed difference in attentional costs between normal walking and both visual lines conditions suggests that visuomotor control processes, rather than balance control, strongly affect the attentional costs of walking. A tentative explanation of these results may be that visuomotor control processes are mainly governed by attention-demanding cortical processes, whereas balance is regulated predominantly subcortically.

  11. Longitudinal evaluation of balance quality using a modified bathroom scale: usability and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Duchêne, Jacques; Hewson, David J

    2011-01-01

    We adapted a commercial bathroom scale in order to acquire the raw data from the weight sensors and then to send them to a server via a mobile phone. We investigated the usability and acceptability of the device in a long-term experiment with 22 elderly users that produced more than 5000 weight recordings. Four basic variables were extracted from the vertical force measurements and the stabilogram. The technology was accepted unreservedly, presumably because it did not differ from devices usually encountered in the home. The quantitative results showed a high variability of day-to-day measurement, which was countered by taking a moving average. A balance index was able to identify changes in balance over time. The preliminary results appear promising.

  12. Continental-scale footprint of balancing and positive selection in a small rodent (Microtus arvalis).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin C; Foll, Matthieu; Heckel, Gerald; Excoffier, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Genetic adaptation to different environmental conditions is expected to lead to large differences between populations at selected loci, thus providing a signature of positive selection. Whereas balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms over long evolutionary periods and even geographic scale, thus leads to low levels of divergence between populations at selected loci. However, little is known about the relative importance of these two selective forces in shaping genomic diversity, partly due to difficulties in recognizing balancing selection in species showing low levels of differentiation. Here we address this problem by studying genomic diversity in the European common vole (Microtus arvalis) presenting high levels of differentiation between populations (average F ST = 0.31). We studied 3,839 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers genotyped in 444 individuals from 21 populations distributed across the European continent and hence over different environmental conditions. Our statistical approach to detect markers under selection is based on a Bayesian method specifically developed for AFLP markers, which treats AFLPs as a nearly codominant marker system, and therefore has increased power to detect selection. The high number of screened populations allowed us to detect the signature of balancing selection across a large geographic area. We detected 33 markers potentially under balancing selection, hence strong evidence of stabilizing selection in 21 populations across Europe. However, our analyses identified four-times more markers (138) being under positive selection, and geographical patterns suggest that some of these markers are probably associated with alpine regions, which seem to have environmental conditions that favour adaptation. We conclude that despite favourable conditions in this study for the detection of balancing selection, this evolutionary force seems to play a relatively minor role in shaping the genomic diversity of the

  13. Continental-scale footprint of balancing and positive selection in a small rodent (Microtus arvalis).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin C; Foll, Matthieu; Heckel, Gerald; Excoffier, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Genetic adaptation to different environmental conditions is expected to lead to large differences between populations at selected loci, thus providing a signature of positive selection. Whereas balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms over long evolutionary periods and even geographic scale, thus leads to low levels of divergence between populations at selected loci. However, little is known about the relative importance of these two selective forces in shaping genomic diversity, partly due to difficulties in recognizing balancing selection in species showing low levels of differentiation. Here we address this problem by studying genomic diversity in the European common vole (Microtus arvalis) presenting high levels of differentiation between populations (average F ST = 0.31). We studied 3,839 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers genotyped in 444 individuals from 21 populations distributed across the European continent and hence over different environmental conditions. Our statistical approach to detect markers under selection is based on a Bayesian method specifically developed for AFLP markers, which treats AFLPs as a nearly codominant marker system, and therefore has increased power to detect selection. The high number of screened populations allowed us to detect the signature of balancing selection across a large geographic area. We detected 33 markers potentially under balancing selection, hence strong evidence of stabilizing selection in 21 populations across Europe. However, our analyses identified four-times more markers (138) being under positive selection, and geographical patterns suggest that some of these markers are probably associated with alpine regions, which seem to have environmental conditions that favour adaptation. We conclude that despite favourable conditions in this study for the detection of balancing selection, this evolutionary force seems to play a relatively minor role in shaping the genomic diversity of the

  14. Modifying a dynamic global vegetation model for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Water balance models of simple structure are easier to grasp and more clearly connect cause and effect than models of complex structure. Such models are essential for studying large spatial scale land surface water balance in the context of climate and land cover change, both natural and anthropogenic. This study aims to (i) develop a large spatial scale water balance model by modifying a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), and (ii) test the model's performance in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture and surface runoff for the coterminous United States (US). Toward these ends, we first introduced development of the "LPJ-Hydrology" (LH) model by incorporating satellite-based land covers into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM instead of dynamically simulating them. We then ran LH using historical (1982-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells. The simulated ET, soil moisture and surface runoff were compared to existing sets of observed or simulated data for the US. The results indicated that LH captures well the variation of monthly actual ET (R2 = 0.61, p < 0.01) in the Everglades of Florida over the years 1996-2001. The modeled monthly soil moisture for Illinois of the US agrees well (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.01) with the observed over the years 1984-2001. The modeled monthly stream flow for most 12 major rivers in the US is consistent R2 > 0.46, p < 0.01; Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficients >0.52) with observed values over the years 1982-2006, respectively. The modeled spatial patterns of annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data. Compared to its predecessor, LH simulates better monthly stream flow in winter and early spring by incorporating effects of solar radiation on snowmelt. Overall, this study proves the feasibility of incorporating satellite-based land-covers into a DGVM for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balance. LH developed in this study should be a useful

  15. Modified bathroom scale and balance assessment: a comparison with clinical tests.

    PubMed

    Duchêne, Jacques; Hewson, David; Rumeau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Frailty and detection of fall risk are major issues in preventive gerontology. A simple tool frequently used in daily life, a bathroom scale (balance quality tester: BQT), was modified to obtain information on the balance of 84 outpatients consulting at a geriatric clinic. The results computed from the BQT were compared to the values of three geriatric tests that are widely used either to detect a fall risk or frailty (timed get up and go: TUG; 10 m walking speed: WS; walking time: WT; one-leg stand: OS). The BQT calculates four parameters that are then scored and weighted, thus creating an overall indicator of balance quality. Raw data, partial scores and the global score were compared with the results of the three geriatric tests. The WT values had the highest correlation with BQT raw data (r = 0.55), while TUG (r = 0.53) and WS (r = 0.56) had the highest correlation with BQT partial scores. ROC curves for OS cut-off values (4 and 5 s) were produced, with the best results obtained for a 5 s cut-off, both with the partial scores combined using Fisher's combination (specificity 85 %: <0.11, sensitivity 85 %: >0.48), and with the empirical score (specificity 85 %: <7, sensitivity 85 %: >8). A BQT empirical score of less than seven can detect fall risk in a community dwelling population. PMID:27217987

  16. Modified bathroom scale and balance assessment: a comparison with clinical tests.

    PubMed

    Duchêne, Jacques; Hewson, David; Rumeau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Frailty and detection of fall risk are major issues in preventive gerontology. A simple tool frequently used in daily life, a bathroom scale (balance quality tester: BQT), was modified to obtain information on the balance of 84 outpatients consulting at a geriatric clinic. The results computed from the BQT were compared to the values of three geriatric tests that are widely used either to detect a fall risk or frailty (timed get up and go: TUG; 10 m walking speed: WS; walking time: WT; one-leg stand: OS). The BQT calculates four parameters that are then scored and weighted, thus creating an overall indicator of balance quality. Raw data, partial scores and the global score were compared with the results of the three geriatric tests. The WT values had the highest correlation with BQT raw data (r = 0.55), while TUG (r = 0.53) and WS (r = 0.56) had the highest correlation with BQT partial scores. ROC curves for OS cut-off values (4 and 5 s) were produced, with the best results obtained for a 5 s cut-off, both with the partial scores combined using Fisher's combination (specificity 85 %: <0.11, sensitivity 85 %: >0.48), and with the empirical score (specificity 85 %: <7, sensitivity 85 %: >8). A BQT empirical score of less than seven can detect fall risk in a community dwelling population.

  17. A Hybrid Surface Energy Balance Approach for Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimation and Prediction in Agricultural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, C. M.; Vinukollu, R. K.; Chavez, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    Over the last few years, several surface energy balance methods for the estimation of latent heat fluxes from remotely sensed satellite imagery have been introduced and/or refined. These models have shown the ability of obtaining seasonal spatially distributed evapotranspiration fluxes at various scales and over large areas. In the arid western United States, water managers are challenged in balancing the high consumptive use of irrigated agriculture with competing urban and ecological uses of fresh water. Water managers from Irrigation Districts and Federal Agencies such as the US Bureau of Reclamation have a need for improved operational tools for the prediction of evapotranspiration and irrigation water demand on a five to ten day timeframe. The paper will present a hybrid model that couples the surface energy balance approach with a simple empirical reflectance-based crop coefficient model, for estimation and prediction of evapotranspiration over large agricultural areas. The model is applied to a rain-fed intensively cultivated agricultural area, close to Ames, Iowa during the summer of 2002. The satellite, airborne and ground fluxes were collected during the SMACEX 02 experiment. The model is run in both simulation and prediction mode and the derived latent heat fluxes are compared spatially and temporally to aircraft derived fluxes from the USU airborne system and ground measured fluxes at thirteen eddy covariance stations, using appropriate upwind footprint source area functions.

  18. Two Different Applications of Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Based on Point and Regional Scale Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, K.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) has been considered as one of the most essential components for understanding of interaction between the land surface and atmosphere in terms of water and energy cycles. In practical aspect, ET is also significant for planning of water resource management such as water-saving irrigation and drought mitigation especially in semi and arid environments where the shortage of water is the most critical issue. Although conventional field measurements of ET including Bowen ratio (BR), eddy covariance (EC), and lysimeter systems can be utilized over a homogeneous area, there is a crucial limitation because field measurements can be hardly extended to regional scale. Numerous algorithms have been developed for accurate estimation of ET in regional scale using remotely sensed data acquired by sensors onboard satellites. As one of the primary remote sensing based ET model, the surface energy balance system (SEBS) determines atmospheric turbulent fluxes based on (1) land surface physical properties such as albedo, emissivity, land surface temperature and vegetation cover etc. (2) the determination of roughness length for heat transfer and (3) a new formulation for determining the evaporative fraction from energy balance at limiting cases. This study focused on the application of SEBS in Korean Peninsula where few researches on ET using remote sensing model have been conducted and evaluation of this model in this region by comparing its estimates with field measurements from EC systems on two topographically different catchments. In addition, two different scale applications of SEBS were assessed based on forcing dataset, i.e. point measurements and GLDAS, respectively. The results of this study show that SEBS estimates latent heat flux in acceptable range of error (7~11 % of relative bias) and can be applied for both irrigated and mixed forest areas. Furthermore, the results of both SEBS application (point and regional) are

  19. A scale value for the balance between stage and pit and inside an historical opera house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodi, Nicola; Velecka, Sylvia

    2001-05-01

    Despite its recognized importance, the balance between the singer and the orchestra inside an opera house has received minor attention in the past. In fact, after the fundamental work of Meyer [J. Meyer, ``Some problems of opera house acoustics,'' Proceedings of 12th I.C.A., Vancouver, 1986, pp. 13-18], who explained why the solo singing voice can compete with the orchestra, only partial results were reported on this perceived attribute. In this work a reference scale to assess the balance inside an historical opera house is achieved by means of listening tests inside a controlled room. Two scaling experiments were performed based on the acoustical data measured inside an historical opera house, the Teatro Comunale di Ferrara, Italy. By doing so all of the relevant acoustical characteristics of a typical Italian-style opera house could be exactly reproduced. Acceptable values do not differ much in the stalls and in the boxes and are within 2 dB(A) to +2.3 dB(A). The transfer of the findings to other types of opera houses is discussed, too.

  20. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes.

    PubMed

    Wood, Tana E; Cavaleri, Molly A; Reed, Sasha C

    2012-11-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in regulating global carbon (C) fluxes and stocks, and even small changes to C cycling in this productive biome could dramatically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) concentrations. Temperature is expected to increase over all land surfaces in the future, yet we have a surprisingly poor understanding of how tropical forests will respond to this significant climatic change. Here we present a contemporary synthesis of the existing data and what they suggest about how tropical forests will respond to increasing temperatures. Our goals were to: (i) determine whether there is enough evidence to support the conclusion that increased temperature will affect tropical forest C balance; (ii) if there is sufficient evidence, determine what direction this effect will take; and, (iii) establish what steps should to be taken to resolve the uncertainties surrounding tropical forest responses to increasing temperatures. We approach these questions from a mass-balance perspective and therefore focus primarily on the effects of temperature on inputs and outputs of C, spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale responses. We found that, while there is the strong potential for temperature to affect processes related to C cycling and storage in tropical forests, a notable lack of data combined with the physical, biological and chemical diversity of the forests themselves make it difficult to resolve this issue with certainty. We suggest a variety of experimental approaches that could help elucidate how tropical forests will respond to warming, including large-scale in situ manipulation experiments, longer term field experiments, the incorporation of a range of scales in the investigation of warming effects (both spatial and temporal), as well as the inclusion of a diversity of tropical forest sites. Finally, we highlight areas of tropical forest research where notably few data are available, including temperature effects on: nutrient cycling

  1. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tana E.; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Reed, Sasha C.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in regulating global carbon (C) fluxes and stocks, and even small changes to C cycling in this productive biome could dramatically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Temperature is expected to increase over all land surfaces in the future, yet we have a surprisingly poor understanding of how tropical forests will respond to this significant climatic change. Here we present a contemporary synthesis of the existing data and what they suggest about how tropical forests will respond to increasing temperatures. Our goals were to: (i) determine whether there is enough evidence to support the conclusion that increased temperature will affect tropical forest C balance; (ii) if there is sufficient evidence, determine what direction this effect will take; and, (iii) establish what steps should to be taken to resolve the uncertainties surrounding tropical forest responses to increasing temperatures. We approach these questions from a mass-balance perspective and therefore focus primarily on the effects of temperature on inputs and outputs of C, spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale responses. We found that, while there is the strong potential for temperature to affect processes related to C cycling and storage in tropical forests, a notable lack of data combined with the physical, biological and chemical diversity of the forests themselves make it difficult to resolve this issue with certainty. We suggest a variety of experimental approaches that could help elucidate how tropical forests will respond to warming, including large-scale in situ manipulation experiments, longer term field experiments, the incorporation of a range of scales in the investigation of warming effects (both spatial and temporal), as well as the inclusion of a diversity of tropical forest sites. Finally, we highlight areas of tropical forest research where notably few data are available, including temperature effects on: nutrient cycling

  2. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  3. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    PubMed

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  4. Land surface modeling of energy-balance components: Model validation and scaling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Venkataramana Rao

    Scope and method of study. Appropriate quantification of surface energy balance components that influence land-atmosphere exchange phenomena is important for improved weather prediction. The issue of scale interaction has emerged as one of the crucial challenges for the parameterization of general circulation models (GCMs) due to the strong interconnection between land and atmospheric processes. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different spatial scales of input data on modeled net radiation, latent, sensible and ground heat fluxes and hence to understand the resolution needed for the realistic modeling of large-area land and atmospheric interactions. This study employed the NOAH- OSU (Oregon State University) Land Surface Model (LSM), which is a popular model used in a coupled fashion with the NCEP operational Eta and PSU/MM5 mesoscale models. Since the model requires downwelling longwave radiation as one of its inputs, a simple estimation procedure was developed and tested using nine Oklahoma Atmospheric Surface-Layer Instrumentation System (OASIS) sites. Then the full LSM was tested using seven OASIS sites with diverse soils, vegetation and climate. Finally, at three different spatial scales, model simulations were performed for the most homogeneous and the most heterogeneous areas of the Southern Great Plains 1997 study region. Findings and conclusions. The newly developed scheme for the estimation of downwelling longwave radiation performed very well during both daytime and nighttime as well as under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Two methods of green vegetation fraction showed some differences in the estimates of latent and sensible heat fluxes. LSM validation using OASIS measurements at individual sites showed that the seven- site mean of modeled net radiation had a slight positive bias. It appeared that the model assigned most of this excess energy to latent heat flux. In the scaling study for the heterogeneous region, simulation

  5. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress. PMID:23064870

  6. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress.

  7. Uplink Downlink Rate Balancing and Throughput Scaling in FDD Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergel, Itsik; Perets, Yona; Shamai, Shlomo

    2016-05-01

    In this work we extend the concept of uplink-downlink rate balancing to frequency division duplex (FDD) massive MIMO systems. We consider a base station with large number antennas serving many single antenna users. We first show that any unused capacity in the uplink can be traded off for higher throughput in the downlink in a system that uses either dirty paper (DP) coding or linear zero-forcing (ZF) precoding. We then also study the scaling of the system throughput with the number of antennas in cases of linear Beamforming (BF) Precoding, ZF Precoding, and DP coding. We show that the downlink throughput is proportional to the logarithm of the number of antennas. While, this logarithmic scaling is lower than the linear scaling of the rate in the uplink, it can still bring significant throughput gains. For example, we demonstrate through analysis and simulation that increasing the number of antennas from 4 to 128 will increase the throughput by more than a factor of 5. We also show that a logarithmic scaling of downlink throughput as a function of the number of receive antennas can be achieved even when the number of transmit antennas only increases logarithmically with the number of receive antennas.

  8. Influence of time scale on performance of a psychrometric energy balance method to estimate precipitation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, P.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Precipitation phase determination is fundamental to estimating catchment hydrological response to precipitation in cold regions and is especially variable over time and space in mountains. Hydrological methods to estimate phase are predominantly calibrated, depend on air temperature and use daily time steps. Air temperature is not physically related to phase and precipitation events are very dynamic, adding significant uncertainty to the use of daily air temperature indices to estimate phase. Data for this study comes from high quality, high temporal resolution precipitation phase and meteorological observations at multiple elevations in a small Canadian Rockies catchment, the Marmot Creek Research Basin, from 2005 to 2012. The psychrometric energy balance of a falling hydrometeor, requiring air temperature and humidity observations, was employed to examine precipitation phase with respect to meteorological conditions via calculation of a hydrometeor temperature. The hydrometeor temperature-precipitation phase relationship was used to quantify temporal scaling in phase observations and to develop a method to estimate precipitation phase. Temporal scaling results show that the transition range of the distribution of hydrometeor temperatures associated with mixed rainfall and snowfall decreases with decreasing time interval. The amount of precipitation also has an influence as larger events lead to smaller transition ranges across all time scales. The uncertainty of the relationship between the hydrometeor temperature and phase was quantified and degrades significantly with an increase in time interval. The errors associated with the 15 minute and hourly intervals are small. Comparisons with other methods indicate that the psychrometric energy balance method performs much better than air temperature methods and that this improvement increases with decreasing time interval. These findings suggest that the physically based psychrometric method, employed on sub

  9. Affective Balance, Team Prosocial Efficacy and Team Trust: A Multilevel Analysis of Prosocial Behavior in Small Groups

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on how individual- and team-level characteristics jointly influence, via interaction, how prosocially individuals behave in teams and few studies have considered the potential influence of team context on prosocial behavior. Using a multilevel perspective, we examined the relationships between individual (affective balance) and group (team prosocial efficacy and team trust) level variables and prosocial behavior towards team members. The participants were 123 students nested in 45 small teams. A series of multilevel random models was estimated using hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Individuals were more likely to behave prosocially towards in-group members when they were feeling good. Furthermore, the relationship between positive affective balance and prosocial behavior was stronger in teams with higher team prosocial efficacy levels as well as in teams with higher team trust levels. Finally, the relevance of team trust had a stronger influence on behavior than team prosocial efficacy. PMID:26317608

  10. Affective Balance, Team Prosocial Efficacy and Team Trust: A Multilevel Analysis of Prosocial Behavior in Small Groups.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on how individual- and team-level characteristics jointly influence, via interaction, how prosocially individuals behave in teams and few studies have considered the potential influence of team context on prosocial behavior. Using a multilevel perspective, we examined the relationships between individual (affective balance) and group (team prosocial efficacy and team trust) level variables and prosocial behavior towards team members. The participants were 123 students nested in 45 small teams. A series of multilevel random models was estimated using hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Individuals were more likely to behave prosocially towards in-group members when they were feeling good. Furthermore, the relationship between positive affective balance and prosocial behavior was stronger in teams with higher team prosocial efficacy levels as well as in teams with higher team trust levels. Finally, the relevance of team trust had a stronger influence on behavior than team prosocial efficacy.

  11. [Assessment of balance in community dwelling older adults: reliability and validity of the German version of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale].

    PubMed

    Schott, N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the German translation of the originally English Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB-D). The 10-item test battery is a performance-based measure that addresses the multiple dimensions of balance. The German FAB-D using a forward-backward procedure was examined by a sample of n = 96 community dwelling older adults (71,6 ± 7,5 years of age) who had reported no history of a fall in the previous 6 months (non-fallers) and 66 older adults (age 75,3 ± 7,3 years of age) who reported falling one or more times (recurrent fallers). The following internationally accepted instruments were used for validation: The Berg-Balance-Scale (BBS), the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC-D) scale, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), the Trail-Making-Test (TMT), and motor tests (balance, strength, mobility). Explorative and confirmative factor analysis showed the best fit for a one dimensional solution. Cronbach's alpha of the German version of the FAB-D was 0.988. Test-retest reliability for the total score was 0.965 and ranged from 0.86-0.88 for individual items. The scales correlate with convergent measures assessing postural control and falls-related confidence (BBS, r = 0.685; Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, r = -0.632; ABC-D, r = 0.561). Criterion validity of the FAB-D was established by statistically significant correlations between the total scale, and the subdimensions of the SF-36 (physical 0.52, mental 0.38), the PASE (0.29), the TMT A (-0.30) and B (-0.41), the Chair Rising Test (0.59) and the 10 m walk (normal velocity -0.49; fast velocity -0.56). Significant differences in the FAB-D scores were found in older adults with (30,3 ± 8,6) and without falls (36,1 ± 4,2). Older adults with a recent fall history scored lower on the FAB-D than older adults without a recent fall history. To conclude, the German version of the FAB-D has properties analogous to the original English

  12. [Assessment of balance in community dwelling older adults: reliability and validity of the German version of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale].

    PubMed

    Schott, N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the German translation of the originally English Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB-D). The 10-item test battery is a performance-based measure that addresses the multiple dimensions of balance. The German FAB-D using a forward-backward procedure was examined by a sample of n = 96 community dwelling older adults (71,6 ± 7,5 years of age) who had reported no history of a fall in the previous 6 months (non-fallers) and 66 older adults (age 75,3 ± 7,3 years of age) who reported falling one or more times (recurrent fallers). The following internationally accepted instruments were used for validation: The Berg-Balance-Scale (BBS), the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC-D) scale, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), the Trail-Making-Test (TMT), and motor tests (balance, strength, mobility). Explorative and confirmative factor analysis showed the best fit for a one dimensional solution. Cronbach's alpha of the German version of the FAB-D was 0.988. Test-retest reliability for the total score was 0.965 and ranged from 0.86-0.88 for individual items. The scales correlate with convergent measures assessing postural control and falls-related confidence (BBS, r = 0.685; Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, r = -0.632; ABC-D, r = 0.561). Criterion validity of the FAB-D was established by statistically significant correlations between the total scale, and the subdimensions of the SF-36 (physical 0.52, mental 0.38), the PASE (0.29), the TMT A (-0.30) and B (-0.41), the Chair Rising Test (0.59) and the 10 m walk (normal velocity -0.49; fast velocity -0.56). Significant differences in the FAB-D scores were found in older adults with (30,3 ± 8,6) and without falls (36,1 ± 4,2). Older adults with a recent fall history scored lower on the FAB-D than older adults without a recent fall history. To conclude, the German version of the FAB-D has properties analogous to the original English

  13. Development of a Behavioral Affective Relationship Scale for Encounter Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.; Zarle, Thomas

    The paper outlines several studies over a two-year period to develop a self-report and observer-rating measure of sensitivity/encounter group outcome. The initial form of the scale was taken from McMillan (1971) who developed a measure of 16 categories of group outcome; McMillan's work indicated the scale had high reliability. Subsequent study…

  14. Renal nerves affect rate of achieving sodium balance in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S G; Enders, C; Osborn, J L

    1993-07-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has an elevated efferent sympathetic nerve activity, suggesting that the renal handling of sodium and water may be altered. This study evaluated the renal neurogenic influence on the rate of achieving sodium balance in adult SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after either a step increase or step decrease in fixed sodium intake. Conscious, unrestrained rats with either innervated or denervated kidneys were initially placed on a low-sodium (0.3 mEq/d) or high-sodium (5.0 mEq/d) intake by intravenous infusion. Hourly urinary sodium excretion was determined 24 hours before and 72 hours after sodium intake had been increased from low to high or decreased from high to low. After either step change in fixed sodium intake, both innervated SHRs and innervated WKY rats achieved sodium balance within 24 hours. Similarly, the time course of achieving sodium balance was nearly identical between WKY rats with innervated and denervated kidneys after either switch in sodium intake. In SHRs receiving a step increase in sodium intake, both innervated and denervated kidneys increased urinary sodium excretion equally for 9 hours; however, at this time, innervated SHRs continued to increase sodium excretion rapidly, whereas denervated rats were delayed in a further response. Thus, innervated SHRs achieved sodium balance approximately 18 hours sooner than denervated SHRs. Differences in urinary sodium excretion did not result from concomitant changes in plasma renin activity or mean arterial pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  16. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Work-Family Balance Scale in an Urban Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chi, Peilian; Chan, Kinsun; Cheung, Yee Tak; Zhang, Xiulan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Work-Family Balance Scale (WFBS) and examine its reliability and validity in use in the urban Chinese population. The scale was validated using a sample of 605 urban Chinese residents from 7 cities. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: work-family conflict and…

  17. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Work-Family Balance Scale in an Urban Chinese Sample.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S F; Chi, Peilian; Chan, Kinsun; Cheung, Yee Tak; Zhang, Xiulan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Work-Family Balance Scale (WFBS) and examine its reliability and validity in use in the urban Chinese population. The scale was validated using a sample of 605 urban Chinese residents from 7 cities. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. The WFBS showed adequate reliability and concurrent validity. The WFBS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure work-family balance for Chinese working parents. However, further examination of the scale is needed.

  18. Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimates: An Important Component in Regional Water Balances to Assess Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.

    2013-05-01

    Water security, can be defined as the reliable supply in quantity and quality of water to help sustain future populations and maintaining ecosystem health and productivity. Water security is rapidly declining in many parts of the world due to population growth, drought, climate change, salinity, pollution, land use change, over-allocation and over-utilization, among other issues. Governmental offices (such as the Comision Nacional del Agua in Mexico, CONAGUA) require and conduct studies to estimate reliable water balances at regional or continental scales in order to provide reasonable assessments of the amount of water that can be provided (from surface or ground water sources) to supply all the human needs while maintaining natural vegetation, on an operational basis and, more important, under disturbances, such as droughts. Large scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET), a critical component of the water cycle, are needed for a better comprehension of the hydrological cycle at large scales, which, in most water balances is left as the residual. For operational purposes, such water balance estimates can not rely on ET measurements since they do not exist, should be simple and require the least ground information possible, information that is often scarce or does not exist at all. Given this limitation, the use of remotely sensed data to estimate ET could supplement the lack of ground information, particularly in remote regions In this study, a simple method, based on the Makkink equation is used to estimate ET for large areas at high spatial resolutions (1 km). The Makkink model used here is forced using three remotely sensed datasets. First, the model uses solar radiation estimates obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES); Second, the model uses an Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized to get an estimate for vegetation amount and land use which was

  19. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  20. Detecting change in patients with stroke using the Berg Balance Scale.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T J

    2001-01-01

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) was designed to help determine change in functional standing balance over time. The purpose of this paper was to estimate the minimum detectable change score (MDC) using the standard error of measure (SEM), thereby providing a means to decide if genuine change had occurred. Calculation of the agreement regarding the presence of change as determined by the MDC and clinicians' perceptions was performed to give an indication of the validity of this criterion value. Forty-eight subjects who were receiving inpatient rehabilitation after stroke were assessed on consecutive days by two raters using the BBS. The MDC analysis suggests that a change of +/- 6 BBS points is necessary to be 90% confident of genuine change. Only 25/45 subjects showed agreement between the statistically derived presence of change and clinicians' perceptions of change. The lack of agreement may relate to the validity of the SEM/MDC methodology to determine the criterion BBS value, the heterogeneity of the subjects, or the use of clinician gestalt impressions of change. PMID:11552860

  1. Quantifying in-stream retention of nitrate at catchment scales using a practical mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Schwientek, Marc; Selle, Benny

    2016-02-01

    As field data on in-stream nitrate retention is scarce at catchment scales, this study aimed at quantifying net retention of nitrate within the entire river network of a fourth-order stream. For this purpose, a practical mass balance approach combined with a Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied and seasonally repeated to estimate daily in-stream net retention of nitrate for a 17.4 km long, agriculturally influenced, segment of the Steinlach River in southwestern Germany. This river segment represents approximately 70% of the length of the main stem and about 32% of the streambed area of the entire river network. Sampling days in spring and summer were biogeochemically more active than in autumn and winter. Results obtained for the main stem of Steinlach River were subsequently extrapolated to the stream network in the catchment. It was demonstrated that, for baseflow conditions in spring and summer, in-stream nitrate retention could sum up to a relevant term of the catchment's nitrogen balance if the entire stream network was considered. PMID:26801154

  2. Predicting reservoir-scale faults with area balance: Application to growth stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groshong, R.H.; Pashin, J.C.; Chai, B.; Schneeflock, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    A reservoir that appears to lack faults at one scale of resolution or at one sampling density may nevertheless contain faults that are below the resolution of the observations. The area-depth relationship from a balanced cross-section is shown to contain the necessary information for predicting the sub-resolution fault heave. Existing area-depth theory is extended to include growth units, allowing structural length and thickness changes to be separated from the depositional changes. The technique is validated with a numerical model of a growth full graben and a sand-box model of a half graben; then field tested in the Gilbertown graben, a growth structure within the regional peripheral fault trend along the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. A cross-section developed from wells alone is used to infer the abundance of sub-resolution faults by the area-balance technique. A small but significant amount of sub-resolution extension is predicted and then confirmed with a high-resolution seismic line. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation between Pediatric Balance Scale and Functional Test in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Natália de A. C.; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Franco, Renata Calhes; Zanon, Nelci; Oliveira, Cláudia Santos

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the correlation of functional balance with the functional performance of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study of children with cerebral palsy with mild to moderate impairment. The children were divided into 3 groups based on motor impairment. The evaluation consisted of the administration of the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) and the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory. Correlations between the instruments were determined by calculating Pearson’s correlation coefficients. [Results] In Group 1, a strong positive correlation was found between the PBS and the mobility dimension of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (r=0.82), and a moderate correlation was found between the PBS and self-care dimension of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (r=0.51). In Group 2, moderate correlations were found between the PBS and both the self-care dimension (r=0.57) and mobility dimension (r=0.41) of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory. In Group 3, the PBS was weakly correlated with the self-care dimension (r=0.11) and moderately correlated with the mobility dimension (r=0.55). [Conclusion] The PBS proved to be a good auxiliary tool for the evaluation of functional performance with regard to mobility, but cannot be considered a predictor of function in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25013281

  4. Quantifying in-stream retention of nitrate at catchment scales using a practical mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Schwientek, Marc; Selle, Benny

    2016-02-01

    As field data on in-stream nitrate retention is scarce at catchment scales, this study aimed at quantifying net retention of nitrate within the entire river network of a fourth-order stream. For this purpose, a practical mass balance approach combined with a Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied and seasonally repeated to estimate daily in-stream net retention of nitrate for a 17.4 km long, agriculturally influenced, segment of the Steinlach River in southwestern Germany. This river segment represents approximately 70% of the length of the main stem and about 32% of the streambed area of the entire river network. Sampling days in spring and summer were biogeochemically more active than in autumn and winter. Results obtained for the main stem of Steinlach River were subsequently extrapolated to the stream network in the catchment. It was demonstrated that, for baseflow conditions in spring and summer, in-stream nitrate retention could sum up to a relevant term of the catchment's nitrogen balance if the entire stream network was considered.

  5. Improving Large-scale Storage System Performance via Topology-aware and Balanced Data Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H Sarp; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of big data, the I/O subsystems of large-scale compute clusters are becoming a center of focus, with more applications putting greater demands on end-to-end I/O performance. These subsystems are often complex in design. They comprise of multiple hardware and software layers to cope with the increasing capacity, capability and scalability requirements of data intensive applications. The sharing nature of storage resources and the intrinsic interactions across these layers make it to realize user-level, end-to-end performance gains a great challenge. We propose a topology-aware resource load balancing strategy to improve per-application I/O performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on an extreme-scale compute cluster, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Our experiments with both synthetic benchmarks and a real-world application show that, even under congestion, our proposed algorithm can improve large-scale application I/O performance significantly, resulting in both the reduction of application run times and higher resolution simulation runs.

  6. Does small scale structure significantly affect cosmological dynamics?

    PubMed

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today-which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N-body numerical simulations-a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology. PMID:25699430

  7. Does Small Scale Structure Significantly Affect Cosmological Dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today—which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N -body numerical simulations—a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology.

  8. Genome-scale estimate of the metabolic turnover of E. Coli from the energy balance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martino, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this article the notion of metabolic turnover is revisited in the light of recent results of out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics. By means of Monte Carlo methods we perform an exact sampling of the enzymatic fluxes in a genome scale metabolic network of E. Coli in stationary growth conditions from which we infer the metabolites turnover times. However the latter are inferred from net fluxes, and we argue that this approximation is not valid for enzymes working nearby thermodynamic equilibrium. We recalculate turnover times from total fluxes by performing an energy balance analysis of the network and recurring to the fluctuation theorem. We find in many cases values one of order of magnitude lower, implying a faster picture of intermediate metabolism.

  9. FTO knockdown in rat ventromedial hypothalamus does not affect energy balance

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Margriet A.; Sanders, Loek E.; de Jong, Johannes W.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) clustered in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity‐associated (FTO) gene has been associated with obesity. FTO expression is ubiquitous, with particularly high levels in the hypothalamic area of the brain. To investigate the region‐specific role of FTO, AAV technology was applied to knockdown FTO in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). No effect of FTO knockdown was observed on bodyweight or parameters of energy balance. Animals were exposed twice to an overnight fast, followed by a high‐fat high‐sucrose (HFHS) diet for 1 week. FTO knockdown did not result in a different response to the diets. A region‐specific role for FTO in the VMH in the regulation of energy balance could not be found. PMID:25501432

  10. Labels affect preschoolers' tool-based scale errors.

    PubMed

    Hunley, Samuel B; Hahn, Erin R

    2016-11-01

    Scale errors offer a unique context in which to examine the interdependencies between language and action. Here, we manipulated the presence of labels in a tool-based paradigm previously shown to elicit high rates of scale errors. We predicted that labels would increase children's scale errors with tools by directing attention to shape, function, and category membership. Children between the ages of 2 and 3years were introduced to an apparatus and shown how to produce its function using a tool (e.g., scooping a toy fish from an aquarium using a net). In each of two test trials, children were asked to choose between two novel tools to complete the same task: one that was a large non-functional version of the tool presented in training and one novel functional object (different in shape). A total of four tool-apparatus sets were tested. The results indicated that without labels, scale errors decreased over the two test trials. In contrast, when labels were present, scale errors remained high in the second test trial. We interpret these findings as evidence that linguistic cues can influence children's action-based errors with tools.

  11. Modelling the water balance of a precise weighable lysimeter for short time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Precise knowledge of the water fluxes between the atmosphere and the soil-plant system and the percolation to the groundwater system is of great importance for understanding and modeling water, solute and energy transfer in the atmosphere-plant-soil-groundwater system. Weighable lysimeters yield the most precise and realistic measures for the change of stored water volume (ΔS), Precipitation (P) which can be rain, irrigation, snow and dewfall and evapotranspiration (ET) as the sum of soil evaporation, evaporation of intercepted water and transpiration. They avoid systematic errors of standard gauges and class-A pans. Lysimeters with controlled suction at the lower boundary allow estimation of capillary rise (C) and leachate (L) on short time scales. Precise weighable large scale (surface >= 1 m2) monolithic lysimeters avoiding oasis effects allow to solve the water balance equation (P - ET - L + C ± ΔS = 0) for a 3D-section of a natural atmosphere-plant-soil-system for a certain time period. Precision and accuracy of the lysimeter measurements depend not only on the precision of the weighing device but also on external conditions, which cannot be controlled or turned off. To separate the noise in measured data sets from signals the adaptive window and adaptive threshold (AWAT) filter (Peters et al., 2014) is used. The data set for the years 2010 and 2011 from the HYDRO-lysimeter (surface = 1 m2, depth = 1 m) in Wagna, Austria (Klammler and Fank, 2014) with a resolution of 0,01 mm for the lysimeter scale and of 0,001 mm for the leachate tank scale is used to evaluate the water balance. The mass of the lysimeter and the mass of the leachate tank is measured every two seconds. The measurements are stored as one minute arithmetic means. Based on calculations in a calibration period from January to May 2010 with different widths of moving window the wmax - Parameter for the AWAT filter was set to 41 minutes. A time series for the system mass ('upper boundary') of the

  12. Responsiveness of the Berg Balance Scale in patients early after stroke.

    PubMed

    Saso, Adam; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Gunnes, Mari; Askim, Torunn

    2016-05-01

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) has previously shown good measurement properties. However, its ability to detect important change in patients early after stroke is still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the minimal important change (MIC) and its relation to the minimal detectable change (MDC) for BBS in patients early after stroke. This prospective follow-up study included patients within the first 2 weeks after onset of stroke. The BBS, Barthel Index, and Scandinavian Stroke Scale were obtained at inclusion and 1 month later. At the follow-up assessment, the Patient Global Impression of Change was obtained. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the cut-off value for the MIC. Fifty-two patients (mean age of 78.7, SD 8.5 years) were included. All measures showed a significant improvement from baseline to follow-up. The ROC analysis identified a MIC of ≥6 BBS points, while the MDC was 5.97 BBS points at the 80% confidence level. This study shows that a change of 6 BBS point or more can be considered an important change for patients in the sub-acute phase after stroke, which also represents an 80% probability of exceeding the measurement error. A total of 80% of unchanged patients would display random fluctuations within the bounds of MDC80, while 20% of unchanged patients would exceed MDC80. PMID:27253334

  13. Modifying a dynamic global vegetation model for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i) modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii) evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii) gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH) model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981-2006 (R2 > 0.46, p < 0.01; Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient > 0.52). The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences < 15%) with observed values for these rivers. Compared to a degree-day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt enabled LH to better simulate monthly

  14. Four Weeks of Balance Training does not Affect Ankle Joint Stiffness in Subjects with Unilateral Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarang Kumar; Wauneka, Clayton N.; Liu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background Balance training has been shown to be effective in preventing ankle sprain recurrences in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) but the biomechanical pathways underlying the clinical outcomes are still unknown. This study was conducted to determine if a 4-week balance training intervention can alter the mechanical characteristics in ankles with CAI. Methods Twenty-two recreationally active subjects with unilateral CAI were randomized to either a control (n = 11, 35.1 ± 9.3 years) or intervention (n = 11, 33.5 ± 6.6 years) group. Subjects in the intervention group were trained on the affected limb with static and dynamic components using a Biodex balance stability system for 4-weeks. The ankle joint stiffness and neutral zone in inversion and eversion directions on the involved and uninvolved limbs was measured at baseline and post-intervention using a dynamometer. Results At baseline, the mean values of the inversion stiffness (0.69 ± 0.37 Nm/degree) in the involved ankle was significantly lower (p < 0.011, 95% CI [0.563, 0.544]) than that of uninvolved contralateral ankle (0.99 ± 0.41 Nm/degree). With the available sample size, the eversion stiffness, inversion neutral zone, and eversion neutral zone were not found to be significantly different between the involved and uninvolved contralateral ankles. The 4-week balance training intervention failed to show any significant effect on the passive ankle stiffness and neutral zones in inversion and eversion. Conclusion Decreased inversion stiffness in the involved chronic unstable ankle was found that of uninvolved contralateral ankle. The 4-week balance training program intervention was ineffective in altering the mechanical characteristics of ankles with CAI. Level of evidence Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. PMID:27642647

  15. Central H3R activation by thioperamide does not affect energy balance.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Dana K; Shepperd, Mary L; Pickard, Richard T; Alexander-Chacko, Jesline; Dill, M Joelle; Cramer, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis P; Gadski, Robert

    2004-06-01

    The central histamine 3 receptor (H3R) is a presynaptic autoreceptor that regulates neuronal release and synthesis of histamine, and is thought to play a key role in controlling numerous central nervous system (CNS)-mediated parameters, including energy homeostasis. Thioperamide, the prototypical selective H3R antagonist, was used to examine the role that H3R plays in regulating energy balance in vivo. Thioperamide was administered either intraperitoneally or orally to rats and the pharmacokinetic parameters were examined along with central H3R binding and histaminergic system activation. Food intake and metabolic parameters of either route of thioperamide administration were likewise examined. In a dose-dependent manner, both the intraperitoneal and oral route of administration resulted in similar ex vivo binding curves and tele-methylhistamine dose-response curves despite the route of administration. However, only intraperitoneal administration of 30 mg/kg thioperamide resulted in a significant decrease in 24-h food intake (60% lower than control) and respiratory quotient (RQ), while the oral route of delivery did not. Moreover, the decrease in RQ with the 30 mg/kg ip administration also decreased energy expenditure (EE) thus resulting in an unchanged energy balance. The decrease in food intake and EE was coupled with a conditioned taste aversion with the 30-mg/kg ip administration. These data indicate that the activation of the central H3R system by thioperamide does not play a direct role in decreasing food intake or altering energy homeostasis.

