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  1. Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system evaluation of blood glucose. In this review, I discuss the measurement of error in blood glucose, the sources of error, and their mechanism and potential solutions to improve accuracy in the hands of the patient. I also discuss the clinical measurement of system accuracy and methods of judging the suitability of clinical trials and finally some methods of overcoming the inaccuracies. I have included comments about additional information or education that could be done today by manufacturers in the appropriate sections. Areas that require additional work are discussed in the final section. PMID:20144340

  2. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. PMID:24924647

  3. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  4. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  5. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  6. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  7. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  8. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Glucose Before meals: 80 to 130 mg/dl My Usual Results My Goals ______ to ______ ______ to ______ 2 ... the start of a meal: below 180 mg/dl below ______ below ______ What’s the best way to keep ...

  9. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose. PMID:9537627

  10. Blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  11. How to monitor blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Trisha

    2016-01-27

    Rationale and key points Capillary blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of diabetes care. Blood glucose tests provide important information about how the body is controlling blood glucose metabolism, and the effect of glucose-lowering medicines, illness and stress. ▶ The nurse should consider the rationale for testing blood glucose each time they perform a test, and reflect on the result, taking into consideration the patient's blood glucose target range and recommended care guidelines. ▶ Blood glucose testing times and testing frequency should be planned to suit the glucose-lowering medicine regimen and the clinical situation. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What you have gained from this article. 2. How this article will influence your practice when monitoring blood glucose. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26967884

  12. Alternate Immersion in an External Glucose Solution Differentially Affects Blood Sugar Values in Older Versus Younger Zebrafish Adults.

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Victoria P; Baker, Cassandra; Fonde, Lauren; Gerardi, Emily; Slack, Carly

    2016-04-01

    Recently, zebrafish have been used to examine hyperglycemia-induced complications (retinopathy and neuropathy), as would occur in individuals with diabetes. Current models to induce hyperglycemia in zebrafish include glucose immersion and streptozotocin injections. Both are effective, although neither is reported to elevate blood sugar values for more than 1 month. In this article, we report differences in hyperglycemia induction and maintenance in young (4-11 months) versus old (1-3 years) zebrafish adults. In particular, older fish immersed in an alternating constant external glucose solution (2%) for 2 months displayed elevated blood glucose levels for the entire experimental duration. In contrast, younger adults displayed only transient hyperglycemia, suggesting the fish were acclimating to the glucose exposure protocol. However, modifying the immersion protocol to include a stepwise increasing glucose concentration (from 1% → 2%→3%) resulted in maintained hyperglycemia in younger zebrafish adults for up to 2 months. Glucose-exposed younger fish collected after 8 weeks of exposure also displayed a significant decrease in wet weight. Taken together, these data suggest different susceptibilities to hyperglycemia in older and younger fish and that stepwise increasing glucose concentrations of 1% are required for maintenance of hyperglycemia in younger adults, with higher concentrations of glucose resulting in greater increases in blood sugar values. PMID:26771444

  13. What is a normal blood glucose?

    PubMed

    Güemes, Maria; Rahman, Sofia A; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-06-01

    Glucose is the key metabolic substrate for tissue energy production. In the perinatal period the mother supplies glucose to the fetus and for most of the gestational period the normal lower limit of fetal glucose concentration is around 3 mmol/L. Just after birth, for the first few hours of life in a normal term neonate appropriate for gestational age, blood glucose levels can range between 1.4 mmol/L and 6.2 mmol/L but by about 72 h of age fasting blood glucose levels reach normal infant, child and adult values (3.5-5.5 mmol/L). Normal blood glucose levels are maintained within this narrow range by factors which control glucose production and glucose utilisation. The key hormones which regulate glucose homoeostasis include insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone. Pathological states that affect either glucose production or utilisation will lead to hypoglycaemia. Although hypoglycaemia is a common biochemical finding in children (especially in the newborn) it is not possible to define by a single (or a range of) blood glucose value/s. It can be defined as the concentration of glucose in the blood or plasma at which the individual demonstrates a unique response to the abnormal milieu caused by the inadequate delivery of glucose to a target organ (eg, the brain). Hypoglycaemia should therefore be considered as a continuum and the blood glucose level should be interpreted within the clinical scenario and with respect to the counter-regulatory hormonal responses and intermediate metabolites. PMID:26369574

  14. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  15. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. PMID:18391475

  16. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  17. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, J.; Ghafaripour, F.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Shojaei-fard, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀) were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. PMID:26688798

  18. Variability of capillary blood glucose monitoring measured on home glucose monitoring devices

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Narendra; Pandit, Aditi

    2012-01-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose helps achieve glycemic goals. Glucometers must be accurate. Many variables affect blood glucose levels. Factors are analytical variables (intrinsic to glucometer and glucose strips) and pre analytical related to patients. Analytical variables depend on factors like shelf life, amount of blood and enzymatic reactions. Preanalytical variables include pH of blood, hypoxia, hypotension, hematocrit etc. CGMS has the potential to revolutionise diabetes care but accuracy needs to be proven beyond doubt before replacing current glucometer devices. PMID:23565391

  19. Glucose metabolism in diabetic blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.J.; Crass, M.F. III

    1986-03-05

    Since glycolysis appears to be coupled to active ion transport in vascular smooth muscle, alterations in glucose metabolism may contribute to cellular dysfunction and angiopathy in diabetes. Uptake and utilization of glucose were studied in perfused blood vessels in which pulsatile flow and perfusion pressure were similar to those measured directly in vivo. Thoracic aortae isolated from 8-wk alloxan diabetic (D) and nondiabetic control rabbits were cannulated, tethered, and perfused with oxygenated buffer containing 7 or 25 mM glucose and tracer amounts of glucose-U/sup -14/ C. Norepinephrine (NE) (10/sup -6/ M) and/or insulin (I) (150 ..mu..U/ml) and albumin (0.2%) were added. NE-induced tension development increased glucose uptake 39% and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and lactate production 2.3-fold. With 7 mM glucose, marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%), and tissue phospholipids (70%) were observed in D. Addition of I or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. Thus, in D, there was a marked depression of vascular glucose metabolism that was partially reversed by addition of low concentrations of insulin or D levels of glucose.

  20. Temperature influence on non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2009-02-01

    Regular monitoring of blood sugar level is important for the management of diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is a promising approach and this involves some form of contact with the body skin. It is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environment and physiological conditions and the temperature has an influence on the glucose measurement. In this paper, in-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement were studied. The in-vitro results from FTIR spectrometer show that sample temperature has significant influence on water absorption, which significantly affects the glucose absorption measurement. The in-vivo results show that when skin temperature around the measurement site is taken into consideration, the prediction of blood glucose level greatly improves.

  1. Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Ooi, Ean Tat; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-02-01

    The non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diodes. The in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out using six laser diodes having wavelengths range from 1550 nm to 1750nm. Several volunteers were tested for OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) experiment. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diodes system. The data of signal voltage were processed to do calibration and prediction; in this paper PLS (Partial Least Square) method was used to do modeling. For in vitro experiment, good linear relationship between predicted glucose concentration and real glucose concentration was obtained. For in vivo experiments, we got the blood sugar level distributions in Clarke error grid that is a reference for doctors to do diagnosis and treatment. In the Clarke error grid, 75% of all data was in area A and 25 % was in area B. From the in vitro and in vivo results we know that multiple laser diodes are suitable for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring.