  16. How do physiological components of balance affect mobility in elderly men?

    PubMed

    Duncan, P W; Chandler, J; Studenski, S; Hughes, M; Prescott, B

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between physiological components of balance and mobility in elderly men without significant disease. Our a priori hypothesis was that physical function is influenced more by accumulated modest impairments than by a single deficit. We examined 39 ambulatory men (> 69 years). Subjects were classified functionally as high, intermediate, or low. Assessment included mobility functions (6-minute walk, mobility skills, reach, 10ft walk time) and physiological components of balance: sensory (vibration, proprioception, vision, vestibular), effector (ankle, knee, hip strength, range of motion), and central processing (response time to perturbations). All mobility functions were significantly (p < .05) different between groups. Impairments in components of postural control were rarely different between groups: the major differences were in ankle strength and visual fields. The number of impaired domains differed across the three groups. Nineteen percent of the low group had at least three domains impaired; none of the intermediate or high groups were impaired in three domains. Fifty-six percent of the low, 20% of the intermediate, and 7% of the high were impaired in two or more domains. Variability in specific mobility measures was also predicted by the number of impaired domains. The decline in physical function may be better explained by the accumulation of deficits across multiple domains than by any single specific impairment. PMID:8259903

  17. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  18. Addressing Scaling Affects in Forest Watersheds with WEPP Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, W.; Robichaud, P.; Foltz, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a physically based model developed over the past 20 years by the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) and numerous other agencies and universities. The soil hydrologic properties are hydraulic conductivity for estimating surface infiltration, and in the current version of WEPP (version 2004.7), the clay content of the lowest layer to estimate conductivity for deep seepage. During the 1990s, Forest Service scientists used modified Purdue rainfall simulators to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity on a number of forest conditions on 1 sq m plots. When validation of WEPP for forest conditions was carried out, it became apparent that hydraulic conductivity as measured by rainfall simulation was almost double what it should be when used at a hillslope scale (up to 20 ha). The reasons for this were not clear, although likely contributors were: the very dry soil conditions common in western forests during the field season, high rates of lateral flow beneath plot borders, and natural water repellency from organic materials. The current forest soils database for the WEPP interfaces now has saturated hydraulic conductivity value of 42 mm per hour for a sandy loam for an undisturbed forest, as compared to observed values of 35 to 82 mm per hour. When the WEPP technology was applied to forest watersheds ranging from 9 to 176 ha, the predicted runoff was much less than observed values. This was because even in small forested watersheds with steep slopes subsurface lateral flow dominates the runoff hydrology. A new version of WEPP is under development to incorporate this flow. When using this version of WEPP, a hydraulic conductivity value of 17.3 mm per hour was necessary for the 9 ha watershed that had been disturbed, compared to a value of 105 mm per hour for the 176 ha forested watershed. This scale effect shows that as area increases, conductivity necessarily decreases as the dominant runoff processes changes from

  19. Alteration of mitochondrial efficiency affects oxidative balance, development and growth in frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Luquet, Emilien; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are known to play a central role in life history processes, being the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which promote oxidative constraint. Surprisingly, although the main role of the mitochondria is to produce ATP, the plasticity of mitochondrial ATP generation has received little attention in life history studies. Yet, mitochondrial energy transduction represents the physiological link between environmental resources and energy allocated to animal performance. Studying both facets of mitochondrial functioning (ATP and ROS production) would allow better understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying life history. We have experimentally modulated the mitochondrial capacity to generate ROS and ATP during larval development of Rana temporaria tadpoles, via chronic exposure (34 days) to a mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol, dNP). The aim was to better understand the impact of mitochondrial uncoupling on both responses in terms of oxidative balance, energy input (oxygen and feeding consumption) and energy output (growth and development of the tadpole). Exposure to 2,4-dNP reduced mitochondrial ROS generation, total antioxidant defences and oxidative damage in treated tadpoles compared with controls. Despite the beneficial effect of dNP on oxidative status, development and growth rates of treated tadpoles were lower than those in the control group. Treatment of tadpoles with 2,4-dNP promoted a mild mitochondrial uncoupling and enhanced metabolic rate. These tadpoles did not increase their food consumption, and thus failed to compensate for the energy loss elicited by the decrease in the efficiency of ATP production. These data suggest that the cost of ATP production, rather than the oxidative balance, is the parameter that constrains growth/development of tadpoles, highlighting the central role of energy transduction in larval performance. PMID:22323209

  20. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses.

  1. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses. PMID:26218348

  2. A worldwide evaluation of basin-scale evapotranspiration estimates against the water balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Li, Yanzhong; Sun, Fubao; Fu, Guobin; Li, Xiuping; Sang, Yan-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) plays a critical role in linking the water and energy cycles but is difficult to estimate at regional and basin scales. In this study, we present a worldwide evaluation of nine ET products (three diagnostic products, three land surface model (LSM) simulations and three reanalysis-based products) against reference ET (ETwb) calculated using the water balance method corrected for the water storage change at an annual time scale over the period 1983-2006 for 35 global river basins. The results indicated that there was no significant intra-category discrepancy in the annual ET estimates for the 35 basins calculated using the different products in 35 basins, but some products performed better than others, such as the Global Land surface Evaporation estimated using the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM_E) in the diagnostic products, ET obtained from the Global Land Data Assimilation System version 1 (GLDAS 1) with the Community Land Model scheme (GCLM_E) in LSM simulations, and ET from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis dataset (MERRA_E) in the reanalysis-based products. Almost all ET products (except MERRA_E) reasonably estimated the annual means (especially in the dry basins) but systematically underestimated the inter-annual variability (except for MERRA_E, GCLM_E and ET simulation from the GLDAS 1 with the MOSAIC scheme - GMOS_E) and could not adequately estimate the trends (e.g. GCLM_E and MERRA_E) of ETwb (especially in the energy-limited wet basins). The uncertainties in nine ET products may be primarily attributed to the discrepancies in the forcing datasets and model structural limitations. The enhancements of global forcing data (meteorological data, solar radiation, soil moisture stress and water storage changes) and model physics (reasonable consideration of the water and energy balance and vegetation processes such as canopy interception loss

  3. HANFORD POSITION PAPER ON ACCURACY & CALIBRATION OF 3013 BALANCE & 9975 DRUM SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    PRITCHETT, B.D.

    2007-06-28

    Shipping of materials between different locations requires methods for confirming that the correct quantities and materials are shipped and received intact. The quickest method for confirming the correct quantity of material is to weigh the material on a balance. In order for the shipper's and receiver's balances to agree, the balances must use a traceable method of periodic calibration. Once calibrated, the balances must be rechecked periodically with accepted standards to confirm that the balances remain within the allowable tolerances. This letter affirms that the balances used for weighing 3013 containers and 9975 shipping packages are staying within allowable accepted tolerances and that there is no discernable ''drift'' in the weighings that might indicate future trouble with the balance.

  4. Development and Validation of Children's Environmental Affect (Attitude, Sensitivity and Willingness to Take Action) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Affect Scale (CEAS). The following steps were taken in developing the CEAS. A substantial review of literature on environmental affect and EL helped the researchers identify several scales and questionnaires that, in turn, help…

  5. Simulating wind-affected snow accumulations at catchment to basin scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstral, Adam; Marks, Danny; Gurney, Robert

    2013-05-01

    In non-forested mountain regions, wind plays a dominant role in determining snow accumulation and melt patterns. A new, computationally efficient algorithm for distributing the complex and heterogeneous effects of wind on snow distributions was developed. The distribution algorithm uses terrain structure, vegetation, and wind data to adjust commonly available precipitation data to simulate wind-affected accumulations. This research describes model development and application in three research catchments in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho, USA. All three catchments feature highly variable snow distributions driven by wind. The algorithm was used to derive model forcings for Isnobal, a mass and energy balance distributed snow model. Development and initial testing took place in the Reynolds Mountain East catchment (0.36 km2) where R2 values for the wind-affected snow distributions ranged from 0.50 to 0.67 for four observation periods spanning two years. At the Upper Sheep Creek catchment (0.26 km2) R2 values for the wind-affected model were 0.66 and 0.70. These R2 values matched or exceeded previously published cross-validation results from regression-based statistical analyses of snow distributions in similar environments. In both catchments the wind-affected model accurately located large drift zones, snow-scoured slopes, and produced melt patterns consistent with observed streamflow. Models that did not account for wind effects produced relatively homogenous SWE distributions, R2 values approaching 0.0, and melt patterns inconsistent with observed streamflow. The Dobson Creek (14.0 km2) application incorporated elevation effects into the distribution routine and was conducted over a two-dimensional grid of 6.67 × 105 pixels. Comparisons with satellite-derived snow-covered-area again demonstrated that the model did an excellent job locating regions with wind-affected snow accumulations. This final application demonstrated that the

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms affecting regulation of energy balance: many questions, few answers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that nutrition and other environmental influences during critical periods of embryonic, fetal, and early postnatal life can affect the development of body weight regulatory pathways, with permanent consequences for risk of obesity. Epigenetic processes are ...

  7. Broad-Scale Evidence That pH Influences the Balance Between Microbial Iron and Sulfate Reduction.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Matthew F; Jin, Qusheng; Haller, Ben R

    2016-05-01

    Understanding basic controls on aquifer microbiology is essential to managing water resources and predicting impacts of future environmental change. Previous theoretical and laboratory studies indicate that pH can influence interactions between microorganisms that reduce ferric iron and sulfate. In this study, we test the environmental relevance of this relationship by examining broad-scale geochemical data from anoxic zones of aquifers. We isolated data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System for 19 principal aquifer systems. We then removed samples with chemical compositions inconsistent with iron- and sulfate-reducing environments and evaluated the relationships between pH and other geochemical parameters using Spearman's rho rank correlation tests. Overall, iron concentration and the iron-sulfide concentration ratio of groundwater share a statistically significant negative correlation with pH (P < 0.0001). These relationships indicate that the significance of iron reduction relative to sulfate reduction tends to increase with decreasing pH. Moreover, thermodynamic calculations show that, as the pH of groundwater decreases, iron reduction becomes increasingly favorable relative to sulfate reduction. Hence, the relative significance of each microbial reaction may vary in response to thermodynamic controls on microbial activity. Our findings demonstrate that trends in groundwater geochemistry across different regional aquifer systems are consistent with pH as a control on interactions between microbial iron and sulfate reduction. Environmental changes that perturb groundwater pH can affect water quality by altering the balance between these microbial reactions.

  8. Large-Scale Controls of the Coupled Water and Energy Balance over Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón, Ryan; Greve, Peter; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    On climatological time scales, water availability in a catchment is determined by the percentage of precipitation that is evaporated or transpired, thus consuming energy. The Budyko framework analytically describes the coupled water-energy balance over land. A widely used solution to this framework describes evapotranspiration (ET) as function of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and one free parameter (ω) that encompasses all other potentially influencing factors. Numerous regional studies have analyzed the relationships between the ω parameter and factors such as vegetation, topography, climate variability, etc; however results are ambiguous. A clear understanding of the primary controls over the ω parameter - and thus ET - is yet to be achieved, especially at a global scale. A new dataset with empirical evidence on ω, information about possible controlling factors, and a relatively good global coverage was obtained from a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature. A total of 1461 catchments from all continents, except Antarctica, are included in the dataset. Latitude, catchment size, mean annual temperature and precipitation, vegetation density, catchment slope, seasonality of precipitation and potential ET, and snow influence were among the examined possible explanatory variables for ω. The validity of several previously proposed hypotheses about the dominant factors controlling ω (ET) was assessed using the new dataset. Furthermore, generalized linear models were used to identify which factors can significantly explain the ω values from our gathered data. This study provides new insights on the global picture of relevant factors controlling how precipitation in a catchment is partitioned into ET and runoff, and consequently allows for improved estimates of water availability.

  9. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  10. Load-balanced parallel streamline generation on large scale vector fields.

    PubMed

    Nouanesengsy, Boonthanome; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2011-12-01

    Because of the ever increasing size of output data from scientific simulations, supercomputers are increasingly relied upon to generate visualizations. One use of supercomputers is to generate field lines from large scale flow fields. When generating field lines in parallel, the vector field is generally decomposed into blocks, which are then assigned to processors. Since various regions of the vector field can have different flow complexity, processors will require varying amounts of computation time to trace their particles, causing load imbalance, and thus limiting the performance speedup. To achieve load-balanced streamline generation, we propose a workload-aware partitioning algorithm to decompose the vector field into partitions with near equal workloads. Since actual workloads are unknown beforehand, we propose a workload estimation algorithm to predict the workload in the local vector field. A graph-based representation of the vector field is employed to generate these estimates. Once the workloads have been estimated, our partitioning algorithm is hierarchically applied to distribute the workload to all partitions. We examine the performance of our workload estimation and workload-aware partitioning algorithm in several timings studies, which demonstrates that by employing these methods, better scalability can be achieved with little overhead. PMID:22034295

  11. The classification of children's knowledge: development on the balance-scale and inclined-plane tasks.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, R P; Butterfield, E C; Cahn, A; Kerkman, D

    1985-02-01

    R.S. Siegler (1981, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46 C2, Serial No. 189) has shown that performance on several Piagetian tasks is governed by similar rule structures. The purpose of the first study was to extend his analysis to the inclined-plane task, replicate his original observations about development on the balance-scale task, and determine the consistency in children's rule usage across tasks. We found that Siegler's (1981) binary decision representations adequately characterized development on these tasks, and there was fair correspondence of rule classifications across tasks. An alternative classification procedure, used to diagnose the rules of children who failed our original classification criteria, showed that most of these children's performance patterns were very similar to Siegler's rule patterns. In the second experiment, we improved the diagnosticity of our rule-assessment protocol in light of F. Wilkening and N. H. Anderson's (1982, Psychological Bulletin, 92, 215-237) criticisms, and observed that many Rule III children's predictions were associated with those of integration rules on both tasks. Despite these methodological improvements, many children, especially 5- to 7-year-olds, evidenced use of centration and lexicographic strategies, suggesting that these classifications are not simply an artifact of problem sampling. Some of the problems associated with the classification of children's knowledge are discussed.

  12. Preliminary energy balance and economic of a farm-scale ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, D.; McKinnon, T.

    1980-05-01

    A small-scale ethanol plant was designed, built, tested, and modified over the past 18 months. The plant currently operating is the second design. A third, and probably final, design will be installed and operating within a few months. The current plant produces approximately 30 gal/hr of 190-proof alcohol on a continuous basis. The new plant will produce 50 gal/hr of 200-proof alcohol. A key feature is the relatively low process heat requirement, which is achieved by extensive use of waste-heat recovery heat exchangers. This is manifested in the low temperatures of the process output streams. Acting on the request of the Office of Alcohol Fuels, US Department of Energy, and at the invitation of the owners, representatives from the Solar Energy Research Institute evaluated the energy balance on the plant. The objective was to help clear up the controversy surrounding the net energy benefit of ethanol production. Although the study was site-specific to the plant and limited in scope, it is indicative of the potential performance of grain-to-ethanol plants in general.

  13. Pilot scale study on steam explosion and mass balance for higher sugar recovery from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kumar, Ravindra; Gaur, Ruchi; Agrawal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Das, Biswapriya

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of rice straw on pilot scale steam explosion has been attempted to achieve maximum sugar recovery. Three different reaction media viz. water, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid (0.5%, w/w) were explored for pretreatment by varying operating temperature (160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction time (5 and 10min). Using water and 0.5% SA showed almost similar sugar recovery (∼87%) at 200 and 180°C respectively. However, detailed studies showed that the former caused higher production of oligomeric sugars (13.56g/L) than the later (3.34g/L). Monomeric sugar, followed the reverse trend (7.83 and 11.62g/L respectively). Higher oligomers have a pronounced effect in reducing enzymatic sugar yield as observed in case of water. Mass balance studies for water and SA assisted SE gave total saccharification yield as 81.8% and 77.1% respectively. However, techno-economical viability will have a trade-off between these advantages and disadvantages offered by the pretreatment medium.

  14. The Effect of Plausible versus Implausible Balance Scale Feedback on the Expectancies of 3- to 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrauf, Cornelia; Call, Josep; Pauen, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies (Case, 1985; Siegler, 1981) have shown that children under the age of 5 years have little understanding of balance scales when required to encode the influence of weight or distance from the fulcrum. More recently, however, Halford, Andrews, Dalton, Boag, and Zielinski (2002) noted that an understanding based on weight alone is…

  15. Feasibility and Reliability of the Modified Berg Balance Scale in Persons with Severe Intellectual and Visual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; van Wijck, R.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and reliability of the modified Berg Balance Scale (mBBS) in persons with severe intellectual and visual disabilities (severe multiple disabilities, SMD) assigned Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) grades I and II. Method: Thirty-nine participants with SMD and…

  16. Seasonal dynamics of the land surface energy balance of a boreal forest-peatland landscape affected by degrading permafrost in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, M.; Wischnewski, K.; Chasmer, L.; Quinton, W. L.; Kljun, N.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.

    2014-12-01

    Northern boreal ecosystems along the southern limit of permafrost comprise a mosaic of forests with permafrost, and permafrost-free peatland and lake ecosystems. The proportion of permafrost-free areas has rapidly increased over the last decades due to increasingly warmer air temperatures. This change in land cover causes changes in vegetation composition and structure affecting land surface characteristics such as albedo and surface roughness with important implications for the land surface energy balance and thus regional climate. For example, a decrease in sensible heat flux potentially cools the atmosphere and thus constitutes a negative feedback to the climate system. Changes in latent heat fluxes alter regional water vapour dynamics and thus may affect precipitation patterns. To better understand the land surface energy balance under the influence of degrading permafrost, we measured sensible and latent heat fluxes with two eddy covariance systems, one at 15 m and one at 2 m above the ground surface, along with net radiation and soil heat flux at Scotty Creek, a watershed in the discontinuous permafrost zone in the southern part of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The flux footprint of the 15 m-eddy covariance system covers an area equally covered by black spruce forests and permafrost-free, treeless peatlands whereas the flux footprint of the adjacent 2 m-eddy covariance system covers a single bog within the footprint of the 15 m system. Peak sensible heat fluxes at the bog were up to 200 W m-2 smaller than the landscape-scale fluxes between April and July 2014. During the snow free period, peak latent heat fluxes at the wet bog were about 50 W m-2 higher than the landscape-scale fluxes. Albedo of the forest was generally smaller compared to the bog except for the immediate post-melt period when the bog was affected by widespread surface flooding. This difference in albedo leads to higher net radiation at the forest site, particularly during the snow cover

  17. How large-scale subsidence affects stratocumulus transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Dussen, J. J.; de Roode, S. R.; Siebesma, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Some climate modeling results suggest that the Hadley circulation might weaken in a future climate, causing a subsequent reduction in the large-scale subsidence velocity in the subtropics. In this study we analyze the cloud liquid water path (LWP) budget from large-eddy simulation (LES) results of three idealized stratocumulus transition cases, each with a different subsidence rate. As shown in previous studies a reduced subsidence is found to lead to a deeper stratocumulus-topped boundary layer, an enhanced cloud-top entrainment rate and a delay in the transition of stratocumulus clouds into shallow cumulus clouds during its equatorwards advection by the prevailing trade winds. The effect of a reduction of the subsidence rate can be summarized as follows. The initial deepening of the stratocumulus layer is partly counteracted by an enhanced absorption of solar radiation. After some hours the deepening of the boundary layer is accelerated by an enhancement of the entrainment rate. Because this is accompanied by a change in the cloud-base turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat, the net change in the LWP due to changes in the turbulent flux profiles is negligibly small.

  18. Chlorophyllase 1, a Damage Control Enzyme, Affects the Balance between Defense Pathways in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kariola, Tarja; Brader, Günter; Li, Jing; Palva, E. Tapio

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is central to plant response to several pathogens. One of the sources of ROS is the chloroplast because of the photoactive nature of the chlorophylls. Chlorophyllase 1 (encoded by AtCLH1) of Arabidopsis thaliana is quickly induced after tissue damage (e.g., caused by the bacterial necrotroph Erwinia carotovora or the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola). RNA interference silencing of AtCLH1 resulted in failure to degrade free chlorophyll after tissue damage and in resistance to E. carotovora. Both inoculation with E. carotovora and exposure to high light caused elevated accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in AtCLH1 silenced plants. This was accompanied by expression of marker genes for systemic acquired resistance and induction of antioxidant defenses. Interestingly, downregulation of AtCLH1 resulted in increased susceptibility to A. brassicicola, resistance to which requires jasmonate signaling. We propose that AtCLH1 is involved in plant damage control and can modulate the balance between different plant defense pathways. PMID:15598807

  19. Alzheimer's disease: relevant molecular and physiopathological events affecting amyloid-β brain balance and the putative role of PPARs.

    PubMed

    Zolezzi, Juan M; Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Santos, Manuel J; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia. With the expected aging of the human population, the estimated morbidity of AD suggests a critical upcoming health problem. Several lines of research are focused on understanding AD pathophysiology, and although the etiology of the disease remains a matter of intense debate, increased brain levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) appear to be a critical event in triggering a wide range of molecular alterations leading to AD. It has become evident in recent years that an altered balance between production and clearance is responsible for the accumulation of brain Aβ. Moreover, Aβ clearance is a complex event that involves more than neurons and microglia. The status of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus, along with hepatic functionality, should be considered when Aβ balance is addressed. Furthermore, it has been proposed that exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of metals, such as copper, could both directly affect these secondary structures and act as a seeding or nucleation core that facilitates Aβ aggregation. Recently, we have addressed peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-related mechanisms, including the direct modulation of mitochondrial dynamics through the PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) axis and the crosstalk with critical aging- and neurodegenerative-related cellular pathways. In the present review, we revise the current knowledge regarding the molecular aspects of Aβ production and clearance and provide a physiological context that gives a more complete view of this issue. Additionally, we consider the different structures involved in AD-altered Aβ brain balance, which could be directly or indirectly affected by a nuclear receptor (NR)/PPAR-related mechanism.

  20. The Affect and Arousal Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11…

  1. The endogenous cannabinoid system affects energy balance via central orexigenic drive and peripheral lipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni; Tschöp, Matthias; Grübler, Yvonne; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Schubert, Mirjam; Auer, Dorothee; Yassouridis, Alexander; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Ortmann, Sylvia; Tomassoni, Federica; Cervino, Cristina; Nisoli, Enzo; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Pasquali, Renato; Lutz, Beat; Stalla, Günter K.; Pagotto, Uberto

    2003-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in the regulation of food intake. Here we show that the lack of CB1 in mice with a disrupted CB1 gene causes hypophagia and leanness. As compared with WT (CB1+/+) littermates, mice lacking CB1 (CB1–/–) exhibited reduced spontaneous caloric intake and, as a consequence of reduced total fat mass, decreased body weight. In young CB1–/– mice, the lean phenotype is predominantly caused by decreased caloric intake, whereas in adult CB1–/– mice, metabolic factors appear to contribute to the lean phenotype. No significant differences between genotypes were detected regarding locomotor activity, body temperature, or energy expenditure. Hypothalamic CB1 mRNA was found to be coexpressed with neuropeptides known to modulate food intake, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine-amphetamine–regulated transcript (CART), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and prepro-orexin, indicating a possible role for endocannabinoid receptors within central networks governing appetite. CB1–/– mice showed significantly increased CRH mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced CART mRNA levels in the dorsomedial and lateral hypothalamic areas. CB1 was also detected in epidydimal mouse adipocytes, and CB1-specific activation enhanced lipogenesis in primary adipocyte cultures. Our results indicate that the cannabinoid system is an essential endogenous regulator of energy homeostasis via central orexigenic as well as peripheral lipogenic mechanisms and might therefore represent a promising target to treat diseases characterized by impaired energy balance. PMID:12897210

  2. Catchment scale estimation of evapotranspiration from remote sensing data based on an energy balance approach: A validation study for the Rur catchment, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Muhammad; Montzka, Carsten; Graf, Alexander; Jonard, Francois; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Being a major component of the hydrological cycle, evapotranspiration (ET) and its spatial and temporal distribution are of major importance for hydrological and meteorological applications. Owing to its dependency on the amount and duration of incoming solar radiations and other meteorological parameters, changes in ET may occur on short time scales (less than an hour). Therefore, monitoring the temporal and spatial anomalies in evapotranspiration is very important. Conventional methods for ET estimation are restricted to local measurements, and hence unable to capture the spatial distribution of ET on heterogeneous surfaces. However, they are useful for validating ET derived from remote sensing data over large areas. To estimate evapotranspiration on a regional scale, two main approaches are available i) Application of a water balance approach to ground-based catchment-scale measurements and ii) Application of an energy balance approach to remote sensing data. The energy balance approach is based on the distribution of energy on the earth surface and the availability of the amount of latent heat to cause evapotranspiration (transpiration and evaporation) from plants and soil surface. Several approaches have been presented in literature but in this study we used a two source model (TSM) approach to calculate surface energy fluxes (e.g., latent heat, sensible heat and ground heat fluxes) for canopy and soil. The TSM assumes that soil and vegetation affect the microclimate within the soil-canopy system and therefore separate resistances are calculated for heat exchange from canopy and soil. In TSM net radiations are partitioned in to soil and canopy components (Rns, Rnc) and have been revised several times for improving shortwave and longwave radiation exchange between canopy and soil. TSM uses satellite derived directional radiometric surface temperature [TR(θ)] as composite of the soil and canopy temperatures (TS and TC respectively). In this study

  3. Hydration and muscular performance: does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity endurance?

    PubMed

    Judelson, Daniel A; Maresh, Carl M; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2007-01-01

    Significant scientific evidence documents the deleterious effects of hypohydration (reduced total body water) on endurance exercise performance; however, the influence of hypohydration on muscular strength, power and high-intensity endurance (maximal activities lasting >30 seconds but <2 minutes) is poorly understood due to the inconsistent results produced by previous investigations. Several subtle methodological choices that exacerbate or attenuate the apparent effects of hypohydration explain much of this variability. After accounting for these factors, hypohydration appears to consistently attenuate strength (by approximately 2%), power (by approximately 3%) and high-intensity endurance (by approximately 10%), suggesting alterations in total body water affect some aspect of force generation. Unfortunately, the relationships between performance decrement and crucial variables such as mode, degree and rate of water loss remain unclear due to a lack of suitably uninfluenced data. The physiological demands of strength, power and high-intensity endurance couple with a lack of scientific support to argue against previous hypotheses that suggest alterations in cardiovascular, metabolic and/or buffering function represent the performance-reducing mechanism of hypohydration. On the other hand, hypohydration might directly affect some component of the neuromuscular system, but this possibility awaits thorough evaluation. A critical review of the available literature suggests hypohydration limits strength, power and high-intensity endurance and, therefore, is an important factor to consider when attempting to maximise muscular performance in athletic, military and industrial settings.

  4. Improving and validating 3D models for the leaf energy balance in canopy-scale problems with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II; Miller, N. E.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahaffee, W.

    2014-12-01

    Plants cover the majority of Earth's land surface, and thus play a critical role in the surface energy balance. Within individual plant communities, the leaf energy balance is a fundamental component of most biophysical processes. Absorbed radiation drives the energy balance and provides the means by which plants produce food. Available energy is partitioned into sensible and latent heat fluxes to determine surface temperature, which strongly influences rates of metabolic activity and growth. The energy balance of an individual leaf is coupled with other leaves in the community through longwave radiation emission and advection through the air. This complex coupling can make scaling models from leaves to whole-canopies difficult, specifically in canopies with complex, heterogeneous geometries. We present a new three-dimensional canopy model that simultaneously resolves sub-tree to whole-canopy scales. The model provides spatially explicit predictions of net radiation exchange, boundary-layer and stomatal conductances, evapotranspiration rates, and ultimately leaf surface temperature. The radiation model includes complex physics such as anisotropic emission and scattering. Radiation calculations are accelerated by leveraging graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, which allows canopy-scale problems to be performed on a standard desktop workstation. Since validating the three-dimensional distribution of leaf temperature can be extremely challenging, we used several independent measurement techniques to quantify errors in measured and modeled values. When compared with measured leaf temperatures, the model gave a mean error of about 2°C, which was close to the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  5. Severe dry winter affects plant phenology and carbon balance of a cork oak woodland understorey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, A. C.; Costa-e-Silva, F.; Dubbert, M.; Piayda, A.; Pereira, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    Mediterranean climates are prone to a great variation in yearly precipitation. The effects on ecosystem will depend on the severity and timing of droughts. In this study we questioned how an extreme dry winter affects the carbon flux in the understorey of a cork oak woodland? What is the seasonal contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem productivity? We used closed-system portable chambers to measure CO2 exchange of the dominant shrub species (Cistus salviifolius, Cistus crispus and Ulex airensis), of the herbaceous layer and on bare soil in a cork oak woodland in central Portugal during the dry winter year of 2012. Shoot growth, leaf shedding, flower and fruit setting, above and belowground plant biomass were measured as well as seasonal leaf water potential. Eddy-covariance and micrometeorological data together with CO2 exchange measurements were used to access the understorey species contribution to ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). The herbaceous layer productivity was severely affected by the dry winter, with half of the yearly maximum aboveground biomass in comparison with the 6 years site average. The semi-deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed desynchronized phenophases and lagged carbon uptake maxima. Whereas shallow-root shrubs exhibited opportunistic characteristics in exploiting the understorey light and water resources, deep rooted shrubs showed better water status but considerably lower assimilation rates. The contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP was lower during summer with 14% and maximum during late spring, concomitantly with the lowest tree productivity due to tree canopy renewal. The herbaceous vegetation contribution to ecosystem GPP never exceeded 6% during this dry year stressing its sensitivity to winter and spring precipitation. Although shrubs are more resilient to precipitation variability when compared with the herbaceous vegetation, the contribution of the understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP can

  6. Correlation between the selective control assessment of lower extremity and pediatric balance scale scores in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoungwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the Selective Control Assessment of Lower Extremity (SCALE) and Pediatric Balance Scales (PBS) in children with spastic cerebral palsy and further to test whether the SCALE is a valid tool to predict the PBS. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the SCALE and PBS in 23 children (9 females, 14 males, GMFCS level I–III) with spastic cerebral palsy. [Results] Both the SCALE and PBS scores for children with spastic hemiplegia were significantly higher than those for children with spastic diplegia. The scores for SCALE items were low for distal parts. The PBS items that were difficult for the participants to perform were items 8, 9, 10, and 14 with the highest difficulty experienced for item 8 followed by items 9, 10, and 14. The correlation coefficient (0.797) between the SCALE and PBS scores was statistically significant. The correlations between each SCALE item and the PBS scores were also statistically significant. SCALE items were significantly correlated with two PBS dimensions (standing and postural change). [Conclusion] In SCALE assessment, more severe deficits were observed in the distal parts. Standing and postural changes in the PBS method were difficult for the participants to perform. The two tests, that is, the SCALE and PBS, were highly correlated. Therefore, the SCALE is useful to prediction of PBS outcomes and is also applicable as a prognostic indicator for treatment planning. PMID:26834323

  7. Tropical Ocean Surface Energy Balance Variability: Linking Weather to Climate Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, Carol Anne

    2013-01-01

    Radiative and turbulent surface exchanges of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth s energy and water balance. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variability of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. These fluxes are integral components to tropical ocean-atmosphere variability; they can drive ocean mixed layer variations and modify the atmospheric boundary layer properties including moist static stability, thereby influencing larger-scale tropical dynamics. Non-parametric cluster-based classification of atmospheric and ocean surface properties has shown an ability to identify coherent weather regimes, each typically associated with similar properties and processes. Using satellite-based observational radiative and turbulent energy flux products, this study investigates the relationship between these weather states and surface energy processes within the context of tropical climate variability. Investigations of surface energy variations accompanying intraseasonal and interannual tropical variability often use composite-based analyses of the mean quantities of interest. Here, a similar compositing technique is employed, but the focus is on the distribution of the heat and moisture fluxes within their weather regimes. Are the observed changes in surface energy components dominated by changes in the frequency of the weather regimes or through changes in the associated fluxes within those regimes? It is this question that the presented work intends to address. The distribution of the surface heat and moisture fluxes is evaluated for both normal and non-normal states. By examining both phases of the climatic oscillations, the symmetry of energy and water cycle responses are considered.

  8. Factors affecting water balance and percolate production for a landfill in operation.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Møoldrup, Per

    2005-02-01

    Percolate production and precipitation data for a full-scale landfill in operation measured over a 13-year period were used to evaluate the impact and importance of the hydrological conditions of landfill sections on the percolate production rates. Both active (open) and closed landfill sections were included in the evaluation. A simple top cover model requiring a minimum of input data was used to simulate the percolate production as a function of precipitation and landfill section hydrology. The results showed that changes over time in the hydrology of individual landfill sections (such as section closure or plantation of trees on top of closed sections) can change total landfill percolate production by more than 100%; thus, percolate production at an active landfill can be very different from percolate production at the same landfill after closure. Furthermore, plantation of willow on top of closed sections can increase the evapotranspiration rate thereby reducing percolate production rates by up to 47% compared to a grass cover. This process, however, depends upon the availability of water in the top layer, and so the evaporation rate will be less than optimal during the summer where soil-water contents in the top cover are low.

  9. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  10. Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.

    PubMed

    Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed. PMID:22049761

  11. Learning visual balance from large-scale datasets of aesthetically highly rated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Vishwanathan, S. V. N.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-03-01

    The concept of visual balance is innate for humans, and influences how we perceive visual aesthetics and cognize harmony. Although visual balance is a vital principle of design and taught in schools of designs, it is barely quantified. On the other hand, with emergence of automantic/semi-automatic visual designs for self-publishing, learning visual balance and computationally modeling it, may escalate aesthetics of such designs. In this paper, we present how questing for understanding visual balance inspired us to revisit one of the well-known theories in visual arts, the so called theory of "visual rightness", elucidated by Arnheim. We define Arnheim's hypothesis as a design mining problem with the goal of learning visual balance from work of professionals. We collected a dataset of 120K images that are aesthetically highly rated, from a professional photography website. We then computed factors that contribute to visual balance based on the notion of visual saliency. We fitted a mixture of Gaussians to the saliency maps of the images, and obtained the hotspots of the images. Our inferred Gaussians align with Arnheim's hotspots, and confirm his theory. Moreover, the results support the viability of the center of mass, symmetry, as well as the Rule of Thirds in our dataset.

  12. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.

    2010-07-01

    Glacier mass balance is measured with the direct or the geodetic method. In this study, the geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers in 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances in the same periods. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is -0.5 m w.e./year. The mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.7 m w.e., the minimum -7.3 m w.e. and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance resulting from the accuracy of the DEMs ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.002 m w.e. for LIDAR data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover and density changes of the surface layer contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. for the period of 10 years to the difference to the direct method. The characteristics of published data of Griesgletscher, Gulkana Glacier, Lemon Creek glacier, South Cascade, Storbreen, Storglaciären, and Zongo Glacier is similar to these Austrian glaciers. For 26 analyzed periods with an average length of 18 years the mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.4 m w.e., the minimum -7.2 m w.e. and the maximum 3.6 m w.e. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Specific glaciers show specific trends of the difference between the direct and the geodetic data according to their type and state. In conclusion, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, but differ systematically.

  13. Dynamics of the McDonnell-Douglas Large Scale Dynamic Rig and dynamic calibration of the rotor balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Lau, Benton

    1994-01-01

    A shake test was performed on the Large Scale Dynamic Rig in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in support of the McDonnell Douglas Advanced Rotor Technology (MDART) Test Program. The shake test identifies the hub modes and the dynamic calibration matrix of the rotor balance. For hub mode identification, three configurations were tested: wind tunnel scale unlocked with dampers engaged and disengaged, and wind tunnel scale locked. Test data were analyzed with a multi-degree-of-freedom time domain algorithm to identify the modal properties of the hub modes. The damping of the low frequency hub modes (ground resonance modes) increases significantly with the wind tunnel dampers engaged. For dynamic calibration of the rotor balance, the shake test was performed only with the wind tunnel dampers engaged. The dynamic calibration matrix, computed from the shake test data using a least squares error method, is used to correct the five-per-rev vibratory balance readings. The corrections are large for the side force, moderate for the axial force and inplane hub moments, and small for the normal force.

  14. Detailed comparison of the geodetic and direct glaciological mass balances on an annual time scale at Hintereisferner, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan; Kaser, Georg; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of glacier mass changes is fundamental for glacier monitoring and provides important information for climate change assessments, hydrological applications and sea-level changes. On Alpine glaciers two methods of measuring glacier mass changes are widely applied: the direct glaciological method and the geodetic method. Over the last decades several studies compared the mass balance estimates obtained by both methods to identify and correct stochastic and systematic errors. In almost all of these studies, the time span for comparison between the two methods is about one decade or longer. On Hintereisferner (HEF; Ötztal Alps, Austria) mass balance measurements were initiated in the glaciological year 1952/53, resulting in a consistent mass balance data set with an estimated accuracy of ±0.2 m w.e. a-1. Furthermore, 11 airborne laser scanning (ALS) campaigns were conducted between 2001 and 2011 at HEF, all consistent in accuracy as well as in precision (± 0.04 to 0.10 m for slopes ≤ 50°). This is a world-wide unique ALS dataset of a glacierized alpine catchment. Flight campaigns were performed close to the end of the hydrological year (30th September). Resulting data provide high quality topographic information to derive glacier mass changes by applying the geodetic method. On sub-decadal time-scales such method comparisons are rare, or reveal unexplainable large discrepancies between both mass balance methods. In this study we estimate stochastic and systematic uncertainties of the ALS data for processing volume changes, and quantify methodological differences, such as density assumptions, unequal measurement dates, crevasses and glacier dynamics. Hence, we present a method to compare direct glaciological and geodetic mass balances on an annual basis. In a first step, we calculate the annual geodetic mass balance of HEF between 2001 and 2011, resulting in a thickness change map of the glacier. In a second step, the snow cover, which has

  15. Rasch Modeling of the Self-Deception Scale of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervellione, Kelly L.; Lee, Young-Sun; Bonanno, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-deception has become a construct of great interest in individual differences research because it has been associated with levels of resilience and mental health. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is a self-report measure used for quantifying self-deception. In this study we used Rasch modeling to examine the properties of…

  16. Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.

  17. Black carbon absorption at the global scale is affected by particle-scale diversity in composition.

    PubMed

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C; Bauer, Susanne E; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (Eabs) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find Eabs=1-1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models. PMID:27580627

  18. Black carbon absorption at the global scale is affected by particle-scale diversity in composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (Eabs) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find Eabs=1-1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models.

  19. Black Carbon Absorption at the Global Scale Is Affected by Particle-Scale Diversity in Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (E(sub abs)) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find E(sub abs) = 1 - 1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models.

  20. Black carbon absorption at the global scale is affected by particle-scale diversity in composition

    PubMed Central

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (Eabs) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find Eabs=1−1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models. PMID:27580627

  1. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the community balance and mobility scale in patients with hemiplegia after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-bo; Lee, Paul; Yoo, Sang-won; Kim, Young-dong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M) into Korean (K-CB&M) and to verify the reliability and validity of scores obtained with Korean patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 16 subjects were recruited from St. Vincent’s Hospital in South Korea. At each testing session, subjects completed the K-CB&M, Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go test (TUG), and functional reaching test. All tests were administered by a physical therapist, and subjects completed the tests in an identical standardized order during all testing sessions. [Results] The inter- and intra-rater reliability coefficients were high for most subscores, while moderate inter-rater reliability was observed for the items “walking and looking” and “walk, look, and carry”, and moderate intra-rater reliability was observed for “forward to backward walking”. There was a positive correlation between the K-CB&M and BBS and a negative correlation between the K-CB&M and TUG in the convergent validity assessments. [Conclusion] The reliability and validity of the K-CB&M was high, suggesting that clinical practitioners treating Korean patients with hemiplegia can use this material for assessing static and dynamic balance. PMID:27630420

  2. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the community balance and mobility scale in patients with hemiplegia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Bo; Lee, Paul; Yoo, Sang-Won; Kim, Young-Dong

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M) into Korean (K-CB&M) and to verify the reliability and validity of scores obtained with Korean patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 16 subjects were recruited from St. Vincent's Hospital in South Korea. At each testing session, subjects completed the K-CB&M, Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go test (TUG), and functional reaching test. All tests were administered by a physical therapist, and subjects completed the tests in an identical standardized order during all testing sessions. [Results] The inter- and intra-rater reliability coefficients were high for most subscores, while moderate inter-rater reliability was observed for the items "walking and looking" and "walk, look, and carry", and moderate intra-rater reliability was observed for "forward to backward walking". There was a positive correlation between the K-CB&M and BBS and a negative correlation between the K-CB&M and TUG in the convergent validity assessments. [Conclusion] The reliability and validity of the K-CB&M was high, suggesting that clinical practitioners treating Korean patients with hemiplegia can use this material for assessing static and dynamic balance. PMID:27630420

  3. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography.

    PubMed

    Bost, Charles A; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-10-27

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.

  4. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    PubMed Central

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  5. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-10-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.

  6. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography.

    PubMed

    Bost, Charles A; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  7. Using thermal balance model to determine optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed in a laboratory-scale composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Pang, Li; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Yuansheng; Zhou, Kexun; Luo, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive model of thermal balance and degradation kinetics was developed to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material. Biological heat production and five channels of heat loss were considered in the thermal balance model for a representative reactor. Degradation kinetics was developed to make the model applicable to different types of substrates. Simulation of the model showed that the internal energy accumulation of compost was the significant heat loss channel, following by heat loss through reactor wall, and latent heat of water evaporation. Lower proportion of heat loss occurred through the reactor wall when the reactor volume was larger. Insulating materials with low densities and low conductive coefficients were more desirable for building small reactor systems. Model developed could be used to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed before the fabrication of a lab-scale composting system.

  8. The balance of the impeller-driver magnet affects the antithrombogenicity in the Gyro permanently implantable pump.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Seiji; Nishimura, Ikuya; Mikami, Minoru; Nonaka, Kenji; Linneweber, Joerg; Kawahito, Shinji; Motomura, Tadashi; Ishitoya, Hiroshi; Glueck, Julia; Shinohara, Toshiyuki; Nosé, Yukihiko

    2002-11-01

    The Gyro permanently implantable (PI) pump is activated magnetically when a double pivot bearing supported impeller is rotated at predetermined revolutions per minute (rpm). The male bearing shaft of the impeller is supported by the top and bottom female pivot bearing in a loosely mated fashion. The Gyro PI pump's impeller transfers to a floating condition when the rpm is increased. The design objective of the Gyro PI pump is to drive the impeller while maintaining a top contact position to prevent thrombus formation. As a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), the Gyro PI pumps achieved long-term survivals in calves without thrombus formation. However, thrombus formation occurred during a biventricular assist device (BVAD) implantation. Our hypothesis was that the impeller remaining in the bottom contact position during the BVAD experiment caused this thrombus formation. Therefore, a replica of the Gyro PI pump housing was fabricated from a transparent plastic to observe the floating conditions of the impeller. When simulating an LVAD animal experiment, the impeller was at a non-bottom contact position. However, when simulating the BVAD animal experiment, the impeller remained at the bottom contact position. This study shows that the magnet balance affects the antithrombogenicity in a Gyro PI pump. PMID:12406145

  9. Characterizing scale-specific environmental factors affecting soil organic carbon along two landscape transects.

    PubMed

    She, Dongli; Cao, Yutong; Chen, Qian; Yu, Shuang'en

    2016-09-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important soil properties affecting many other soil and environmental properties and processes. In order to understand and manage SOC effectively, it is important to identify the scale-specific main factors affecting SOC distributions, which in this study occurred in a watershed on the Loess Plateau. Two transects were selected that passed along the upper slopes on each side of the main gully of the Liudaogou watershed. Transect 1 (3411-m length) had 27 sampling sites at 131-m intervals; transect 2 (3597 m length) had 30 sampling sites at 124-m intervals. The two transects were chosen in order to compare landscape patterns of differing complexity that were in close proximity, which reduced the effects of factors that would be caused by different locations. The landscape of transect 1 was more complex due to the greater diversity in cultivation. Multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) decomposed the total variation in SOC and five selected environmental factors into four intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual according to the scale of occurrence. Scale-specific correlation analysis was used to identify significant relationships between SOC and the environmental factors. The dominant scales were those that were the largest contributors to the total SOC variance; for transect 1, this was the IMF 1 (scale of 403 m), whereas for transect 2, it was the medium scale of the IMF 2 (scale of 688 m). For both transects, vegetation properties (vegetation cover and aboveground biomass) were the main factors affecting SOC distributions at their respective dominant scales. At each scale, the main effective factors could be identified although at the larger scales, their contributions to the overall variance were almost negligible. The distributions of SOC and the factors affecting it were found to be scale dependent. The results of this study highlighted the suitability of the MEMD method in revealing the main scale

  10. Scale-dependent factors affecting North American river otter distribution in the midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffress, Mackenzie R.; Paukert, C.P.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Sandercock, B.K.; Gipson, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is recovering from near extirpation throughout much of its range. Although reintroductions, trapping regulations and habitat improvements have led to the reestablishment of river otters in the Midwest, little is known about how their distribution is influenced by local- and landscape-scale habitat. We conducted river otter sign surveys from Jan. to Apr. in 2008 and 2009 in eastern Kansas to assess how local- and landscape-scale habitat factors affect river otter occupancy. We surveyed three to nine 400-m stretches of stream and reservoir shorelines for 110 sites and measured local-scale variables (e.g., stream order, land cover types) within a 100 m buffer of the survey site and landscape-scale variables (e.g., road density, land cover types) for Hydrological Unit Code 14 watersheds. We then used occupancy models that account for the probability of detection to estimate occupancy as a function of these covariates using Program PRESENCE. The best-fitting model indicated river otter occupancy increased with the proportion of woodland cover and decreased with the proportion of cropland and grassland cover at the local scale. Occupancy also increased with decreased shoreline diversity, waterbody density and stream density at the landscape scale. Occupancy was not affected by land cover or human disturbance at the landscape scale. Understanding the factors and scale important to river otter occurrence will be useful in identifying areas for management and continued restoration. ?? 2011, American Midland Naturalist.