  2. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that become dysregulated with age. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study used data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess curry consumption frequency as well as blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The levels of blood glucose and lipids were subdivided by age, sex, and body mass index, and compared according to the curry consumption level. The estimates in each subgroup were further adjusted for potential confounding factors, including the diagnosis of diseases, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS After adjusting for the above confounding factors, the blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the moderate curry consumption group compared to the low curry consumption group, both in older (> 45) male and younger (30 to 44) female overweight individuals who have high blood glucose and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that curcumin consumption, in an ordinary diet, can have health-beneficial effects, including being helpful in maintaining blood glucose and triglyceride levels that become dysregulated with age. The results should be further confirmed in future studies. PMID:27087906

  3. Regulation of Blood Glucose by Hypothalamic Pyruvate Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Tony K. T.; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Pocai, Alessandro; Rossetti, Luciano

    2005-08-01

    The brain keenly depends on glucose for energy, and mammalians have redundant systems to control glucose production. An increase in circulating glucose inhibits glucose production in the liver, but this negative feedback is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Here we report that a primary increase in hypothalamic glucose levels lowers blood glucose through inhibition of glucose production in rats. The effect of glucose requires its conversion to lactate followed by stimulation of pyruvate metabolism, which leads to activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels. Thus, interventions designed to enhance the hypothalamic sensing of glucose may improve glucose homeostasis in diabetes.

  4. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  5. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF. PMID:27239479

  6. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF. PMID:27239479

  7. Blood Sugar Measurement in Zebrafish Reveals Dynamics of Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Eames, Stefani C.; Philipson, Louis H.; Prince, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The adult zebrafish has the potential to become an important model for diabetes-related research. To realize this potential, small-scale methods for analyzing pancreas function are required. The measurement of blood glucose level is a commonly used method for assessing β-cell function, but the small size of the zebrafish presents challenges both for collecting blood samples and for measuring glucose. We have developed methods for collecting microsamples of whole blood and plasma for the measurement of hematocrit and blood glucose. We demonstrate that two hand-held glucose meters designed for use by human diabetics return valid results with zebrafish blood. Additionally, we present methods for fasting and for performing postprandial glucose and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. We find that the dynamics of zebrafish blood glucose homeostasis are consistent with patterns reported for other omnivorous teleost fish. PMID:20515318

  8. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  9. The modulatory role of spinally located histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-02-01

    The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (α-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model. PMID:24634595

  10. Pre-exercise glucose ingestion at different time periods and blood glucose concentration during exercise.

    PubMed

    Tokmakidis, S P; Volaklis, K A

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of glucose ingestion (GI) at different time periods prior to exercise on blood glucose (BG) levels during prolonged treadmill running. Eight subjects (X+/-SD), age 20+/-0.5yr, bodymass 70.7+/-4.1 kg, height 177+/-4 cm, VO2max 52.8+/-7.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) who underwent different experimental conditions ingested a glucose solution (1 g/kg at 350 ml) 30 min (gl-30), 60 min (gl-60), 90 min (gl-90), and a placebo one 60 min (pl-60) prior to exercise in a counterbalanced design. Afterwards they ran at 65% of VO2max for 1 hour and then at 75 % of VO2max till exhaustion. Fingertip blood samples (10 microl) were drawn every 15 min before and during exercise for the determination of BG levels. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate (La) were also measured every 15 min during exercise. Peak BG values were reached within 30 min after GI but were different (p < 0.01) at the onset of exercise (gl-30: 147+/-22, gl-60: 118+/-25, gl-90: 109+/-22, pl-60: 79+/-5mg/dl). The two-way ANOVA repeated measures and the Tukey post-hoc test revealed a higher BG concentration (p < 0.05) for the gl-30 and the pl-60 as compared to the gl-60 and gl-90 during running (e.g. 15min run: 82+/-11, 68+/-5, 64+/-3, 78+/-7, and 60min run: 98+/-12, 85+/-12, 83+/-11, 94+/-11 mg/dl for gl-30, gl-60, gl-90, and pl-60, respectively). However, this did not significantly affect the duration of treadmill running. The La levels were higher (p < 0.05) after GI as compared to placebo throughout exercise (values at exhaustion: 4.6+/-0.2, 5.0+/-1.5, 4.8+/- 1.7 mmol/l for gl-30, gl-60, gl-90, and 3.5+/-0.8 mmol/l for placebo). The gl-30 and the placebo fluctuated closer to normoglycaemic levels. The glucose ingestion (60 to 90 min) prior to exercise lowered the blood glucose levels without affecting the duration of running performance at 75% VO2max. Thus, in order to maintain normoglycaemic levels, pre-exercise glucose supplementation should

  11. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these two monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial trig...

  12. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial trigly...

  13. Performance of Cleared Blood Glucose Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Prahalad, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Cleared blood glucose monitor (BGM) systems do not always perform as accurately for users as they did to become cleared. We performed a literature review of recent publications between 2010 and 2014 that present data about the frequency of inaccurate performance using ISO 15197 2003 and ISO 15197 2013 as target standards. We performed an additional literature review of publications that present data about the clinical and economic risks of inaccurate BGMs for making treatment decisions or calibrating continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). We found 11 publications describing performance of 98 unique BGM systems. 53 of these 98 (54%) systems met ISO 15197 2003 and 31 of the 98 (32%) tested systems met ISO 15197 2013 analytical accuracy standards in all studies in which they were evaluated. Of the tested systems, 33 were identified by us as FDA-cleared. Among these FDA-cleared BGM systems, 24 out of 32 (75%) met ISO 15197 2003 and 15 out of 31 (48.3%) met ISO 15197 2013 in all studies in which they were evaluated. Among the non-FDA-cleared BGM systems, 29 of 65 (45%) met ISO 15197 2003 and 15 out of 65 (23%) met ISO 15197 2013 in all studies in which they were evaluated. It is more likely that an FDA-cleared BGM system, compared to a non-FDA-cleared BGM system, will perform according to ISO 15197 2003 (χ2 = 6.2, df = 3, P = 0.04) and ISO 15197 2013 (χ2 = 11.4, df = 3, P = 0.003). We identified 7 articles about clinical risks and 3 articles about economic risks of inaccurate BGMs. We conclude that a significant proportion of cleared BGMs do not perform at the level for which they were cleared or according to international standards of accuracy. Such poor performance leads to adverse clinical and economic consequences. PMID:25990294

  14. Measurement of Glucose in Blood with a Phenylboronic Acid Optical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Worsley, Graham J.; Tourniaire, Guilhem A.; Medlock, Kathryn E. S.; Sartain, Felicity K.; Harmer, Hazel E.; Thatcher, Michael; Horgan, Adrian M.; Pritchard, John

    2008-01-01

    Background Current methods of glucose monitoring rely predominantly on enzymes such as glucose oxidase for detection. Phenylboronic acid receptors have been proposed as alternative glucose binders. A unique property of these molecules is their ability to bind glucose in a fully reversible covalent manner that facilitates direct continuous measurements. We examined (1) the ability of a phenylboronic-based sensor to measure glucose in blood and blood plasma and (2) the effect on measurement accuracy of a range of potential interferents. We also showed that the sensor is able to track glucose fluctuations occurring at rates mimicking those experienced in vivo. Method In vitro static measurements of glucose in blood and blood plasma were conducted using holographic sensors containing acrylamide, N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid, and (3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride. The same sensors were also used for in vitro measurements performed under flow conditions. Results The opacity of the liquid had no affect on the ability of the optical sensor to measure glucose in blood or blood plasma. The presence of common antibiotics, diabetic drugs, pain killers, and endogenous substances did not affect the measurement accuracy, as shown by error grid analysis. Ex vivo flow experiments showed that the sensor is able to track changes accurately in concentration occurring in real time without lag or evidence of hysteresis. Conclusions The ability of phenylboronic acid sensors to measure glucose in whole blood was demonstrated for the first time. Holographic sensors are ideally suited to continuous blood glucose measurements, being physically and chemically robust and potentially calibration free. PMID:19885345

  15. In Vivo Blood Glucose Quantification Using Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jingwei; Lin, Manman; Li, Yongqing; Li, Xue; Liu, Junxian; Liang, Jianpin; Yao, Huilu