  11. Modelling osmotic stress by Flux Balance Analysis at the genomic scale.

    PubMed

    Metris, Aline; George, Susan; Baranyi, József

    2012-01-16

    Predictive microbiology for food safety is still primarily based on empirical models describing the effect of the environmental conditions of the food on the kinetics of the growth of foodborne pathogens. One way to make these models more mechanistic is to use systems biology methods such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA). FBA consists of evaluating the possible fluxes through the metabolic reactions taking place in a cell. Using this method, the specific growth rate of Escherichia coli can be predicted by assuming, as an objective function, that the cells maximise their biomass production during balanced growth. Whilst this works under favourable environmental conditions, our simulations show that this objective function is not sufficient to explain the decrease of the growth rate due to osmotic stress. One feature of the FBA models is that the parameters and objective function in general refer to chemostat experiments where the carbon source is the main limiting factor. This may be relevant to some foods where the carbon to nitrogen balance is limiting but, in general, it is the physico-chemical conditions which are the most stringent. We therefore need to examine the effect of such constraints on the fluxes and/or modify the objective function, or to elaborate the metabolic model by taking into account other functional levels of the cell in order to develop mechanistic predictive models for osmotic stress conditions.

  12. Optimizing the balance between area and orientation distortions for variable-scale maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ti, Peng; Li, Zhilin; Xu, Zhu; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-07-01

    Applying a variable scale transformation to maps leads to area distortions of the maps, i.e. enlarging interesting areas on maps to larger scales and shrinking other areas. Such area distortions improve the clarity of the interesting areas. However, it may result in the over-distortion of line orientations so as to reduce map recognition. This article developed an optimization method to correct orientation distortions for variable-scale maps generated by any existing variable scale transformations, while preserving the map clarity as much as possible. The proposed method is tested with the variable-scale resultant maps of two real-life datasets and evaluated by statistical analysis and perceptual tests. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is able to effectively reduce the orientation distortions so as to improve map recognition, while map clarity has been sufficiently achieved.

  13. Dense Z-pinch (DZP) as a fusion power reactor: preliminary scaling calculations and sysems energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hagenson, R.L.; Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual DT fusion reactor concept is described that is based upon the dense Z-pinch (DZP). This study emphasizes plasma modeling and the parametric assessment of the reactor energy balance. To this end simple analytic and numerical models have been developed and evaluated. The resulting optimal reactor operating point promises a high-Q, low-yield system of a scale that may allow the use of conventional high-voltage Marx/water-line technology to drive a potentially very small reactor system.

  14. Large and small-scale structures and the dust energy balance problem in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saftly, W.; Baes, M.; De Geyter, G.; Camps, P.; Renaud, F.; Guedes, J.; De Looze, I.

    2015-04-01

    The interstellar dust content in galaxies can be traced in extinction at optical wavelengths, or in emission in the far-infrared. Several studies have found that radiative transfer models that successfully explain the optical extinction in edge-on spiral galaxies generally underestimate the observed FIR/submm fluxes by a factor of about three. In order to investigate this so-called dust energy balance problem, we use two Milky Way-like galaxies produced by high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We create mock optical edge-on views of these simulated galaxies (using the radiative transfer code SKIRT), and we then fit the parameters of a basic spiral galaxy model to these images (using the fitting code FitSKIRT). The basic model includes smooth axisymmetric distributions along a Sérsic bulge and exponential disc for the stars, and a second exponential disc for the dust. We find that the dust mass recovered by the fitted models is about three times smaller than the known dust mass of the hydrodynamical input models. This factor is in agreement with previous energy balance studies of real edge-on spiral galaxies. On the other hand, fitting the same basic model to less complex input models (e.g. a smooth exponential disc with a spiral perturbation or with random clumps), does recover the dust mass of the input model almost perfectly. Thus it seems that the complex asymmetries and the inhomogeneous structure of real and hydrodynamically simulated galaxies are a lot more efficient at hiding dust than the rather contrived geometries in typical quasi-analytical models. This effect may help explain the discrepancy between the dust emission predicted by radiative transfer models and the observed emission in energy balance studies for edge-on spiral galaxies.

  15. A continental scale water balance model: a GIS-approach for Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemaw, B. F.; Chaoka, T. R.

    A distributed GIS-based hydrological model is developed using GIS and computational hydrology techniques. The model is based on water balance consideration of the surface and subsurface processes. The surface water balance processes include precipitation infiltration, overland runoff, evapo-transpiration and canopy surface interception losses on daily time steps; The subsurface process considers soil moisture accounting on a monthly basis. The model was used to estimate generated runoff from matrix of specific geo-referenced grids representing Southern Africa. All regional and seasonal dispensation of water balances have been based on standard GIS formats for storage, spatial display and interpretation of results. Considering the 1961-1990 climatic period, we have mapped the regional variation of the mean annual soil moisture (SM), actual evapo-transpiration (AET), and generated runoff (ROF) across Southern Africa or known as the SADC region. The model estimates the mean SM of the region to be about 148 mm/year. There is a wide spatial range in the distribution of SM over the region due to the fact that the absolute soil moisture is dependent on the water retention properties of the soils considered across the region. The model prediction of the mean annual AET in the region reaches a maximum of 1500 mm, with mean 420 mm. The mean annual generated runoff from the land catchment in the region is about 151 mm/year although there is a significant inter-regional variation among the SADC countries, which is a function of the variation in the vegetation cover, soil and climate variation. Lower runoff regimes are dominant in arid areas in Botswana, Namibia and south-western part of the Republic of South Africa. Higher runoff regimes are the Northern and Western Tanzania, along the east coastal portions of Mozambique, central Mozambique, western Zambia and Malawi.

  16. Century-scale variability in global annual runoff examined using a water balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    A monthly water balance model (WB model) is used with CRUTS2.1 monthly temperature and precipitation data to generate time series of monthly runoff for all land areas of the globe for the period 1905 through 2002. Even though annual precipitation accounts for most of the temporal and spatial variability in annual runoff, increases in temperature have had an increasingly negative effect on annual runoff after 1980. Although the effects of increasing temperature on runoff became more apparent after 1980, the relative magnitude of these effects are small compared to the effects of precipitation on global runoff. ?? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

  17. Characterization and mass balance of dioxin from a large-scale municipal solid waste incinerator in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Hai, Jing; Cheng, Jiang

    2012-06-01

    The input and output samples from existing large-scale municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) were collected and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-р-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in this study, aiming to evaluate PCDD/F characteristic and the corresponding mass balance through the whole system. The grate-type MSWI is equipped with semi-dry scrubber, activated carbon injection, and bag filter as air pollutant control devices (APCDs). Results showed that on the output side, the stack gas, bottom ash and fly ash presented their mean dioxin levels of 0.078 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), 12.94 ng I-TEQ/kg and 858 ng I-TEQ/kg, respectively, and showed large similarities in congener profiles. Instead, on the input side, the municipal solid waste (MSW) presented a mean dioxin level of 15.56 ng I-TEQ/kg and a remarkable difference in congener profiles compared with those of the output. The dioxin mass balance demonstrated that the annual dioxin input value was around 5.38 g I-TEQ/yr, lower than the total output value (7.62 g I-TEQ/yr), signifying a positive dioxin balance of about 2.25 g I-TEQ/yr. PMID:22386986

  18. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  19. Evaluation of nitrogen and organic matter balance in the feedlot as affected by level and source of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bierman, S; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A; Shain, D H

    1999-07-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the effect of level and source of dietary fiber on N and OM excretion by cattle on finishing diets. One hundred twenty steers were stratified by weight and allotted to one of the following treatments: 7.5% roughage (7.5% R), wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; 41.5% of dietary DM), and all-concentrate (All Con) diet. Cattle were fed for 87 d during the summer with 23.7 m2 of pen area per animal. Steers fed the WCGF diet had heavier final weights, greater DMI, and higher ADG (P < .01) than the 7.5% R and All Con treatments. Steers fed All Con had lower (P < .01) DMI than the other two treatments. Nitrogen and OM mass balances in the feedlot were quantified. Main components were nutrient input, retention, and excretion. Nitrogen and OM intake of steers fed WCGF were greater (P < .05) than those of steers fed the other treatments. The WCGF treatment had a greater percentage of fecal N output (P < .05). The All Con treatment had a greater (P < .01) percentage of urinary N than WCGF and 7.5% R diets. Steers fed the WCGF treatment excreted more (P < .01) OM compared with the other treatments, which led to more N and OM being removed in manure at cleaning. The All Con treatment had more (P < .01) N and OM in runoff than the other treatments. Nutrition can change site of fermentation, which affects the composition of excreted material; however, total amount of N excreted may be more important than route of excretion in decreasing N losses to the environment and maximizing recovery in manure.

  20. Total glucosides of peony ameliorates Sjögren's syndrome by affecting Th1/Th2 cytokine balance

    PubMed Central

    WU, GUOLIN; WU, NAYUAN; LI, TIANYI; LU, WENWEN; YU, GUOYOU

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) in the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). A total of 40 mice with SS were evenly assigned into four groups, including: Control group; TGP group, receiving 1 mg TGP daily; hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, receiving 0.25 mg HCQ daily; and a combined group, receiving 1 mg TGP and 0.25 mg HCQ daily. After 8 weeks, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), Fas and FasL in each group of mice. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine the expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-4. IFN-γ, IL-4, Fas and FasL levels were significantly increased in the control group compared with the other three groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of these factors were reduced in the combined group in comparison with the HCQ group (P<0.05). The ratios of IFN-γ to IL-4 were decreased in the TGP and combined groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). The present results indicate that TGP ameliorates SS by affecting the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and decreasing the expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, Fas and FasL. Therefore, TGP may represent a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of SS. PMID:26998049

  1. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Yessica; Morris-Pocock, James; Zigouris, Joanna; Nocera, Joseph J.; Kyle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9), whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range. PMID:26448462

  2. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection.

    PubMed

    Rico, Yessica; Morris-Pocock, James; Zigouris, Joanna; Nocera, Joseph J; Kyle, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9), whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range. PMID:26448462

  3. Sensitivity of Groundwater Depletion Rates Estimated from Different GRACE Products and Water Balance Models of Different Spatial Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukasha, M.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of water storage anomalies monitored by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiments (GRACE) satellite mission have recently been used to estimate regional-scale groundwater depletion. Different GRACE products are available such as the JPL 1°x1° GRACE Tellus dataset and the University of Colorado (CU) dataset of regional-averages. In addition, in order to estimate groundwater depletion rates, GRACE data must be used in conjunction with auxiliary hydrologic and land-use information such as soil moisture, vegetation types, snow storage, etc. These auxiliary datasets are usually estimated using coarse scale (usually 1°x1°) hydrological/land surface observations and models. Therefore, it is important to quantify the sensitivity of estimates of groundwater depletion to different GRACE products, types of auxiliary datasets, and different spatial scales. In this study we show results of a sensitivity analysis of groundwater depletion trends for the Central Valley aquifer of California using three different GRACE products: i) GRACE Tellus, ii) CU GRACE data and, iii) Scaled CU data (filtered CU data optimally scaled to capture peaks in observed water balance). Using soil moisture and snow water storage estimated from 1/8th degree Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and observed surface water storages (e.g., reservoirs etc.), groundwater depletion from April 2006-March 2010 for three GRACE products is estimated as 15.8, 13.9 and 36.3 km3 respectively. For the time period April 2006-September 2009 these estimates are 7.95, 5.5 and 29.2 km3, respectively. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to spatial scale of VIC model will be presented, which involves using estimates of soil moisture and snow storage at the following three different spatial scales: i) 1 degree, ii) 1/8th degree and, iii) 1/16th degree.

  4. Titanium Mass-Balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.

    2010-03-01

    Titanium mass-balance analysis of Paso Robles soils indicated elemental gains as supplied by sulfuric acid alteration fluids. This suggests that open-system dissolution processes have operated in the Paso Robles soils.

  5. Measuring natural pest suppression at different spatial scales affects the importance of local variables.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A B; Gratton, C

    2012-10-01

    The role biodiversity plays in the provision of ecosystem services is widely recognized, yet few ecological studies have identified characteristics of natural systems that support and maintain ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to identify landscape variables correlated with natural pest suppression carried out by arthropod natural enemies, predators and parasitoids. We conducted two field experiments, one observational and one experimental, where landscape variables at broad and local scales were measured and related to natural pest suppression. The first experiment measured natural pest suppression at 16 sites across an urban to rural landscape gradient in south central Wisconsin. We found natural enemy diversity positively affected natural pest suppression, whereas flower diversity negatively affected pest suppression. No relationship was found between natural pest suppression and broad scale variables, which measured the percentage of different land cover classes in the surrounding landscape. In the second experiment, we established small (2- by 3-m) replicated plots that experimentally varied flower diversity (0, 1, or 7 species) within a plot. We found no significant relationship between natural pest suppression and the different levels of flower diversity. The fact that we only found differences in natural pest suppression in our first experiment, which measured natural pest suppression at sites separated by larger distances than our second experiment, suggests the more appropriate scale for measuring ecosystem services performed by mobile organisms like insects, is across broad spatial scales where variation in natural enemies communities and the factors that affect them become more apparent.

  6. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  7. Impact of spatial data resolution on simulated catchment water balances and model performance of the multi-scale TOPLATS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.

    2006-03-01

    This paper analyses the effect of spatial input data resolution on the simulated water balances and flow components using the multi-scale hydrological model TOPLATS. A data set of 25m resolution of the central German Dill catchment (693 km2) is used for investigation. After an aggregation of digital elevation model, soil map and land use classification to 50 m, 75 m, 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, 300 m, 500 m, 1000 m and 2000 m, water balances and water flow components are calculated for the entire Dill catchment as well as for 3 subcatchments without any recalibration. The study shows that model performance measures and simulated water balances almost remain constant for most of the aggregation steps for all investigated catchments. Slight differences in the simulated water balances and statistical quality measures occur for single catchments at the resolution of 50 m to 500 m (e.g. 0-3% for annual stream flow), significant differences at the resolution of 1000 m and 2000 m (e.g. 2-12% for annual stream flow). These differences can be explained by the fact that the statistics of certain input data (land use data in particular as well as soil physical characteristics) changes significantly at these spatial resolutions. The impact of smoothing the relief by aggregation occurs continuously but is barely reflected by the simulation results. To study the effect of aggregation of land use data in detail, in addition to current land use the effect of aggregation on the water balance calculations based on three different land use scenarios is investigated. Land use scenarios were available aiming on economic optimisation of agricultural and forestry practices at different field sizes (0.5 ha, 1.5 ha and 5.0 ha). The changes in water balance terms, induced by aggregation of the land use scenarios, are comparable with respect to catchment water balances compared to the current land use. A correlation analysis between statistics of input data and simulated annual water fluxes only in

  8. Impact of spatial data resolution on simulated catchment water balances and model performance of the multi-scale TOPLATS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.

    2005-10-01

    This paper analyses the effect of spatial input data resolution on the simulated water balances and flow components using the multi-scale hydrological model TOPLATS. A data set of 25m resolution of the central German Dill catchment (693 km2 is used for investigation. After an aggregation of digital elevation model, soil map and land use classification to 50 m, 75 m, 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, 300 m, 500 m, 1000 m and 2000 m, water balances and water flow components are calculated for the entire Dill catchment as well as for 3 subcatchments without any recalibration. The study shows that both model performance measures as well as simulated water balances almost remain constant for most of the aggregation steps for all investigated catchments. Slight differences occur for single catchments at the resolution of 50-500 m (e.g. 0-3% for annual stream flow), significant differences at the resolution of 1000 m and 2000 m (e.g. 2-12% for annual stream flow). These differences can be explained by the fact that the statistics of certain input data (land use data in particular as well as soil physical characteristics) changes significantly at these spatial resolutions, too. The impact of smoothing the relief by aggregation occurs continuously but is not reflected by the simulation results. To study the effect of aggregation of land use data in detail, three different land use scenarios are aggregated which were generated aiming on economic optimisation at different field sizes (0.5 ha, 1.5 ha and 5.0 ha). The changes induced by aggregation of these land use scenarios are comparable with respect to catchment water balances compared to the current land use. A correlation analysis only in some cases reveals high correlation between changes in both input data and in simulation results for all catchments and land use scenarios combinations (e.g. evapotranspiration is correlated to land use, runoff generation is correlated to soil properties). Predominantly the correlation between

  9. Impact of co-digestion on existing salt and nutrient mass balances for a full-scale dairy energy project.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Spier, Chelsea L; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Domen, Jeremy K

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and other agricultural waste streams with subsequent energy production can result in more sustainable dairy operations; however, importation of digester feedstocks onto dairy farms alters previously established carbon, nutrient, and salinity mass balances. Salt and nutrient mass balance must be maintained to avoid groundwater contamination and salination. To better understand salt and nutrient contributions of imported methane-producing substrates, a mass balance for a full-scale dairy biomass energy project was developed for solids, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chloride, and potassium. Digester feedstocks, consisting of thickened manure flush-water slurry, screened manure solids, sudan grass silage, and feed-waste, were tracked separately in the mass balance. The error in mass balance closure for most elements was less than 5%. Manure contributed 69.2% of influent dry matter while contributing 77.7% of nitrogen, 90.9% of sulfur, and 73.4% of phosphorus. Sudan grass silage contributed high quantities of chloride and potassium, 33.3% and 43.4%, respectively, relative to the dry matter contribution of 22.3%. Five potential off-site co-digestates (egg waste, grape pomace, milk waste, pasta waste, whey wastewater) were evaluated for anaerobic digestion based on salt and nutrient content in addition to bio-methane potential. Egg waste and wine grape pomace appeared the most promising co-digestates due to their high methane potentials relative to bulk volume. Increasing power production from the current rate of 369 kW to the design value of 710 kW would require co-digestion with either 26800 L d(-1) egg waste or 60900 kg d(-1) grape pomace. However, importation of egg waste would more than double nitrogen loading, resulting in an increase of 172% above the baseline while co-digestion with grape pomace would increase potassium by 279%. Careful selection of imported co-digestates and management of digester effluent is required to

  10. Impact of co-digestion on existing salt and nutrient mass balances for a full-scale dairy energy project.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Spier, Chelsea L; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Domen, Jeremy K

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and other agricultural waste streams with subsequent energy production can result in more sustainable dairy operations; however, importation of digester feedstocks onto dairy farms alters previously established carbon, nutrient, and salinity mass balances. Salt and nutrient mass balance must be maintained to avoid groundwater contamination and salination. To better understand salt and nutrient contributions of imported methane-producing substrates, a mass balance for a full-scale dairy biomass energy project was developed for solids, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chloride, and potassium. Digester feedstocks, consisting of thickened manure flush-water slurry, screened manure solids, sudan grass silage, and feed-waste, were tracked separately in the mass balance. The error in mass balance closure for most elements was less than 5%. Manure contributed 69.2% of influent dry matter while contributing 77.7% of nitrogen, 90.9% of sulfur, and 73.4% of phosphorus. Sudan grass silage contributed high quantities of chloride and potassium, 33.3% and 43.4%, respectively, relative to the dry matter contribution of 22.3%. Five potential off-site co-digestates (egg waste, grape pomace, milk waste, pasta waste, whey wastewater) were evaluated for anaerobic digestion based on salt and nutrient content in addition to bio-methane potential. Egg waste and wine grape pomace appeared the most promising co-digestates due to their high methane potentials relative to bulk volume. Increasing power production from the current rate of 369 kW to the design value of 710 kW would require co-digestion with either 26800 L d(-1) egg waste or 60900 kg d(-1) grape pomace. However, importation of egg waste would more than double nitrogen loading, resulting in an increase of 172% above the baseline while co-digestion with grape pomace would increase potassium by 279%. Careful selection of imported co-digestates and management of digester effluent is required to

  11. Factors affecting acid neutralizing capacity in the Adirondack region of New York: a solute mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mari; Mitchell, Myron J; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M

    2005-06-01

    High rates of acidic deposition in the Adirondack region of New York have accelerated acidification of soils and surface waters. Annual input-output budgets for major solutes and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) were estimated for 43 drainage lake-watersheds in the Adirondacks from 1998 to 2000. Sulfate was the predominant anion on an equivalent basis in both precipitation and drainage export. Calcium ion had the largest cation drainage export, followed by Mg2+. While these watersheds showed net nitrogen (N) retention, the drainage losses of SO4(2-), Cl-, base cations, and ANC exceeded their respective inputs from precipitation. Land cover (forest type and wetlands) affected the export of SO4(2-), N solutes, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The relationships of solute export with elevation (negative for base cations and Cl-, positive for NO3- and H+) suggest the importance of the concomitant changes of biotic and abiotic watershed characteristics associated with elevational gradients. The surface water ANC increased with the sum of base cations and was greatest in the lakes with watersheds characterized by thick deposits of glacial till. The surface water ANC was also higher in the lake-watersheds with lower DOC export. Some variation in lake ANC was associated with variability in acidic deposition. Using a classification system previously developed for Adirondack lakes on the basis primarily of surficial geology, lake-watersheds were grouped into five classes. The calculated ANC fluxes based on the major sinks and sources of ANC were comparable with measured ANC for the thick-till (I) and the medium-till lake-watersheds with low DOC (II). The calculated ANC was overestimated for the medium-till with high DOC (III) and the thin-till with high DOC (V) lake-watersheds, suggesting the importance of naturally occurring organic acids as an ANC sink, which was not included in the calculations. The lower calculated estimates than the measured ANC for the thin-till lake

  12. A review of modifying factors affecting usage of diagnostic rating scales in concussion management.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Alexa; Rasouli, Jonathan; Gometz, Alex; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2014-07-01

    Sport-related concussion has gained increasing recognition as a result of recent legislation, public health initiatives and media coverage. Moreover, there have been substantial paradigm shifts in the management of concussion. This article will discuss the variables that affect the use of diagnostic rating scales such as ImPACT and SCAT in the current management of concussed individuals. Specifically, patient-specific modifying factors affecting test interpretation, including age, gender, fitness level, psychiatric conditions, learning disorders and other components of medical history will be addressed, as well as methodological concerns with baseline testing. PMID:24908218

  13. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  14. Can basin-scale recharge be estimated reasonably with water-balance models?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, A.E.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Schaap, M.G.; Hinnell, A.C.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    We examine in-place recharge as an example of the complex, basin-scale hydrologic processes that are being represented with simplified numerical models. The rate and distribution of recharge depend on local meteorological conditions and hydrogeologic properties. The pattern of recharge is defined predominantly by the distribution of net precipitation (precipitation less evapotranspiration), but different pedotransfer functions (PTFs) predict different fractions of precipitation that become in-place recharge at a given location. At any single location, these differences can often be explained on the basis of the PTF characteristics, but because of the complex averaging that occurs across a basin, the combined effects of meteorological variation and soil textural variation on the basin-wide recharge rates cannot be predicted on the basis of the characteristics of different PTFs. In fact, we show that the same basin-scale numerical model, using identical inputs and modeling options, can produce almost an order of magnitude variation in predicted basin total recharge depending on the choice of PTF. This suggests that sensitivity analyses should be performed on the choice of constitutive relationship (e.g., PTF) when assessing the predictive capability of basin-scale hydrologic models. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  15. Using the Origin and Pawn, Positive Affect, CASPM, and Cognitive Anxiety Content Analysis Scales in Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viney, Linda L.; Caputi, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Content analysis scales apply rigorous measurement to verbal communications and make possible the quantification of text in counseling research. The limitations of the Origin and Pawn Scales (M. T. Westbrook & L. L. Viney, 1980), the Positive Affect Scale (M. T. Westbrook, 1976), the Content Analysis Scales of Psychosocial Maturity (CASPM; L. L.…

  16. Conceptual design and quantification of phosphorus flows and balances at the country scale: The case of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Nesme, Thomas; Mollier, Alain; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2012-06-01

    Global biogeochemical cycles have been deeply modified by human activities in recent decades. But detailed studies analyzing the influence of current economic and social organizations on global biogeochemical cycles within a system perspective are still required. Country level offers a relevant scale for assessing nutrient management and identifying key driving forces and possible leaks in the nutrient cycle. Conceptual modeling helps to quantify nutrient flows within the country and we developed such an approach for France. France is a typical Western European country with intensive agriculture, trade and an affluent diet, all of which may increase internal and external P flows. Phosphorus (P) was taken as a case study because phosphate rock is a non-renewable resource which future availability is becoming increasingly bleak. A conceptual model of major P flows at the country scale was designed. France was divided into agriculture, industry, domestic, import and export sectors, and each of these sectors was further divided into compartments. A total of 25 internal and eight external P flows were identified and quantified on a yearly basis for a period of 16 years (from 1990 to 2006) in order to understand long-term P flows. All the P flows were quantified using the substance flow analysis principle. The results showed that the industrial sector remained the largest contributor to P flows in France, followed by the agriculture and domestic sectors. Soil P balance was positive. However, a positive P balance of 18 kg P ha-1 in 1990 was reduced to 4 kg P ha-1 in 2006, mainly due to the reduced application of inorganic P fertilizer. The overall country scale P balance was positive, whereas half of this additional P was lost to the environment mainly through the landfilling of municipal and industrial waste, disposal of treated wastewater from which P was partially removed, and P losses from agricultural soils though erosion and leaching. Consequences for global P

  17. Radium mass balance in the Dead Sea - time scale and quantification of circulation in the aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Y.; Weinstein, Y.; Starinsky, A.; Yechieli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Dead Sea hypersaline water and the adjacent groundwater are highly enriched in radium, whose concentration is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in the ocean. The combination of carbonate rocks, from which radium is extracted, and the high solubility of radium in hypersaline water contribute these high activities, especially of 226Ra. Being a terminal lake, the Dead Sea concentrates radium mainly the long-lived (t1/2=1600 y) 226Ra isotope, from the surrounding water and groundwater sources. Due to the differences in the isotope half-lives, the shorter-lived isotopes (228Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra) are enriched in the groundwater compared with the lake while 226Ra is enriched both in the lake water (~145 dpm/L) and in the groundwater (up to 500 dpm/L). The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in the groundwater on the western shore of the Dead Sea is significantly low (0.03-0.05), representing the high U/Th ratio in the carbonate rocks and sediments around the Dead Sea. However, the high 222Rn activities (up to 60,000 dpm/L) in the groundwater could not be explained by the U content of the carbonate rocks and probably indicate mobility of 226Ra along flow paths where salinity or temperature changes. During Dead Sea water circulation in the aquifer 226Ra is removed from the water by barite precipitation, while 228Ra is added to the water due to recoil from the aquifer sediments. The buildup rate of 228Ra in the circulated Dead Sea water was used for quantifying the circulation rate and the age of the groundwater, while the mass balances of both 228Ra and 226Ra in the lake were used for the quantification of the circulation volume. The rate of Dead Sea water inflow into the aquifer was found to be a few m/y and the annual volume of Dead Sea water circulating in the aquifer is ~320 m3/y. The opposite behavior of 226Ra and 228Ra during the circulation constrains the error on the calculated velocity to be relatively low (ς=×20) and allows the estimation of other sources and sinks

  18. Evaluating the potential of improving residential water balance at building scale.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M; Keesman, Karel J; Mels, Adriaan R; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2013-12-15

    Earlier results indicated that, for an average household, self-sufficiency in water supply can be achieved by following the Urban harvest Approach (UHA), in a combination of demand minimization, cascading and multi-sourcing. To achieve these results, it was assumed that all available local resources can be harvested. In reality, however, temporal, spatial and location-bound factors pose limitations to this harvest and, thus, to self-sufficiency. This article investigates potential spatial and temporal limitations to harvest local water resources at building level for the Netherlands, with a focus on indoor demand. Two building types were studied, a free standing house (one four-people household) and a mid-rise apartment flat (28 two-person households). To be able to model yearly water balances, daily patterns considering household occupancy and presence of water using appliances were defined per building type. Three strategies were defined. The strategies include demand minimization, light grey water (LGW) recycling, and rainwater harvesting (multi-sourcing). Recycling and multi-sourcing cater for toilet flushing and laundry machine. Results showed that water saving devices may reduce 30% of the conventional demand. Recycling of LGW can supply 100% of second quality water (DQ2) which represents 36% of the conventional demand or up to 20% of the minimized demand. Rainwater harvesting may supply approximately 80% of the minimized demand in case of the apartment flat and 60% in case of the free standing house. To harvest these potentials, different system specifications, related to the household type, are required. Two constraints to recycle and multi-source were identified, namely i) limitations in the grey water production and available rainfall; and ii) the potential to harvest water as determined by the temporal pattern in water availability, water use, and storage and treatment capacities.

  19. Technical and economical optimization of a full-scale poultry manure treatment process: total ammonia nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Alejo-Alvarez, Luz; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2016-11-01

    A full-scale process for the treatment of 80 tons per day of poultry manure was designed and optimized. A total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) balance was performed at steady state, considering the stoichiometry and the kinetic data from the anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic ammonia oxidation. The equipment, reactor design, investment costs, and operational costs were considered. The volume and cost objective functions optimized the process in terms of three variables: the water recycle ratio, the protein conversion during AD, and the TAN conversion in the process. The processes were compared with and without water recycle; savings of 70% and 43% in the annual fresh water consumption and the heating costs, respectively, were achieved. The optimal process complies with the Chilean environmental legislation limit of 0.05 g total nitrogen/L.

  20. Large contribution of boreal upland forest soils to a catchment-scale CH4 balance in a wet year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohila, Annalea; Aalto, Tuula; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Kilkki, Juho; Penttilä, Timo; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Hänninen, Pekka; Sutinen, Raimo; Viisanen, Yrjö; Laurila, Tuomas

    2016-03-01

    Upland forest soils affect the atmospheric methane (CH4) balance, not only through the soil sink but also due to episodic high emissions in wet conditions. We measured methane fluxes and found that during a wet fall the forest soil turned from a CH4 sink into a large source for several months, while the CH4 emissions from a nearby wetland did not increase. When upscaled to the whole catchment area the contribution of forests amounted to 60% of the annual CH4 emission from the wetlands, while in a normal year the forest soil consumes 10% of the wetland emission. The period of high upland soil emission was also captured by the nearby atmospheric concentration measurement station. Since the land cover within the catchment is representative of larger regions, our findings imply that upland forests in the boreal zone constitute an important part in the global CH4 cycle not previously accounted for.

  1. Scale-dependency of effective hydraulic conductivity on fire-affected hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Christoph; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Nyman, Petter; Noske, Philip J.; Cawson, Jane G.; Oono, Akiko; Sheridan, Gary J.

    2016-07-01

    Effective hydraulic conductivity (Ke) for Hortonian overland flow modeling has been defined as a function of rainfall intensity and runon infiltration assuming a distribution of saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks). But surface boundary condition during infiltration and its interactions with the distribution of Ks are not well represented in models. As a result, the mean value of the Ks distribution (KS¯), which is the central parameter for Ke, varies between scales. Here we quantify this discrepancy with a large infiltration data set comprising four different methods and scales from fire-affected hillslopes in SE Australia using a relatively simple yet widely used conceptual model of Ke. Ponded disk (0.002 m2) and ring infiltrometers (0.07 m2) were used at the small scales and rainfall simulations (3 m2) and small catchments (ca 3000 m2) at the larger scales. We compared KS¯ between methods measured at the same time and place. Disk and ring infiltrometer measurements had on average 4.8 times higher values of KS¯ than rainfall simulations and catchment-scale estimates. Furthermore, the distribution of Ks was not clearly log-normal and scale-independent, as supposed in the conceptual model. In our interpretation, water repellency and preferential flow paths increase the variance of the measured distribution of Ks and bias ponding toward areas of very low Ks during rainfall simulations and small catchment runoff events while areas with high preferential flow capacity remain water supply-limited more than the conceptual model of Ke predicts. The study highlights problems in the current theory of scaling runoff generation.

  2. The brain's emotional foundations of human personality and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth L; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Six of the primary-process subcortical brain emotion systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, CARE, GRIEF and PLAY - are presented as foundational for human personality development, and hence as a potentially novel template for personality assessment as in the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scales (ANPS), described here. The ANPS was conceptualized as a potential clinical research tool, which would help experimentalists and clinicians situate subjects and clients in primary-process affective space. These emotion systems are reviewed in the context of a multi-tiered framing of consciousness spanning from primary affect, which encodes biological valences, to higher level tertiary (thought mediated) processing. Supporting neuroscience research is presented along with comparisons to Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Five Factor Model (FFM). Suggestions are made for grounding the internal structure of the FFM on the primal emotional systems recognized in affective neuroscience, which may promote substantive dialog between human and animal research traditions. Personality is viewed in the context of Darwinian "continuity" with the inherited subcortical brain emotion systems being foundational, providing major forces for personality development in both humans and animals, and providing an affective infrastructure for an expanded five factor descriptive model applying to normal and clinical human populations as well as mammals generally. Links with ontogenetic and epigenetic models of personality development are also presented. Potential novel clinical applications of the CARE maternal-nurturance system and the PLAY system are also discussed.

  3. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system. PMID:25909899

  4. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system.

  5. Runoff at contrasting scales in a semiarid ecosystem: A complex balance between biological soil crust features and rainfall characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Cantón, Yolanda; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Domingo, Francisco; Escudero, Adrián

    2012-07-01

    SummaryRunoff in arid and semiarid areas is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. The spatial component is largely associated with the high spatial heterogeneity of soil surface attributes, such as vegetation and rock fragment covers, topography, and soil crust typology. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a common soil cover in arid and semiarid areas, and they play an essential role in local hydrological processes, since they affect many soil surface attributes associated with hydrologic properties. Although several publications have reported on the influence of BSCs on runoff at microplot spatial scales, only a few have examined their influence on larger spatial scales. Moreover, very few studies have analyzed the effect of BSCs on runoff under natural rain conditions. This is difficult, since a complex pattern of interactions among rainfall properties, BSC characteristics and some local characteristics, such as topography or type of soil is expected. In addition, in order to achieve a realistic model of how BSCs and rainfall affect runoff, it would be necessary to consider the level of human-driven degradation of BSCs. In this study, runoff was analyzed in plots with varying cover of cyanobacterial and lichen BSCs at microplot and small hillslope scales for two hydrological years in badlands in SE Spain. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to test both direct and indirect relationships of BSC cover, slope gradient, rainfall characteristics and runoff. Our model showed that rainfall characteristics were the main factors controlling runoff yield. The slope positively affected runoff at small hillslope scales, but did not influence runoff at microplot scales. Runoff decreased at both scales with increased lichen-BSC cover. However, this effect was only significant during low-intensity events. Under high rainfall intensities, neither the BSC cover nor the slope had a causal effect on runoff. Our results suggest that incorporation of BSC

  6. Does infection tilt the scales? Disease effects on the mass balance of an invertebrate nutrient recycler.

    PubMed

    Narr, Charlotte F; Frost, Paul C

    2015-12-01

    While parasites are increasingly recognized as important components of ecosystems, we currently know little about how they alter ecosystem nutrient availability via host-mediated nutrient cycling. We examined whether infection alters the flow of nutrients through hosts and whether such effects depend upon host diet quality. To do so, we compared the mass specific nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) release rates, ingestion rates, and elemental composition of uninfected Daphnia to those infected with a bacterial parasite, P. ramosa. N and P release rates were increased by infection when Daphnia were fed P-poor diets, but we found no effect of infection on the nutrient release of individuals fed P-rich diets. Calculations based on the first law of thermodynamics indicated that infection should increase the nutrient release rates of Daphnia by decreasing nutrient accumulation rates in host tissues. Although we found reduced nutrient accumulation rates in infected Daphnia fed all diets, this reduction did not increase the nutrient release rates of Daphnia fed the P-rich diet because infected Daphnia fed this diet ingested nutrients more slowly than uninfected hosts. Our results thus indicate that parasites can significantly alter the nutrient use of animal consumers, which could affect the availability of nutrients in heavily parasitized environments.

  7. Does infection tilt the scales? Disease effects on the mass balance of an invertebrate nutrient recycler.

    PubMed

    Narr, Charlotte F; Frost, Paul C

    2015-12-01

    While parasites are increasingly recognized as important components of ecosystems, we currently know little about how they alter ecosystem nutrient availability via host-mediated nutrient cycling. We examined whether infection alters the flow of nutrients through hosts and whether such effects depend upon host diet quality. To do so, we compared the mass specific nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) release rates, ingestion rates, and elemental composition of uninfected Daphnia to those infected with a bacterial parasite, P. ramosa. N and P release rates were increased by infection when Daphnia were fed P-poor diets, but we found no effect of infection on the nutrient release of individuals fed P-rich diets. Calculations based on the first law of thermodynamics indicated that infection should increase the nutrient release rates of Daphnia by decreasing nutrient accumulation rates in host tissues. Although we found reduced nutrient accumulation rates in infected Daphnia fed all diets, this reduction did not increase the nutrient release rates of Daphnia fed the P-rich diet because infected Daphnia fed this diet ingested nutrients more slowly than uninfected hosts. Our results thus indicate that parasites can significantly alter the nutrient use of animal consumers, which could affect the availability of nutrients in heavily parasitized environments. PMID:26298190

  8. Large-scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Fauria, Marc; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-03-01

    We present evidence of high spatial synchrony in an area affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) across large distances in British Columbia, Canada, in a study of a spatially explicit database of an area affected by MPB-caused tree mortality for the period 1959-2002. We further show that large-scale climatic patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and, to a lesser degree, Arctic Oscillation (AO)) are strongly related to the observed MPB synchrony, and that they probably operate through controlling the frequency of extreme cold winter temperatures that affect MPB larvae survival. A smaller portion of the data's variability is linked to the onset of the two largest outbreaks in the studied period and might be attributed to dispersal from outbreak-prone areas or else to differences in microhabitat (e.g., host availability) in these regions. The onset of a warm PDO phase in 1976 favored MPB outbreaks by reducing the occurrence of extremely low winter temperatures province-wide. Likewise, the exceptionally high and persistent AO values of the late 1980s and 1990s enhanced MPB activity in the southern and northern parts of the region. Summer warmth cannot be discarded as an important agent at smaller scales.

  9. The Relationship Between Balance Measured With a Modified Bathroom Scale and Falls and Disability in Older Adults: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There are indications that older adults who suffer from poor balance have an increased risk for adverse health outcomes, such as falls and disability. Monitoring the development of balance over time enables early detection of balance decline, which can identify older adults who could benefit from interventions aimed at prevention of these adverse outcomes. An innovative and easy-to-use device that can be used by older adults for home-based monitoring of balance is a modified bathroom scale. Objective The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between balance scores obtained with a modified bathroom scale and falls and disability in a sample of older adults. Methods For this 6-month follow-up study, participants were recruited via physiotherapists working in a nursing home, geriatricians, exercise classes, and at an event about health for older adults. Inclusion criteria were being aged 65 years or older, being able to stand on a bathroom scale independently, and able to provide informed consent. A total of 41 nursing home patients and 139 community-dwelling older adults stepped onto the modified bathroom scale three consecutive times at baseline to measure their balance. Their mean balance scores on a scale from 0 to 16 were calculated—higher scores indicated better balance. Questionnaires were used to study falls and disability at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. The cross-sectional relationship between balance and falls and disability at baseline was studied using t tests and Spearman rank correlations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the relationship between balance measured at baseline and falls and disability development after 6 months of follow-up. Results A total of 128 participants with complete datasets—25.8% (33/128) male—and a mean age of 75.33 years (SD 6.26) were included in the analyses of this study. Balance scores of participants who reported at baseline that

  10. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance. PMID:27630414

  11. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance.

  12. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance. PMID:27630414

  13. Designing Performance Measurement For Supply Chain's Actors And Regulator Using Scale Balanced Scorecard And Data Envelopment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, Elisa; Subagyo; Aini Masruroh, Nur

    2016-01-01

    This research is a sequel of the author's earlier conducted researches in the fields of designing of integrated performance measurement between supply chain's actors and regulator. In the previous paper, the design of performance measurement is done by combining Balanced Scorecard - Supply Chain Operation Reference - Regulator Contribution model and Data Envelopment Analysis. This model referred as B-S-Rc-DEA model. The combination has the disadvantage that all the performance variables have the same weight. This paper investigates whether by giving weight to performance variables will produce more sensitive performance measurement in detecting performance improvement. Therefore, this paper discusses the development of the model B-S-Rc-DEA by giving weight to its performance'variables. This model referred as Scale B-S-Rc-DEA model. To illustrate the model of development, some samples from small medium enterprises of leather craft industry supply chain in province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia are used in this research. It is found that Scale B-S-Rc-DEA model is more sensitive to detecting performance improvement than B-S- Rc-DEA model.

  14. Multiscale Metabolic Modeling: Dynamic Flux Balance Analysis on a Whole-Plant Scale1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Junker, Astrid; Eschenröder, André; Müller, Johannes; Schreiber, Falk; Junker, Björn H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant metabolism is characterized by a unique complexity on the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. On a whole-plant scale, changing source and sink relations accompanying plant development add another level of complexity to metabolism. With the aim of achieving a spatiotemporal resolution of source-sink interactions in crop plant metabolism, a multiscale metabolic modeling (MMM) approach was applied that integrates static organ-specific models with a whole-plant dynamic model. Allowing for a dynamic flux balance analysis on a whole-plant scale, the MMM approach was used to decipher the metabolic behavior of source and sink organs during the generative phase of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) plant. It reveals a sink-to-source shift of the barley stem caused by the senescence-related decrease in leaf source capacity, which is not sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of sink organs such as the growing seed. The MMM platform represents a novel approach for the in silico analysis of metabolism on a whole-plant level, allowing for a systemic, spatiotemporally resolved understanding of metabolic processes involved in carbon partitioning, thus providing a novel tool for studying yield stability and crop improvement. PMID:23926077

  15. The Mulligan ankle taping does not affect balance performance in healthy subjects: a prospective, randomized blinded trial

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Morena, Jose Maria Delfa; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel Maria; Molina-Rueda, Francisco; Ramiro-González, Maria; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effects of Mulligan fibular taping on static and dynamic postural balance in healthy subjects using computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). [Subjects and Methods] Forty-four volunteers (26 males and 18 females) aged 21 ±2 years participated in the study. The Mulligan tape was applied by a specialist in this technique. The placebo group received a treatment with a similar tape but with several cuts to avoid the fibular repositioning effect produced by Mulligan tape. Main outcome measures: The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and the Motor Control Test (MCT) were performed by each subject at baseline and after the interventions. Outcome measures included equilibrium and strategy scores from each trial and condition of the SOT, and speed of reaction (latency period) from the MCT. [Results] Mulligan ankle taping did not have an impact on postural control during static and dynamic balance in subjects with healthy ankles when compared with placebo taping. [Conclusion] There was no difference in, equilibrium and strategy (SOT) and speed of reaction (MCT) in any of the subjects in this study. Therefore, this study suggests that Mulligan ankle taping does not have an impact on balance in healthy subjects. PMID:26157271

  16. Monitoring and Modeling of Large-Scale Pattern of Forest Height and Biomass based on the Metabolic Scaling Theory and Water-Energy Balance Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, S.; Myneni, R. B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Park, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study applies the metabolic scaling theory (MST) and water-energy balance equation (PM: Penman-Monteith) to monitor and model the large-scale pattern of forest height and biomass. The WBE and PM theories grant a generalized mechanistic understanding of relationships between the forest structure and multiple geospatial predictors including topography and climatic variables. We successfully expanded the average trend and predictions of the MST and PM by including eco-regional and plant functional type variations. Our model now accounts for plant interaction, self-competition and disturbance effects to alleviate known limitations of the MST. The topographic heterogeneity and climate seasonality are additionally incorporated in the model predictions. A simple and clear mechanistic understanding in the model is promising for prognostic applications in contrast to conventional black-box approaches. This study provides baseline maps (circa 2005; 1-km2 grids) of the maximum forest canopy heights and aboveground biomass over the continental USA. Their future projections are also delivered using various climate scenarios. The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-DCP30) dataset is used in this task.