    2012-01-01

    We here propose a novel Raman spectroscopy method that permits the noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration. To reduce the effects of the strong background signals produced by surrounding tissue and to obtain the fingerprint Raman lines formed by blood analytes, a laser was focused on the blood in vessels in the skin. The Raman spectra were collected transcutaneously. Characteristic peaks of glucose (1125 cm-1) and hemoglobin (1549 cm-1) were observed. Hemoglobin concentration served as an internal standard, and the ratio of the peaks that appeared at 1125 cm-1 and 1549 cm-1 peaks was used to calculate the concentration of blood glucose. We studied three mouse subjects whose blood glucose levels became elevated over a period of 2 hours using a glucose test assay. During the test, 25 Raman spectra were collected transcutaneously and glucose reference values were provided by a blood glucose meter. Results clearly showed the relationship between Raman intensity and concentration. The release curves were approximately linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. This noninvasive methodology may be useful for the study of blood glucose in vivo. PMID:23133555

  16. Evaluation of Correlation of Blood Glucose and Salivary Glucose Level in Known Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Padmavathi, B.N.; Rajan, S.Y.; Mamatha, G.P.; Kumar, Sandeep; Roy, Sayak; Sareen, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a chronic heterogenous disease in which there is dysregulation of carbohydrates, protein and lipid metabolism; leading to elevated blood glucose levels. The present study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between blood glucose and salivary glucose levels in known diabetic patients and control group and also to evaluate salivary glucose level as a diagnostic tool in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods A total number of 250 patients were studied, out of which 212 formed the study group and 38 formed the control group. Result Among 250 patients, correlation was evaluated between blood glucose and salivary glucose values which on analysis revealed Pearson correlation of 0.073. The p-value was 0.247, which was statistically non significant. Conclusion Salivary glucose values cannot be considered as a diagnostic tool for diabetic individuals. PMID:26155553

  17. How High Glucose Levels Affect Tendon Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-01-01

    Among the many factors playing a role in tendon disease, unregulated biochemical reactions between glucose and the collagen extracellular matrix are coming increasingly into focus. We have shown that formation of advanced glycation end-products that cross-link the collagen extracellular matrix can drastically affect cellular level mechanical properties of the matrix, and in turn affect cell-level biomechanical stimuli during physiological loading of the tissue. We suggest that these may adversely affect tendon cell response to matrix damage, as well as the quality of the consequent repair. If such mechanical feedback loops are altered, the ability of tendon cells to maintain tissue in a functional, healthy state may be compromised. Although key foundational elements of biochemical, biomechanical, and biological understanding are now in place, the full extent of how these aspects interact, including the precise mechanisms by which advanced glycation end-products pathologically disrupt connective tissue homeostasis and damage repair, are only beginning to be adequately appreciated. PMID:27535261

  18. Piceatannol lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Uchida-Maruki, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryouichi; Kurita, Ikuko; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds contained a high amount of piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-trans-tetrahydroxystilbene), a natural analog of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene). Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential anti-metabolic disorder compound, by its activation of sirtuin and AMP-activated protein kinase. Many reports show that resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether piceatannol also affects diet-induced obesity. We explored the effect of piceatannol on high fat diet-fed mice. The results showed that piceatannol did not affect high fat diet-induced body weight gain or visceral fat gain in mice. However, piceatannol did reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Furthermore, to explore the potential of passion fruit seed extract containing piceatannol as a functional food, passion fruit seed extract was administered in a genetic diabetic mouse model (db/db mice). Single administration of passion fruit seed extract, as well as piceatannol reduced the blood glucose levels of these db/db mice. These results suggest that piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract may have potential application in the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25832644

  19. Self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Hirsch, I B

    2011-02-01

    Many would argue that the introduction of modern-day diabetes management started 30 years ago with the introduction of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) at home. While that may be true, it is interesting that many of today's fundamental questions have yet to be answered. Furthermore, the technology itself continues to change, to improve and to better exist with our non-diabetes technology. For example, the first SMBG 'apps' are available now for smart-phones (iPhone), and we can expect the phones themselves to participate more directly with SMBG and diabetes management. Still, both researchers (and payors) continue to ask some fundamental questions. 1. What is the efficacy of SMBG for patients not requiring insulin therapy? 2. What is the optimum frequency of SMBG for patients who do require insulin therapy? 3. What is the role of software to assist in data management for SMBG (for both patients and clinicians)? 4. What is the cost effectiveness of SMBG for all of the different patient populations with diabetes? 5. What is the ideal chemistry which results in the least amount of interfering substances with SMBG? 6. What is an acceptable accuracy for SMBG both at home and in the hospital? The accuracy question is more important than ever since all continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for now are calibrated with SMBG results. 7 What is the best strategy for teaching patients how best to use their SMBG data? 8. What is the best way to integrate SMBG with insulin pump therapy? 9. What is the role of SMBG with today's CGM devices? 10. What will the role of SMBG be 5-10 years from now with future CGM devices? These are just some of the questions which need more thought and study as we move into 2011. In this chapter we have selected papers that appeared in the PubMed on this topic and chose those we thought were most influential in this area. We have then addressed many of these topics although answers are far from clear for many of them. Although SMBG is not 'new

  20. Photoacoustic blood glucose and skin measurement based on optical scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllyla, Risto A.

    2002-07-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose determination has been investigated by more than 100 research groups in the world during the past fifteen years. The commonly optical methods are based on the capacity of near-IR light to penetrate a few hundreds micrometers or a few millimeters into human tissue where it interacts with glucose. A change of glucose concentration may modify the optical parameters in tissue, with the result that its glucose concentration can be extracted by analyzing the received optical signals. This paper demonstrates that glucose affects on the scattering coefficient of human blood, by applying the streak camera and pulsed photoacoustic techniques; and drinking water seems also affecting on PA signal from skin surface.

  1. The effects of food deprivation and incentive motivation on blood glucose levels and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

    1997-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal, and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n = 82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse rate were taken. Subjects completed a number of measures of cognitive processing efficiency and self report measures of affective and somatic state. Although glucose levels were lowered following food deprivation, there was no significant detrimental effect of food deprivation on task performance. However, improved recognition memory processing times were associated with deprivation. Incentive motivation was associated with faster simple reaction times and higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant relationships between glucose levels and task performance, further supporting the hypothesis that the brain is relatively invulnerable to short food deprivation. PMID:9399371

  2. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. Methods: A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Results: Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] − 149.6; R2 = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Conclusions: Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels. PMID:26898598

  3. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  4. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Soo Bin; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a commonly used resuscitation fluid, has the property to induce hyperglycemia as it contains large ethyl starch, which can be metabolized to produce glucose. We evaluated the effect of 6% HES-130 on the blood glucose levels in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo elective lower limb surgery were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups according to the type of the main intravascular fluid used before spinal anesthesia (Group LR: lactated Ringer's solution, n = 30 vs. Group HES: 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, n = 28). Blood glucose levels were measured at the following time points: 0 (baseline), 20 min (T1), 1 h (T2), 2 h (T3), 4 h (T4), and 6 h (T6). Results Mean blood glucose levels at T5 in the LR group and T4, T5 in the HES group, increased significantly compared to baseline. There were no significant changes in the serial differences of mean blood glucose levels from baseline between the two groups. Conclusions Administration of 6% HES-130 increased blood glucose levels within the physiologic limits, but the degree of glucose increase was not greater than that caused by administration of lactated Ringer's solution. In conclusion, we did not find evidence that 6% HES-130 induces hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:27482311

  5. Interference by acetaminophen in the glucose oxidase-peroxidase method for blood glucose determination.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann-Raab, I; Jonen, H G; Jähnchen, E; Kahl, G F; Groth, U

    1976-10-01

    Acetaminophen, p-aminophenol, and oxyphenbutazone interfere with the glucose oxidase/peroxidase method for glucose. Structurally related compounds that lack a free phenolic hydroxyl group (acetanilide, aniline, and phenylbutazone) do not interfere. During the analytical procedure acetaminophen is consumed. One mole of acetaminophen leads to an apparent loss of four moles of glucose. The hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase method (Boehringer Hexokinase method) is not affected by these substances. PMID:975521