  17. Constraining Annual Water Balance Estimates with Basin-Scale Observations from the Airborne Snow Observatory during the Current Californian Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, K.; Painter, T. H.; Marks, D. G.; Hedrick, A. R.; Deems, J. S.; Patterson, V.; McGurk, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the great unknowns in mountain hydrology is how much water is stored within a seasonal snowpack at the basin scale. Quantifying mountain water resources is critical for assisting with water resource management, but has proven elusive due to high spatial and temporal variability of mountain snow cover, complex terrain, accessibility constraints and limited in-situ networks. The Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO, aso.jpl.nasa.gov) uses coupled airborne LiDAR and spectrometer instruments for high resolution snow depth retrievals which are used to derive unprecedented basin-wide estimates of snow water mass (snow water equivalent, SWE). ASO has been operational over key basins in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California since 2013. Each operational year has been very dry, with precipitation in 2013 at 75% of average, 2014 at 50% of average and 2015 - the lowest snow year on record for the region. With vastly improved estimates of the snowpack water content from ASO, we can now for the first time conduct observation-based mass balance accounting of surface water in snow-dominated basins, and reconcile these estimates with observed reservoir inflows. In this study we use ASO SWE data to constrain mass balance accounting of basin annual water storages to quantify the water contained within the snowpack above the Hetch Hetchy water supply reservoir (Tuolumne River basin, California). The analysis compares and contrasts annual snow water volumes from observed reservoir inflows, snow water volume estimates from ASO, a physically based model that simulates the snowpack from meteorological inputs and a semi-distributed hydrological model. The study provides invaluable insight to the overall volume of water contained within a seasonal snowpack during a severe drought and how these quantities are simulated in our modelling systems. We envisage that this research will be of great interest to snowpack modellers, hydrologists, dam operators and water managers worldwide.

  18. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    PubMed

    Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS), a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content. PMID:26849361

  19. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS), a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content. PMID:26849361

  20. Velocity, safety, or both? How do balance and strength of goal conflicts affect drivers' behaviour, feelings and physiological responses?

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Daffy, Martin; Brandenburg, Stefan; Beliavski, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Motivational models of driving behaviour agree that choice of speed is modulated by drivers' goals. Whilst it is accepted that some goals favour fast driving and others favour safe driving, little is known about the interplay of these conflicting goals. In the present study, two aspects of this interplay are investigated: the balance of conflict and the strength of conflict. Thirty-two participants completed several simulated driving runs in which fast driving was rewarded with a monetary gain if the end of the track was reached. However, unpredictably, some runs ended with the appearance of a deer. In these runs, fast driving was punished with a monetary loss. The ratio between the magnitudes of gains and losses varied in order to manipulate the balance of conflict. The absolute magnitudes of both gains and losses altered the strength of conflict. Participants drove slower, reported an increase in anxiety-related feelings, and showed indications of physiological arousal if there was more money at stake. In contrast, only marginal effects of varying the ratio between gains and losses were observed. Results confirm that the strength of a safety-velocity conflict is an important determinant of drivers' behaviour, feelings, and physiological responses. The lack of evidence for the balance of conflict playing a role suggests that in each condition, participants subjectively weighted the loss higher than the gain (loss aversion). It is concluded that the interplay of the subjective values that drivers attribute to objective incentives for fast and safe driving is a promising field for future research. Incorporating this knowledge into motivational theories of driving behaviour might improve their contribution to the design of adequate road safety measures.

  1. The light: nutrient ratio in lakes: the balance of energy and materials affects ecosystem structure and process.

    PubMed

    Sterner, R W; Elser, J J; Fee, E J; Guildford, S J; Chrzanowski, T H

    1997-12-01

    The amounts of solar energy and materials are two of the chief factors determining ecosystem structure and process. Here, we examine the relative balance of light and phosphorus in a set of freshwater pelagic ecosystems. We calculated a ratio of light: phosphorus by putting mixed-layer mean light in the numerator and total P concentration in the denominator. This light: phosphorus ratio was a good predictor of the C:P ratio of particulate matter (seston), with a positive correlation demonstrated between these two ratios. We argue that the balance between light and nutrients controls "nutrient use efficiency" at the base of the food web in lakes. Thus, when light energy is high relative to nutrient availability, the base of the food web is carbon rich and phosphorus poor. In the opposite case, where light is relatively less available compared to nutrients, the base of the food web is relatively P rich. The significance of this relationship lies in the fact that the composition of sestonic material is known to influence a large number of ecosystem processes such as secondary production, nutrient cycling, and (we hypothesize) the relative strength of microbial versus grazing processes. Using the central result of increased C:P ratio with an increased light: phosphorus ratio, we make specific predictions of how ecosystem structure and process should vary with light and nutrient balance. Among these predictions, we suggest that lake ecosystems with low light: phosphorus ratios should have several trophic levels simultaneously carbon or energy limited, while ecosystems with high light: phosphorus ratios should have several trophic levels simultaneously limited by phosphorus. Our results provide an alternative perspective to the question of what determines nutrient use efficiency in ecosystems.

  2. Weed-cover versus weed-removal management in olive orchards: influence on the carbon balance at the ecosystem scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Vicente-Vicente, José Luis; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the C budget at the global scale. Traditional practices based on soil tillage and applying herbicides to remove weeds have caused damage to soils and led to important losses of soil organic C and increased CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Changing trends from traditional agriculture to conservation agriculture practices may have an important role in both C and water budgets and the transformation of agriculture from C source to C sink. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of two treatments, weed removal by herbicides versus weed cover conservation, on the C balance in an irrigated olive orchard in SE Spain. Measurements of CO2 exchange were made from October 2014 to September 2015 using two eddy covariance towers, one for each olive crop treatment. Results show that CO2 fluxes at the ecosystem scale were similar in the two treatments during initial conditions, prior to weed growth in the soils without herbicide application (October). During the first week, daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was close to zero in both treatments, with values ranging from 1.06 to -0.41 g C m-2 in the weed cover treatment, and from 0.76 to -0.69 g C m-2 in the weed removal treatment. As weed growth increased, higher net CO2 assimilation was found in the treatment with weed cover. In both treatments, maximum net CO2 assimilation was found in March, with a monthly NEE of -72 and -28 g C m-2 in the treatment with and without weed cover, respectively. In May, after the weeds were cut and left on the soil, a strong increase was observed in NEE in the treatment with weed cover due to decreased CO2 assimilation and increased respiration compared to the treatment without weed cover. Therefore, soil chamber measurements showed average respiration rates of 2.57 and 1.57 μmol m-2 s-2 in the weed cover and weed removal treatment, respectively. Finally, the highest monthly NEE was registered during July, with both treatments showing a similar

  3. The ghost component of the mass balances at the Critical Zone scale: the chemical reactivity of immobile water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsir, K.; Mercury, L.; Azaroual, M.; Coquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is characterized by the duality between mass transport processes such as diffusion and flow of gases, fluids, and solids and localized bio-geochemical interactions especially linked to the "immobile" capillary/adsorbed water. Open questions are towards the role of capillarity onto reactive mechanisms: is there a geochemical signature of capillary water that can change the bio-geochemical balance? The research efforts focused on this issue to develop modeling tools integrating capillary effects at the soil-profile or CZ scale. Water suction gains geochemical significance when ranging from 20 to 200 MPa, meaning high tension and low amount of stretched water with its specific thermophysical properties (Mercury and Tardy, 2001; Mercury et al., 2003; 2004; Pettenati et al., 2008). Therefore, our interest is directed to the dry end of the water retention curve (WRC). The recent model from Silva and Grifoll (2007) proposed a full-range soil-water retention functions, extending the description to the adsorbed films down to the monolayer thickness. At this stage, it becomes possible to evaluate the role of both capillary pockets and adsorbed films at all water content in the geochemical dynamics of non-saturated soils. We developed from that point by fitting the WRC not through a continuous porous network, but through a decomposition into two porous domains (immobile/mobile domains), each with its own potential-water content law. This amounts to treat the WRC according to an intrinsic dual porosity scheme, and make easier to involve chemical effects at each potential-water content couple. A simple test simulation is developed with calcite rock kinetically interacting with immobile and mobile water, themselves connected by diffusive and advective gradients in the limits of the immobile-mobile contact area. The reactive transport simulations are run with HP1 (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005). The mass balance exporting toward groundwater is calculated with

  4. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors. PMID:27630411

  5. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  6. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors. PMID:27630411

  7. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  8. Affective Video Retrieval: Violence Detection in Hollywood Movies by Large-Scale Segmental Feature Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology “out of the lab” to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding “disturbing” scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis. PMID:24391704

  9. Transpiration, water absorption, and internal water balance of cotton plants as affected by light and changes in saturation deficit.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, W L; van Bavel, C H; Nakayama, F S

    1966-01-01

    In controlled environment studies of cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense L.) a light-induced acceleration of transpiration upset the water balance established in the dark because of a lag in water absorption. A plant-water deficit could be generated either by sudden illumination at a given saturation deficit (sd) of the air, or by raising the sd in conjunction with illumination, without different effects.Direct water balance measurements were confirmed in every experiment by beta ray gauge detection of changes in leaf-water content resulting from unequal gain and loss of water by the whole plant.Recovery from the initial loss of turgidity always was faster and more complete at the higher than at the lower values of sd. Recovery occurred even in the light at the higher values of sd, but was enhanced by return to darkness and a lower sd, which at times resulted in superhydration.Rehydration in the light could be attributed to at least 2 processes: A) a diminished transpiration rate if earlier water loss was sufficient to induce stomatal closure, and B) an increased rate of water absorption. The data suggest that a water deficit, temporary or persisting, does not cause a significantly lowered transpiration rate; thus, recovery must depend on increased absorption. The communicative link between the 2 processes appears weak, transmitting strong signals only.

  10. Energy balances of bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, maize, rapeseed) and their CO2-mitigation potential on a regional farm scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felten, D.; Emmerling, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing cultivation of energy crops in agriculture reveals the progressive substitution of fossil fuels, such as crude oil or brown coal. For the future development of renewable resources, the efficiency of different cropping systems will be crucial, as energy crops differ in terms of the energy needed for crop cultivation and refinement and the respective energy yield, e.g. per area. Here, balancing is certainly the most suitable method for the assessment of cropping system efficiency, contrasting energy inputs with energy outputs and the related CO2 emissions with potential CO2 credits due to substitution of fossil fuels, respectively. The aim of the present study was to calculate both energy and CO2 balances for rapeseed and maize, representing the recently most often cultivated energy crops in Germany, on a regional farm scale. Furthermore, special emphasis was made on perennial Miscanthus x giganteus, which is commonly used as a solid fuel for combustion. This C4-grass is of increasing interest due to its high yield potential accompanied by low requirements for soil tillage, weed control, and fertilization as well as long cultivation periods up to 25 years. In contrast to more general approaches, balances were calculated with local data from commercial farms. The site-specific consumption of diesel fuel was calculated using an online-based calculator, developed by the German Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (KTBL). By balancing each of the aforementioned cropping systems, our research focused on (i) the quantification of energy gains and CO2 savings due to fossil fuel substitution and (ii) the assessment of energy efficiency, expressed as the ratio of energy output to input. The energy input was highest for maize sites (33.8 GJ ha-1 yr-1), followed by rapeseed (18.2 GJ ha-1 yr-1), and Miscanthus (1.1 GJ ha-1 yr-1); corresponding energy yields were 129.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (maize), 83.6 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (rapeseed), and 259.7 GJ ha-1 yr-1

  11. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  12. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata α-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata α-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the α-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata α-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  13. What can balance the effort? Associations between effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment, and affective disorders in German teachers.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Dirk; Hillert, Andreas; Keller, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Affective disorders in schoolteachers are a frequent reason for absenteeism and early retirement. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between effort-reward imbalance at work, overcommitment, and affective disorders. In addition, we examined the differential impact of different types of reward (salary, job security/promotion, and esteem). In a matched case-control study of 244 teachers, 122 teachers in inpatient treatment for affective disorders were compared to 122 healthy controls. Logistic regression analyses revealed strong associations between effort-reward imbalance and affective disorders. Overcommitment was not an independent risk factor for depression. The lack of esteem by supervisors or colleagues was a more important risk factor for depression than low salary or job security. Results suggest that perceived esteem is essential in understanding the nature of stress. Interventions for preventing depression in the workplace should address supervisors' and colleagues' skills in adequately appreciating their supervisees and co-workers.

  14. Temporal trends in West Antarctic surface mass balance: do large scale modes of climate contribute to observed records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, M.; Rupper, S.; Williams, J.; Burgener, L. K.; Koenig, L.; Forster, R. R.; Koutnik, M. R.; Skinner, R.; Miege, C.; Brucker, L.

    2013-12-01

    Western Antarctica has been warming significantly at a rate of 0.17× 0.06 degrees C per decade from 1957 to 2006, with the strongest warming in the winter and spring months. Annual accumulation rates in the central WAIS have been decreasing over the same time period, in spite of rising temperatures. This is somewhat unexpected, as saturation vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. One possible explanation of this observation could be related to synoptic-scale modes of climate, principally the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These modes of climate are known to modify the track and strength of storms seasonally, but the true extent of the influence of these modes on accumulation in central WAIS is not well known. This is due, in part, to sparse instrumental weather data which makes it difficult to understand the spatial and temporal variability of the central WAIS Surface Mass Balance (SMB). Firn cores provide an excellent temporal SMB record that can fill this data gap, but are spatially limited. The spatial limitation of individual cores can be remedied by creating a network of firn cores over a region, which overcomes small scale variability and provides a regional representation of SMB over the temporal length of the firn core records. The 2011 Satellite Era Accumulation Traverse (SEAT) adds nine new firn cores (20 m deep, spanning 2010-1981) to existing cores within the same region of the central WAIS to improve the spatial network of regional SMB measurements. SMB is reconstructed from the firn cores, and are compared to simulated accumulation from five climate models and reanalyses datasets. The combination of firn cores and simulated records are used to investigate wether SAM and ENSO significantly influence SMB in the central WAIS. The new suite of cores show a statistically significant negative trend in accumulation during the past three decades, which is consistent with results from the previous cores

  15. SMALL-SCALE PRESSURE-BALANCED STRUCTURES DRIVEN BY MIRROR-MODE WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shuo; He, J.-S.; Tu, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-H.; Marsch, E.

    2013-10-20

    Recently, small-scale pressure-balanced structures (PBSs) have been studied with regard to their dependence on the direction of the local mean magnetic field B{sub 0} . The present work continues these studies by investigating the compressive wave mode forming small PBSs, here for B{sub 0} quasi-perpendicular to the x-axis of Geocentric Solar Ecliptic coordinates (GSE-x). All the data used were measured by WIND in the quiet solar wind. From the distribution of PBSs on the plane determined by the temporal scale and angle θ{sub xB} between the GSE-x and B{sub 0} , we notice that at θ{sub xB} = 115° the PBSs appear at temporal scales ranging from 700 s to 60 s. In the corresponding temporal segment, the correlations between the plasma thermal pressure P{sub th} and the magnetic pressure P{sub B}, as well as that between the proton density N{sub p} and the magnetic field strength B, are investigated. In addition, we use the proton velocity distribution functions to calculate the proton temperatures T and T{sub ∥}. Minimum Variance Analysis is applied to find the magnetic field minimum variance vector B{sub N} . We also study the time variation of the cross-helicity σ{sub c} and the compressibility C{sub p} and compare these with values from numerical predictions for the mirror mode. In this way, we finally identify a short segment that has T > T{sub ∥}, proton β ≅ 1, both pairs of P{sub th}-P{sub B} and N{sub p}-B showing anti-correlation, and σ{sub c} ≈ 0 with C{sub p} > 0. Although the examination of σ{sub c} and C{sub p} is not conclusive, it provides helpful additional information for the wave mode identification. Additionally, B{sub N} is found to be highly oblique to B{sub 0} . Thus, this work suggests that a candidate mechanism for forming small-scale PBSs in the quiet solar wind is due to mirror-mode waves.

  16. Large-scale Particle Simulations for Debris Flows using Dynamic Load Balance on a GPU-rich Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Satori; Aoki, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulations for debris flows including a countless of objects is one of important topics in fluid dynamics and many engineering applications. Particle-based method is a promising approach to carry out the simulations for flows interacting with objects. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to realize a large-scale simulation for fluid-structure interaction by combining SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) method for fluid with DEM (Discrete Element Method) for objects on a multi-GPU system. By applying space filling curves to decomposition of the computational domain, we are able to contain the same number of particles in each decomposed domain. In our implementation, several techniques for particle counting and data movement have been introduced. Fragmentation of the memory used for particles happens during the time-integration and the frequency of de-fragmentation is examined by taking account for computational load balance and the communication cost between CPU and GPU. A link-list technique of the particle interaction is introduced to save the memory drastically. It is found that the sorting of particle data for the neighboring particle list using linked-list method improves the memory access greatly with a certain interval. The weak and strong scalabilities for a SPH simulation using 111 Million particles was measured from 4 GPUs to 512 GPUs for three types of space filling curves. A large-scale debris flow simulation of tsunami with 10,368 floating rubbles using 117 Million particles were successfully carried out with 256 GPUs on the TSUBAME 2.5 supercomputer at Tokyo Institute of Technology.

  17. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  18. Balancing the risks of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation: a twig scale analysis in declining Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Yann; Torres-Ruiz, José M; Poyatos, Rafael; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Meir, Patrick; Cochard, Hervé; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Understanding physiological processes involved in drought-induced mortality is important for predicting the future of forests and for modelling the carbon and water cycles. Recent research has highlighted the variable risks of carbon starvation and hydraulic failure in drought-exposed trees. However, little is known about the specific responses of leaves and supporting twigs, despite their critical role in balancing carbon acquisition and water loss. Comparing healthy (non-defoliated) and unhealthy (defoliated) Scots pine at the same site, we measured the physiological variables involved in regulating carbon and water resources. Defoliated trees showed different responses to summer drought compared with non-defoliated trees. Defoliated trees maintained gas exchange while non-defoliated trees reduced photosynthesis and transpiration during the drought period. At the branch scale, very few differences were observed in non-structural carbohydrate concentrations between health classes. However, defoliated trees tended to have lower water potentials and smaller hydraulic safety margins. While non-defoliated trees showed a typical response to drought for an isohydric species, the physiology appears to be driven in defoliated trees by the need to maintain carbon resources in twigs. These responses put defoliated trees at higher risk of branch hydraulic failure and help explain the interaction between carbon starvation and hydraulic failure in dying trees.

  19. Flux balance analysis of genome-scale metabolic model of rice (Oryza sativa): aiming to increase biomass.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rahul; Kundu, Sudip

    2015-10-01

    Due to socio-economic reasons, it is essential to design efficient stress-tolerant, more nutritious, high yielding rice varieties. A systematic understanding of the rice cellular metabolism is essential for this purpose. Here, we analyse a genome-scale metabolic model of rice leaf using Flux Balance Analysis to investigate whether it has potential metabolic flexibility to increase the biosynthesis of any of the biomass components. We initially simulate the metabolic responses under an objective to maximize the biomass components. Using the estimated maximum value of biomass synthesis as a constraint, we further simulate the metabolic responses optimizing the cellular economy. Depending on the physiological conditions of a cell, the transport capacities of intracellular transporters (ICTs) can vary. To mimic this physiological state, we randomly vary the ICTs' transport capacities and investigate their effects. The results show that the rice leaf has the potential to increase glycine and starch in a wide range depending on the ICTs' transport capacities. The predicted biosynthesis pathways vary slightly at the two different optimization conditions. With the constraint of biomass composition, the cell also has the metabolic plasticity to fix a wide range of carbon-nitrogen ratio.

  20. Mass balance for POPs in a real scale fluidized bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, J; Block, C; Vermeulen, I; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

    2010-09-15

    The European directive 2000/53/EC implies a "reuse and recovery" rate for end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) of 95% to be reached by the year 2015. One of the options to increase the actual average European "reuse and recovery" rate of approximately 78% (EU 15, 2008) is incineration of automotive shredder residue (ASR) with energy-recovery. The mass balance and the congener fingerprints for PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, PCBs and PAHs in a real scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC) incinerating 25% ASR with 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 50% waste water treatment sludge (WWT sludge) were investigated. The PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB, PCB and PAH concentrations in this input waste mix were more than hundred times higher than in the usual waste feed of the incinerator (30% RFD and 70% WWT sludge). In the outputs of the FBC, however, the concentrations of these POP groups were comparable or only slightly higher than in the outputs generated during the incineration of the usual waste feed. The considered POPs in the waste were destroyed efficiently and the formation of new POPs during cooling of the flue gas appeared to a large extent independent of the POP concentrations in the incinerated waste.

  1. Balancing the risks of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation: a twig scale analysis in declining Scots pine

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Ruiz, José M.; Poyatos, Rafael; Martinez‐Vilalta, Jordi; Meir, Patrick; Cochard, Hervé; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding physiological processes involved in drought‐induced mortality is important for predicting the future of forests and for modelling the carbon and water cycles. Recent research has highlighted the variable risks of carbon starvation and hydraulic failure in drought‐exposed trees. However, little is known about the specific responses of leaves and supporting twigs, despite their critical role in balancing carbon acquisition and water loss. Comparing healthy (non‐defoliated) and unhealthy (defoliated) Scots pine at the same site, we measured the physiological variables involved in regulating carbon and water resources. Defoliated trees showed different responses to summer drought compared with non‐defoliated trees. Defoliated trees maintained gas exchange while non‐defoliated trees reduced photosynthesis and transpiration during the drought period. At the branch scale, very few differences were observed in non‐structural carbohydrate concentrations between health classes. However, defoliated trees tended to have lower water potentials and smaller hydraulic safety margins. While non‐defoliated trees showed a typical response to drought for an isohydric species, the physiology appears to be driven in defoliated trees by the need to maintain carbon resources in twigs. These responses put defoliated trees at higher risk of branch hydraulic failure and help explain the interaction between carbon starvation and hydraulic failure in dying trees. PMID:25997464

  2. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  3. Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of Turkish Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale in Patients with Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karapolat, Hale; Eyigor, Sibel; Kirazli, Yesim; Celebisoy, Nese; Bilgen, Cem; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and sensitivity to change of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) in people with peripheral vestibular disorder. Thirty-three patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular disease were included in the study. Patients were…

  4. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of a 10-Item Decisional Balance Scale: Longitudinal and Subgroup Examination within an Adult Diabetic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Michael A.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal and subgroup measurement properties of a 10-item, physical activity decisional balance scale, previously published by Plotnikoff, Blanchard, Hotz, and Rhodes (2001), within a diabetic sample of Canadian adults. Results indicated that a three-factor measurement model consistently improved model fit compared to…

  5. Larger plantar flexion torque variability implies less stable balance in the young: an association affected by knee position.

    PubMed

    Mello, Emanuele Moraes; Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Kohn, André Fabio

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the association between plantar flexion torque variability during isolated isometric contractions and during quiet bipedal standing. For plantar flexion torque measurements in quiet stance (QS), subjects stood still over a force plate. The mean plantar flexion torque level exerted by each subject in QS (divided by 2 to give the torque due to a single leg) served as the target torque level for right leg force-matching tasks in extended knee (KE) and flexed knee (KF) conditions. Muscle activation levels (EMG amplitudes) of the triceps surae and mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation of plantar flexion torque were computed from signals acquired during periods with and without visual feedback. No significant correlations were found between EMG amplitudes and torque variability, regardless of the condition and muscle being analyzed. A significant correlation was found between torque variability in QS and KE, whereas no significant correlation was found between torque variability in QS and KF, regardless of vision availability. Therefore, torque variability measured in a controlled extended knee plantar flexion contraction is a predictor of torque variability in the anterior-posterior direction when the subjects are in quiet standing. In other words, larger plantar flexion torque variability in KE (but not in KF) implies less stable balance. The mechanisms underlying the findings above are probably associated with the similar proprioceptive feedback from the triceps surae in QS and KE and poorer proprioceptive feedback from the triceps surae in KF due to the slackening of the gastrocnemii. An additional putative mechanism includes the different torque contributions of each component of the triceps surae in the two knee angles. From a clinical and research standpoint, it would be advantageous to be able to estimate changes in balance ability by means of simple measurements of torque variability in a force matching task.

  6. Scaling up nutrition in fragile and conflict-affected states: the pivotal role of governance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sebastian A J; Perez-Ferrer, Carolina; Griffiths, Andrew; Brunner, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Acute and chronic undernutrition undermine conditions for health, stability and socioeconomic development across the developing world. Although fragile and conflict-affected states have some of the highest rates of undernutrition globally, their response to the multilateral 'Scaling Up Nutrition' (SUN) initiative in its first two-year period was ambivalent. The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting fragile and conflict-affected states' engagement with SUN, and to examine what differentiated those fragile states that joined SUN in its first phase from those that did not. Drawing on global databases (Unicef, World Bank, UNDP), and qualitative country case studies (Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Pakistan and Yemen) we used bivariate logistic regressions and principal component analysis to assess social, economic and political factors across 41 fragile states looking for systematic differences between those that had signed up to SUN before March 2013 (n = 16), and those that had not (n = 25). While prevalence of malnutrition, health system functioning and level of citizen empowerment had little or no impact on a fragile state's likelihood of joining SUN, the quality of governance (QOG) strongly predicted accession. SUN-signatory fragile states scored systematically better on the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) and the Worldwide Governance Indicators 'effectiveness of government' indices. We conclude that strengthening governance in fragile states may enhance their engagement with initiatives such as SUN, but also (recognising the potential for endogeneity), that the way aid is structured and delivered in fragile states may be an underlying determinant of whether and how governance in such contexts improves. The research demonstrates that more nuanced analysis of conditions within and among countries classed as 'fragile and conflict-affected' is both possible and necessary if aid

  7. Subterranean ventilation: a key but poorly known process affecting the carbon balance of semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Ballesteros, Ana; Sánchez Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano Ortiz, Penélope; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Subterranean ventilation, conceived as the advective transport of CO2-rich air from the vadose zone to the atmosphere through a porous media (i.e. soil or snow; Sánchez-Cañete et al., 2013), has arisen as an important process contributing to the carbon (C) balance of Mediterranean ecosystems (Kowalski et al., 2008; Sánchez-Cañete et al., 2011; Serrano-Ortiz et al., 2014), apart from other well-known biotic processes (i.e. plant photosynthesis, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration). Recent studies have linked this subterranean CO2 release to fluctuations in the friction velocity or wind speed under drought conditions when water-free soil pores enable air transport (Rey et al., 2012a, 2013), however, barometric pressure variations has been suggested as another important driver (Sánchez-Cañete et al., 2013). In this study, we investigate this process in newly studied semi-arid grassland located in SE Spain, as the ideal ecosystem to do so given the great length of the dry season and the slight biotic activity limited to the winter season. Preliminary results, based on unpublished analyzed eddy covariance data and subterranean CO2 molar fraction measurements, confirm the presence of ventilation events from May to October for seven years 2009-2015. During these events, increases in the friction velocity correlates with sizeable CO2 emissions of up to ca.10 μmol m‑2 s‑1, and CO2 molar fraction regularly drops 2000-3000 ppm just after the turbulence peak, at several depths below the soil surface (0.15 and 1.5 m). Additionally, during the driest period (July-August), the friction velocity explains from 37% to 57% of the net C emission variability. On the other hand, the model residuals do not show a significant relationship, neither with air pressure nor with soil water content. Overall, the results found in this newly monitored site demonstrate, as shown by past research, the relevance of subterranean ventilation as a key process in the C balance of

  8. Subterranean ventilation: a key but poorly known process affecting the carbon balance of semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Ballesteros, Ana; Sánchez Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano Ortiz, Penélope; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Subterranean ventilation, conceived as the advective transport of CO2-rich air from the vadose zone to the atmosphere through a porous media (i.e. soil or snow; Sánchez-Cañete et al., 2013), has arisen as an important process contributing to the carbon (C) balance of Mediterranean ecosystems (Kowalski et al., 2008; Sánchez-Cañete et al., 2011; Serrano-Ortiz et al., 2014), apart from other well-known biotic processes (i.e. plant photosynthesis, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration). Recent studies have linked this subterranean CO2 release to fluctuations in the friction velocity or wind speed under drought conditions when water-free soil pores enable air transport (Rey et al., 2012a, 2013), however, barometric pressure variations has been suggested as another important driver (Sánchez-Cañete et al., 2013). In this study, we investigate this process in newly studied semi-arid grassland located in SE Spain, as the ideal ecosystem to do so given the great length of the dry season and the slight biotic activity limited to the winter season. Preliminary results, based on unpublished analyzed eddy covariance data and subterranean CO2 molar fraction measurements, confirm the presence of ventilation events from May to October for seven years 2009-2015. During these events, increases in the friction velocity correlates with sizeable CO2 emissions of up to ca.10 μmol m-2 s-1, and CO2 molar fraction regularly drops 2000-3000 ppm just after the turbulence peak, at several depths below the soil surface (0.15 and 1.5 m). Additionally, during the driest period (July-August), the friction velocity explains from 37% to 57% of the net C emission variability. On the other hand, the model residuals do not show a significant relationship, neither with air pressure nor with soil water content. Overall, the results found in this newly monitored site demonstrate, as shown by past research, the relevance of subterranean ventilation as a key process in the C balance of

  9. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids as free fatty acids and triacylglycerols similarly affect body composition and energy balance in mice.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H M; Javadi, M; Beynen, A C; Kocsis, S; Lankhorst, A E; Lemmens, A G; Mohede, I C M

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as triacylglycerols (TAG) or free fatty acids (FFA) on body composition and energy balance in mice. We fed four groups of 5-wk-old Balb-C mice (n = 9) semipurified diets containing either CLA (0.5 g CLA/100 g of diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSF) in the form of FFA or TAG for 42 d. Body composition was determined and the energy in the carcasses, excreta and food was measured in a bomb calorimeter. The amount of body fat was 4.72 +/- 0.95 g (17.9 +/- 2.8%) in the HOSF-FFA group, 2.36 +/- 0.29 g (9.4 +/- 1.0%) in the CLA-FFA mice (mean +/- SD, P < 0.05), 4.76 +/- 0.74 g (18.2 +/- 2.2%) in the HOSF-TAG group and 2.32 +/- 0.38 g (9.3 +/- 1.1%) in the CLA-TAG mice (P < 0.05). The percentage of energy intake that was stored in the body was 3.5 +/- 1.2% in the HOSF-FFA group, 0.6 +/- 0.3% in the CLA-FFA group (P < 0.05), 3.5 +/- 1.1% in the HOSF-TAG group and 0.5 +/- 0.4 in the CLA-TAG mice (P < 0.05). Conversely, the percentage of energy intake that was expended as heat was 89.4 +/- 1.2% in the HOSF-FFA group, 92.4 +/- 0.8% in the CLA-FFA mice (P < 0.05), 89.47 +/- 1.23% in the HOSF-TAG group and 92.2 +/- 0.4% in the CLA-TAG group (P < 0.05). Thus, CLA in the form of FFA or TAG had similar effects on body composition and energy balance.

  10. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids as free fatty acids and triacylglycerols similarly affect body composition and energy balance in mice.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H M; Javadi, M; Beynen, A C; Kocsis, S; Lankhorst, A E; Lemmens, A G; Mohede, I C M

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as triacylglycerols (TAG) or free fatty acids (FFA) on body composition and energy balance in mice. We fed four groups of 5-wk-old Balb-C mice (n = 9) semipurified diets containing either CLA (0.5 g CLA/100 g of diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSF) in the form of FFA or TAG for 42 d. Body composition was determined and the energy in the carcasses, excreta and food was measured in a bomb calorimeter. The amount of body fat was 4.72 +/- 0.95 g (17.9 +/- 2.8%) in the HOSF-FFA group, 2.36 +/- 0.29 g (9.4 +/- 1.0%) in the CLA-FFA mice (mean +/- SD, P < 0.05), 4.76 +/- 0.74 g (18.2 +/- 2.2%) in the HOSF-TAG group and 2.32 +/- 0.38 g (9.3 +/- 1.1%) in the CLA-TAG mice (P < 0.05). The percentage of energy intake that was stored in the body was 3.5 +/- 1.2% in the HOSF-FFA group, 0.6 +/- 0.3% in the CLA-FFA group (P < 0.05), 3.5 +/- 1.1% in the HOSF-TAG group and 0.5 +/- 0.4 in the CLA-TAG mice (P < 0.05). Conversely, the percentage of energy intake that was expended as heat was 89.4 +/- 1.2% in the HOSF-FFA group, 92.4 +/- 0.8% in the CLA-FFA mice (P < 0.05), 89.47 +/- 1.23% in the HOSF-TAG group and 92.2 +/- 0.4% in the CLA-TAG group (P < 0.05). Thus, CLA in the form of FFA or TAG had similar effects on body composition and energy balance. PMID:14519807

  11. Thyroid status affects membranes susceptibility to free radicals and oxidative balance in skeletal muscle of Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Romestaing, Caroline; Bodennec, Jacques; Dumet, Adeline; Fongy, Anaïs; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are major contributor to oxidative stress in mammals because they (1) stimulate reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), (2) impair antioxidant defenses, and (3) increase the susceptibility to free radicals of most tissues. Unlike mammals, THs seem to diminish mitochondrial ROS while they have limited effect on the antioxidant machinery in birds. However, how THs modify the susceptibility to ROS has never been explored in an avian model, and very little is known about their effect on oxidative balance in birds. Therefore, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of chronic pharmacological hypo- and hyperthyroidism on (i) the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to ROS; and (ii) the level of oxidative stress assessed by measuring oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle of ducklings. We show that hypothyroidism had no effect on the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to free radicals. Hypothyroid ducklings had lower oxidized lipids (-31%) and DNA (-25%) but a similar level of protein carbonylation relative to controls. Conversely, mitochondrial membranes of hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited higher unsaturation (+12%) and peroxidation (+31%) indexes than in controls indicating a greater susceptibility to free radicals. However, hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited more oxidative damages on proteins (+67%) only, whereas lipid damages remained unchanged, and there was a slight reduction (-15%) in damages to DNA compared to euthyroid controls. Our results indicate that birds and mammals present fundamental differences in their oxidative stress response to thyroid status.

  12. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25766381

  13. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  14. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga Toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Luciana; Pinto, Alipio; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia A; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Brener, Gabriela J; Goldstein, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic-uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood-brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test), and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope). Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group), sub-lethal dose of 0.5 and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n = 6). Blood-brain barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1 ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance.

  15. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  16. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga Toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Luciana; Pinto, Alipio; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia A; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Brener, Gabriela J; Goldstein, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic-uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood-brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test), and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope). Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group), sub-lethal dose of 0.5 and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n = 6). Blood-brain barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1 ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance. PMID:26904009

  17. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga Toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cytoarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Alipio; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Brener, Gabriela J.; Goldstein, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic–uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood–brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test), and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope). Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group), sub-lethal dose of 0.5 and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n = 6). Blood–brain barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1 ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance. PMID:26904009

  18. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-01

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  19. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  20. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    PubMed

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings. PMID:18444095

  1. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality. PMID:25945619

  2. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    PubMed

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  3. Alzheimer’s disease: relevant molecular and physiopathological events affecting amyloid-β brain balance and the putative role of PPARs

    PubMed Central

    Zolezzi, Juan M.; Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Santos, Manuel J.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia. With the expected aging of the human population, the estimated morbidity of AD suggests a critical upcoming health problem. Several lines of research are focused on understanding AD pathophysiology, and although the etiology of the disease remains a matter of intense debate, increased brain levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) appear to be a critical event in triggering a wide range of molecular alterations leading to AD. It has become evident in recent years that an altered balance between production and clearance is responsible for the accumulation of brain Aβ. Moreover, Aβ clearance is a complex event that involves more than neurons and microglia. The status of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus, along with hepatic functionality, should be considered when Aβ balance is addressed. Furthermore, it has been proposed that exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of metals, such as copper, could both directly affect these secondary structures and act as a seeding or nucleation core that facilitates Aβ aggregation. Recently, we have addressed peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-related mechanisms, including the direct modulation of mitochondrial dynamics through the PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) axis and the crosstalk with critical aging- and neurodegenerative-related cellular pathways. In the present review, we revise the current knowledge regarding the molecular aspects of Aβ production and clearance and provide a physiological context that gives a more complete view of this issue. Additionally, we consider the different structures involved in AD-altered Aβ brain balance, which could be directly or indirectly affected by a nuclear receptor (NR)/PPAR-related mechanism. PMID:25120477

  4. Testing Different Versions of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales in a Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geir, Pedersen; Selsbakk, Johansen Merete; Theresa, Wilberg; Sigmund, Karterud

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tool to investigate the experiences of six primary emotions, Davis, Panksepp, and Normansell [1] developed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). However, the psychometric properties of the ANPS have been questioned, and in particular the factor structure. This study replicates earlier psychometric studies on ANPS in a sample of (546) personality disordered patients, and also includes ANPS-S, a recent short version of ANPS by Pingault and colleagues [2], and a truncated version of BANPS by Barrett and colleagues [3]. Methodology/Principal Findings The study of the full ANPS revealed acceptable internal consistencies of the primary emotion subscales, ranging from 0.74–0.87. However, factor analyses revealed poor to mediocre fit for a six factor solution. Correlational analyses, in addition, revealed too high correlations between PLAY and SEEK, and between SADNESS and FEAR. The two short versions displayed better psychometric properties. The range of internal consistency was 0.61–0.80 for the BANPS scales and 0.65–84 for the ANPS-S. Backward Cronbach Alpha Curves indicated potentials for improvement on all three versions of the questionnaire. Items retained in the short versions did not systematically cover the full theoretical content of the long scales, in particular for CARE and SADNESS in the BANPS. The major problems seem to reside in the operationalization of the CARE and SADNESS subscales of ANPS. Conclusions/Significance Further work needs to be done in order to realize a psychometrically sound instrument for the assessment of primary emotional experiences. PMID:25289939

  5. Large-Scale Land Acquisition and Its Effects on the Water Balance in Investor and Host Countries.

    PubMed

    Breu, Thomas; Bader, Christoph; Messerli, Peter; Heinimann, Andreas; Rist, Stephan; Eckert, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as 'water grabbing'. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources--such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia--invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk.

  6. Large-Scale Land Acquisition and Its Effects on the Water Balance in Investor and Host Countries.

    PubMed

    Breu, Thomas; Bader, Christoph; Messerli, Peter; Heinimann, Andreas; Rist, Stephan; Eckert, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as 'water grabbing'. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources--such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia--invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk. PMID:26943794

  7. Century-scale patterns and trends of global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on terrestrial carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Fires have consumed a large amount of terrestrial organic carbon and significantly influenced terrestrial ecosystems and the physical climate system over the past century. Although biomass burning has been widely investigated at a global level in recent decades via satellite observations, less work has been conducted to examine the century-scale changes in global fire regimes and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon balance. In this study, we investigated global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon fluxes from 1901 to 2010 by using a process-based land ecosystem model. Our results show a significant declining trend in global pyrogenic carbon emissions between the early 20th century and the mid-1980s but a significant upward trend between the mid-1980s and the 2000s as a result of more frequent fires in ecosystems with high carbon storage, such as peatlands and tropical forests. Over the past 110 years, average pyrogenic carbon emissions were estimated to be 2.43 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg = 1015 g), and global average combustion rate (defined as carbon emissions per unit area burned) was 537.85 g C m-2 burned area. Due to the impacts of fires, the net primary productivity and carbon sink of global terrestrial ecosystems were reduced by 4.14 Pg C yr-1 and 0.57 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Our study suggests that special attention should be paid to fire activities in the peatlands and tropical forests in the future. Practical management strategies, such as minimizing forest logging and reducing the rate of cropland expansion in the humid regions, are in need to reduce fire risk and mitigate fire-induced greenhouse gases emissions.

  8. Large-Scale Land Acquisition and Its Effects on the Water Balance in Investor and Host Countries

    PubMed Central

    Breu, Thomas; Bader, Christoph; Messerli, Peter; Heinimann, Andreas; Rist, Stephan; Eckert, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as ‘water grabbing’. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources—such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia—invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk. PMID:26943794

  9. Dietary calcium concentration and cereals differentially affect mineral balance and tight junction proteins expression in jejunum of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Mann, Evelyne; Ertl, Reinhard; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Wagner, Martin; Klein, Dieter; Ritzmann, Mathias; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-04-14

    Ca plays an essential role in bone development; however, little is known about its effect on intestinal gene expression in juvenile animals. In the present study, thirty-two weaned pigs (9·5 (SEM 0·11) kg) were assigned to four diets that differed in Ca concentration (adequate v. high) and cereal composition (wheat-barley v. maize) to assess the jejunal and colonic gene expression of nutrient transporters, tight junction proteins, cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, nutrient digestibility, Ca balance and serum acute-phase response. To estimate the impact of mucosal bacteria on colonic gene expression, Spearman's correlations between colonic gene expression and bacterial abundance were computed. Faecal Ca excretion indicated that more Ca was available along the intestinal tract of the pigs fed high Ca diets as compared to the pigs fed adequate Ca diets (P> 0.05). High Ca diets decreased jejunal zonula occludens 1 (ZO1) and occludin (OCLN) expression, up-regulated jejunal expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and down-regulated colonic GLUT2 expression as compared to the adequate Ca diets (P< 0.05). Dietary cereal composition up-regulated jejunal TLR2 expression and interacted (P= 0.021) with dietary Ca on colonic IL1B expression; high Ca concentration up-regulated IL1B expression with wheat-barley diets and down-regulated it with maize diets. Spearman's correlations (r> 0·35; P< 0·05) indicated an association between operational taxonomic units assigned to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and bacterial metabolites and mucosal gene expression in the colon. The present results indicate that high Ca diets have the potential to modify the jejunal and colonic mucosal gene expression response which, in turn, interacts with the composition of the basal diet and mucosa-associated bacteria in weaned pigs. PMID:25761471

  10. Analysis of confidence in continental-scale groundwater recharge estimates for Africa using a distributed water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Mansour, Majdi; Bonsor, Helen; Pachocka, Magdalena; Wang, Lei; MacDonald, Alan; Macdonald, David; Bloomfield, John

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing need for improved access to reliable water in Africa as population and food production increases. Currently approximately 300 million people do not have access to a secure source of safe drinking water. To meet these current and future demands, groundwater will need to be increasingly abstracted; groundwater is more reliable than surface water sources due to its relatively long response time to meteorological stresses and therefore is likely to be a more secure water resource in a more variable climate. Recent studies also quantified the volumes of groundwater potentially available which suggest that, if exploited, groundwater could help to meet the demand for fresh water. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to how these resources may respond in the future due to changes in groundwater recharge and abstraction. Understanding and quantifying groundwater recharge is vital as it forms a primary indicator of the sustainability of underlying groundwater resources. Computational hydrological models provide a means to do this, but the complexity of recharge processes in Africa mean that these simulations are often highly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate our confidence in simulating groundwater recharge over Africa based on a sensitivity analysis using a distributed hydrological model developed by the British Geological Survey, ZOODRM. The model includes land surface, canopy, river, soil and groundwater components. Each component is able to exchange water and as such, forms a distributed water balance of Africa. The components have been parameterised using available spatial datasets of African vegetation, land-use, soil and hydrogeology while the remaining parameters have been estimated by calibrating the model to available river flow data. Continental-scale gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets, based on remotely sensed and ground observations, have been used to force the model. Following calibration, the

  11. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin scale bulb explants on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 μM BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) plus 2.685, 5.37, 10.74 μM NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid). Maximum number of 19 daughter axillary bulblets and 16 daughter adventitious bulblets per twin bulb scale explant was regenerated on 1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA and 17.76 μM BAP plus 2.685 μM NAA respectively. The daughter bulblets regenerated on twin bulb scales on 8 out of 9 regeneration treatment could be easily rooted on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.9 μM IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). The daughter bulblets regenerated on 9th treatment (1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA) were transferred to 1.0 × MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose to break negative carry over effect of this dose of BAP-NAA, where they grew 2-3 roots of variable length. Daughter bulblet diameter was increased by culturing them on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44 μM BAP plus 5.37 μM NAA. The results verified that both age and the source of explants had significant effect on regeneration. In another set of experiments, twin scales were obtained from in vitro regenerated daughter bulblets, although they induced bulblets, yet their bulblet regeneration percentage, mean number of bulblets per explant and their diameter were significantly reduced. In vitro regenerated bulblets were acclimatized in growth chamber under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity on

  12. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin scale bulb explants on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 μM BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) plus 2.685, 5.37, 10.74 μM NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid). Maximum number of 19 daughter axillary bulblets and 16 daughter adventitious bulblets per twin bulb scale explant was regenerated on 1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA and 17.76 μM BAP plus 2.685 μM NAA respectively. The daughter bulblets regenerated on twin bulb scales on 8 out of 9 regeneration treatment could be easily rooted on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.9 μM IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). The daughter bulblets regenerated on 9th treatment (1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA) were transferred to 1.0 × MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose to break negative carry over effect of this dose of BAP-NAA, where they grew 2-3 roots of variable length. Daughter bulblet diameter was increased by culturing them on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44 μM BAP plus 5.37 μM NAA. The results verified that both age and the source of explants had significant effect on regeneration. In another set of experiments, twin scales were obtained from in vitro regenerated daughter bulblets, although they induced bulblets, yet their bulblet regeneration percentage, mean number of bulblets per explant and their diameter were significantly reduced. In vitro regenerated bulblets were acclimatized in growth chamber under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity on

  13. Voluntary drinking behaviour, fluid balance and psychological affect when ingesting water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of drink composition on voluntary intake, hydration status, selected physiological responses and affective states during simulated gymnasium-based exercise. In a randomised counterbalanced design, 12 physically active adults performed three 20-min intervals of cardiovascular exercise at 75% heart rate maximum, one 20-min period of resistance exercise and 20 min of recovery with ad libitum access to water (W), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) or with no access to fluids (NF). Fluid intake was greater with CES than W (1706±157 vs. 1171±152 mL; P<0.01) and more adequate hydration was achieved in CES trials (NF vs. W vs. CES: -1668±73 vs. -700±99 vs. -273±78 g; P<0.01). Plasma glucose concentrations were highest with CES (CES vs. NF vs. W: 4.26±0.12 vs. 4.06±0.08 vs. 3.97±0.10 mmol/L; P<0.05). Pleasure ratings were better maintained with ad libitum intake of CES (CES vs. NF vs. W: 2.72±0.23 vs. 1.09±0.20 vs. 1.74±0.33; P<0.01). Under conditions of voluntary drinking, CES resulted in more adequate hydration and a better maintenance of affective states than W or NF during gymnasium-based exercise.

  14. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Huyen, N T; Desrues, O; Alferink, S J J; Zandstra, T; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-05-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow rations in northwestern Europe is still relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sainfoin silage on nutrient digestibility, animal performance, energy and N utilization, and CH4 production. Six rumen-cannulated, lactating dairy cows with a metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of 132.5±3.6kg were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or a sainfoin (SAIN)-based diet over 2 experimental periods of 25 d each in a crossover design. The CON diet was a mixture of grass silage, corn silage, concentrate, and linseed. In the SAIN diet, 50% of grass silage dry matter (DM) of the CON diet was exchanged for sainfoin silage. The cows were adapted to 95% of ad libitum feed intake for a 21-d period before being housed in climate-controlled respiration chambers for 4 d, during which time feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N and energy balance, and CH4 production was determined. Data were analyzed using a mixed model procedure. Total daily DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber intake did not differ between the 2 diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were, respectively, 5.7, 4.0, 15.7, and 14.8% lower for the SAIN diet. Methane production per kilogram of DM intake was lowest for the SAIN diet, CH4 production as a percentage of gross energy intake tended to be lower, and milk yield was greater for the SAIN diet. Nitrogen intake, N retention, and energy retained in body protein were greater for the SAIN than for the CON diet. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of N intake tended to be greater for the SAIN diet. These results suggest that inclusion of sainfoin

  15. Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (λ= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net

  16. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  17. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01–0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20–20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  18. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  19. Balancing Protein Stability and Activity in Cancer: A New Approach for Identifying Driver Mutations Affecting CBL Ubiquitin Ligase Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghui; Kales, Stephen C; Ma, Ke; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Cangelosi, Andrew L; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Panchenko, Anna R

    2016-02-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the monomeric Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) gene have been found in many tumors, but their significance remains largely unknown. Several human c-Cbl (CBL) structures have recently been solved, depicting the protein at different stages of its activation cycle and thus providing mechanistic insight underlying how stability-activity tradeoffs in cancer-related proteins-may influence disease onset and progression. In this study, we computationally modeled the effects of missense cancer mutations on structures representing four stages of the CBL activation cycle to identify driver mutations that affect CBL stability, binding, and activity. We found that recurrent, homozygous, and leukemia-specific mutations had greater destabilizing effects on CBL states than random noncancer mutations. We further tested the ability of these computational models, assessing the changes in CBL stability and its binding to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, by performing blind CBL-mediated EGFR ubiquitination assays in cells. Experimental CBL ubiquitin ligase activity was in agreement with the predicted changes in CBL stability and, to a lesser extent, with CBL-E2 binding affinity. Two thirds of all experimentally tested mutations affected the ubiquitin ligase activity by either destabilizing CBL or disrupting CBL-E2 binding, whereas about one-third of tested mutations were found to be neutral. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that computational methods incorporating multiple protein conformations and stability and binding affinity evaluations can successfully predict the functional consequences of cancer mutations on protein activity, and provide a proof of concept for mutations in CBL. PMID:26676746

  20. Large-scale brain networks are distinctly affected in right and left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Brunno Machado; Coan, Ana Carolina; Lin Yasuda, Clarissa; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampus sclerosis (HS) is associated with functional and structural alterations extending beyond the temporal regions and abnormal pattern of brain resting state networks (RSNs) connectivity. We hypothesized that the interaction of large-scale RSNs is differently affected in patients with right- and left-MTLE with HS compared to controls. We aimed to determine and characterize these alterations through the analysis of 12 RSNs, functionally parceled in 70 regions of interest (ROIs), from resting-state functional-MRIs of 99 subjects (52 controls, 26 right- and 21 left-MTLE patients with HS). Image preprocessing and statistical analysis were performed using UF(2) C-toolbox, which provided ROI-wise results for intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Intranetwork abnormalities were observed in the dorsal default mode network (DMN) in both groups of patients and in the posterior salience network in right-MTLE. Both groups showed abnormal correlation between the dorsal-DMN and the posterior salience, as well as between the dorsal-DMN and the executive-control network. Patients with left-MTLE also showed reduced correlation between the dorsal-DMN and visuospatial network and increased correlation between bilateral thalamus and the posterior salience network. The ipsilateral hippocampus stood out as a central area of abnormalities. Alterations on left-MTLE expressed a low cluster coefficient, whereas the altered connections on right-MTLE showed low cluster coefficient in the DMN but high in the posterior salience regions. Both right- and left-MTLE patients with HS have widespread abnormal interactions of large-scale brain networks; however, all parameters evaluated indicate that left-MTLE has a more intricate bihemispheric dysfunction compared to right-MTLE. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3137-3152, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Parameterizing a Large-scale Water Balance Model in Regions with Sparse Data: The Tigris-Euphrates River Basins as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    The characterization of hydrologic response to current and future climates is of increasing importance to many countries around the world that rely heavily on changing and uncertain water supplies. Large-scale models that can calculate a spatially distributed water balance and elucidate groundwater recharge and surface water flows for large river basins provide a basis of estimates of changes due to future climate projections. Unfortunately many regions in the world have very sparse data for parameterization or calibration of hydrologic models. For this study, the Tigris and Euphrates River basins were used for the development of a regional water balance model at 180-m spatial scale, using the Basin Characterization Model, to estimate historical changes in groundwater recharge and surface water flows in the countries of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. Necessary input parameters include precipitation, air temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil properties and thickness, and estimates of bulk permeability from geologic units. Data necessary for calibration includes snow cover, reservoir volumes (from satellite data and historic, pre-reservoir elevation data) and streamflow measurements. Global datasets for precipitation, air temperature, and PET were available at very large spatial scales (50 km) through the world scale databases, finer scale WorldClim climate data, and required downscaling to fine scales for model input. Soils data were available through world scale soil maps but required parameterization on the basis of textural data to estimate soil hydrologic properties. Soil depth was interpreted from geomorphologic interpretation and maps of quaternary deposits, and geologic materials were categorized from generalized geologic maps of each country. Estimates of bedrock permeability were made on the basis of literature and data on driller’s logs and adjusted during calibration of the model to streamflow measurements where available

  2. Ocean acidification affects redox-balance and ion-homeostasis in the life-cycle stages of Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO(2) partial pressures (pCO(2); 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO(2)) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be

  3. Ocean Acidification Affects Redox-Balance and Ion-Homeostasis in the Life-Cycle Stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Rokitta, Sebastian D.; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO2 partial pressures (pCO2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO2) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be attributed

  4. Evaluation of different interpolation schemes for precipitation and reference evapotranspiration and the impact on simulated large-scale water balance in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qianwen; Molkenthin, Frank; Wendland, Frank; Herrmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) are two main climate input components for hydrological models, which are often recorded or calculated based on measuring stations. Interpolation schemes are implemented to regionalize data from measuring stations for distributed hydrological models. This study had been conducted for 5 months, with the aim of: (1) evaluating three interpolation schemes for precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0); (2) assessing the impact of the interpolation schemes on actual evapotranspiration and total runoff simulated by a distributed large-scale water balance model - mGROWA. The study case was the Republic of Slovenia, including a high variability in topography and climatic conditions, with daily meteorological data measured in 20 stations for a period of 44 years. ET0 were computed by both FAO Penman-Monteith equation and Hargreaves equation. The former equation is recommended as the standard equation, while the ET0 calculated by the latter one for Slovenia had a certain deviation (+150 mm/a) from it. Ordinary Kriging, Regression Kriging and Linear Regression were selected to regionalize precipitation and ET0. Reliability of the three interpolation schemes had been assessed based on the residual obtained from cross-validation. Monthly regionalized precipitation and ET0 were subsequently used as climate input for mGROWA model simulation. Evaluation of the interpolation schemes showed that the application of Regression Kriging and Linear Regression led to an acceptable interpolation result for reference evapotranspiration, especially in case the FAO Penman-Monteith equation was used. On the other hand, Regression Kriging also provided a more convincing interpolated result for precipitation. Meanwhile, mGROWA simulation results were affected by climate input data sets generated by applying difference interpolation schemes. Therefore, it is essential to select an appropriate interpolation scheme, in order to generate

  5. The Facial Affective Scale as a Predictor for Pain Unpleasantness When Children Undergo Immunizations

    PubMed Central

    Finnström, Berit; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2014-01-01

    Needle fear is a common problem in children undergoing immunization. To ensure that the individual child's needs are met during a painful procedure it would be beneficial to be able to predict whether there is a need for extra support. The self-reporting instrument facial affective scale (FAS) could have potential for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the FAS can predict pain unpleasantness in girls undergoing immunization. Girls, aged 11-12 years, reported their expected pain unpleasantness on the FAS at least two weeks before and then experienced pain unpleasantness immediately before each vaccination. The experienced pain unpleasantness during the vaccination was also reported immediately after each immunization. The level of anxiety was similarly assessed during each vaccination and supplemented with stress measures in relation to the procedure in order to assess and evaluate concurrent validity. The results show that the FAS is valid to predict pain unpleasantness in 11-12-year-old girls who undergo immunizations and that it has the potential to be a feasible instrument to identify children who are in need of extra support to cope with immunization. In conclusion, the FAS measurement can facilitate caring interventions. PMID:24734174

  6. Strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings affecting standing balance on an inclined plane in spastic cerebral palsy. A study using a geometric model.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Mita, K; Watakabe, M; Akataki, K; Okagawa, T; Kimizuka, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an non-invasive method to determine whether strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings influences postural balance in spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Changes in alignment during standing posture with subjects positioned on a platform that was gradually inclined were measured in 10 normal children and 11 children with CP. The changes in postural alignment were plotted and geometric models used to determine the lines where the gastrocnemii and hamstrings were maximally stretched. In this way the relationship between postural alignment and the amount of strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings was investigated. On the inclined platform, which caused ankle joints to become dorsiflexed as the inclination angle increased, the gastrocnemii began to be strained and the hip joints began to be flexed (trunk bent forward) at the same time. In the children with CP, the gastrocnemii were more strained by smaller degrees of inclination. Furthermore, there was one child with CP whose hamstrings were also strained on the inclined platform. We confirmed that postural balance was affected by strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings.

  7. [Energy bases and scale of the production-destruction balance in the Black sea: photosynthesis and flows of C(org), O2 and CO2].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A P; Vinogradov, M E

    2002-01-01

    The scale of production-destruction biotic balance in the Black Sea ecosystem, flows of organic carbon, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, and rate and volume of organic matter input in the Black Sea sediment as a source of formation and accumulation of fossilized hydrocarbon fuel minerals are estimated on the basis of the current concept of efficiency of solar radiation utilization by photosynthesis. The volume of "excessive" oxygen formed in the ecosystem and its contribution to global oxygenation of the atmosphere are shown.

  8. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

  9. Aging Negatively Affects Estrogens-Mediated Effects on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability by Shifting ERα/ERβ Balance in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Novensà, Laura; Novella, Susana; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Castillo, Nadia; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Aims Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Methods and Results Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O2-). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O2− production in young females, while increased O2− in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ERβ/ERα) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ERβ/ERα in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O2−. These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5′flanking region of ERα gene. PMID:21966501

  10. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.

    PubMed

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

    2013-09-30

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate.

  11. Development of a superconductor magnetic suspension and balance prototype facility for studying the feasibility of applying this technique to large scale aerodynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, R. N.; Humphris, R. R.; Henderson, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic research and development work towards proving the feasibility of operating an all-superconductor magnetic suspension and balance device for aerodynamic testing is presented. The feasibility of applying a quasi-six-degree-of freedom free support technique to dynamic stability research was studied along with the design concepts and parameters for applying magnetic suspension techniques to large-scale aerodynamic facilities. A prototype aerodynamic test facility was implemented. Relevant aspects of the development of the prototype facility are described in three sections: (1) design characteristics; (2) operational characteristics; and (3) scaling to larger facilities.

  12. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  13. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  14. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  15. Significant differences in fertility between dairy cows selected for one QTL located on bovine chromosome 3 are not attributable to energy balance, although eating behaviour is affected.

    PubMed

    Coyral-Castel, S; Faverdin, P; Ramé, C; Fréret, S; Guillaume, D; Fritz, S; Dupont, J

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of reproduction in dairy cows has become a major challenge in dairy production. We have recently shown that dairy cows carrying the 'fertil-' haplotype for one quantitative trait locus (QTL), affecting female fertility and located on the bovine chromosome 3, had a significantly lower conception rate after the first artificial insemination than cows carrying the 'fertil+' haplotype. The objective of this paper was to study other phenotypic modifications linked to this QTL. In the present study, 23 'fertil+' and 18 'fertil-' cows were characterized for live weight, milk production, food intake, eating behaviour and plasma metabolites. These parameters were measured during the first lactation, from calving to 40 weeks postpartum (wkpp). In the first 7 weeks of lactation, 'fertil+' primiparous cows had a significantly higher live BW and milk production than 'fertil-' cows. Dry matter intake tended to be slightly higher for 'fertil+' than for 'fertil-' primiparous cows in this period. However, energy balance was similar for the two haplotypes in the whole lactation, except in the first wkpp, and consequently, could not explain their different fertility. The major observation concerned the eating behaviour. 'Fertil+' primiparous cows had a significantly lower eating rate than 'fertil-' cows during the 40 weeks of lactation. In parallel, 'fertil+' cows spent significantly more time at the feeder for a similar number of visits than 'fertil-' cows. Furthermore, no differences in plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and insulin were observed between the two haplotypes. Plasma glucose was significantly lower in 'fertil+' than in 'fertil-' cows in the second wkpp. Taken together, our results show that 'fertil+' and 'fertil-' dairy cows, with different fertility, have also different eating behaviour without any variation in energy balance, except in the first week of lactation. PMID:23190725

  16. Significant differences in fertility between dairy cows selected for one QTL located on bovine chromosome 3 are not attributable to energy balance, although eating behaviour is affected.

    PubMed

    Coyral-Castel, S; Faverdin, P; Ramé, C; Fréret, S; Guillaume, D; Fritz, S; Dupont, J

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of reproduction in dairy cows has become a major challenge in dairy production. We have recently shown that dairy cows carrying the 'fertil-' haplotype for one quantitative trait locus (QTL), affecting female fertility and located on the bovine chromosome 3, had a significantly lower conception rate after the first artificial insemination than cows carrying the 'fertil+' haplotype. The objective of this paper was to study other phenotypic modifications linked to this QTL. In the present study, 23 'fertil+' and 18 'fertil-' cows were characterized for live weight, milk production, food intake, eating behaviour and plasma metabolites. These parameters were measured during the first lactation, from calving to 40 weeks postpartum (wkpp). In the first 7 weeks of lactation, 'fertil+' primiparous cows had a significantly higher live BW and milk production than 'fertil-' cows. Dry matter intake tended to be slightly higher for 'fertil+' than for 'fertil-' primiparous cows in this period. However, energy balance was similar for the two haplotypes in the whole lactation, except in the first wkpp, and consequently, could not explain their different fertility. The major observation concerned the eating behaviour. 'Fertil+' primiparous cows had a significantly lower eating rate than 'fertil-' cows during the 40 weeks of lactation. In parallel, 'fertil+' cows spent significantly more time at the feeder for a similar number of visits than 'fertil-' cows. Furthermore, no differences in plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and insulin were observed between the two haplotypes. Plasma glucose was significantly lower in 'fertil+' than in 'fertil-' cows in the second wkpp. Taken together, our results show that 'fertil+' and 'fertil-' dairy cows, with different fertility, have also different eating behaviour without any variation in energy balance, except in the first week of lactation.

  17. Toward Making the Invisible Visible Using a Scale: Prospective Teachers' Thoughts and Affective Reactions to Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development and initial validation of a feedback scale which measures the thoughts and affective reactions of prospective teachers concerning feedback on their teaching experiences. To reach this goal, data from 512 prospective teachers were used to test the internal consistency, exploratory and confirmative factor…

  18. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  19. A Budyko framework for estimating how lateral redistribution affects large-scale evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    , lateral redistribution can alter regional ET fluxes. Using this approach, one can obtain a first-order estimate for how much lateral redistribution may affect evapotranspiration rates at regional, continental, and global scales.

  20. Multi-Scale Modeling of Liquid Phase Sintering Affected by Gravity: Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olevsky, Eugene; German, Randall M.

    2012-01-01

    A multi-scale simulation concept taking into account impact of gravity on liquid phase sintering is described. The gravity influence can be included at both the micro- and macro-scales. At the micro-scale, the diffusion mass-transport is directionally modified in the framework of kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations to include the impact of gravity. The micro-scale simulations can provide the values of the constitutive parameters for macroscopic sintering simulations. At the macro-scale, we are attempting to embed a continuum model of sintering into a finite-element framework that includes the gravity forces and substrate friction. If successful, the finite elements analysis will enable predictions relevant to space-based processing, including size and shape and property predictions. Model experiments are underway to support the models via extraction of viscosity moduli versus composition, particle size, heating rate, temperature and time.

  1. Performance evaluation using a three compartment mass balance for the removal of volatile organic compounds in pilot scale constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Eva M; Reiche, Nils; Kuschk, Peter; Borsdorf, Helko; Kaestner, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    To perform a general assessment of treatment efficiency, a mass balance study was undertaken for two types of constructed wetlands (CWs), planted gravel filters and plant root mat systems, for treating VOC (benzene; MTBE) polluted groundwater under field conditions. Contaminant fate was investigated in the respective water, plant, and atmosphere compartments by determining water and atmospheric contaminant loads and calculating contaminant plant uptake, thereby allowing for an extended efficiency assessment of CWs. Highest total VOC removal was achieved during summer, being pronounced for benzene compared to MTBE. According to the experimental results and the calculations generated by the balancing model, degradation in the rhizosphere and plant uptake accounted for the main benzene removal processes, of 76% and 13% for the gravel bed CW and 83% and 11% for the root mat system. Volatilization flux of benzene and MTBE was low (<5%) for the gravel bed CW, while in the root mat system direct contact of aqueous and gaseous phases favored total MTBE volatilization (24%). With this applied approach, we present detailed contaminant mass balances that allow for conclusive quantitative estimation of contaminant elimination and distribution processes (e.g., total, surface, and phytovolatilization, plant uptake, rhizodegradation) in CWs under field conditions.

  2. Field experimental approach to bromide leaching as affected by scale-specific rainfall characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendroth, Ole; Vasquez, Vicente; Matocha, Christopher J.

    2011-06-01

    Although inherent soil spatial and temporal variabilities complicate analysis of solute leaching, impacts of specific processes associated with rainfall amount, intensity, and frequency on solute leaching under field conditions require investigation. The objective of this study was to introduce (1) a new experimental approach to quantify bromide (Br-) leaching under field conditions as influenced by rainfall characteristics and (2) analytical opportunities applicable to scale-specific spatial treatment distribution. The quantitative range of treatments was established in nonrandom periodically oscillating patterns. The characteristic length of a period over which a treatment fluctuates was considered the specific treatment scale. A Br- tracer study was established in the field with treatments applied at two different spatial scales. The tracer was applied with a sprayer in a transect of 32 plots, each 2 m long, followed by a site-specific sprinkler irrigation, and 128 soil cores subsequently taken at 0.5 m intervals and divided into 10-cm depth increments. The scale-specific associations between treatments and Br- center of mass (COM) were addressed. Treatments can be periodically imposed over specific scales and their spatial relationships quantified with semivariance and power spectral analysis. An additive state-space model was applied to separate the long- and short-wave components of Br- COM. Subsequently, the large-scale process was described in an autoregressive state-space model. The proposed experimental approach and the separation of small- and large-scale variability components support studying soil ecosystem processes that vary at different scales even in the presence of underlying large-scale trends that are currently considered obstacles in field research.

  3. Reconstruction of a charge balanced genome-scale metabolic model to study the energy-uncoupled growth of Zymomonas mobilis ZM1.

    PubMed

    Motamedian, E; Saeidi, M; Shojaosadati, S A

    2016-04-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is an ethanologenic bacterium and is known to be an example microorganism with energy-uncoupled growth. A genome-scale metabolic model could be applicable for understanding the characteristics of Z. mobilis with rapid catabolism and inefficient energy conversion. In this study, a charge balanced genome-scale metabolic model (iEM439) of Z. mobilis ATCC 10988 (ZM1) including 439 genes, 692 metabolic reactions and 658 metabolites was reconstructed based on genome annotation and previously published information. The model presents a much better prediction for biomass and ethanol concentrations in a batch culture by using dynamic flux balance analysis compared with the two previous genome-scale metabolic models. Furthermore, intracellular flux distribution obtained from the model was consistent with the fluxes for glucose fermentation determined by (13)C NMR. The model predicts that there is no difference in growth rates of Z. mobilis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions whereas ethanol production is decreased and production of other metabolites including acetate and acetoin is increased under aerobic conditions. Experimental data confirm the predicted differences between the aerobic and anaerobic growth of Z. mobilis. Finally, the model was used to study the energy-uncoupled growth of Z. mobilis and to predict its effect on flux distribution in the central metabolism. Flux distribution obtained from the model indicates that coupling growth and energy reduces ethanol secretion and changes the flux distribution to produce more biomass. This coupling is also associated with a significant increase in the proton uptake rate based on the prediction of the charge balanced model. Hence, resistance to intracellular pH reduction could be the main reason for uncoupled growth and Z. mobilis uses ATPase to pump out the proton. Experimental observations are in accordance with the predicted relationship between growth, ATP dissipation and proton exchange.

  4. Churchill: an ultra-fast, deterministic, highly scalable and balanced parallelization strategy for the discovery of human genetic variation in clinical and population-scale genomics.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Benjamin J; Fitch, James R; Hu, Yangqiu; Corsmeier, Donald J; Zhong, Huachun; Wetzel, Amy N; Nordquist, Russell D; Newsom, David L; White, Peter

    2015-01-01

    While advances in genome sequencing technology make population-scale genomics a possibility, current approaches for analysis of these data rely upon parallelization strategies that have limited scalability, complex implementation and lack reproducibility. Churchill, a balanced regional parallelization strategy, overcomes these challenges, fully automating the multiple steps required to go from raw sequencing reads to variant discovery. Through implementation of novel deterministic parallelization techniques, Churchill allows computationally efficient analysis of a high-depth whole genome sample in less than two hours. The method is highly scalable, enabling full analysis of the 1000 Genomes raw sequence dataset in a week using cloud resources. http://churchill.nchri.org/. PMID:25600152

  5. Churchill: an ultra-fast, deterministic, highly scalable and balanced parallelization strategy for the discovery of human genetic variation in clinical and population-scale genomics.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Benjamin J; Fitch, James R; Hu, Yangqiu; Corsmeier, Donald J; Zhong, Huachun; Wetzel, Amy N; Nordquist, Russell D; Newsom, David L; White, Peter

    2015-01-20

    While advances in genome sequencing technology make population-scale genomics a possibility, current approaches for analysis of these data rely upon parallelization strategies that have limited scalability, complex implementation and lack reproducibility. Churchill, a balanced regional parallelization strategy, overcomes these challenges, fully automating the multiple steps required to go from raw sequencing reads to variant discovery. Through implementation of novel deterministic parallelization techniques, Churchill allows computationally efficient analysis of a high-depth whole genome sample in less than two hours. The method is highly scalable, enabling full analysis of the 1000 Genomes raw sequence dataset in a week using cloud resources. http://churchill.nchri.org/.

  6. Diet micronutrient balance matters: How the ratio of dietary sterols/steroids affects development, growth and reproduction in two lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiangfeng; Grebenok, Robert J; Behmer, Spencer T

    2014-08-01

    Insects lack the ability to synthesize sterols de novo so they acquire this essential nutrient from their food. Cholesterol is the dominant sterol found in most insects, but in plant vegetative tissue it makes up only a small fraction of the total sterol profile. Instead, plants mostly contain phytosterols; plant-feeding insects generate the majority of their cholesterol by metabolizing phytosterols. However, not all phytosterols are readily converted to cholesterol, and some are even deleterious when ingested above a threshold level. In a recent study we showed that caterpillars reared on tobacco accumulating novel sterols/steroids exhibited reduced performance, even when suitable sterols were present. In the current study we examined how the dominant sterols (cholesterol and stigmasterol) and steroids (cholestanol and cholestanone) typical of the modified tobacco plants affected two insect herbivores (Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea). The sterols/steroids were incorporated into synthetic diets singly, as well as in various combinations, ratios and amounts. For each insect species, a range of performance values was recorded for two generations, with the eggs from the 1st-generation adults as the source of neonates for the 2nd-generation. Performance on the novel steroids (cholestanol and cholestanone) was extremely poor compared to suitable sterols (cholesterol and stigmasterol). Additionally, performance tended to decrease as the ratio of the novel dietary steroids increased. We discuss how the balance of different dietary sterols/steroids affected our two caterpillar species, relate this back to recent studies on sterol/steroid metabolism in these two species, and consider the potential application of sterol/steroid modification in crops.

  7. Cloning a balanced t(9;11)(p24;q23.1) chromosomal translocation breakpoint segregating with bipolar affective disorder in a small pedigree

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, D.J.; Baysal, B.E.; Gollin, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    A small multigenerational pedigree was previously identified in which a balanced 9;11 chromosomal translocation was cosegregating with bipolar affective disorder. We hypothesize that genes or gene regulatory sequences disrupted by the translocation are contributing to bipolar affective disorder in a dominant fashion. The general strategy involves (1) using somatic cell hybrids containing the derivative 9 or 11 chromosomes to identify the closest chromosome 9 and 11 flanking markers, (2) using the nearest markers as PCR and hybridization probes to isolate both normal DNA (YAC) and patient DNA (cosmid) adjacent to and incorporating the translocation breakpoint, and (3) identifying expressed sequences in the genomic DNA that may be disrupted by the translocation. From a fusion of the translocation patient cell line and a recipient hamster cell line, somatic cell hybrids were isolated which contain either the human derivative 9 or derivative 11 chromosome. Using PCR-based STS assays with these hybrids, the location of the translocation breakpoint was localized to an estimated 500 kb region at chromosome 11 band q23.1 and a 1 cM region in 9 band p24 (more telomeric than originally reported). From a large set of CEPH and Roswell Park yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), six chromosome 11 YACs spanning the 11q23.1 breakpoint have now been identified. A combination of pulsed field gel eletrophoresis and YAC mapping has narrowed the chromosome 11 region to less than 430 kb. Current efforts are focused on generating new chromosome 11 probes within the flanking markers, mapping these probes back to the der(9) and der(11) containing hybrids and the chromosome 11 YAC mapping panel. As the region is physically narrowed, we will identify candidate genes whose expression may be altered by this t(9:11) translocation.

  8. AAV-Mediated Gene Transfer of the Obesity-Associated Gene Etv5 in Rat Midbrain Does Not Affect Energy Balance or Motivated Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Boender, Arjen J.; Koning, Nivard A.; van den Heuvel, José K.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; van Rozen, Andrea J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Several genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor E-twenty- six version 5 (Etv5) in the regulation of body mass index. Further substantiating the role of Etv5 in feeding behavior are the findings that targeted disruption of Etv5 in mice leads to decreased body weight gain and that expression of Etv5 is decreased in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNpc) after food restriction. As Etv5 has been suggested to influence dopaminergic neurotransmission by driving the expression of genes that are responsible for the synthesis and release of dopamine, we investigated if expression levels of Etv5 are dependent on nutritional state and subsequently influence the expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase. While it was shown that Etv5 expression in the VTA/SNpc increases after central administration of leptin and that Etv5 was able to drive expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 into the VTA/SNpc of rats did not alter expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vivo. Moreover, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc did not affect measures of energy balance or performances in a progressive ratio schedule. Thus, these data do not support a role for increased expression of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc in the regulation of feeding behavior. PMID:24710089

  9. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  10. Assessing the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in aquifers using plume-scale electron and carbon balances: model development with analysis of uncertainty and parameter sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Banwart, S A

    2001-12-15

    A quantitative methodology is described for the field-scale performance assessment of natural attenuation using plume-scale electron and carbon balances. This provides a practical framework for the calculation of global mass balances for contaminant plumes, using mass inputs from the plume source, background groundwater and plume residuals in a simplified box model. Biodegradation processes and reactions included in the analysis are identified from electron acceptors, electron donors and degradation products present in these inputs. Parameter values used in the model are obtained from data acquired during typical site investigation and groundwater monitoring studies for natural attenuation schemes. The approach is evaluated for a UK Permo-Triassic Sandstone aquifer contaminated with a plume of phenolic compounds. Uncertainty in the model predictions and sensitivity to parameter values was assessed by probabilistic modelling using Monte Carlo methods. Sensitivity analyses were compared for different input parameter probability distributions and a base case using fixed parameter values, using an identical conceptual model and data set. Results show that consumption of oxidants by biodegradation is approximately balanced by the production of CH4 and total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) which is conserved in the plume. Under this condition, either the plume electron or carbon balance can be used to determine contaminant mass loss, which is equivalent to only 4% of the estimated source term. This corresponds to a first order, plume-averaged, half-life of > 800 years. The electron balance is particularly sensitive to uncertainty in the source term and dispersive inputs. Reliable historical information on contaminant spillages and detailed site investigation are necessary to accurately characterise the source term. The dispersive influx is sensitive to variability in the plume mixing zone width. Consumption of aqueous oxidants greatly exceeds that of mineral oxidants

  11. Intraflagellar transport particle size scales inversely with flagellar length: revisiting the balance-point length control model

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Benjamin D.; Ludington, William B.

    2009-01-01

    The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella are regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of IFT particles (recently renamed IFT trains) within the flagellum. We previously proposed the balance-point length control model, which predicted that the frequency of train transport should decrease as a function of flagellar length, thus modulating the length-dependent flagellar assembly rate. However, this model was challenged by the differential interference contrast microscopy observation that IFT frequency is length independent. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to quantify protein traffic during the regeneration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, we determined that anterograde IFT trains in short flagella are composed of more kinesin-associated protein and IFT27 proteins than trains in long flagella. This length-dependent remodeling of train size is consistent with the kinetics of flagellar regeneration and supports a revised balance-point model of flagellar length control in which the size of anterograde IFT trains tunes the rate of flagellar assembly. PMID:19805630

  12. Testing the generalized complementary relationship of evaporation with continental-scale long-term water-balance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Crago, Richard; Qualls, Russell J.

    2016-09-01

    The original and revised versions of the generalized complementary relationship (GCR) of evaporation (ET) were tested with six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC6) level long-term (1981-2010) water-balance data (sample size of 334). The two versions of the GCR were calibrated with Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) mean annual precipitation (P) data and validated against water-balance ET (ETwb) as the difference of mean annual HUC6-averaged P and United States Geological Survey HUC6 runoff (Q) rates. The original GCR overestimates P in about 18% of the PRISM grid points covering the contiguous United States in contrast with 12% of the revised version. With HUC6-averaged data the original version has a bias of -25 mm yr-1 vs the revised version's -17 mm yr-1, and it tends to more significantly underestimate ETwb at high values than the revised one (slope of the best fit line is 0.78 vs 0.91). At the same time it slightly outperforms the revised version in terms of the linear correlation coefficient (0.94 vs 0.93) and the root-mean-square error (90 vs 92 mm yr-1).

  13. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  14. Choice of resolution by functional trait or taxonomy affects allometric scaling in soil food webs.

    PubMed

    Sechi, Valentina; Brussaard, Lijbert; De Goede, Ron G M; Rutgers, Michiel; Mulder, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Belowground organisms often display a shift in their mass-abundance scaling relationships due to environmental factors such as soil chemistry and atmospheric deposition. Here we present new empirical data that show strong differences in allometric scaling according to whether the resolution at the local scale is based on a taxonomic or a functional classification, while only slight differences arise according to soil environmental conditions. For the first time, isometry (an inverse 1:1 proportion) is recognized in mass-abundance relationships, providing a functional signal for constant biomass distribution in soil biota regardless of discrete trophic levels. Our findings are in contrast to those from aquatic ecosystems, in that higher trophic levels in soil biota are not a direct function of increasing body mass.

  15. Mapping Evapotranspiration in the Alps through Two-Source Energy-Balance Models and Multi-Satellite Data Fusion: Scale Effects in Heterogeneous Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, M.; Anderson, M. C.; Yang, Y.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Bertoldi, G.; Tomelleri, E.; Notarnicola, C.

    2015-12-01

    This work aims to assess a diagnostic approach which links evapotranspiration (ET) to land surface temperature (LST) measured by thermal remote sensing in the Alps. We estimate gridded ET, from field (30 m) to regional (1 km) scales. A specific study is performed on water- and energy-limited grassland ecosystems in a dry inner alpine valley in South Tyrol (Italy), to evaluate the model sensitivity to soil moisture, topography and canopy structure variations. The energy balance model TSEB ALEXI (Two Source Energy Balance Atmosphere Land EXchange Inverse) is first applied to Meteosat satellite data. Then ET is estimated by the flux disaggregation procedure DisALEXI driven by MODIS and Landsat LST retrievals. Finally, ET products based on MODIS and Landsat are fused by the algorithm STARFM (Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model), to obtain daily maps at Landsat ground resolution (30 m). We validate the model by eddy-covariance (EC) measurements from established stations in the Alps. In addition, for studying the scale representativeness of the satellite retrieved ET, we exploit a thermal camera installed on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), addressing a similar spatial scale as EC measurements, which allows to study ET spatial patterns. Results show that in the Alps the fusion with MODIS-retrieved ET does not significantly improve retrievals based only on Landsat acquisitions. This is due to i) the low availability of clear-sky scenes and ii) the small scale (~10 m) changes in soil moisture, topography and canopy density, which control ET patterns in mountainous regions. Specific TSEB model runs driven by UAV-borne thermal sensor data confirm these results. In conclusion, current thermal satellites lack the temporal and spatial resolution required to characterize ET in the Alps. This limitation can be overcome only by developing new high resolution thermal-based remote sensing tools with a higher temporal frequency.

  16. WWTP design in warm climates - guideline comparison and parameter adaptation for a full-scale activated sludge plant using mass balancing.

    PubMed

    Walder, C; Lindtner, S; Proesl, A; Klegraf, F; Weissenbacher, N

    2013-01-01

    The ATV-A-131 guideline and the design approach published in 'Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse (WE)' are widely used for the design of activated sludge plants. They are both based on simplified steady-state assumptions tailored to the boundary conditions of temperate climates. Using design guidelines beyond the designated temperature range may lead to inappropriate results. The objectives of this paper are (1) to summarise temperature relevant differences between ATV-A-131 and WE; (2) to show the related design components; and (3) to demonstrate a procedure for design parameter adaptation for a full-scale activated sludge plant located in a warm climate region. To gain steady-state data required for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design according to ATV-A-131 and WE, full-scale plant data were acquired for a period of 6 months as a basis for analyses and adaptation. Mass balances were calculated for the verification of the measurements and for analysing excess sludge production. The two approaches showed relevant temperature related differences. WE default application resulted in lower deviation in the mass balance results for excess sludge production. However, with the adaptation of the heterotrophic decay rates for both approaches and the inert organic and mineral solids fraction additionally for ATV-A-131, a good fit to the observed excess sludge production could be achieved.

  17. Mechanisms Affecting the Sustainability and Scale-up of a System-Wide Numeracy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobis, Janette

    2011-01-01

    With deliberate system-level reform now being acted upon around the world, both successful and unsuccessful cases provide a rich source of knowledge from which we can learn to improve large-scale reform. Research surrounding the effectiveness of a theory-based system-wide numeracy reform operating in primary schools across Australia is examined to…

  18. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  19. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  20. Parameters affecting the resilience of scale-free networks to random failures.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Lane, Terran; Saia, Jared

    2005-09-01

    It is commonly believed that scale-free networks are robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. For example, Cohen et al. in (1) study scale-free networks including some which approximate the measured degree distribution of the Internet. Their results suggest that if each node in this network failed independently with probability 0.99, most of the remaining nodes would still be connected in a giant component. In this paper, we show that a large and important subclass of scale-free networks are not robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. In particular, we study scale-free networks which have minimum node degree of 1 and a power-law degree distribution beginning with nodes of degree 1 (power-law networks). We show that, in a power-law network approximating the Internet's reported distribution, when the probability of deletion of each node is 0.5 only about 25% of the surviving nodes in the network remain connected in a giant component, and the giant component does not persist beyond a critical failure rate of 0.9. The new result is partially due to improved analytical accommodation of the large number of degree-0 nodes that result after node deletions. Our results apply to power-law networks with a wide range of power-law exponents, including Internet-like networks. We give both analytical and empirical evidence that such networks are not generally robust to massive random node deletions.

  1. Measuring One Aspect of Teachers' Affective States: Development of the Science Teachers' Pedagogical Discontentment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southerland, Sherry A.; Nadelson, Louis; Sowell, Scot; Saka, Yavuz; Kahveci, Murat; Granger, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe the development of the Science Teachers' Pedagogical Discontentment Scale, an instrument that measures the discontentment that arises in teachers as they recognize a mismatch between their own pedagogical beliefs and goals and their actual classroom practices. From a conceptual change perspective, we explore…

  2. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  3. Are the scaling properties of instrumental and long-term proxy temperature records consistent with a simple energy balance model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Martin; Rypdal, Kristoffer

    2015-04-01

    In an editorial comment, M. E. Mann, Climatic Change (2011), 107:267-276, makes the assertion: "…the behaviour of the Hurst exponent H in instrumental and long-term proxy temperature reconstructions appears consistent with the results of a simple climate model (EBM) forced by estimated natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing changes, and subject to white noise stochastic weather forcing. Nothing more exotic than the physics of such a simple model is necessary to explain the apparent scaling behaviour in observed surface temperatures." This conclusion is drawn from application of a number of standard estimation techniques for H to realizations of the purely stochastically forced, and stochastic + radiatively forced, EBM. These estimates are compared to results from the same techniques applied to observation data. Such comparisons show overlap of the distributions of H-estimates for the model realizations and the observation records, which leads the author to conclude that the scaling properties of the observation data are consistent with this simple model. In this contribution we point out the flaws that arise from uncritical application of estimation techniques for the scaling exponent H to time series that do not exhibit scaling. For instance, the stochastically forced model signal is an AR(1) process, which scales like a Wiener process (H=3/2) on scales shorter than the autocorrelation time, and as a white noise (H=1/2) on longer time scales. There is no unique Hurst exponent for this process, but the author estimates it for each realization of the process, producing a distribution with 95% confidence interval (0.60,0.76). Careful examination of power spectra or fluctuation functions for model data and observation data, in particular of the residual resulting from subtracting the (deterministic) radiatively forced response from the observations, demonstrates very clearly that the scaling properties of the model data are different from those of the

  4. The Affective Reactivity Index: A Concise Irritability Scale for Clinical and Research Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringaris, Argyris; Goodman, Robert; Ferdinando, Sumudu; Razdan, Varun; Muhrer, Eli; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Irritable mood has recently become a matter of intense scientific interest. Here, we present data from two samples, one from the United States and the other from the United Kingdom, demonstrating the clinical and research utility of the parent- and self-report forms of the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI), a concise dimensional measure…

  5. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  6. Multi-scale habitat selection affects offspring survival in a precocial species.