  6. Measuring blood glucose in neonatal units: how does hemocue compare?

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, S A; Matthews, J N; Platt, M P

    1996-01-01

    Rapid and reliable determination of blood glucose concentration is essential during the neonatal period to prevent adverse neurodevelopmental outcome from hypoglycaemia. Despite their unreliability, reagent strip methods continue to be used extensively in neonatal nurseries due to their rapidity and convenience. Recently, a new portable laboratory standard technique has been introduced (HemoCue B-Glucose system) for whole blood glucose determination. It is particularly suitable for near-patient testing in neonatal units. This new method, as well as other established methods of whole blood (Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) and a hexokinase method on Cobas Bio), and plasma (Kodak Ektachem) glucose measurement, were therefore evaluated for their accuracy and concordance of measurements taken in the neonatal period. There were substantial discrepancies among the four methods of glucose measurement with wide limits of agreement between these methods. The glucose concentrations measured by HemoCue and YSI (n = 206), HemoCue and hexokinase (n = 113), HemoCue and plasma glucose on Ektachem (n = 69) and hexokinase and Ektachem (n = 66) were likely to differ by -29 to +61%, -23 to +56%, -36 to +65%, and -19 to +30%, respectively. Even the laboratory methods of blood glucose determination, therefore, can not be used interchangeably. Using a model based approach, the probabilities of "discordant" classification as hypo- or normo-glycaemia were estimated to be 6.8%, 6.5%, and 7.1% between HemoCue and YSI, HemoCue and hexokinase on Cobas Bio, and HemoCue and Ektachem analysers, respectively. In view of these low probabilities of discordant classification with other glucose analysers, the HemoCue system may offer a reasonable compromise between bedside and laboratory blood glucose estimations in neonates. PMID:8976688

  7. The Correlation of Hemoglobin A1c to Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Sikaris, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The understanding that hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) represents the average blood glucose level of patients over the previous 120 days underlies the current management of diabetes. Even in making such a statement, we speak of “average blood glucose” as though “blood glucose” were itself a simple idea. When we consider all the blood glucose forms—arterial versus venous versus capillary, whole blood versus serum versus fluoride-preserved plasma, fasting versus nonfasting—we can start to see that this is not a simple issue. Nevertheless, it seems as though HbA1c correlates to any single glucose measurement. Having more than one measurement and taking those measurements in the preceding month improves the correlation further. In particular, by having glucose measurements that reflect both the relatively lower overnight glucose levels and measurements that reflect the postprandial peaks improves not only our ability to manage diabetes patients, but also our understanding of how HbA1c levels are determined. Modern continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices may take thousands of glucose results over a week. Several studies have shown that CGM glucose averages account for the vast proportion of the variation of HbA1c. The ability to relate HbA1c to average glucose may become a popular method for reporting HbA1c, eliminating current concerns regarding differences in HbA1c standardization. Hemoglobin A1c expressed as an average glucose may be more understandable to patients and improve not only their understanding, but also their ability to improve their diabetes management. PMID:20144279

  8. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring through signal attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; de Freitas, Anderson Z.

    2016-03-01

    Development of non-invasive techniques for glucose monitoring is crucial to improve glucose control and treatment adherence in patients with diabetes. Hereafter, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) may offer a good alternative for portable glucometers, since it uses light to probe samples. Changes in the object of interest can alter the intensity of light returning from the sample and, through it, one can estimate the sample's attenuation coefficient (μt) of light. In this work, we aimed to explore the behavior of μt of mouse's blood under increasing glucose concentrations. Different samples were prepared in four glucose concentrations using a mixture of heparinized blood, phosphate buffer saline and glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with a blood glucometer, for reference. We have also prepared other samples diluting the blood in isotonic saline solution to check the effect of a higher multiple-scattering component on the ability of the technique to differentiate glucose levels based on μt. The OCT system used was a commercial Spectral Radar OCT with 930 nm central wavelength and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 100 nm. The system proved to be sensitive for all blood glucose concentrations tested, with good correlations with the obtained attenuation coefficients. A linear tendency was observed, with an increase in attenuation with higher values of glucose. Statistical difference was observed between all groups (p<0.001). This work opens the possibility towards a non-invasive diagnostic modality using OCT for glycemic control, which eliminates the use of analytes and/or test strips, as in the case with commercially available glucometers.