    PubMed

    Bloom, P M; Clark, R G; Howerter, D W; Armstrong, L M

    2013-12-01

    In theory, habitat preferences should be adaptive. Accordingly, fitness is often assumed to be greater in preferred habitats; however, this assumption is rarely tested and, when it is, the results are often equivocal. Habitat preferences may not directly convey fitness advantages if animals are constrained by tradeoffs with other selective pressures like predation or food availability. We address unresolved questions about the survival consequences of habitat choices made during brood-rearing in a precocial species with exclusive maternal care (mallard Anas platyrhynchos, n = 582 radio-marked females on 27 sites over 8 years). We directly linked duckling survival with habitat selection patterns at two spatial scales using logistic regression and model selection techniques. At the landscape scale (55-80 km(2)), females that demonstrated stronger selection of areas with more cover type 4 wetlands and greater total cover type 3 wetland area (wetlands with large expanses of open water surrounded by either a narrow or wide peripheral band of vegetation, respectively) had lower duckling survival rates than did females that demonstrated weaker selection of these habitats. At finer scales (0.32-7.16 km(2)), females selected brood-rearing areas with a greater proportion of wetland habitat with no consequences for duckling survival. However, females that avoided woody perennial habitats composed of trees and shrubs fledged more ducklings. The relationship between habitat selection and survival depended on both spatial scale and habitats considered. Females did not consistently select brood-rearing habitats that conferred the greatest benefits, an unexpected finding, although one that has also been reported in other recent studies of breeding birds.

  7. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones. PMID:27225586

  8. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones.

  9. Estimates of Marine Debris Accumulation on Beaches Are Strongly Affected by the Temporal Scale of Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical. PMID:24367607

  10. Estimates of marine debris accumulation on beaches are strongly affected by the temporal scale of sampling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical.

  11. Estimates of marine debris accumulation on beaches are strongly affected by the temporal scale of sampling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical. PMID:24367607

  12. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones. PMID:27225586

  13. A decision support tool for simulating the effects of alternative policies affecting water resources: an application at the European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassio, A.; Giupponi, C.; Hiederer, R.; Simota, C.

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the methodology applied and results obtained from testing the Decision Support System 'mDSS' developed by the MULINO Project (Multi-sectoral, integrated and operational decision support system for the sustainable use of water resources at the catchment scale), for assessing alternative measures for the reduction of nitrogen pressure from agriculture on water resources at European level. The European policy background is set by the EU Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) and the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The nature of the research is exploratory. It is aimed in particular at testing the usefulness of available official statistics for ex ante evaluations of alternative policy measures at the European scale, and the feasibility of such operations within the newly released mDSS software. Alternative measures for reducing N-pressure and spatial targets were designed and simulated in a GIS environment based on raster maps of 1 km resolution. The geographic extent of the present work is defined as the agricultural land of EU15. Data deriving from official statistics were used to calculate a simplified nitrogen balance, in which the sources of nitrogen are separated into organic (livestock manure) and mineral fertilisers, to distinguish the potential contribution of livestock and crop productions to water pollution at the river basin scale. Spatial indicators and evaluation indices were defined within a conceptual framework. For the study the DPSIR approach (Driving force, Pressure, State, Impact, Response), proposed by the European Environmental Agency, was adopted. The approach was subsequently elaborated by means of the multi-criteria functionality provided by mDSS. The results of this application test at the regional scale highlight the potential of the tool for evaluating the effects of policy measures targeted at different spatial implementation strategies through the application of simple screening models and using available data

  14. Controlled Cu nanoparticle growth on wrinkle affecting deposition of large scale graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Uddin, Md Jasim; Rahman, Muhammad Anisur; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-09-01

    For Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) grown graphene on Cu substrate, deviation from atomic orientation in crystals may be resulted from diffusion of abnormalities in the form of Cu nanoparticle (NP) formation or defects and affects graphene quality and properties drastically. However, for the uniform graphene deposition, mechanism of nanoparticle formation and its suppression procedure need to be better understood. We report growth of graphene, affected by Cu nanoparticles (NPs) emergence on Cu substrates. In the current study, growth of these nanoparticles has been suppressed by fine tuning of carrier gas by two-fold gas insertion mechanism and hence, quality and uniformity of graphene is significantly improved. It has been also observed that during the deposition by CVD, Cu nanoparticles cluster preferentially on wrinkles or terrace of the Cu surface. Composition of NP is extensively studied and found to be the oxide nanoparticle of Cu. Our result, controlled NP growth affecting deposition of graphene layer would provide useful insight on the growth of uniform and high quality Single layer or bilayer graphene for numerous electronics applications.

  15. Thermophilic sludge digestion improves energy balance and nutrient recovery potential in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Smet, Davey; Klok, Jacob; Colsen, Joop; Angenent, Largus T; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-10-01

    The conventional treatment of municipal wastewater by means of activated sludge is typically energy demanding. Here, the potential benefits of: (1) the optimization of mesophilic digestion; and (2) transitioning to thermophilic sludge digestion in three wastewater treatment plants (Tilburg-Noord, Land van Cuijk and Bath) in the Netherlands is evaluated, including a full-scale trial validation in Bath. In Tilburg-Noord, thermophilic sludge digestion covered the energy requirements of the plant (102%), whereas 111% of sludge operational treatment costs could be covered in Bath. Thermophilic sludge digestion also resulted in a strong increase in nutrient release. The potential for nutrient recovery was evaluated via: (1) stripping/absorption of ammonium; (2) autotrophic removal of ammonium via partial nitritation/anammox; and (3) struvite precipitation. This research shows that optimization of sludge digestion may lead to a strong increase in energy recovery, sludge treatment costs reduction, and the potential for advanced nutrient management in full-scale sewage treatment plants.

  16. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  17. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  18. Factors affecting the spatial patterns of soil infiltration capacity at the hillslope scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Winnie; Coles, Anna; Appels, Willemijn; Hopp, Luisa; McDonnell, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    The quantification of soil infiltration capacity (Ic) and its relation to soil properties have been the subject of many studies in the past decades. However, the controls on the spatial organization of infiltration capacity in the landscape are still poorly understood. A better understanding of the patterns of Ic is important since these patterns govern runoff generation and possible threshold runoff responses in low-angled terrain prone to overland flow. In this study we present spatial patterns of Ic on a 5 ha low-angled agricultural field in Southern Saskatchewan and explore above- and below-ground controls. The study site is located in the semi-arid region of western Canada with a mean annual precipitation of 350 mm. Runoff on these loess soils (Brown Chernozems) is mainly generated during spring snowmelt and occurs as infiltration-excess overland flow over frozen ground. Hillslopes in that region typically have a slope of 1-4%. Infiltration capacity was measured on the 5 ha field in late summer 2013 at 63 randomly distributed locations, using a single ring infiltrometer (Cornell Sprinkle Infiltrometer). Geostatistical analyses were carried out to explore the spatial organization of Ic. Soil depth was measured at 17 locations across the field, the roughness of the soil surface was described for each Ic measuring location and the microtopography on a 456 cm2 area was determined at 60 locations. Hillslope-scale topographic controls will be examined by correlating terrain indices with the Ic pattern. Furthermore, three dye tracer experiments with Brilliant Blue were carried out at a low, medium and high Ic spot to investigate the question if local scale macroporosity can explain the spatial distribution of Ic. Infiltration capacities range from 0 to 79.4 mm h-1 with a median of 11.7 mm h-1 and show no significant correlation with surface roughness, microtopography or soil depth. However, first geostatistical analyses suggest that there is a spatial organization of

  19. Linking morphodynamic response with sediment mass balance on the Colorado River in Marble Canyon: issues of scale, geomorphic setting, and sampling design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of morphologic change are often used to infer sediment mass balance. Such measurements may, however, result in gross errors when morphologic changes over short reaches are extrapolated to predict changes in sediment mass balance for long river segments. This issue is investigated by examination of morphologic change and sediment influx and efflux for a 100 km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona. For each of four monitoring intervals within a 7 year study period, the direction of sand-storage response within short morphologic monitoring reaches was consistent with the flux-based sand mass balance. Both budgeting methods indicate that sand storage was stable or increased during the 7 year period. Extrapolation of the morphologic measurements outside the monitoring reaches does not, however, provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of sand-storage change for the 100 km study area. Extrapolation results in large errors, because there is large local variation in site behavior driven by interactions between the flow and local bed topography. During the same flow regime and reach-average sediment supply, some locations accumulate sand while others evacuate sand. The interaction of local hydraulics with local channel geometry exerts more control on local morphodynamic response than sand supply over an encompassing river segment. Changes in the upstream supply of sand modify bed responses but typically do not completely offset the effect of local hydraulics. Thus, accurate sediment budgets for long river segments inferred from reach-scale morphologic measurements must incorporate the effect of local hydraulics in a sampling design or avoid extrapolation altogether.

  20. Linking morphodynamic response with sediment mass balance on the Colorado River in Marble Canyon: Issues of scale, geomorphic setting, and sampling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, Paul E.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2013-06-01

    Measurements of morphologic change are often used to infer sediment mass balance. Such measurements may, however, result in gross errors when morphologic changes over short reaches are extrapolated to predict changes in sediment mass balance for long river segments. This issue is investigated by examination of morphologic change and sediment influx and efflux for a 100 km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona. For each of four monitoring intervals within a 7 year study period, the direction of sand-storage response within short morphologic monitoring reaches was consistent with the flux-based sand mass balance. Both budgeting methods indicate that sand storage was stable or increased during the 7 year period. Extrapolation of the morphologic measurements outside the monitoring reaches does not, however, provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of sand-storage change for the 100 km study area. Extrapolation results in large errors, because there is large local variation in site behavior driven by interactions between the flow and local bed topography. During the same flow regime and reach-average sediment supply, some locations accumulate sand while others evacuate sand. The interaction of local hydraulics with local channel geometry exerts more control on local morphodynamic response than sand supply over an encompassing river segment. Changes in the upstream supply of sand modify bed responses but typically do not completely offset the effect of local hydraulics. Thus, accurate sediment budgets for long river segments inferred from reach-scale morphologic measurements must incorporate the effect of local hydraulics in a sampling design or avoid extrapolation altogether.

  1. Quantifying Salinization of the Upper-Middle Rio Grande Using a Basin-Scale Water and Chloride Mass Balance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S. K.; Phillips, F. M.; Hogan, J. F.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    The Rio Grande is clearly undergoing salinization, manifested by a 50-fold increase in total dissolved solids content between its headwaters in Colorado and the U.S.-Mexico border. To elucidate the causes of this salinization, we conducted an eight-day synoptic sampling campaign in August 2001. This sampling included the river, its major tributaries, and major irrigation drain inflows. Along 1200 km between the river headwaters in Colorado and Fort Quitman, Texas, we collected 110 water samples with an average interval of ~10 km between sampling locales. In the laboratory, samples were analyzed for major constituents including chloride, as well as for bromide and the 36Cl/Cl ratio. Isotopic fingerprinting using the 36Cl/Cl ratio indicates that meteoric waters and deep sedimentary brines respectively account for most of the water and most of the salt inflow to the Rio Grande. The meteoric end member has a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 1100 and a Cl/Br ratio of 30; the brine end member has a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 35 and a Cl/Br ratio of 1150. Using these end member chemistries with USGS stream flow gauging data, we constructed a water- and salt- instantaneous mass balance model of the Rio Grande for the eight-day sampling interval. This model indicates that most water losses from the Rio Grande are due to evaporation from Elephant Butte reservoir, open water evaporation from irrigation ditches, and evapotranspiration of riparian and ditch-bank vegetation. The model also emphasizes the significance of salt input due to deep brine discharge to the river, particularly at the downstream ends of local sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift. The Rio Grande receives a smaller amount of salt from saline drains near El Paso, which may be acquiring salt from deep brine discharge as they cross over faults or other structural fluid conduits.

  2. Simulation of normal, carrier and affected controls for large-scale genotyping of cattle for factor XI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, P N; Jha, M; Muraleedharan, P; Gupta, R R; Rathod, R N; Mehta, H H; Khoda, V K

    2006-01-01

    An insertion mutation within exon 12 of the factor XI gene has been described in Holstein cattle. This has opened the prospect for large-scale screening of cattle using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for the rapid identification of heterozygous animals. To facilitate such a screening process, the mutant and normal alleles of factor XI gene, represented by 244- and 320-bp PCR amplified fragments, were individually cloned in Escherichia coli using a multicopy plasmid cloning vehicle to generate pFXI-N and pFXI-M, respectively. The authenticity of the inserts was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. A nested PCR method was developed, by which PCR amplicons generated from primers with annealing sites on the recombinant plasmids and by flanking the insert were used as templates for amplification of the diagnostic products using factor XI gene-specific primers. An equimolar mixture of both PCR amplicons, originating from pFXI-N and pFXI-M, constituted the carrier control while the individual amplicons were the affected and normal controls. The controls were used as references for in-gel comparison to screen a population of 307 cattle and 259 water buffaloes; the frequency of the mutant allele was found to be 0. No DNA size standards were required in this study. The simulated control DNA samples representing normal, carrier and affected cattle have the potential to help in large-scale screening of a cattle population for individuals that are carriers or affected by factor XI deficiency.

  3. Spatial Scale and Field Management Affect Patterns of Phosphorus Loss in Cranberry Floodwaters.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Casey D; Kleinman, Peter J A; DeMoranville, Carolyn J

    2016-01-01

    Although cranberries ( Ait.) are indigenous to the northeastern United States, phosphorus (P) fertilizer additions and periodic flooding make commercial cranberry a potential source of P to the region's lakes and streams. In this study, we report values of P export in cranberry floodwaters that range from <0.8 to 4.7 kg P ha, generally reflecting differences in the hydrological, edaphic, and management factors underlying soil P transfer to floodwater. The relatively high P loading rate (4.7 P kg P ha) was associated with harvest flooding of organic-rich soils. Periods of winter flooding and the discharge of harvest floodwater from mineral soils resulted in relatively low P loss (<0.8 kg P ha). Increases in concentrations of total dissolved P (DP) and total particulate P (PP) in floodwater as stage decreased below the surface of the cranberry bed were consistent with the transport of dissolved P in soil porewater and mobilization of particulate P in ditches. Variations in floodwater DP, as well as conservative and reactive tracer concentrations, suggested that the processes by which soil P is released to porewater included desorption of near-surface soil P and anaerobic dissolution of iron-P compounds deeper in the soil profile. At the farm scale, concentrations of DP and PP steadily increased over time, presumably because drainage waters from beds farther upgradient had longer contact times with P-rich sources, such as soil porewater and ditch sediments. Overall, the study illustrates the role that scale-dependent processes impart on patterns of P loss in agricultural production systems. PMID:26828184

  4. Exome Sequencing of 75 Individuals from Multiply Affected Coeliac Families and Large Scale Resequencing Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Vanisha; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Levine, Adam P.; Mirza, Muddassar M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Ciclitira, Paul J.; Hummerich, Holger; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Simpson, Michael A.; Plagnol, Vincent; van Heel, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CeD) is a highly heritable common autoimmune disease involving chronic small intestinal inflammation in response to dietary wheat. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and 40 newer regions identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and dense fine mapping, account for ∼40% of the disease heritability. We hypothesized that in pedigrees with multiple individuals with CeD rare [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.5%] mutations of larger effect size (odds ratios of ∼ 2–5) might exist. We sequenced the exomes of 75 coeliac individuals of European ancestry from 55 multiply affected families. We selected interesting variants and genes for further follow up using a combination of: an assessment of shared variants between related subjects, a model-free linkage test, and gene burden tests for multiple, potentially causal, variants. We next performed highly multiplexed amplicon resequencing of all RefSeq exons from 24 candidate genes selected on the basis of the exome sequencing data in 2,248 unrelated coeliac cases and 2,230 controls. 1,335 variants with a 99.9% genotyping call rate were observed in 4,478 samples, of which 939 were present in coding regions of 24 genes (Ti/Tv 2.99). 91.7% of coding variants were rare (MAF <0.5%) and 60% were novel. Gene burden tests performed on rare functional variants identified no significant associations (p<1×10−3) in the resequenced candidate genes. Our strategy of sequencing multiply affected families with deep follow up of candidate genes has not identified any new CeD risk mutations. PMID:25635822

  5. Multi-Scale Agent-Based Multiple Myeloma Cancer Modeling and the Related Study of the Balance between Osteoclasts and Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Minna; Wu, Dan; Carey, Michelle; Zhou, Xiaobo; Zhang, Le

    2015-01-01

    Research Background Currently, multiple myeloma is the second most common hematological malignancy in the U.S., constituting 1% of all cancers. With conventional treatment, the median survival time is typically 3–4 years, although it can be extended to 5–7 years or longer with advanced treatments. Recent research indicated that an increase in osteoclast (OC) activity is often associated withmultiple myeloma (MM) and that a decrease inosteoblast (OB) activity contributesto the osteolytic lesions in MM. Normally, the populations of OCs and OBs are inequilibrium, and an imbalance in this statecontributes to the development of lesions. Research procedures A multi-scale agent-based multiple myeloma model was developed to simulate the proliferation, migration and death of OBs and OCs. Subsequently, this model was employed to investigate the efficacy of thethree most commonly used drugs for MM treatment under the following two premises: the reduction in the progression of MM and the re-establishment of the equilibrium between OCs and OBs. Research purposes The simulated results not only demonstrated the capacity of the model to choose optimal combinations of the drugs but also showed that the optimal use of the three drugs can restore the balance between OCs and OBs as well as kill MMs. Furthermore, the drug synergism analysis function of the model revealed that restoring the balance between OBs and OCs can significantly increase the efficacy of drugs against tumor cells. PMID:26659358

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Optimal Resource Management during the Diurnal Cycle in Emiliania huxleyi by Genome-Scale Reconstruction and an Extended Flux Balance Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Knies, David; Wittmüß, Philipp; Appel, Sebastian; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Feuer, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    The coccolithophorid unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi is known to form large blooms, which have a strong effect on the marine carbon cycle. As a photosynthetic organism, it is subjected to a circadian rhythm due to the changing light conditions throughout the day. For a better understanding of the metabolic processes under these periodically-changing environmental conditions, a genome-scale model based on a genome reconstruction of the E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 was created. It comprises 410 reactions and 363 metabolites. Biomass composition is variable based on the differentiation into functional biomass components and storage metabolites. The model is analyzed with a flux balance analysis approach called diurnal flux balance analysis (diuFBA) that was designed for organisms with a circadian rhythm. It allows storage metabolites to accumulate or be consumed over the diurnal cycle, while keeping the structure of a classical FBA problem. A feature of this approach is that the production and consumption of storage metabolites is not defined externally via the biomass composition, but the result of optimal resource management adapted to the diurnally-changing environmental conditions. The model in combination with this approach is able to simulate the variable biomass composition during the diurnal cycle in proximity to literature data. PMID:26516924

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Optimal Resource Management during the Diurnal Cycle in Emiliania huxleyi by Genome-Scale Reconstruction and an Extended Flux Balance Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Knies, David; Wittmüß, Philipp; Appel, Sebastian; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Feuer, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    The coccolithophorid unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi is known to form large blooms, which have a strong effect on the marine carbon cycle. As a photosynthetic organism, it is subjected to a circadian rhythm due to the changing light conditions throughout the day. For a better understanding of the metabolic processes under these periodically-changing environmental conditions, a genome-scale model based on a genome reconstruction of the E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 was created. It comprises 410 reactions and 363 metabolites. Biomass composition is variable based on the differentiation into functional biomass components and storage metabolites. The model is analyzed with a flux balance analysis approach called diurnal flux balance analysis (diuFBA) that was designed for organisms with a circadian rhythm. It allows storage metabolites to accumulate or be consumed over the diurnal cycle, while keeping the structure of a classical FBA problem. A feature of this approach is that the production and consumption of storage metabolites is not defined externally via the biomass composition, but the result of optimal resource management adapted to the diurnally-changing environmental conditions. The model in combination with this approach is able to simulate the variable biomass composition during the diurnal cycle in proximity to literature data. PMID:26516924

  8. Regional-scale ecohydrological consequences of widespread forest cover in northern South-America: Amazon forest effects on atmospheric and surface water balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas Palacio, J. C.; Salazar, J. F.; Molina, R.; Mercado-Betin, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation plays a key role on the distribution and regulation of the water budget in multiple spatial and temporal scales. These regulation properties occur as a consequence of vegetation-mediated ecohydrological processes that result in the modification of hydrological fluxes that define water budgets in basins, ranging in size from squared meters to millions of squared kilometers. Important empirical and theoretical advances in the field of Ecohydrology have developed a robust theoretical framework to explain these interactions, particularly at local to regional scales. However, recent hypotheses have suggested that the presence of widespread-continuous forests, such as those occurring in tropical South America, plays a more active role in the regional climate, and particularly in the transport of atmospheric moisture from the ocean, eventually becoming precipitation over the continental masses. This condition, associated with the regulating role of natural vegetation on surface water balance and ecohydrological processes, produces ecohydrological and ecoclimatological effects that have important regional and potentially global implications. In this work we present preliminary observations on the relationship between the presence of widespread continouos forests in tropical South-America and the characteristics of precipitation regimes along atmospheric moisture transport pathways, through the combined use of multiple hydroclimatological and vegetation cover datasets. Further, we develop a corresponding analysis of the relationship between the forest cover and streamflow dynamics in tropical basins, using the scaling theory framework. Our preliminary observations highlight a distinguishable differentiation in precipitation regimes in atmospheric moisture pathways in forested vs. non-forested areas. Additionally, the regulating effect of tropical forests is also highlighted by differences in rainfall-runoff relationships and hydrological scaling properties of

  9. Scale - dependent effects on the surface energy fluxes modelling in heterogeneous/complex ecosystems using the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Andreu, A.; Verfaillie, J. G.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Hülsmann, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    A key assumption of two source energy balance models is that the effective source/sink for turbulent flux exchange at the surface and the entire canopy/soil is described by a bulk surface/canopy/soil temperature and resistance. Therefore, the spatial resolution of radiometric surface/canopy/soil temperature (TRAD) used as an input to these models and how well they agreed with this "bulk" concept influence the final estimations. In complex ecosystems, with more than two layers of vegetation, bare soil and heterogeneous distribution patterns, the representativeness of the sensor average temperature and the up-scaling of the ecosystem structural vegetation characteristics will be more crucial for the precision of the results than in more homogeneous landscapes. The aim of this study is to analyze the scale-effects derived from TSEB application, comparing the observed energy fluxes and the estimated ones obtained from multiple TRAD data sources of different nature (tree/grass/soil ground-based observations, tower footprint and low and medium satellite TRAD) and how the up-scaling of the vegetation characteristics contribute to the discrepancies. The area selected for this purpose is a savanna type FLUXNET site (Tonzi ranch, CA, US). These ecosystems present canopy mosaics that differ in phenology, physiology and functioning, and bare soil, all of them influencing the turbulent and radiative exchanges.

  10. Thermophilic sludge digestion improves energy balance and nutrient recovery potential in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Smet, Davey; Klok, Jacob; Colsen, Joop; Angenent, Largus T; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-10-01

    The conventional treatment of municipal wastewater by means of activated sludge is typically energy demanding. Here, the potential benefits of: (1) the optimization of mesophilic digestion; and (2) transitioning to thermophilic sludge digestion in three wastewater treatment plants (Tilburg-Noord, Land van Cuijk and Bath) in the Netherlands is evaluated, including a full-scale trial validation in Bath. In Tilburg-Noord, thermophilic sludge digestion covered the energy requirements of the plant (102%), whereas 111% of sludge operational treatment costs could be covered in Bath. Thermophilic sludge digestion also resulted in a strong increase in nutrient release. The potential for nutrient recovery was evaluated via: (1) stripping/absorption of ammonium; (2) autotrophic removal of ammonium via partial nitritation/anammox; and (3) struvite precipitation. This research shows that optimization of sludge digestion may lead to a strong increase in energy recovery, sludge treatment costs reduction, and the potential for advanced nutrient management in full-scale sewage treatment plants. PMID:27423372

  11. Preferential flow, nitrogen transformations and 15N balance under urine-affected areas of irrigated and non-irrigated clover-based pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakro, Naser; Dillon, Peter

    1995-12-01

    Urine-affected areas can lead to considerable losses of N by leaching, ammonia volatilisation and denitrification from dairy pastures in the southeast of South Australia. Potable groundwater supplies are considered to have become contaminated by nitrate as a result of leaching from these leguminous pastures. Dairy cow urine, labelled with 15N urea, was applied to micro-plots and mini-lysimeters installed in two adjacent irrigated (white clover-rye grass) and non-irrigated (subterranean clover-annual grasses) paddocks of a dairy farm on four occasions representing different seasonal conditions. These experiments allowed measurement of nitrogen transformations, recovery of 15N in the pasture and soil, and leaching below various depths. Gaseous losses were calculated from the nitrogen balance. The results of the four experiments showed that within a day of urine application up to 40% of the applied urinary-N was leached below a depth of 150 mm as a result of macropore flow in the irrigated paddock, and up to 24% in the non-irrigated one. After application to the irrigated paddock 17% of the urinary-N moved immediately below 300 mm but only 2% below the 450-mm depth. The urinary-N remaining in the soil was converted from urea to ammonium within a day regardless of season. Within the first 7 days of application six times more nitrate was produced in summer than in winter. This has obvious implications for leaching potential. Leaching of 15N from the top 150 mm of soil, following urine applications in all seasons, was between 41% and 62% of the applied 15N in the irrigated paddock and 25-51% in the non-irrigated paddock. However, leaching losses measured at depths of 300 or 450 mm were smaller by a factor of 2-4. The leaching loss of 15N applied in spring in both paddocks was 41% below 150 mm and 12% below 450 mm. Recovery of 15N from the soil-plant system in the 450-nm deep lysimeters was ˜60% of that applied. Estimated ammonia was ˜9% of applied 15N with no paddock

  12. How do slope and surface roughness affect plot-scale overland flow connectivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela, Andrés; Javaux, Mathieu; Bielders, Charles L.

    2015-09-01

    Surface micro-topography and slope drive the hydrological response of plots through the gradual filling of depressions as well as the establishment of hydraulic connections between overflowing depressions. Therefore, quantifying and understanding the effects of surface roughness and slope on plot-scale overland flow connectivity is crucial to improve current hydrological modeling and runoff prediction. This study aimed at establishing predictive equations relating structural and functional connectivity indicators in function of slope and roughness. The Relative Surface Connection function (RSCf) was used as a functional connectivity indicator was applied. Three characteristic parameters were defined to characterize the RSCf: the surface initially connected to the outlet, the connectivity threshold and the maximum depression storage (DSmax). Gaussian surface elevation fields (6 m × 6 m) were generated for a range of slopes and roughnesses (sill σ and range R of the variogram). A full factorial of 6 slopes (0-15%), 6 values of R (50-400 mm) and 6 values of σ (2-40 mm) was considered, and the RSCf calculated for 10 realizations of each combination. Results showed that the characteristic parameters of the RSCf are greatly influenced by R, σ and slope. At low slopes and high ratios of σ/2R, the characteristic parameters of the RSCf appear linked to a single component of the surface roughness (R or σ). On the contrary, both R and σ are needed to predict the RSCf at high slopes and low ratios of σ/2R. A simple conceptualization of surface depressions as rectangles, whose shape was determined by R and σ, allowed deriving simple mathematical expressions to estimate the characteristic parameters of the RSCf in function of R, σ and slope. In the case of DSmax, the proposed equation performed better than previous empirical expressions found in the literature which do not account for the horizontal component of the surface roughness. The proposed expressions allow

  13. Local to regional scale energy balance consequences of widespread mortality in piñon-juniper woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Morillas, L.; Hilton, T. W.; Fox, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    land surface temperature and energy balance to this induced mortality. We discuss the results in terms of feedbacks triggered by these significant mortality events on the climate system.

  14. Reliability and Clinical Significance of Mobility and Balance Assessments in Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Paul, Lorna; McFadyen, Angus K.; Mattison, Paul; Miller, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the test-retest reliability, clinical significance and precision of four mobility and balance measures--the Timed 25-Foot Walk, Six-minute Walk, Timed Up and Go and the Berg Balance Scale--in individuals moderately affected by multiple sclerosis. Twenty four participants with multiple sclerosis (Extended…

  15. Does temperature affect the accuracy of vented pressure transducer in fine-scale water level measurement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Submersible pressure transducers have been utilized for collecting water level data since the early 1960s. Together with a digital data logger, it is a convenient way to record water level fluctuations for long-term monitoring. Despite the wide use of pressure transducers for water level monitoring, little has been reported regarding their accuracy and performance under field conditions. The effects of temperature fluctuations on the output of vented pressure transducers were considered in this study. The pressure transducers were tested under both laboratory and field conditions. The results of this study indicate that temperature fluctuation has a strong effect on the transducer output. Rapid changes in temperature introduce noise and fluctuations in the water level readings under a constant hydraulic head while the absolute temperature is also related to sensor errors. The former is attributed to venting and the latter is attributed to temperature compensation effects in the strain gauges. Individual pressure transducers responded differently to the thermal fluctuations in the same testing environment. In the field of surface hydrology, especially when monitoring fine-scale water level fluctuations, ignoring or failing to compensate for the temperature effect can introduce considerable error into pressure transducer readings. It is recommended that a performance test for the pressure transducer is conducted before field deployment.

  16. Functional properties as affected by laboratory-scale parboiling of rough rice and brown rice.

    PubMed

    Patindol, J; Newton, J; Wang, Y-J

    2008-10-01

    Rough rice (RR) is the conventional feedstock for parboiling. The use of brown rice (BR) instead of RR is gaining interest because it results in shorter processing time and lower energy requirement. This study compared the functional properties of milled parboiled rice under different parboiling conditions from RR and BR. Presoaked RR and BR from cultivars Bolivar, Cheniere, Dixiebelle, and Wells were parboiled under mild (20 min, 100 degrees C, 0 kPa) and severe (20 min, 120 degrees C, 98 kPa) laboratory-scale conditions. Head rice yield improved on the RR and BR samples subjected to severe parboiling and was comparable to that of a commercially parboiled sample. Mild parboiling of BR resulted in lower head rice yields. Parboiling generally resulted in decreased head rice whiteness, decreased apparent amylose, increased total lipid, and sparingly changed protein content. Under the same parboiling conditions, the extent of starch gelatinization was higher for BR compared to RR as manifested by some distinct differences in pasting and thermal properties. The cooking characteristics (water uptake ratio, leached materials, and volumetric expansion) and cooked rice texture (hardness and stickiness) of RR and BR subjected to severe parboiling were fairly comparable. Differences in parboiled rice functional properties due to cultivar effect were evident. PMID:19019108

  17. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed.

  18. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed. PMID:26559952

  19. Fractal Scaling of Particle Size Distribution and Relationships with Topsoil Properties Affected by Biological Soil Crusts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guang-Lei; Ding, Guo-Dong; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Qin, Shu-Gao; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Bao, Yan-Feng; Liu, Yun-Dong; Wan, Li; Deng, Ji-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological soil crusts are common components of desert ecosystem; they cover ground surface and interact with topsoil that contribute to desertification control and degraded land restoration in arid and semiarid regions. Methodology/Principal Findings To distinguish the changes in topsoil affected by biological soil crusts, we compared topsoil properties across three types of successional biological soil crusts (algae, lichens, and mosses crust), as well as the referenced sandland in the Mu Us Desert, Northern China. Relationships between fractal dimensions of soil particle size distribution and selected soil properties were discussed as well. The results indicated that biological soil crusts had significant positive effects on soil physical structure (P<0.05); and soil organic carbon and nutrients showed an upward trend across the successional stages of biological soil crusts. Fractal dimensions ranged from 2.1477 to 2.3032, and significantly linear correlated with selected soil properties (R2 = 0.494∼0.955, P<0.01). Conclusions/Significance Biological soil crusts cause an important increase in soil fertility, and are beneficial to sand fixation, although the process is rather slow. Fractal dimension proves to be a sensitive and useful index for quantifying changes in soil properties that additionally implies desertification. This study will be essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on optimal solutions regarding desertification control and assessment, as well as degraded ecosystem restoration in arid and semiarid regions. PMID:24516668

  20. Neuronal Dysregulation in Stroke-Associated Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA): Diagnostic Scales and Current Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lapchak, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Until recently there was little understanding of the exact pathophysiology and treatment choices for stroke patients with Pseudobulbar affect (PBA). PBA is typically characterized by outbursts or uncontrollable laughing or crying and in the majority of patients, the outbursts being involuntary and incompatible with the patients’ emotional state. PBA is a behavioral syndrome reported to be displayed in 28–52% of stroke patients with first or multiple strokes, and incidence may be higher in patients who have had prior stroke events, and higher in females. There is typically involvement of glutaminergic, serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal circuits of the corticolimbic-subcorticothalamic-pontocerebellar network. PBA is now understood to be a disinhibition syndrome in which specific pathways involving serotonin and glutamate are disrupted or modulated causing reduced cortical inhibition of a cerebellar/brainstem-situated “emotional” laughing or crying focal center. Stroke-induced disruption of one or more neuronal pathway circuits may “disinhibit” voluntary laughing and crying making the process involuntary. With a “new” treatment currently being marketed to treat PBA patients, this article will delve into the neurological and physiological basis for PBA in stroke, and review progress with the diagnosis and treatment of PBA. PMID:26693049

  1. Exploring Subduction, Slab Breakoff, and Upper-Plate Deformation in the Georgian Greater Caucasus: Shortening Estimates from Area- and Line-Balanced Crustal Scale Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, C. C.; Cowgill, E.; Niemi, N. A.; Godoladze, T.

    2015-12-01

    Between the Black and Caspian Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains (GC) delineate the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. The role of subduction in formation of the GC is not widely recognized, despite patterns of subcrustal seismicity attesting to its importance at the E end of the range. The GC currently absorbs most orogen-perpendicular plate convergence (11 mm/yr, 70% of total), but its tectonic evolution relation to subduction remain unclear. Proposed models include 1) subduction of an ~400 km wide backarc ocean basin followed by slab breakoff under the W end of the range; 2) loss of a lithospheric root followed by buoyancy-driven uplift; and 3) closure of a small (~100 km?) basin with no/minimal subduction. Patterns of modern seismicity, exhumation, and shortening are most consistent with the subduction/slab breakoff model, suggesting the western GC may capture the surface expression of processes associated with recent slab breakoff. Each model of the GC makes specific predictions for the amount of shortening within the orogen, with the subduction/breakoff model predicting large magnitudes of convergence. Here we estimate orogenic shortening by balancing mass along several, orogen-perpendicular, crustal-scale cross sections across the GC. First we estimate the original length of undeformed crust by comparing the modern deformed volume (determined from modern topography and moho depth and assuming no net erosional loss) with hypothesized end-member original crustal thicknesses (based on seismic data in the Eastern Black Sea and Scythian platform). These end-member assumptions allow shortening magnitudes as great as ~700 km (12 km-thick oceanic crust), and as small as ~100 km (39 km-thick Scythian margin). Second, we use line-length balanced crustal-scale geologic cross sections to estimate shortening in the western and central GC. We generated these sections using previously published 1:200k geologic maps and our own focused field

  2. Landscape-scale factors affecting feral horse habitat use during summer within the rocky mountain foothills.

    PubMed

    Girard, Tisa L; Bork, Edward W; Nielsen, Scott E; Neilsen, Scott E; Alexander, Mike J

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

  3. Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

  4. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work–Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work–life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Methods: Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health–funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Results: Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work–life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work–life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work–life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. Conclusion: This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work–life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles. PMID

  5. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters in India - implications for large scale greenhouse gas balances.

    PubMed

    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Bastviken, David

    2014-11-01

    Inland waters were recently recognized to be important sources of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the atmosphere, and including inland water emissions in large scale greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets may potentially offset the estimated carbon sink in many areas. However, the lack of GHG flux measurements and well-defined inland water areas for extrapolation, make the magnitude of the potential offset unclear. This study presents coordinated flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 in multiple lakes, ponds, rivers, open wells, reservoirs, springs, and canals in India. All these inland water types, representative of common aquatic ecosystems in India, emitted substantial amounts of CH4 and a major fraction also emitted CO2 . The total CH4 flux (including ebullition and diffusion) from all the 45 systems ranged from 0.01 to 52.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) , with a mean of 7.8 ± 12.7 (mean ± 1 SD) mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean surface water CH4 concentration was 3.8 ± 14.5 μm (range 0.03-92.1 μm). The CO2 fluxes ranged from -28.2 to 262.4 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) and the mean flux was 51.9 ± 71.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean partial pressure of CO2 was 2927 ± 3269 μatm (range: 400-11 467 μatm). Conservative extrapolation to whole India, considering the specific area of the different water types studied, yielded average emissions of 2.1 Tg CH4  yr(-1) and 22.0 Tg CO2  yr(-1) from India's inland waters. When expressed as CO2 equivalents, this amounts to 75 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) (53-98 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) ; ± 1 SD), with CH4 contributing 71%. Hence, average inland water GHG emissions, which were not previously considered, correspond to 42% (30-55%) of the estimated land carbon sink of India. Thereby this study illustrates the importance of considering inland water GHG exchange in large scale assessments.

  6. Atmospheric energy and water balance perspective to projection of global-scale precipitation increase: may mitigation policies unexpectedly amplify precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, A.; Fogli, P.; Vichi, M.; Zeng, N.

    2012-12-01

    Future climate scenarios experiencing global warming are expected to strengthen hydrological cycle during 21st century by comparison with the last decades of 20th century. From the perspective of changes in whole atmospheric water and energy budgets, we analyze strengthening of the hydrological cycle as measured by the increase in global-scale precipitation. Furthermore, by combining energy and water equations for the whole atmosphere we profitably obtain constraints for the changes in surface fluxes and for the partitioning at the surface between sensible and latent components. Above approach is applied to investigate difference in precipitation increase in two scenario centennial simulations performed with an Earth System model forced with specified atmospheric concentration pathways. Alongside medium-high non-mitigation scenario (baseline), we considered an aggressive-mitigation scenario (E1) with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2K. Quite unexpectedly, mitigation scenario is shown to strengthen hydrological cycle more than baseline till around 2070, that is a couple of decades after that mitigation of global temperature was already well established in E1. Our analysis shows that this is mostly a consequence of the larger increase in the negative radiative imbalance of atmosphere in E1 compared to baseline. This appears to be primarily related to the abated aerosol concentration in E1, which considerably reduces atmospheric absorption of solar radiation compared to baseline. In contrast, last decades of 21st century (21C) show marked increase of global precipitation in baseline compared to E1, despite the fact that the two scenarios display almost same overall increase of radiative imbalance with respect to 20th century. Our results show that radiative cooling is weakly effective in baseline throughout all 21C, so that two distinct mechanisms characterize the diverse strengthening of hydrological cycle in

  7. Identification of Balance Deficits in People with Parkinson Disease; is the Sensory Organization Test Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Gera, G; Freeman, DL; Blackinton, MT; Horak, FB; King, L

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Balance deficits in people with Parkinson’s disease can affect any of the multiple systems encompassing balance control. Thus, identification of the specific deficit is crucial in customizing balance rehabilitation. The sensory organization test, a test of sensory integration for balance control, is sometimes used in isolation to identify balance deficits in people with Parkinson’s disease. More recently, the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test, a clinical scale that tests multiple domains of balance control, has begun to be used to assess balance in patients with Parkinson’s disease. The purpose of our study was to compare the use of Sensory Organization Test and Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test in identifying balance deficits in people with Parkinson’s disease. Methods 45 participants (27M, 18F; 65.2 ± 8.2 years) with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease participated in the cross-sectional study. Balance assessment was performed using the Sensory Organization Test and the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test. People were classified into normal and abnormal balance based on the established cutoff scores (normal balance: Sensory Organization Test >69; Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test >73). Results More subjects were classified as having abnormal balance with the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test (71% abnormal) than with the Sensory Organization Test (24% abnormal) in our cohort of people with Parkinson’s disease. There were no subjects with a normal Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test score but abnormal Sensory Organization Test score. In contrast, there were 21 subjects who had an abnormal Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test score but normal Sensory Organization Test scores. Discussion and Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that investigation of sensory integration deficits, alone, may not be able to identify all types of balance deficits found in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Thus, a

  8. Microbial activity balance in size fractionated suspended growth biomass from full-scale sidestream combined nitritation-anammox reactors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yijing; Wells, George; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the abundance, distribution and activity of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anammox in size fractionated aggregates from full-scale suspended growth combined nitritation-anammox sidestream reactors. Plants with or without a cyclone device were also studied to assess a purported enrichment of anammox granules. Specific aerobic ammonium oxidation rates (p=0.01) and specific oxygen uptake rates (p=0.02) were significantly greater in flocs than in granules. AOB abundance measured using quantitative FISH was significantly higher in flocs than in granules (p=0.01). Conversely, anammox abundance was significantly greater in granules (p=0.03). The average ratio of anammox/AOB in systems employing hydrocyclone separation devices was 2.4, significantly higher (p=0.02) than the average ratio (0.5) in a system without a hydrocyclone. Our results demonstrate substantial functional and population-level segregation between floccular and granular fractions, and provide a key corroboration that cyclone separation devices can increase anammox levels in such systems.

  9. Microbial activity balance in size fractionated suspended growth biomass from full-scale sidestream combined nitritation-anammox reactors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yijing; Wells, George; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the abundance, distribution and activity of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anammox in size fractionated aggregates from full-scale suspended growth combined nitritation-anammox sidestream reactors. Plants with or without a cyclone device were also studied to assess a purported enrichment of anammox granules. Specific aerobic ammonium oxidation rates (p=0.01) and specific oxygen uptake rates (p=0.02) were significantly greater in flocs than in granules. AOB abundance measured using quantitative FISH was significantly higher in flocs than in granules (p=0.01). Conversely, anammox abundance was significantly greater in granules (p=0.03). The average ratio of anammox/AOB in systems employing hydrocyclone separation devices was 2.4, significantly higher (p=0.02) than the average ratio (0.5) in a system without a hydrocyclone. Our results demonstrate substantial functional and population-level segregation between floccular and granular fractions, and provide a key corroboration that cyclone separation devices can increase anammox levels in such systems. PMID:27347796

  10. Using Distributed, Integrated Hydrological Models to Simulate Water Balance Changes at the Hillslope and Catchment Scale Due to Fire Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, A. L.; Coon, E.; Trader, L.; Middleton, R. S.; Painter, S. L.; Kikinzon, E.

    2015-12-01

    Catastrophic wildfires have increased worldwide due in part to previous fire suppression efforts, but also climate change. These wildfires dramatically alter ecosystem structure resulting in lasting changes to hydrological characteristics including surface runoff and subsurface water storage. Most notably fire results in the removal of forest ground cover as well as much, if not all, of the forest vegetation that is responsible for precipitation interception and transpiration from the soil. The presence of ground cover is associated with high porosity, surface roughness and infiltration rates, which can contribute to greater soil water recharge. Modeling the hydrological changes due to fire requires representation of the vegetation changes along with near surface soil characteristics, particularly ground cover. Moreover, the coupled nature of surface and subsurface flow necessitates an integrated representation of variably saturated subsurface flow and overland flow to capture infiltration-limited runoff. Here pre- and post-catastrophic fire data collected from Bandelier National Monument is used to characterize ground cover and vegetation conditions used in coupled surface subsurface hydrologic models. This data is also used to develop appropriate representations of litter layers in the models. Changes in hydrologic regimes at the hillslope and catchment scale are simulated in response to measured precipitation events. Differences in both runoff generation and soil water storage are then described along a continuum of burn severity.

  11. To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Tim M.; Cinner, Joshua E.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  12. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    PubMed

    Daw, Tim M; Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  13. Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    James R. McFarland; Howard J. Herzog

    2007-05-14

    This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.

  14. Multi-scale interactions affecting transport, storage, and processing of solutes and sediments in stream corridors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.; Packman, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Surface water and groundwater flow interact with the channel geomorphology and sediments in ways that determine how material is transported, stored, and transformed in stream corridors. Solute and sediment transport affect important ecological processes such as carbon and nutrient dynamics and stream metabolism, processes that are fundamental to stream health and function. Many individual mechanisms of transport and storage of solute and sediment have been studied, including surface water exchange between the main channel and side pools, hyporheic flow through shallow and deep subsurface flow paths, and sediment transport during both baseflow and floods. A significant challenge arises from non-linear and scale-dependent transport resulting from natural, fractal fluvial topography and associated broad, multi-scale hydrologic interactions. Connections between processes and linkages across scales are not well understood, imposing significant limitations on system predictability. The whole-stream tracer experimental approach is popular because of the spatial averaging of heterogeneous processes; however the tracer results, implemented alone and analyzed using typical models, cannot usually predict transport beyond the very specific conditions of the experiment. Furthermore, the results of whole stream tracer experiments tend to be biased due to unavoidable limitations associated with sampling frequency, measurement sensitivity, and experiment duration. We recommend that whole-stream tracer additions be augmented with hydraulic and topographic measurements and also with additional tracer measurements made directly in storage zones. We present examples of measurements that encompass interactions across spatial and temporal scales and models that are transferable to a wide range of flow and geomorphic conditions. These results show how the competitive effects between the different forces driving hyporheic flow, operating at different spatial scales, creates a situation

  15. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  16. An integral-balance nonlinear model to simulate changes in soil moisture, groundwater and surface runoff dynamics at the hillslope scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtu, Rodica; Mantilla, Ricardo; Fonley, Morgan; Cunha, Luciana K.; Small, Scott J.; Jay, Laurent O.; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2014-09-01

    We present a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) capable of reproducing simultaneously the aggregated behavior of changes in water storage in the hillslope surface, the unsaturated and the saturated soil layers and the channel that drains the hillslope. The system of equations can be viewed as a two-state integral-balance model for soil moisture and groundwater dynamics. Development of the model was motivated by the need for landscape representation through hillslopes and channels organized following stream drainage network topology. Such a representation, with the basic discretization unit of a hillslope, allows ODEs-based simulation of the water transport in a basin. This, in turn, admits the use of highly efficient numerical solvers that enable space-time scaling studies. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether a nonlinear ODE system can effectively replicate observations of water storage in the unsaturated and saturated layers of the soil. Our first finding is that a previously proposed ODE hillslope model, based on readily available data, is capable of reproducing streamflow fluctuations but fails to reproduce the interactions between the surface and subsurface components at the hillslope scale. However, the more complex ODE model that we present in this paper achieves this goal. In our model, fluxes in the soil are described using a Taylor expansion of the underlying storage flux relationship. We tested the model using data collected in the Shale Hills watershed, a 7.9-ha forested site in central Pennsylvania, during an artificial drainage experiment in August 1974 where soil moisture in the unsaturated zone, groundwater dynamics and surface runoff were monitored. The ODE model can be used as an alternative to spatially explicit hillslope models, based on systems of partial differential equations, which require more computational power to resolve fluxes at the hillslope scale. Therefore, it is appropriate to be coupled to runoff routing

  17. Including Complexity, Heterogeneity and Vegetation Response Characteristics into Carbon Balance Assessments at Continental Scale: Stepwise Development of a Simulation Framework with the Bottom-Up Core Model PIXGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenhunen, J.; Geyer, R.; Owen, K.; Falge, E.; Reichstein, M.

    2005-12-01

    The cultural landscapes of the European continent are characterized by highly fragmented land cover, distributed along the gradient from extremely sparse, dry Mediterranean shrublands to sub-arctic wetlands and forests. In addition, several mountain systems, in particular the Alps, modify vegetation and land surface exchange characteristics. In the recently begun CARBOEUROPE project, energy, water and CO2 exchanges of selected ecosystem types are monitored via eddy covariance methods. The model PIXGRO is being developed to help relate measurements at flux tower sites to measurements carried out at larger scale and to CO2 exchange estimates obtained with atmospheric inversion techniques. The main question addressed in this modelling effort is how to efficiently include a spectrum of vegetation characteristics into carbon balance assessments at large scale and in such a way that the influence of local response on regional fluxes may be visualized and analyzed. Furthermore, the modelling attempts to demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses in existing ecosystem process information required to understand carbon balances. The model PIXGRO attempts to define continental distribution and controls on net ecosystem CO2 exchange for ca. 12 ecosystem types, including coniferous forest, deciduous forest, grassland, cropland (assumed dominated by grain crops), northern boreal mixed forest, tundra, wetlands, alpine forest, evergreen forest, evergreen shrubland, and Mediterranean oak woodland. The model uses a single layer canopy with two leaf classes (sun and shade) and a three layered rooting zone to estimate GPP, ecosystem respiration and overall ecosystem gas exchange. Maximum LAI is determined during each year from the MODIS LAI-product. In the case of grassland, crops, tundra and wetlands, classical growth routines estimate dynamic changes in the vegetation canopy. Soil/canopy coupling in response to drought reflects a root system hormonal signalling and is calibrated with

  18. Scaling the Ivory Tower: Factors that Affect the Matriculation of African American Graduate Students in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Alfred

    2000-11-01

    This presentation focuses on factors that affect the matriculation of African American graduate students in science, engineering, and technology. These factors are highlighted according to their impact on student achievement at various levels (i.e., k-12, undergraduate, and graduate). The presentation describes these factors as enablers and inhibitors to African American student success; how they relate to increasing the number of African American students in the science, engineering, and mathematics workforce; and how the problem becomes an issue of "scale" in more than one sense of the word. Finally, the presentation offers research-documented strategies for the recruitment and retention of African American students, and how certain steps must be taken in order to ensure adequate representation of this and other ethnic groups in the scientific and technological workforce.

  19. Analysis of matrix effects critical to microbial transport in organic waste-affected soils across laboratory and field scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unc, Adrian; Goss, Michael J.; Cook, Simon; Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R.; Harter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Organic waste applications to soil (manure, various wastewaters, and biosolids) are among the most significant sources of bacterial contamination in surface and groundwater. Transport of bacteria through the vadose zone depends on flow path geometry and stability and is mitigated by interaction between soil, soil solution, air-water interfaces, and characteristics of microbial surfaces. After initial entry, the transport through soil depends on continued entrainment of bacteria and resuspension of those retained in the porous structure. We evaluated the retention of bacteria-sized artificial microspheres, varying in diameter and surface charge and applied in different suspending solutions, by a range of sieved soils contained in minicolumns, the transport of hydrophobic bacteria-sized microspheres through undisturbed soil columns as affected by waste type under simulated rainfall, and the field-scale transport of Enterococcus spp. to an unconfined sandy aquifer after the application of liquid manure. Microsphere retention reflected microsphere properties. The soil type and suspending solution affected retention of hydrophilic but not hydrophobic particles. Retention was not necessarily facilitated by manure-microsphere-soil interactions but by manure-soil interactions. Undisturbed column studies confirmed the governing role of waste type on vadose-zone microsphere transport. Filtration theory applied as an integrated analysis of transport across length scales showed that effective collision efficiency depended on the distance of travel. It followed a power law behavior with the power coefficient varying from ˜0.4 over short distances to >0.9 over 1 m (i.e., very little filtration for a finite fraction of biocolloids), consistent with reduced influence of soil solution and biocolloid properties at longer travel distances.

  20. Different region climate regimes and topography affect the changes in area and mass balance of glaciers on the north and south slopes of the same glacierized massif (the West Nyainqentanglha Range, Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wusheng; Yao, Tandong; Kang, Shichang; Pu, Jianchen; Yang, Wei; Gao, Tanguang; Zhao, Huabiao; Zhou, Hang; Li, Shenghai; Wang, Weicai; Ma, Linglong

    2013-07-01

    ablations zones). Interestingly, the mass balances in the final year of our study period (2007/2008) for these two glaciers are much more similar, although they differed during the first year (2005/2006), resulting from differences between their annual precipitation trends. Observations indicate that changes in either the air temperature or precipitation will drive mass balance changes for the two glaciers, and the changes in the mass balance will directly affect the local water resource. These findings will provide important data for hydrological modelling of glacierized catchments and local water resource management strategies.

  1. Assessment of pretend play in preschool-aged children: validation and factor analysis of the affect in play scale-preschool version.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Karla K; Russ, Sandra W

    2014-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale-Preschool (APS-P) and Affect in Play Scale-Preschool-Brief Rating (APS-P-BR) versions assess cognitive and affective play processes during a 5-min standardized play task. In this study, construct validity, external validity, and factor analyses for each scale were examined in 107 preschoolers. Reliability and validity were supported. Unlike results found with school-aged samples, positive affect loaded with the cognitive variables on factor analyses of the APS-P and APS-P-BR, suggesting that negative and undefined affect might represent a separate factor in preschool-aged children. Developmental significance and implications for use of the 2 scoring versions are discussed. PMID:24090344

  2. Diversity of ampeloviruses in mealybug and soft scale vectors and in grapevine hosts from leafroll-affected vineyards.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Marsella-Herrick, P; Loeb, G M; Martinson, T E; Hoch, H C

    2009-10-01

    The occurrence and diversity of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in the soft scales Parthenolecanium corni and Pulvinaria innumerabilis and in the mealybug Pseudococcus maritimus was determined in leafroll-affected vineyards in the Finger Lakes region of New York. Groups of 1 to 4 specimens were collected under loose grapevine bark and tested by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for segments of the second diverged copy of the GLRaV-1 coat protein gene or GLRaV-3 heat-shock protein 70-homologue gene. Virus-specific RT-PCR products were amplified from immature insect vectors and adult mealybugs. Single viral amplicons were obtained mostly from immature vectors (35%, 30 of 85) and dual viral amplicons from immature (16%, 10 of 61) and adult (100%, 14 of 14) mealybugs, including individuals. These observations suggested a simultaneous uptake of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 by individual mealybugs. Furthermore, a comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of viral amplicons from soft scales, mealybugs, and grapevines from which vectors were collected showed identical or highly similar haplotypes, indicating that uptake of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 likely occurred by direct feeding of vectors on their host plants.

  3. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  4. Mass flow and energy balance plus economic analysis of a full-scale biogas plant in the rice-wine-pig system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Kong, Chuixue; Duan, Qiwu; Luo, Tao; Mei, Zili; Lei, Yunhui

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents mass flow and energy balance as well as an economic analysis for a biogas plant in a rice-wine-pig system at a practical rather than laboratory scale. Results showed feeding amount was 65.30 t d(-1) (total solid matter (TSM) 1.3%) for the normal temperature continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and 16.20 t d(-1) (TSM 8.4%) for the mesophilic CSTR. The digestion produced 80.50 t d(-1) of mass, with 76.41 t d(-1) flowing into rice fields and 4.49 t d(-1) into composting. Energy consumption of this plant fluctuated with seasons, and surplus energy was 823, 221 kWh/year. Thus, biogas plant was critical for material recycling and energy transformation of this agro-ecosystem. The economic analysis showed that the payback time of the plant was 10.9 years. It also revealed application of biogas as a conventional energy replacement would be attractive for a crop-wine-livestock ecosystem with anaerobic digestion of manure.

  5. The Balance-Scale Task Revisited: A Comparison of Statistical Models for Rule-Based and Information-Integration Theories of Proportional Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Abe D; Visser, Ingmar; Jansen, Brenda R J; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-01-01

    We propose and test three statistical models for the analysis of children's responses to the balance scale task, a seminal task to study proportional reasoning. We use a latent class modelling approach to formulate a rule-based latent class model (RB LCM) following from a rule-based perspective on proportional reasoning and a new statistical model, the Weighted Sum Model, following from an information-integration approach. Moreover, a hybrid LCM using item covariates is proposed, combining aspects of both a rule-based and information-integration perspective. These models are applied to two different datasets, a standard paper-and-pencil test dataset (N = 779), and a dataset collected within an online learning environment that included direct feedback, time-pressure, and a reward system (N = 808). For the paper-and-pencil dataset the RB LCM resulted in the best fit, whereas for the online dataset the hybrid LCM provided the best fit. The standard paper-and-pencil dataset yielded more evidence for distinct solution rules than the online data set in which quantitative item characteristics are more prominent in determining responses. These results shed new light on the discussion on sequential rule-based and information-integration perspectives of cognitive development. PMID:26505905

  6. The Balance-Scale Task Revisited: A Comparison of Statistical Models for Rule-Based and Information-Integration Theories of Proportional Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Abe D.; Visser, Ingmar; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and test three statistical models for the analysis of children’s responses to the balance scale task, a seminal task to study proportional reasoning. We use a latent class modelling approach to formulate a rule-based latent class model (RB LCM) following from a rule-based perspective on proportional reasoning and a new statistical model, the Weighted Sum Model, following from an information-integration approach. Moreover, a hybrid LCM using item covariates is proposed, combining aspects of both a rule-based and information-integration perspective. These models are applied to two different datasets, a standard paper-and-pencil test dataset (N = 779), and a dataset collected within an online learning environment that included direct feedback, time-pressure, and a reward system (N = 808). For the paper-and-pencil dataset the RB LCM resulted in the best fit, whereas for the online dataset the hybrid LCM provided the best fit. The standard paper-and-pencil dataset yielded more evidence for distinct solution rules than the online data set in which quantitative item characteristics are more prominent in determining responses. These results shed new light on the discussion on sequential rule-based and information-integration perspectives of cognitive development. PMID:26505905

  7. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of a coal-tar-affected aquifer using two-dimensional reactive transport and biogeochemical mass balance approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.W.; Ong, S.K.; Stenback, G.A.; Golchin, J.; Kjartanson, B.H.

    2007-01-15

    Expedited site characterization and groundwater monitoring using direct-push technology and conventional monitoring wells were conducted at a former manufactured gas plant site. Biogeochemical data and heterotrophic plate counts support the presence of microbially mediated remediation. By superimposing solutions of a two-dimensional reactive transport analytical model, first-order degradation rate coefficients (day{sup -1}) of various compounds for the dissolved-phase plume were estimated (i.e., benzene (0.0084), naphthalene (0.0058), and acenaphthene (0.0011)). The total mass transformed by aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, and sulfate reduction around the free-phase coal-tar dense-nonaqueous-phase-liquid region and in the plume was estimated to be approximately 4.5 kg/y using a biogeochemical mass-balance approach. The total mass transformed using the degradation rate coefficients was estimated to be approximately 3.6 kg/y. Results showed that a simple two-dimensional analytical model and a biochemical mass balance with geochemical data from expedited site characterization can be useful for rapid estimation of mass-transformation rates.

  8. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of a coal-tar-affected aquifer using Two-dimensional reactive transport and Biogeochemical mass balance approaches.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Shane W; Ong, Say Kee; Stenback, Greg A; Golchin, Johanshir; Kjartanson, Bruce H

    2007-01-01

    Expedited site characterization and groundwater monitoring using direct-push technology and conventional monitoring wells were conducted at a former manufactured gas plant site. Biogeochemical data and heterotrophic plate counts support the presence of microbially mediated remediation. By superimposing solutions of a two-dimensional reactive transport analytical model, first-order degradation rate coefficients ((day-1) ) of various compounds for the dissolved-phase plume were estimated (i.e., benzene [0.0084], naphthalene [0.0058], and acenaphthene [0.0011]). The total mass transformed by aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, and sulfate reduction around the free-phase coal-tar dense-nonaqueous-phase-liquid region and in the plume was estimated to be approximately 4.5 kg/y using a biogeochemical mass-balance approach. The total mass transformed using the degradation rate coefficients was estimated to be approximately 3.6 kg/y. Results showed that a simple two-dimensional analytical model and a biochemical mass balance with geochemical data from expedited site characterization can be useful for rapid estimation of mass-transformation rates.

  9. The dynamics of large-scale meridional flows in the solar interior, and their role in establishing the observed rotational balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaud, P.

    2009-12-01

    The rotation profile of the solar interior, as observed by helioseismology, exhibits a sharp transition at the base of the convection zone. Above the radiative-convective interface, strong differential rotation is observed while the radiative zone itself is in near-uniform rotation. To date, the only self-consistent published model of the dynamics of the transition region, the solar tachocline, is the one proposed by Gough & McIntyre (1998). In this model, large-scale meridional flows are "gyroscopically pumped" by the differential rotation in the convection zone, down-well into the radiative zone where they encounter a large-scale primordial magnetic field. The magnetic field is thereby confined by the down-welling flows within the radiative zone only, and imposes the observed differential rotation. In this talk, I review a series of new results inspired by this original idea, each of which provides insight into a different aspect of the problem. The new picture which emerges from these related explorations clarifies many outstanding issues, and provides guidance for future investigations. These results begin with a study of the angular-momentum balance of the radiative interior (Garaud & Guervilly 2009), assuming the presence of a confined magnetic field and neglecting the role of meridional flows (a model which is identical to the one originally proposed by Ruediger & Kitchatinov, 1997). We show analytically that this model systematically fails to explain the observed value of the rotation rate of the radiative zone. This implies that, within the Gough & McIntyre model framework, the dynamics of the convection zone flows in the tachocline are crucial not only for field confinement but also for angular-momentum transport. We then present an exhaustive study of a toy model for gyroscopic pumping of large-scale meridional flows by the solar convection zone (Garaud & Acevedo-Arreguin 2009), which 1. illustrates the phenomenon pedagogically 2. quantifies the

  10. Estimating the Size of HIV Key Affected Populations in Chongqing, China, Using the Network Scale-Up Method

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Wu, Guohui; Zhang, Wei; Hladik, Wolfgang; Abdul-Quader, Abu; Bulterys, Marc; Fuller, Serena; Wang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the average social network size in the general population and the size of HIV key affected populations (KAPs) in Chongqing municipality using the network scale-up method (NSUM). Methods A general population survey was conducted in 2011 through a multistage random sampling method. Participants aged between 18 and 60 years were recruited. The average social network size (c) was estimated and adjusted by known population method. The size of HIV KAP in Chongqing municipality was estimated using the adjusted c value with adjustment for the transmission effect using the scaled respect factor. Results 3,026 inhabitants of Chongqing agreed to the survey, and 2,957 (97.7%) completed the questionnaire. The adjusted c value was 310. The estimated size of KAP was 28,418(95% Confidence Interval (CI):26,636∼30,201) for female sex workers (FSW), 163,199(95%CI:156,490∼169,908) for clients of FSW, 37,959(95%CI: 34,888∼41,030) for drug users (DU), 14,975(95%CI:13,047∼16,904) for injecting drug users (IDU) and 16,767(95%CI:14,602∼18,932) for men who have sex with men (MSM). The ratio of clients to FSW was 5.74∶1, and IDU accounted for 39.5% of the DU population. The estimates suggest that FSW account for 0.37% of the female population aged 15–49 years in Chongqing, and clients of FSW and MSM represent 2.09% and 0.21% of the male population aged 15–49 years in the city, respectively. Conclusion NSUM provides reasonable population size estimates for FSW, their clients, DU and IDU in Chongqing. However, it is likely to underestimate the population size of MSM even after adjusting for the transmission effect. PMID:23967246

  11. Laser Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  12. Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Young; Schutzler, Scott; Schrader, Amy; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Wolfe, Robert R; Ferrando, Arny A

    2015-01-01

    To examine whole body protein turnover and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) following ingestions of protein in mixed meals at two doses of protein and two intake patterns, 20 healthy older adult subjects (52-75 yr) participated in one of four groups in a randomized clinical trial: a level of protein intake of 0.8 g (1RDA) or 1.5 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) (∼2RDA) with uneven (U: 15/20/65%) or even distribution (E: 33/33/33%) patterns of intake for breakfast, lunch, and dinner over the day (1RDA-U, 1RDA-E, 2RDA-U, or 2RDA-E). Subjects were studied with primed continuous infusions of L-[(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[(2)H2]tyrosine on day 4 following 3 days of diet habituation. Whole body protein kinetics [protein synthesis (PS), breakdown, and net balance (NB)] were expressed as changes from the fasted to the fed states. Positive NB was achieved at both protein levels, but NB was greater in 2RDA vs. 1RDA (94.8 ± 6.0 vs. 58.9 ± 4.9 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0001), without effects of distribution on NB. The greater NB was due to the higher PS with 2RDA vs. 1RDA (15.4 ± 4.8 vs. -18.0 ± 8.4 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0018). Consistent with PS, MPS was greater with 2RDA vs. 1RDA, regardless of distribution patterns. In conclusion, whole body net protein balance was greater with protein intake above recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in the context of mixed meals, without demonstrated effects of protein intake pattern, primarily through higher rates of protein synthesis at whole body and muscle levels.

  13. Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting surimi as affected by nano-scaled fish bone and heating rates.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2015-08-01

    Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting (PW) surimi were investigated at various heating rates with the use of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) and calcium chloride. Addition of NFB and slow heating improved gel strength significantly. Activity of endogenous transglutaminase (ETGase) from PW surimi was markedly induced by both NFB calcium and calcium chloride, showing an optimal temperature at 30°C. Initial storage modulus increased as NFB calcium concentration increased and the same trend was maintained throughout the temperature sweep. Rheograms with temperature sweep at slow heating rate (1°C/min) exhibited two peaks at ∼ 35°C and ∼ 70°C. However, no peak was observed during temperature sweep from 20 to 90°C at fast heating rate (20°C/min). Protein patterns of surimi gels were affected by both heating rate and NFB calcium concentration. Under slow heating, myosin heavy chain intensity decreased with NFB calcium concentration, indicating formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links by ETGase and NFB calcium ion.

  14. Motion of the center of mass in children with spastic hemiplegia: balance, energy transfer, and work performed by the affected leg vs. the unaffected leg.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs.

  15. Retrieval of Vegetation Structure and Carbon Balance Parameters Using Ground-Based Lidar and Scaling to Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Ni-Meister, W.; Woodcock, C. E.; Li, X.; Jupp, D. L.; Culvenor, D.

    2006-12-01

    This research uses a ground-based, upward hemispherical scanning lidar to retrieve forest canopy structural information, including tree height, mean tree diameter, basal area, stem count density, crown diameter, woody biomass, and green biomass. These parameters are then linked to airborne and spaceborne lidars to provide large-area mapping of structural and biomass parameters. The terrestrial lidar instrument, Echidna(TM), developed by CSIRO Australia, allows rapid acquisition of vegetation structure data that can be readily integrated with downward-looking airborne lidar, such as LVIS (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor), and spaceborne lidar, such as GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) on ICESat. Lidar waveforms and vegetation structure are linked for these three sensors through the hybrid geometric-optical radiative-transfer (GORT) model, which uses basic vegetation structure parameters and principles of geometric optics, coupled with radiative transfer theory, to model scattering and absorption of light by collections of individual plant crowns. Use of a common model for lidar waveforms at ground, airborne, and spaceborne levels facilitates integration and scaling of the data to provide large-area maps and inventories of vegetation structure and carbon stocks. Our research plan includes acquisition of Echidna(TM) under-canopy hemispherical lidar scans at North American test sites where LVIS and GLAS data have been or are being acquired; analysis and modeling of spatially coincident lidar waveforms acquired by the three sensor systems; linking of the three data sources using the GORT model; and mapping of vegetation structure and carbon-balance parameters at LVIS and GLAS resolutions based on Echidna(TM) measurements.

  16. Quantifying Age-based Forest Carbon Dynamics to Estimate Effects of Wildfire on Carbon Balance: a Multi-scale Empirical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, C. L.; McKenzie, D.

    2009-12-01

    Disturbances affect biomass accumulation and net primary productivity (NPP) across large landscapes by altering the age-class distribution of the landscape. For fire disturbances specifically, a theoretical age-class distribution can be analytically derived from the mean fire return interval using a negative exponential model. However, to determine the consequences of these ecosystem-specific fire return intervals for biomass accumulation and NPP, it is necessary to quantify age-based carbon dynamics at a similar scale. We used chronosequences of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to fit empirical models of live biomass carbon accumulation and NPP as a function of stand age. Models were fit at both coarse (ecosections) and fine (potential vegetation types) scales for the forested region of Washington, USA. At the ecosection scale, the Western Cascades and the Coastal ecosection had the highest levels of live biomass C (26.8 and 22.0 kg C/m2 respectively). The fitted maximum live biomass C was lower in the Eastern Cascades (12.2 kg C/m2) and lowest in the Okanogan Highlands (7.56 kg C/m2). However, the order of the ecosections differed for the rate at which these maximums were reached. The Coast and Okanogan Highlands reached maximum live biomass more rapidly than the Eastern and Western Cascades. For the fitted NPP models, maximum NPP was highest in the Coastal ecosection (0.699 kg C/m^2/yr), lowest in the Eastern Cascades (0.196 kg C/m^2/yr) and Okanogan Highlands (0.195 kg C/m^2/yr), and intermediate in the Western Cascades (0.397 kg C/m^2/yr). Surprisingly, all ecosections reached maximum NPP at a similar stand age (approximately 80 years). We then developed similar models at the scale of potential vegetation types within ecosections. These age-based patterns of carbon dynamics, in combination with landscape age-class distributions, provide an empirical approach for estimating the impact of wildfire on biomass accumulation and NPP at the ecosystem scale

  17. Different phycobilin antenna organisations affect the balance between light use and growth rate in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and in the cryptophyte Cryptomonas ovata.

    PubMed

    Kunath, Christfried; Jakob, Torsten; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-03-01

    During the recent years, wide varieties of methodologies have been developed up to the level of commercial use to measure photosynthetic electron transport by modulated chlorophyll a-in vivo fluorescence. It is now widely accepted that the ratio between electron transport rates and new biomass (P (Fl)/B (C)) is not fixed and depends on many factors that are also taxonomically variable. In this study, the balance between photon absorption and biomass production has been measured in two phycobilin-containing phototrophs, namely, a cyanobacterium and a cryptophyte, which differ in their antenna organization. It is demonstrated that the different antenna organization exerts influence on the regulation of the primary photosynthetic reaction and the dissipation of excessively absorbed radiation. Although, growth rates and the quantum efficiency of biomass production of both phototrophs were comparable, the ratio P (Fl)/B (C) was twice as high in the cryptophyte in comparison to the cyanobacterium. It is assumed that this discrepancy is because of differences in the metabolic regulation of cell growth. In the cryptophyte, absorbed photosynthetic energy is used to convert assimilated carbon directly into proteins and lipids, whereas in the cyanobacterium, the photosynthetic energy is preferentially stored as carbohydrates.

  18. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    PubMed

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P < 0·05; P < 0·001) and RQ (P < 0·01; P < 0·001) and higher in EE (P < 0·05; P = 0·07) and BHB (P < 0·05; P < 0·001). Hunger and RQ were lower with HP-0C than HP (693 (sd 208) v. 905 (sd 209) mm VAS × 24 h, P < 0·01; 0·76 (sd 0·01) v. 0·81 (sd 0·02), P < 0·01); BHB was higher (1349 (sd 653) v. 332 (sd 102) μmol/l; P < 0·001). ΔHunger, ΔRQ, and ΔBHB were larger between HP-0C-NP-g than between HP-NP ( - 346 (sd 84) v. - 107 (sd 52) mm VAS ×  24 h, P < 0·01; - 0·09 (sd 0·00) v. - 0·05 (sd 0·00), P < 0·001; 1115 (sd 627) v. 104 (sd 42) μmol/l, P < 0·001). In conclusion, appetite suppression and fat oxidation

  19. [Nitrogen balance in dairy farm: research progress].

    PubMed

    Lü, Chao; Qin, Wen-Xiao; Gao, Teng-Yun; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Han, Zhi-Guo; Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Large dairy farm with intensive management has high stocking density, but generally does not have enough space and normative feces disposal system, resulting in the discharged nitrogen surpassed the environmental carrying capacity of unit area land. Dairy farm is one of the major emission sources of nitrogen discharges in agriculture, where the nitrogen balance has being aroused attention by the experts abroad. The research on the nitrogen flow and nitrogen balance in dairy farm is the basis of the dairy farm nitrogen cycling and management study, as well as the basis for the construction of environmental laws, regulations and policies. The most reliable indicators to evaluate the nitrogen flow and nitrogen balance in dairy farm are nitrogen surplus and nitrogen use efficiency. This paper introduced the concept of nitrogen balance on farm-scale and the nitrogen flow within farm, compared the application scope of nitrogen surplus and nitrogen use efficiency, analyzed the factors affecting the nitrogen balance in dairy farm, and summarized the effective strategies to reduce the nitrogen discharges from dairy farm, aimed to provide references for the nitrogen management of dairy farm in China.

  20. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  1. Unfavorable situation: NATO and the conventional balance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    The view, long and widely held, that NATO conventional military forces are inferior to Warsaw Pact forces is one of the most important factors shaping postwar history. It influenced the size and nature of the American military commitment to Europe. It is at the heart of the extended deterrence strategy, in which the U.S. commitment to use nuclear weapons in the defense of Europe offsets the Warsaw Pact's perceived conventional superiority. The notion of Western inferiority runs through much of today's public debate on security policy-the INF Treaty, the future of nuclear and conventional arms control, U.S. and Allied defense programs, the burden-sharing debate, and so forth. The debates have spawned a new round of discussions on the nature of the conventional military balance in Europe and will affect U.S. and Western policies. The term balance conjures up the image of a scale, with the Warsaw Pacts military power placed on one side and NATO's on the other. This reflects the normal bean count approach to the military balance: Total number of tanks, artillery, combat aircraft, etc. is the surrogate for military power. The image of the scale conveys a deeper meaning, however: If the Warsaw Pact were military superior or the balance were unfavorable to NATO, NATO would, by implication, lose a military conflict in Central Europe fought with purely conventional weapons. The perception is the one that has shaped the broader Western policy debate.

  2. The effect of controlled floods on decadal-scale changes in channel morphology and fine sediment storage in a debris-fan affected river canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir resulted in the third highest recorded discharge of the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam subsequent to its closure in 1963. Following this event, we made measurements of channel geometry, tracer gravel displacement, and sandbar sedimentology at four long-term monitoring reaches within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Here we integrate these data with nearly two decades of channel monitoring at these sites, encompassing five controlled floods, and providing a coarse resolution, but coherent, picture of channel response and changes in fine sediment storage in a canyon-bound river. We discuss these results in the context of long-term monitoring of controlled flood response along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona. In Canyon of Lodore, moderate, short-duration controlled floods have had little effect on channel morphology or fine sediment storage. Alternatively, higher magnitude floods approaching the pre-dam mean annual flood, such as in 1999 and 2011, tended to be long duration and scoured fine sediment from the channel bed, in some places up to 5 m, while building eddy sandbars to within a meter of flood stage. This resulted in a net export of sediment from the monitored reaches. Between floods, eddy sand bars erode and the pools fill with fine sediment. We have observed only minor erosion or reworking of gravel bars and channel margin deposits stabilized by vegetation encroachment. The Green River in Canyon of Lodore is a scaled-down version of the Colorado River in debris fan-affected Marble and Grand Canyons. Both rivers now exist in varying degrees of sediment deficit due to upstream reservoirs. Coarse sediment from debris fans and hillslopes limits vertical incision and channel migration, focusing the post-dam geomorphic response to sediment imbalance on fine sediment located in eddy sandbars, pools, and channel margin deposits. In

  3. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    We found that a range of environmental variables were important in predicting crayfish distribution and abundance at multiple spatial scales and their importance was species-, response variable- and scale dependent. We would encourage others to examine the influence of spatial scale on species distribution and abundance patterns.

  4. Major factors affecting in situ biodegradation rates of jet-fuel during large-scale biosparging project in sedimentary bedrock.

    PubMed

    Machackova, Jirina; Wittlingerova, Zdena; Vlk, Kvetoslav; Zima, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), mainly jet fuel, had taken place at the former Soviet Army air base in the Czech Republic. The remediation of large-scale petroleum contamination of soil and groundwater has provided valuable information about biosparging efficiency in the sandstone sedimentary bedrock. In 1997 petroleum contamination was found to be present in soil and groundwater across an area of 28 hectares, divided for the clean-up purpose into smaller clean-up fields (several hectares). The total estimated quantity of TPH released to the environment was about 7,000 metric tons. Biosparging was applied as an innovative clean-up technology at the site and was operated over a 10-year period (1997-2008). Importance of a variety of factors that affect bacterial activity in unsaturated and saturated zones was widely studied on the site and influence of natural and technological factors on clean-up efficiency in heavily contaminates areas of clean-up fields (initial contaminant mass 111-452 metric ton/ha) was evaluated. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater temperature has shown seasonal rises and falls of temperature which have caused a fluctuation in biodegradation activity during clean-up. By contrast, an overall rise of average groundwater temperature was observed in the clean-up fields, most probably as a result of the biological activity during the clean-up process. The significant rise of biodegradation rates, observed after air sparging intensification, and strong linear correlation between the air injection rates and biodegradation activities have shown that the air injection rate is the principal factor in biodegradation efficiency in heavily contaminated areas. It has a far more important role for achieving a biodegradation activity than the contamination content which appeared to have had only a slight effect after the removal of about 75% of initial contamination.

  5. Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhausts Differentially Affect Cardiac Electrophysiology, Blood Pressure, and Autonomic Balance in Heart Failure–Prone Rats

    PubMed Central

    Farraj, Aimen K.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly link short-term exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, especially in those with preexisting CV disease. Diesel engine exhaust is a key contributor to urban ambient PM and gaseous pollutants. To determine the role of gaseous and particulate components in diesel exhaust (DE) cardiotoxicity, we examined the effects of a 4-h inhalation of whole DE (wDE) (target PM concentration: 500 µg/m3) or particle-free filtered DE (fDE) on CV physiology and a range of markers of cardiopulmonary injury in hypertensive heart failure–prone rats. Arterial blood pressure (BP), electrocardiography, and heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic balance, were monitored. Both fDE and wDE decreased BP and prolonged PR interval during exposure, with more effects from fDE, which additionally increased HRV triangular index and decreased T-wave amplitude. fDE increased QTc interval immediately after exposure, increased atrioventricular (AV) block Mobitz II arrhythmias shortly thereafter, and increased serum high-density lipoprotein 1 day later. wDE increased BP and decreased HRV root mean square of successive differences immediately postexposure. fDE and wDE decreased heart rate during the 4th hour of postexposure. Thus, DE gases slowed AV conduction and ventricular repolarization, decreased BP, increased HRV, and subsequently provoked arrhythmias, collectively suggesting parasympathetic activation; conversely, brief BP and HRV changes after exposure to particle-containing DE indicated a transient sympathetic excitation. Our findings suggest that whole- and particle-free DE differentially alter CV and autonomic physiology and may potentially increase risk through divergent pathways. PMID:22543275

  6. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  7. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  8. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butturini, A.

    2005-12-01

    Input-output mass balances within stream reaches provide in situ estimates of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical characterisation of stream water at the input and output ends of the stream reach. There is a need to optimise the hydrological monitoring and the frequencies of water sampling to yield precise annual mass balances, so as to avoid undue cost - high resolution monitoring and subsequent chemical analysis can be labour intensive and costly. In this paper, simulation exercises were performed using a data set created to represent the instantaneous discharge and solute dynamics at the input and output ends of a model stream reach during a one year period. At the output end, stream discharge and water chemistry were monitored continuously, while the input end was assumed to be ungauged; water sampling frequency was changed arbitrarily. Instantaneous discharge at the ungauged sampling point was estimated with an empirical power model linking the discharge to the catchment area (Hooper, 1986). The model thus substitutes for the additional gauge station. Simulations showed that 10 days was the longest chemical sampling interval which could provide reach annual mass balances of acceptable precision. Presently, the relationship between discharge and catchment area is usually assumed to be linear but simulations indicate that small departures from the linearity of this relationship could cause dramatic changes in the mass balance estimations.

  9. Mechanisms affecting the transport and retention of bacteria, bacteriophage and microspheres in laboratory-scale saturated fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seggewiss, G.; Dickson, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is becoming an increasingly important water source due to the ever-increasing demands from agricultural, residential and industrial consumers. In search of more secure sources, wells are routinely finished over large vertical depths in bedrock aquifers, creating new hydraulic pathways and thus increasing the risk of cross contamination. Moreover, hydraulic pathways are also being altered and created by increasing water withdrawal rates from these wells. Currently, it is not well understood how biological contaminants are transported through, and retained in, fractured media thereby making risk assessment and land use decisions difficult. Colloid transport within fractured rock is a complex process with several mechanisms affecting transport and retention, including: advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, diffusion, size exclusion, adsorption, and decay. Several researchers have investigated the transport of bacteria, bacteriophage, and microspheres (both carboxylated and plain) to evaluate the effects of surface properties and size on transport and retention. These studies have suggested that transport is highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the particle, the fracture, and the carrying fluid. However, these studies contain little detail regarding the specific mechanisms responsible for transport beyond speculating about their existence. Further, little work has been done to compare the transport of these particulate materials through the same fracture, allowing for direct observations based on particulate size and surface properties. This research examines the similarities and differences in transport and retention between four different particles through two different laboratory-scale, saturated fractures. This work is designed to explore the effects of particle size, surface properties, ionic strength of the carrying solution, and aperture field characteristics on transport and retention in single, saturated fractures. The particulates

  10. Modeling Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation of Negative and Positive Affect in a Mixed Effects Location Scale Model Using BUGS/JAGS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rast, Philippe; Hofer, Scott M.; Sparks, Catharine

    2012-01-01

    A mixed effects location scale model was used to model and explain individual differences in within-person variability of negative and positive affect across 7 days (N=178) within a measurement burst design. The data come from undergraduate university students and are pooled from a study that was repeated at two consecutive years. Individual…

  11. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  12. Seasonal changes in light and temperature affect the balance between light harvesting and light utilisation components of photosynthesis in an evergreen understory shrub.

    PubMed

    Muller, Onno; Hikosaka, Kouki; Hirose, Tadaki

    2005-05-01

    In a temperate climate, evergreen species in the understory are exposed to large changes in photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and temperature over the year. We determined the photosynthetic traits of leaves of an evergreen understory shrub Aucuba japonica at three sites at monthly intervals: understorys of a deciduous forest; an evergreen forest; and a gap in a mixed forest. This set up enabled us to separate the effects of seasonal change in PPFD and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation under natural conditions. The effects of PPFD and temperature were analysed by simple and multiple regression analyses. The amounts of light utilisation components (LU), represented by nitrogen and rubisco contents per area, were higher in winter, when temperature was low and PPFD was high. The LU relative to the amount of light harvesting components (LH), represented by chlorophyll a/b and rubisco/chlorophyll ratios, and the inverse of chlorophyll/nitrogen ratio were also higher in winter. We quantified the effects of PPFD and temperature on the LU and LH components. Across sites PPFD had stronger effects than air temperature, while within a site temperature had stronger effects on photosynthetic acclimation. We concluded that the photosynthetic apparatus is strongly affected by the prevailing PPFD at the time of leaf development. Within a given light regime, however, plants acclimated by increasing LU relative to LH primarily in response to temperature and to a lesser extent to PPFD.

  13. Is the distribution of the lancelet Branchiostoma caribaeum affected by sewage discharges? An analysis at multiple scales of variability.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Carlos Alberto de Moura; Hadlich, Heliatrice Louise; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César de Castro; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2013-04-15

    Spatial variation in the density and biomass of Branchiostoma caribaeum was analyzed along a sewage contamination gradient identified by fecal steroids in a subtropical estuary, southern Brazil. Sampling, repeated in the austral winter and summer, followed a hierarchical design nested at four spatial scales (sector>1 km; area>100 m; site>10 m; replicate<1 m). Density and biomass were significantly lower at sites characterized by high concentrations of fecal steroids. The best combinations of variables that explained the biological similarities among sites involved contamination indicators. Most of the variation of biological data was found at the smallest scales and could be related with the sediment texture. Our study highlighted the usefulness of a multi-scale perspective to evaluate distribution patterns of benthic invertebrates as a biological indication of environmental pollution. Gradient analyses at larger spatial scales may be invalidated by the patchy distribution of benthic fauna if they do not account for such small scale variability.

  14. Is the distribution of the lancelet Branchiostoma caribaeum affected by sewage discharges? An analysis at multiple scales of variability.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Carlos Alberto de Moura; Hadlich, Heliatrice Louise; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César de Castro; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2013-04-15

    Spatial variation in the density and biomass of Branchiostoma caribaeum was analyzed along a sewage contamination gradient identified by fecal steroids in a subtropical estuary, southern Brazil. Sampling, repeated in the austral winter and summer, followed a hierarchical design nested at four spatial scales (sector>1 km; area>100 m; site>10 m; replicate<1 m). Density and biomass were significantly lower at sites characterized by high concentrations of fecal steroids. The best combinations of variables that explained the biological similarities among sites involved contamination indicators. Most of the variation of biological data was found at the smallest scales and could be related with the sediment texture. Our study highlighted the usefulness of a multi-scale perspective to evaluate distribution patterns of benthic invertebrates as a biological indication of environmental pollution. Gradient analyses at larger spatial scales may be invalidated by the patchy distribution of benthic fauna if they do not account for such small scale variability. PMID:23452624

  15. Solute balance of a maize (Zea mays L.) source leaf as affected by salt treatment with special emphasis on phloem retranslocation and ion leaching.

    PubMed

    Lohaus, G; Hussmann, M; Pennewiss, K; Schneider, H; Zhu, J J; Sattelmacher, B

    2000-10-01

    Strategies for avoiding ion accumulation in leaves of plants grown at high concentration of NaCl (100 mol m(-3)) in the rooting media, i.e. retranslocation via the phloem and leaching from the leaf surface, were quantified for fully developed leaves of maize plants cultivated hydroponically with or without salt, and with or without sprinkling (to induce leaching). Phloem sap, apoplastic fluid, xylem sap, solutes from leaf and root tissues, and the leachate were analysed for carbohydrates, amino acids, malate, and inorganic ions. In spite of a reduced growth rate Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations in the leaf apoplast remained relatively low (about 4-5 mol m(-3)) under salt treatment. Concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the phloem sap of salt-treated maize did not exceed 12 and 32 mol m(-3), respectively, and thus remained lower than described for other species. However, phloem transport rates of these ions were higher than reported for other species. The relatively high translocation rate of ions found in maize may be due to the higher carbon translocation rate observed for C(4) plants as opposed to C(3) plants. Approximately 13-36% of the Na(+) and Cl(-) imported into the leaves through the xylem were exported by the phloem. It is concluded that phloem transport plays an important role in controlling the NaCl content of the leaf in maize. Surprisingly, leaching by artificial rain did not affect plant growth. Ion concentrations in the leachate were lower than reported for other plants but increased with NaCl treatment.

  16. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  17. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  18. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  19. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, William R.

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  20. Differences in Transfer Propensity and Learning Speed on Balance-Scale Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities and Other Low-Achieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Mary T.; And Others

    Research on Vygotsky's zone of proximal development theory was used as a foundation to investigate differences in the learning and transfer ability of 30 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 30 students with matched low achievement (LA), from grades 7 and 8. The two groups were assessed on their problem-solving ability on a balance scale…

  1. Instruments and methods for the quantitative measurement of factors affecting hygienist/dentist efforts during scaling and root planing of the teeth.

    PubMed

    White, D J; Cox, E R; Arends, J; Nieborg, J H; Leydsman, H; Wieringa, D W; Dijkman, A G; Ruben, J R

    1996-01-01

    Manual calculus debridement through scaling accounts for a significant proportion of hygienist efforts in dental and periodontal practices. Despite this, little is quantitatively known concerning the effects of instruments, technique and treatments on debridement (scaling) efficiency or efficacy. The total work effort expended by therapists in calculus debridement results from the sum of the efforts associated with each scaling stroke. Each scaling stroke, in turn, is affected by a variety of physical forces, including those in the control of the therapist and those intrinsic to the calculus substrate. The development of procedures and treatments to facilitate easier calculus removal requires consideration of the physical and technique-related factors which contribute to hygienist effort. Instruments have recently been developed which can quantitatively measure force dynamics associated with scaling procedures, including both therapist-applied forces and forces developed due to the extreme hardness and tenacity of supra- and subgingival calculus deposits. The scaling instrument developed to quantitatively record developed forces in scaling, the Quanticalc, can be used for the assessment of techniques and treatments which can soften calculus, facilitating easier debridement. The device can also be used to instruct therapists on factors contributing to surface roughness and tactile response to these factors. The scaling instrument developed to quantitatively measure therapist applied forces in scaling, the Zappa device, can be used for assessment of techniques which can increase the efficiency of calculus removal with minimal damage to sound root substance. In this paper, the force dynamics associated with manual scaling procedures of dental professionals are defined. These force dynamics account for the total work expended by hygienists and other professionals in the important task of calculus removal. Using this as a foundation, the design, use, calibration and

  2. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2011-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach to clinical balance assessment can differentiate different kinds of balance disorders and a physiological approach can determine underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contributing to balance disorders. Objective measures of balance using computerized systems and wearable inertial sensors can bring more sensitive, specific and responsive balance testing to clinical practice. PMID:20485226

  3. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  4. Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and…

  5. Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Rupert; Müller, Jörg; Hothorn, Torsten; Bässler, Claus; Heurich, Marco; Kautz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. 2. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus (Col., Scol.), we analysed drivers across seven orders of magnitude in scale (from 103 to 1010 m2) over a 23-year period, focusing on the Bavarian Forest National Park. Time-discrete hazard modelling was used to account for local factors and temporal dependencies. Subsequently, beta regression was applied to determine the influence of regional and landscape factors, the latter characterized by means of graph theory. 3. We found that in addition to stand variables, large-scale drivers also strongly influenced bark beetle infestation risk. Outbreak waves were closely related to landscape-scale connectedness of both host and beetle populations as well as to regional bark beetle infestation levels. Furthermore, regional summer drought was identified as an important trigger for infestation pulses. Large-scale synchrony and connectivity are thus key drivers of the recently observed bark beetle outbreak in the area. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our multiscale analysis provides evidence that the risk for biotic disturbances is highly dependent on drivers beyond the control of traditional stand-scale management. This finding highlights the importance of fostering the ability to cope with and recover from disturbance. It furthermore suggests that a stronger consideration of landscape and regional processes is needed to address changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. PMID:27041769

  6. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  7. Factors affecting the intensity of epidermal papillomatosis in populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), estimated as scale coverage.

    PubMed

    Korkea-aho, T; Vainikka, A; Taskinen, J

    2006-02-01

    Studies of epidermal papillomatosis in fish populations have only rarely focused on the intensity of the disease, i.e. the number and size of papillomas. Furthermore, the methods used to evaluate the intensity of papillomatosis have not been standardized. We tested the reliability of a method based on counting of scales covered by papilloma tumours in roach, Rutilus rutilus (L). In addition, we studied the frequency distributions of the number of scales covered by papillomas within populations, evaluated the correlation between the prevalence and mean intensity of the disease among populations and examined the intensity of papillomatosis in roach with respect to sex and size of fish. Reliability of the scale coverage method was high. Therefore, the method could offer an effective way to determine the intensity of papillomatosis in fish species with large scales. The frequency distribution of the scale coverage of papillomas was highly aggregated within all populations studied. The mean intensity of papillomatosis increased with the size of the fish and was higher in males than in females. However, there was no correlation between the mean intensity and prevalence of the disease among the 19 roach populations studied. PMID:16436122

  8. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  9. Factors Affecting the Inter-annual to Centennial Time Scale Variability of All Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Abdul; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The All Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (AISMR) is highly important for the livelihood of more than 1 billion people living in the Indian sub-continent. The agriculture of this region is heavily dependent on seasonal (JJAS) monsoon rainfall. An early start or a slight delay of monsoon, or an early withdrawal or prolonged monsoon season may upset the farmer's agricultural plans, can cause significant reduction in crop yield, and hence economic loss. Understanding of AISMR is also vital because it is a part of global atmospheric circulation system. Several studies show that AISMR is influenced by internal climate forcings (ICFs) viz. ENSO, AMO, PDO etc. as well as external climate forcings (ECFs) viz. Greenhouse Gases, volcanic eruptions, and Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). We investigate the influence of ICFs and ECFs on AISMR using recently developed statistical technique called De-trended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA). DPCCA can analyse a complex system of several interlinked variables. Often, climatic variables, being cross correlated, are simultaneously tele-connected with several other variables and it is not easy to isolate their intrinsic relationship. In the presence of non-stationarities and background signals the calculated correlation coefficients can be overestimated and erroneous. DPCCA method removes the non-stationarities and partials out the influence of background signals from the variables being cross correlated and thus give a robust estimate of correlation. We have performed the analysis using NOAA Reconstructed SSTs and homogenised instrumental AISMR data set from 1854-1999. By employing the DPCCA method we find that there is a statistically insignificant negative intrinsic relation (by excluding the influence of ICFs, and ECFs except TSI) between AISMR and TSI on decadal to centennial time scale. The ICFs considerably modulate the relation between AISMR and solar activity between 50-80 year time scales and transform this relationship

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes and balance impairment

    PubMed Central

    Voica, Alina Sorina; Oancea, Cristian; Tudorache, Emanuela; Crisan, Alexandru F; Fira-Mladinescu, Ovidiu; Tudorache, Voicu; Timar, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Background/objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that results in airflow limitation and respiratory distress, also having many nonrespiratory manifestations that affect both function and mobility. Preliminary evidence suggests that balance deficits constitute an important secondary impairment in individuals with COPD. Our objective was to investigate balance performance in two groups of COPD patients with different body compositions and to observe which of these groups are more likely to experience falls in the future. Methods We included 27 stable COPD patients and 17 healthy individuals who performed a series of balance tests. The COPD patients were divided in two groups: emphysematous and bronchitic. Patients completed the activities balance confidence scale and the COPD assessment test questionnaire and afterward performed the Berg Balance Scale, timed up and go, single leg stance and 6-minute walking distance test. We analyzed the differences in the balance tests between the studied groups. Results Bronchitic COPD was associated with a decreased value when compared to emphysematous COPD for the following variables: single leg stance (8.7 vs 15.6; P<0.001) and activities balance confidence (53.2 vs 74.2; P=0.001). Bronchitic COPD patients had a significantly higher value of timed up and go test compared to patients with emphysematous COPD (14.7 vs 12.8; P=0.001). Conclusion Patients with COPD have a higher balance impairment than their healthy peers. Moreover, we observed that the bronchitic COPD phenotype is more likely to experience falls compared to the emphysematous phenotype. PMID:27199555

  11. Effect of manure application on abundance of antibiotic resistance genes and their attenuation rates in soil: field-scale mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Fahrenfeld, Nicole; Knowlton, Katharine; Krometis, Leigh Anne; Hession, W Cully; Xia, Kang; Lipscomb, Emily; Libuit, Kevin; Green, Breanna Lee; Pruden, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The development of models for understanding antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) persistence and transport is a critical next step toward informing mitigation strategies to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. A field study was performed that used a mass balance approach to gain insight into the transport and dissipation of ARGs following land application of manure. Soil from a small drainage plot including a manure application site, an unmanured control site, and an adjacent stream and buffer zone were sampled for ARGs and metals before and after application of dairy manure slurry and a dry stack mixture of equine, bovine, and ovine manure. Results of mass balance suggest growth of bacterial hosts containing ARGs and/or horizontal gene transfer immediately following slurry application with respect to ermF, sul1, and sul2 and following a lag (13 days) for dry-stack-amended soils. Generally no effects on tet(G), tet(O), or tet(W) soil concentrations were observed despite the presence of these genes in applied manure. Dissipation rates were fastest for ermF in slurry-treated soils (logarithmic decay coefficient of -3.5) and for sul1 and sul2 in dry-stack-amended soils (logarithmic decay coefficients of -0.54 and -0.48, respectively), and evidence for surface and subsurface transport was not observed. Results provide a mass balance approach for tracking ARG fate and insights to inform modeling and limiting the transport of manure-borne ARGs to neighboring surface water.

  12. Simulating long-term past changes in the balance between water demand and availability and assessing their main drivers at the river basin management scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the balance between water demand and availability and its spatial and temporal variability from 1971 to 2009 in the Herault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) catchments. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model. The regulation of river flow was accounted for through a widely applicable demand-driven reservoir management model applied to the largest dam in the Herault basin and to 11 major dams in the Ebro basin. Urban water demand was estimated from population and monthly unit water consumption data. Water demand for irrigation was computed from irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climatic forcing. Finally, a series of indicators comparing water supply and water demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed at a 10 day time step. Variations in water stress in each catchment over the past 40 years were successfully modeled, taking into account climatic and anthropogenic pressures and changes in water management strategies over time. Observed changes in discharge were explained by separating human and hydro-climatic pressures on water resources: respectively 20 and 3% of the decrease in the Ebro and the Herault discharges were linked to human-induced changes. Although key areas of the Herault basin were shown to be highly sensitive to hydro-climatic variability, the balance between water uses and availability in the Ebro basin appears to be more critical, owing to high agricultural pressure on water resources. The proposed modeling framework is currently being used to assess water stress under climatic and socio-economic prospective scenarios. Further research will investigate the effectiveness of adaptation policies aimed at maintaining the balance between water use and availability.

  13. Factors Affecting the Development of Oxide Scales on Austenitic Stainless Steels during Hot Rolling in Steckel Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobo, S. J.; Rainforth, W. M.

    2008-10-01

    The hot rolling of austenitic stainless steels in Steckel Mills introduces particular characteristics to the development of oxides scales and surface structures. In this work, the formation of oxide structures during multipass hot rolling of 302 steel was studied under different sets of processing parameters in a laboratory system designed for the simulation of the Steckel process. The resulting surface structures were characterized by a set of complementary techniques involving scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS). The surface analysis revealed two alternative surface structures: one consisting in a thin protective oxide layer rich in Cr2O3 and the other consisting in thick complex structures containing several successive nonprotective oxide scale and metal layers resulting from a cyclic oxidation pattern involving stages of protective oxidation, chemical breakaway, and duplex oxidation. The critical condition that determined the activation of one mechanism or the other was identified associated with the parabolic rate constant for Cr2O3 growth and the diffusivity of Cr in the alloy. The effects of changes in temperature, deformation, and furnace atmosphere are discussed. Alternatives for controlling scale development are presented.

  14. Simulating past changes in the balance between water demand and availability and assessing their main drivers at the river basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.

    2015-03-01

    In this study we present an integrative modeling framework aimed at assessing the balance between water demand and availability and its spatial and temporal variability over long time periods. The model was developed and tested over the period 1971-2009 in the Hérault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) catchments. Natural streamflow was simulated using a conceptual hydrological model. The regulation of river flow was accounted for through a widely applicable demand-driven reservoir management model applied to the largest dam in the Hérault Basin and to 11 major dams in the Ebro Basin. Urban water demand was estimated from population and monthly unit water demand data. Water demand for irrigation was computed from irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climatic forcing. Water shortage was assessed at a 10-day time step by comparing water demand and availability through indicators calculated at strategic resource and demand nodes. The outcome of this study is twofold. First, we were able to correctly simulate variations in influenced streamflow, reservoir levels and water shortage between 1971 and 2009 in both basins, taking into account climatic and anthropogenic pressures and changes in water management strategies over time. Second, we provided information not available through simple data analysis on the influence of withdrawals and consumptive use on streamflow and on the drivers of imbalance between demand and availability. Observed past variations in discharge were explained by separating anthropogenic and climatic pressures in our simulations: 3% (20%) of the decrease in the Hérault (Ebro) discharge were linked to anthropogenic changes. Although key areas of the Hérault Basin were shown to be highly sensitive to hydro-climatic variability, the balance between water demand and availability in the Ebro Basin appears to be more critical, owing to high agricultural pressure on water resources. The modeling framework developed and tested in

  15. Modeling compensatory responses of ecosystem-scale water fluxes in forests affected by pine and spruce beetle mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, D.; Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemics have led to extensive mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) forests in the Rocky Mountains of the western US. In both of these tree species, mortality results from hydraulic failure within the xylem, due to blue stain fungal infection associated with beetle attack. However, the impacts of these disturbances on ecosystem-scale water fluxes can be complex, owing to their variable and transient nature. In this work, xylem scaling factors that reduced whole-tree conductance were initially incorporated into a forest ecohydrological model (TREES) to simulate the impact of beetle mortality on evapotranspiration (ET) in both pine and spruce forests. For both forests, simulated ET was compared to observed ET fluxes recorded using eddy covariance techniques. Using xylem scaling factors, the model overestimated the impact of beetle mortality, and observed ET fluxes were approximately two-fold higher than model predictions in both forests. The discrepancy between simulated and observed ET following the onset of beetle mortality may be the result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of plant communities within the foot prints of the eddy covariance towers. Since simulated ET fluxes following beetle mortality in both forests only accounted for approximately 50% of those observed in the field, it is possible that newly established understory vegetation in recently killed tree stands may play a role in stabilizing ecosystem ET fluxes. Here, we further investigate the unaccounted for ET fluxes in the model by breaking it down into multiple cohorts that represent live trees, dying trees, and understory vegetation that establishes following tree mortality.

  16. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB)

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J.; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18–89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts (t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions (t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more ‘distal’ processes that manifest at ‘slower’ time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more ‘proximal’ processes that manifest at ‘faster’ time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes). PMID:26989350

  17. Student Life Balance: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doble, Niharika; Supriya, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Student life stress, student family conflict and student life balance are issues that are scarcely researched. This paper aims to develop a scale for assessing the concept of student life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study evaluated a 54-item scale for assessing the construct. The data are obtained from 612 Indian students.…

  18. A comprehensive factorial design study of variables affecting CaCO3 scaling under magnetic water treatment.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Fathi; Boubakri, Ali; Tlili, Mohamed M; Ben Amor, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic water treatment (MWT) could be an interesting alternative to chemical treatment to prevent scaling and has been used as an antiscaling treatment for domestic and industrial equipment. A two level-three factor (2(3)) full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of pH (6-7.5), flow rate (0.54-0.94) and application of a magnetic field on the induction time (IT), total precipitation (TP) rate and homogeneous precipitation (HP) rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) scale from hard water. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the pH, flow rate and interaction between pH and magnetic field have negative effects on IT response. In the case of TP rate response, the magnitude of the main influence is attributed to the magnetic field, followed by pH value and their interaction. Flow rate and pH value have a negative effect on HP rate response, but their interaction has a positive effect. Within these factor ranges, these studied responses predicted by the models were in good agreement with the experimental values. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for reduction time, TP ratio and HP ratio were 97.8%, 99.12% and 99.92%, respectively. These results were analyzed statistically using Minitab 15.

  19. Perceived utility of emotion: the structure and construct validity of the Perceived Affect Utility Scale in a cross-ethnic sample.

    PubMed

    Chow, Philip I; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new measure of the perceived utility of emotion, which is the degree to which emotions are perceived to be useful in achieving goals. In this study, we administered this new measure, the Perceived Affect Utility Scale (PAUSe), to a sample of 142 European American and 156 East Asian American college students. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a new, culturally informed parsing of emotion and for perceived utility of emotion to be distinguishable from ideal affect, a related but separate construct. Next, we explored the potential importance of perceived utility of emotion in cultural research. Through path analyses, we found that: (a) culturally relevant variables (e.g., independence) played a mediating role in the link between ethnic group and perceived utility of emotion; and (b) perceived utility of emotion played a mediating role in the link between culturally relevant variables and ideal affect. In particular, perceived utility of self-centered emotions (e.g., pride) was found to be associated with independence and ideal affect of those same emotions. In contrast, perceived utility of other-centered emotions (e.g., appreciation) was found to be associated with interdependence, dutifulness/self-discipline, and ideal affect of those same emotions. Implications for perceived utility of emotion in understanding cultural factors are discussed.

  20. Delay effects in the human sensory system during balancing.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Gabor

    2009-03-28

    Mechanical models of human self-balancing often use the Newtonian equations of inverted pendula. While these mathematical models are precise enough on the mechanical side, the ways humans balance themselves are still quite unexplored on the control side. Time delays in the sensory and motoric neural pathways give essential limitations to the stabilization of the human body as a multiple inverted pendulum. The sensory systems supporting each other provide the necessary signals for these control tasks; but the more complicated the system is, the larger delay is introduced. Human ageing as well as our actual physical and mental state affects the time delays in the neural system, and the mechanical structure of the human body also changes in a large range during our lives. The human balancing organ, the labyrinth, and the vision system essentially adapted to these relatively large time delays and parameter regions occurring during balancing. The analytical study of the simplified large-scale time-delayed models of balancing provides a Newtonian insight into the functioning of these organs that may also serve as a basis to support theories and hypotheses on balancing and vision.

  1. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  2. Development of superconductor magnetic suspension and balance prototype facility for studying the feasibility of applying this technique to large scale aerodynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, R. N.; Humphris, R. R.; Henderson, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    The unique design and operational characteristics of a prototype magnetic suspension and balance facility which utilizes superconductor technology are described and discussed from the point of view of scalability to large sizes. The successful experimental demonstration of the feasibility of this new magnetic suspension concept of the University of Virginia, together with the success of the cryogenic wind-tunnel concept developed at Langley Research Center, appear to have finally opened the way to clean-tunnel, high-Re aerodynamic testing. Results of calculations corresponding to a two-step design extrapolation from the observed performance of the prototype magnetic suspension system to a system compatible with the projected cryogenic transonic research tunnel are presented to give an order-of-magnitude estimate of expected performance characteristics. Research areas where progress should lead to improved design and performance of large facilities are discussed.

  3. Spatial scale and sampling resolution affect measures of gap disturbance in a lowland tropical forest: implications for understanding forest regeneration and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Elena; Dalling, James W

    2014-03-01

    Treefall gaps play an important role in tropical forest dynamics and in determining above-ground biomass (AGB). However, our understanding of gap disturbance regimes is largely based either on surveys of forest plots that are small relative to spatial variation in gap disturbance, or on satellite imagery, which cannot accurately detect small gaps. We used high-resolution light detection and ranging data from a 1500 ha forest in Panama to: (i) determine how gap disturbance parameters are influenced by study area size, and the criteria used to define gaps; and (ii) to evaluate how accurately previous ground-based canopy height sampling can determine the size and location of gaps. We found that plot-scale disturbance parameters frequently differed significantly from those measured at the landscape-level, and that canopy height thresholds used to define gaps strongly influenced the gap-size distribution, an important metric influencing AGB. Furthermore, simulated ground surveys of canopy height frequently misrepresented the true location of gaps, which may affect conclusions about how relatively small canopy gaps affect successional processes and contribute to the maintenance of diversity. Across site comparisons need to consider how gap definition, scale and spatial resolution affect characterizations of gap disturbance, and its inferred importance for carbon storage and community composition. PMID:24452032

  4. Spatial scale and sampling resolution affect measures of gap disturbance in a lowland tropical forest: implications for understanding forest regeneration and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Elena; Dalling, James W

    2014-03-01

    Treefall gaps play an important role in tropical forest dynamics and in determining above-ground biomass (AGB). However, our understanding of gap disturbance regimes is largely based either on surveys of forest plots that are small relative to spatial variation in gap disturbance, or on satellite imagery, which cannot accurately detect small gaps. We used high-resolution light detection and ranging data from a 1500 ha forest in Panama to: (i) determine how gap disturbance parameters are influenced by study area size, and the criteria used to define gaps; and (ii) to evaluate how accurately previous ground-based canopy height sampling can determine the size and location of gaps. We found that plot-scale disturbance parameters frequently differed significantly from those measured at the landscape-level, and that canopy height thresholds used to define gaps strongly influenced the gap-size distribution, an important metric influencing AGB. Furthermore, simulated ground surveys of canopy height frequently misrepresented the true location of gaps, which may affect conclusions about how relatively small canopy gaps affect successional processes and contribute to the maintenance of diversity. Across site comparisons need to consider how gap definition, scale and spatial resolution affect characterizations of gap disturbance, and its inferred importance for carbon storage and community composition.

  5. Effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the improvement of balance and corporal symmetry in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Jéssica Cristine; Santos, Bárbara C; Battistuzzo, Camila R; Loureiro, Ana Paula C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main problems associate with hemiparesis after stroke is the decrease in balance during static and dynamic postures which can highly affect daily life activities. Objective: To assess the effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the balance and quality of life (SS-QoL) of people with pos stroke. Methods: Chronic stroke participants received at total 18 individual sessions of aquatic physiotherapy using the principle of Halliwick (2x of 40 minutes per week). The outcomes measured were: Berg Balance scale, Timed up & go test (TUG), Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QoL) and baropodometric analysis. These assessment were performed before and one week after intervention. Results: Fifteen participants were included in this study. The mean age was 58.5 and 54% was male. After intervention, participants had a significant improvement on their static balance measured by Berg Balance scale and TUG. Dynamic balance had a significant trend of improvement in mediolateral domain with eyes closed and during sit-to-stand. The mobility domain of the SS-QoL questionnaire was significant higher after intervention. Conclusions: Our results suggest that aquatic physiotherapy using the method of Halliwick can be a useful tool during stroke rehabilitation to improve balance. However, this improvement may not have significant impact of their quality of life. PMID:24955206

  6. Does El Niño-Southern Oscillation affect the precipitation in Korea on seasonal time scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Woosuk; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Yoo, Hee-Dong

    2016-08-01

    A number of studies in the past two decades have attempted to find the relationship between the precipitation in Korea and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on various time scales. Comprehensive analyses of station precipitation data in Korea for the 61-year period, 1954-2014, in this study show that the effects of ENSO on the seasonal precipitation in Korea are practically negligible. The correlation between summer precipitation and ENSO is insignificant regardless of the intensity, type (e.g., eastern-Pacific or central-Pacific), and stage (e.g., developing, mature, or decaying) of ENSO. Somewhat meaningful correlation between ENSO and precipitation in Korea occurs only in the ENSO-developing fall. Because summer rainfall accounts for over half of the annual total and fall is a dry season in Korea, the overall effects of ENSO on precipitation in Korea are practically nonexistent.

  7. Predators determine how weather affects the spatial niche of lizard prey: exploring niche dynamics at a fine scale.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Darias, Marta; Schoener, Thomas W; Spiller, David A; Losos, Jonathan B

    2012-12-01

    Although abiotic and biotic factors can interact to shape the spatial niche of a species, studies that explore the interactive effects of both at a local scale are rare. We demonstrate that one of the main axes (perch height) characterizing the spatial niche of a common lizard, Anolis sagrei, varies according to the interactive effects of weather and the activity of a larger predatory lizard, Leiocephalus carinatus. Results were completely consistent: no matter how favorable the weather conditions for using the ground (mainly characterized by temperature, humidity, wind speed, rain), A. sagrei did not do so if the predator was present. Hence, great behavioral plasticity enabled A. sagrei to adjust its use of space very quickly. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first field demonstration for anoles (and possibly for other animals as well) of how time-varying environmental conditions and predator presence interact to produce short-term changes in utilization along a major niche axis.

  8. Small scale hydrology in a pristine and an affected peatland: effects of flood water on soil biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorenhout, Michel; Cusell, Casper

    2014-05-01

    Many peatlands have a water regime of fluctuating water levels. Flooding of peatsoils occurs in several Dutch peatlands. The quality of this floodwater is important for the ecological value of the peatlands. Well known are the eutrophying effects of polluted flood water on the N- and P- limited vegetation. Nutrients can, however, also be released from the soil; anoxic conditions are known to release Fe-bound phosphorus. It is therefore important to focus on small scale hydrology in projects where water levels are manipulated and floodings are induced. Three types of peatlands have been the subject of two separate studies on hydrology, ecological value and soil biogeochemistry. Two pristine sites and one recently restored flood water storage basin were monitored during 2009-2013. These three sites cover the natural range of peatsoils: from floating fens to degraded and fixed peat soils. All sites have peat as the main soil type, but the age and typology differs. The two pristine sites, the Wieden and Weerribben, are characterized by limited natural and/or induced flooding events. These sites have peaty soils. The soils in the Wieden are fixed to the sandy substrate below, the peaty soils in the Weerribben are completely floating on a water layer. The ecological value of the Wieden and the Weerribben is high, but their value may decline due to low variation in water levels. The third site, the Onlanden area, is a large created storm water storage basin. The Onlanden area is a former agricultural area, inhabited since the Medieval period. It has a fixed and rather degraded peaty soil. Large scale restoration of water inlets and dams has created an area that will get flooded at regular intervals. The Onlanden was the subject of an archaeological monitoring project. All sites were equipped with monitoring stations for local and regional water levels, soil moisture and soil redox potential as the indicator for the local biogeochemistry. Cusell et al (2013) studied the

  9. Do experimental units of different scale affect the biological performance of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larvae?

    PubMed

    Lika, K; Pavlidis, M; Mitrizakis, N; Samaras, A; Papandroulakis, N

    2015-04-01

    The effects of different tank volumes (2000, 500 and 40 l) on European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larval rearing, relating to growth, survival, quality and stress variables, were investigated. A dynamic energy budget (DEB) model was used to analyse the results. The hydrodynamics of the tanks exhibited differences, with the water currents in the 2000 l tanks to be almost one order of magnitude stronger than those in the 40 l ones. Important differences in fish growth were observed between small and large tank-rearing volumes, with the smallest tank resulting in the slowest growth. Based on the DEB model analysis, growth differences were related to feeding rates, with growth in the smaller tank limited by food availability. Differences in survival rates were not statistically significant among the tank-rearing volumes. The quality evaluation of the fry (in terms of swimbladder, jaw and skeletal abnormalities) showed differences, with the smallest tank having the highest percentage of deformed individuals. This could be attributed to both the feeding variances and the hydrodynamics in the tanks. No differences were observed in terms of whole-body cortisol at the two developmental stages; flexion, and when the larvae body was fully covered by melanophores; when analysis was performed. This indicates that the allostatic load exerted on fish of different groups was similar and inside the fish-coping abilities range, in terms of the cortisol response axis. The selection of the experimental scale is of importance, especially when the results are to be transferred and applied on an industrial scale.

  10. The scaling of host density with richness affects the direction, shape, and detectability of diversity-disease relationships.

    PubMed

    Mihaljevic, Joseph R; Joseph, Maxwell B; Orlofske, Sarah A; Paull, Sara H

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen transmission responds differently to host richness and abundance, two unique components of host diversity. However, the heated debate around whether biodiversity generally increases or decreases disease has not considered the relationships between host richness and abundance that may exist in natural systems. Here we use a multi-species model to study how the scaling of total host community abundance with species richness mediates diversity-disease relationships. For pathogens with density-dependent transmission, non-monotonic trends emerge between pathogen transmission and host richness when host community abundance saturates with richness. Further, host species identity drives high variability in pathogen transmission in depauperate communities, but this effect diminishes as host richness accumulates. Using simulation we show that high variability in low richness communities and the non-monotonic relationship observed with host community saturation may reduce the detectability of trends in empirical data. Our study emphasizes that understanding the patterns and predictability of host community composition and pathogen transmission mode will be crucial for predicting where and when specific diversity-disease relationships should occur in natural systems.

  11. Factors affecting the microbial populations at full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Carlos M; Hooijmans, Christine M; Brdjanovic, Damir; Gijzen, Huub J; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2008-05-01

    The influence of operating and environmental conditions on the microbial populations of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process at seven full-scale municipal activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in The Netherlands was studied. Data from the selected WWTPs concerning process configuration, operating and environmental conditions were compiled. The EBPR activity from each plant was determined by execution of anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic batch tests using fresh activated sludge. Fractions of Accumulibacter as potential phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO), and Competibacter, Defluviicoccus-related microorganisms and Sphingomonas as potential glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) were quantified using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The relationships among plant process configurations, operating parameters, environmental conditions, EBPR activity and microbial populations fractions were evaluated using a statistical approach. A well-defined and operated denitrification stage and a higher mixed liquor pH value in the anaerobic stage were positively correlated with the occurrence of Accumulibacter. A well-defined denitrification stage also stimulated the development of denitrifying PAO (DPAO). A positive correlation was observed between Competibacter fractions and organic matter concentrations in the influent. Nevertheless, Competibacter did not cause a major effect on the EBPR performance. The observed Competibacter fractions were not in the range that would have led to EBPR deterioration. Likely, the low average sewerage temperature (12+/-2 degrees C) limited their proliferation. Defluviicoccus-related microorganisms were seen only in negligible fractions in a few plants (<0.1% as EUB), whereas Sphingomonas were not observed.

  12. Utility of a Two-source Energy Balance Approach for Daily Mapping of Landsat-scale Fluxes Over Irrigated Agriculture in a Desert Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.; Rosas Aguilar, J.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is an area characterized by limited fresh water resources, an often inefficient use of these, and relatively poor in-situ monitoring as a result of sparse meteorological observations. Enhanced satellite-based monitoring systems are needed for aiding local water resource and agricultural management activities in these data poor arid environments. A multi-sensor and multi-scale land-surface flux monitoring capacity is being implemented over parts of MENA in order to provide meaningful decision support at relevant spatiotemporal scales. The integrated modeling system uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI), and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (Landsat and MODIS; MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate daily estimates of land surface fluxes down to sub-field scale (i.e. 30 m). Within this modeling system, thermal infrared satellite data provide information about the sub-surface moisture status and plant stress, obviating the need for precipitation input and error-prone soil surface characterizations. In this study, the integrated ALEXI-DisALEXI-STARFM framework is applied over an irrigated agricultural region in Saudi Arabia, and the daily estimates of Landsat scale water, energy and carbon fluxes are evaluated against available flux tower observations and other independent in-situ and satellite-based records. The study addresses the challenges associated with time-continuous sub-field scale mapping of land-surface fluxes in a harsh desert environment, and looks into the optimization of model descriptions and parameterizations and meteorological forcing and vegetation inputs for application over these regions.

  13. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank.

  14. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  15. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, C. H.; Vu, C. C.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  16. Catchment-scale denudation and chemical erosion rates determined from 10Be and mass balance geochemistry (Mt. Lofty Ranges of South Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestland, Erick A.; Liccioli, Caterina; Soloninka, Lesja; Chittleborough, David J.; Fink, David

    2016-10-01

    Global biogeochemical cycles have, as a central component, estimates of physical and chemical erosion rates. These erosion rates are becoming better quantified by the development of a global database of cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be (CRN) analyses of soil, sediment, and outcrops. Here we report the denudation rates for two small catchments (~ 0.9 km2) in the Mt. Lofty Ranges of South Australia as determined from 10Be concentrations from quartz sand from the following landscape elements: 1) dissected plateaux, or summit surfaces (14.10 ± 1.61 t km- 2 y- 1), 2) sandstone outcrops (15.37 ± 1.32 t km- 2 y- 1), 3) zero-order drainages (27.70 ± 1.42 t km- 2 y- 1), and 4) stream sediment which reflect a mix of landscape elements (19.80 ± 1.01 t km- 2 y- 1). Thus, the more slowly eroding plateaux and ridges, when juxtaposed with the more rapidly eroding side-slopes, are leading to increased relief in this landscape. Chemical erosion rates for this landscape are determined by combining cosmogenic denudation rates with the geochemical mass balance of parent rock, soil and saprolite utilizing zirconium immobility and existing mass balance methods. Two different methods were used to correct for chemical weathering and erosion in the saprolite zone that is shielded at depth from CRN production. The corrected values are higher than uncorrected values: total denudation of 33.24 or 29.11 t km- 2 y- 1, and total chemical erosion of 15.64 or 13.68 t km- 2 y- 1. Thus, according to these methods, 32-40% of the denudation is taking place by chemical weathering and erosion in the saprolite below CRN production depth. Compared with other similar areas, the overall denudation and chemical erosion rates are low. In most areas with sub-humid climates and tectonic uplift, physical erosion is much greater than chemical erosion. The low physical erosion rates in these Mt. Lofty Range catchments, in what is a relatively active tectonic setting, are thought to be due to low rainfall intensity

  17. Multi-scales and multi-satellites estimates of evapotranspiration with a residual energy balance model in the Muzza agricultural district in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbari, C.; Bissolati, M.; Mancini, M.

    2015-05-01

    Evapotranspiration estimates were performed with a residual energy balance model (REB) over an agricultural area using remote sensing data. REB uses land surface temperature (LST) as main input parameter so that energy fluxes were computed instantaneously at the time of data acquisition. Data from MODIS and SEVIRI sensors were used and downscaling techniques were implemented to improve their spatial resolutions. Energy fluxes at the original spatial resolutions (1000 m for MODIS and 5000 m for SEVIRI) as well as at the downscaled resolutions (250 m for MODIS and 1000 m for SEVIRI) were calculated with the REB model. Ground eddy covariance data and remote sensing information from the Muzza agricultural irrigation district in Italy from 2010 to 2012 gave the opportunity to validate and compare spatially distributed energy fluxes. The model outputs matched quite well ground observations when ground LST data were used, while differences increased when MODIS and SEVIRI LST were used. The spatial analysis revealed significant differences between the two sensors both in term of LST (around 2.8 °C) and of latent heat fluxes with values (around 100 W m-2).

  18. Seasonal variations in leaf area index, leaf chlorophyll, and water content; scaling-up to estimate fAPAR and carbon balance in a multilayer, multispecies temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Gond, Valéry; De Pury, David G. G.; Veroustraete, Frank; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    1999-08-01

    Seasonal differences in phenology between coniferous and deciduous tree species need to be considered when developing models to estimate CO(2) exchange in temperate forest ecosystems. Because seasonal variations in CO(2) flux in temperate forests are closely correlated with plant phenology, we quantified the phenology of forest species in a multilayered forest with patches of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) in Brasschaat, Belgium. A scaling-up modeling approach was developed to simulate reflectance at the leaf and canopy scales over a one-year cycle. Chlorophyll concentration, water content, specific leaf area and leaf area index of the forest species were measured throughout an entire year (1997). Scaling-up from the leaf to canopy was achieved by linking the PROSPECT and SAIL models. The result is the annual progression of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) in a 1 km(2) forest area, which can be directly related to high-resolution, remotely sensed data.

  19. How does the connectivity of open-framework conglomerates within multi-scale hierarchical fluvial architecture affect oil sweep efficiency in waterflooding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominic, D. F.; Gershenzon, N. I.; Soltanian, M. R.; Ritzi, R. W., Jr.; Keefer, D. A.; Shaffer, E.; Storsved, B.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the effects on oil sweep efficiency of the proportion, hierarchical organization, and connectivity of high-permeability open-framework conglomerate (OFC) cross-sets within the multi-scale stratal architecture found in fluvial deposits. Utilizing numerical simulations and the RVA/Paraview open-source visualization package, we analyzed oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. The effective permeability of the reservoir exhibits large-scale anisotropy created by the organization of OFC cross-sets within unit bars, and the organization of unit bars within compound bars. As a result, oil sweep efficiency critically depends on the direction of the pressure gradient. When pressure gradient is oriented normal to paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller. This result is found regardless of the proportion or connectivity of the OFC cross-sets, within the ranges examined. Contrary to expectations, the total amount of trapped oil due to the effect of capillary trapping does not depend on the pressure gradient within the examined range. Hence the pressure difference between production and injection wells does not affect sweep efficiency, although the spatial distribution of oil remaining in the reservoir depends on this value. Whether or not clusters of connected OFC span the domain does not affect sweep efficiency, only the absolute rate of oil production. The RVA/Paraview application allowed us to visualize and examine these non-intuitive results.

  20. Accounting for hydro-climatic and water use variability in the assessment of past and future water balance at the basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses water stress by 2050 in river basins facing increasing human and climatic pressures, by comparing the impacts of various combinations of possible future socio-economic and climate trends. A modelling framework integrating human and hydro-climatic dynamics and accounting for interactions between resource and demand at a 10-day time step was developed and applied in two basins of different sizes and with contrasted water uses: the Herault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) basins. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model (GR4j). A demand-driven reservoir management model was designed to account for streamflow regulations from the main dams. Urban water demand was estimated from time series of population and monthly unit water consumption data. Agricultural water demand was computed from time series of irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climate forcing. Indicators comparing water supply to demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed. This framework was successfully calibrated and validated under non-stationary human and hydro-climatic conditions over the last 40 years before being applied under four combinations of climatic and water use scenarios to differentiate the impacts of climate- and human-induced changes on streamflow and water balance. Climate simulations from the CMIP5 exercise were used to generate 18 climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. A baseline water use scenario for 2050 was designed based on demographic and local socio-economic trends. Results showed that projected water uses are not sustainable under climate change scenarios.

  1. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  2. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  3. Efficient codes and balanced networks.

    PubMed

    Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in inhibitory interneurons and their circuits. A striking property of cortical inhibition is how tightly it balances excitation. Inhibitory currents not only match excitatory currents on average, but track them on a millisecond time scale, whether they are caused by external stimuli or spontaneous fluctuations. We review, together with experimental evidence, recent theoretical approaches that investigate the advantages of such tight balance for coding and computation. These studies suggest a possible revision of the dominant view that neurons represent information with firing rates corrupted by Poisson noise. Instead, tight excitatory/inhibitory balance may be a signature of a highly cooperative code, orders of magnitude more precise than a Poisson rate code. Moreover, tight balance may provide a template that allows cortical neurons to construct high-dimensional population codes and learn complex functions of their inputs.

  4. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion. PMID:27078886

  5. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion.

  6. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion. PMID:27078886

  7. Diffuse pollution (pesticides and nitrate) at catchment scale on two constrasted sites: mass balances and characterization of the temporal variability of groundwater quality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, N.; Gutierrez, A.

    2009-04-01

    characterizations. Notable changes in the use of pesticides generally result from the evolution of regulations. In Europe, the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon have been classified as priority substances (2455/2001/EC, OJEC 2001). The use of atrazine was forbidden in France since September 2003 following restrictions already in force since 1991. In January 2004 the maximum permitted application of isoproturon was reduced from 2500 to 1800 g ha-1. In France, two contrasted hydrogeological systems located in agricultural contexts were intensively monitored for at least a decade in order to i) characterize the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater contamination by different pesticides with varied physical and chemical characteristics (atrazine, isoproturon and their metabolites and chloroacetanilides used as atrazine substitutes) and nitrate, ii) calculate annual pesticide mass balances for a long period including years with contrasted climatic conditions and to iii) identify the different mechanisms influencing water and solute transfer. Although both sites (Brévilles and 3 Fontaines) have very different hydrogeological characteristics (4 vs. 50 sq km, sandy vs. chalky saturated zone, non karstic vs. karstic, …) the monitoring of the major springs representing the outlet of the catchments revealed similarities. For example, atrazine and its metabolite deethylatrazine have been both systematically quantified at the outlet springs despite the stop of atrazine use on the Brévilles and 3 Fontaines catchments since April1999 and September 2003, respectively. For both sites, the mass balances (comparison of inputs and outfluxes) indicated that only few percents of the applied quantity of atrazine reached the spring but led to concentrations higher than the allowed limit for drinkable water. At the opposite, isoproturon which is the pesticide applied with the highest quantities for the last decade on both sites, is detected in a very limited number of samples. The different

  8. Balancing act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This chapter looks at how in the 1960's the laboratory worked to broaden the base of its work. The laboratory began its mission by developing nuclear energy for wartime usage, expanded into nuclear energy, and into broader peaceful application of nuclear energy, but in the late 50's was still primarily based on nuclear physics, or closely related disciplines. Because of problems encountered by several large scale programs, management began to look at broadening the scope of the laboratory, to provide a base not entirely based on nuclear physics, and to take advantage of the caliber of intellectual strengths within the laboratory personnel. Projects which were developed included enhanced work in information sciences, related to analyzing and making available the vast amount of published literature appearing in print. Efforts were directed toward desalination programs, and expanded work in large biology projects. Work was expanded into DNA projects, and cancer research on smoking. Efforts went into civil defense issues. There was an expanded effort to study environmental concerns, from water to air to ground. Nuclear safety issues became an increasingly larger segment of the reactor programs. The laboratory had 14% of it programs consisting of non-nuclear work for agencies other than AEC by 1969, and in general this had been achieved by approaching AEC on these programs one at a time. The lab had developed a much broader program than most other national labs at this time.

  9. [Spanish translation and validation of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) to assess balance and postural control in adult post-stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Girabent-Farrés, Monserrat; Cánovas-Vergé, David; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda M; Germán-Romero, Ana; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat

    2015-02-16

    Introduccion. En los ultimos años, la Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) se ha convertido en la escala mas utilizada para valorar el equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos que han sufrido un ictus, especialmente en la fase aguda y subaguda. Objetivo. Traducir y validar la PASS para la poblacion española como instrumento de valoracion del equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos postictus. Pacientes y metodos. Se tradujo al español la version original francesa de la PASS; dicha version fue consensuada por un equipo de expertos. Posteriormente se hizo una retrotraduccion al frances y se envio al autor de la escala, el cual aprobo dicha version. Seguidamente se evaluo la fiabilidad intra e interobservador; para ello se llevaron a cabo cuatro mediciones a 60 pacientes postictus, a partir de una videograbacion. Dos de estas mediciones fueron realizadas por el mismo observador, y la tercera y cuarta, por un segundo y tercer observadores. Resultados. Los valores obtenidos referidos a la puntuacion total de la escala reflejan un indice de fiabilidad del 0,999; tambien muestran una fiabilidad superior a 0,90 en cada uno de los items, tanto en las comparaciones intraobservador como interobservador, y una consistencia interna del 0,94. Conclusion. La version española de la PASS es valida y fiable para valorar el equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos postictus.

  10. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Bidlake, W.R.; March, R.S.; Kennedy, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  11. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.; March, Rod S.; Kennedy, Ben W.

    2007-10-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  12. Low-calorie sweetener use and energy balance: Results from experimental studies in animals, and large-scale prospective studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Sharon P G

    2016-10-01

    For more than a decade, pioneering animal studies conducted by investigators at Purdue University have provided evidence to support a central thesis: that the uncoupling of sweet taste and caloric intake by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) can disrupt an animal's ability to predict the metabolic consequences of sweet taste, and thereby impair the animal's ability to respond appropriately to sweet-tasting foods. These investigators' work has been replicated and extended internationally. There now exists a body of evidence, from a number of investigators, that animals chronically exposed to any of a range of LCSs - including saccharin, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, aspartame, or the combination of erythritol+aspartame - have exhibited one or more of the following conditions: increased food consumption, lower post-prandial thermogenesis, increased weight gain, greater percent body fat, decreased GLP-1 release during glucose tolerance testing, and significantly greater fasting glucose, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance testing, and hyperinsulinemia, compared with animals exposed to plain water or - in many cases - even to calorically-sweetened foods or liquids. Adverse impacts of LCS have appeared diminished in animals on dietary restriction, but were pronounced among males, animals genetically predisposed to obesity, and animals with diet-induced obesity. Impacts have been especially striking in animals on high-energy diets: diets high in fats and sugars, and diets which resemble a highly-processed 'Western' diet, including trans-fatty acids and monosodium glutamate. These studies have offered both support for, and biologically plausible mechanisms to explain, the results from a series of large-scale, long-term prospective observational studies conducted in humans, in which longitudinal increases in weight, abdominal adiposity, and incidence of overweight and obesity have been observed among study participants who reported using diet sodas and other

  13. Low-calorie sweetener use and energy balance: Results from experimental studies in animals, and large-scale prospective studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Sharon P G

    2016-10-01

    For more than a decade, pioneering