  9. Effects of iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside on fasting blood glucose level and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Pranakhon, Ratree; Aromdee, Chantana; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the biological activities of agar wood (Aquilaria sinensis Lour., Thymelaeaceae), is anti-hyperglycemic activity. The methanolic extract (ME) was proven to possess the fasting blood glucose activity in rat and glucose uptake transportation by rat adipocytes. Objective: To determine the decreasing fasting blood glucose level of constituents affordable for in vivo test. If the test was positive, the mechanism which is positive to the ME, glucose transportation, will be performed. Materials and Methods: The ME was separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods. Mice was used as an animal model (in vivo), and rat adipocytes were used for the glucose transportation activity (in vitro). Result: Iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside (IPG) was the main constituent, 3.17%, and tested for the activities. Insulin and the ME were used as positive controls. The ME, IPG and insulin lowered blood glucose levels by 40.3, 46.4 and 41.5%, respectively, and enhanced glucose uptake by 152, 153, and 183%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IPG is active in lowering fasting blood glucose with potency comparable to that of insulin. PMID:25709215

  10. A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Holt, Tim A; Khovanova, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles. PMID:26707373

  11. NOTE: Use of a blood glucose meter for radiochromic film analysis in blood irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2002-10-01

    The use of a diabetic blood glucose meter for radiochromic film dosimetry in blood irradiation using x-ray beams on a medical linear accelerator has been investigated. The glucose meter provides optical density analysis in the visible and infrared region using a reflectance measurement technique. By comparing the 'blood sugar' level output with standard calibration gafchromic films a calibration curve is produced for quantitative analysis. Results show that a reproducible dose to meter output curve can be fitted using a second order polynomial function and that blood irradiation doses in vitro were measured to within 7.9% mean error (as compared to ionization chamber results) using the blood glucose meter. This level of accuracy falls below that measured with a standard densitometer (4.3%) however, results show that the blood glucose meter, which would be available in any haematology department, produces an adequate measure of gafchromic film optical density for blood irradiation dosimetry.

  12. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Khatun, K; Mahtab, H; Khanam, P A; Sayeed, M A; Khan, K A

    2007-01-01

    It has been postulated that mushroom has beneficial effect of lowering blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. The literature so far searched and found that there was no published data in this regard. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of reducing blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic patients. Additionally, this study addressed whether there was any hepatic and renal toxicity of mushroom. This clinical investigation was conducted in BIRDEM hospital from July 2005 to January 2006. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited. Baseline investigations included height, weight, blood pressure (SBP, DBP), plasma glucose for fasting (FPG) and 2-h after-breakfast (2hPG), total cholesterol (T-chol), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c). Twenty- four days' study constitutes 7-days mushroom, 7-days no mushroom and then 7-days mushroom. Investigations were done at the start and each after every 7-days. Thirty subjects (M / F = 17 / 13) followed to ensure full compliance with the designed protocol for 24 days. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 46.3 (10) years. Mushroom significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, p<0.01; DBP, p<0.05). It also lowered both plasma glucose significantly (FPG & 2-hPG, p<0.001). Mushroom also lowered total cholesterol and TG significantly; whereas, there was no significant change in weight and HDL-c. When mushroom was withdrawn, there were significant increases of DBP, FPG, 2hPG, T-cholesterol and TG, whereas, no significant change was observed in weight, SBP and HDL-c. Restarting mushroom there was again significant reduction of blood glucose, TG and cholesterol. We conclude that mushroom significantly reduced blood glucose, blood pressure, TG and cholesterol of diabetic subjects without any deleterious effect on liver and kidney. The effect of mushroom may be investigated in a large sample for a longer duration to evaluate its efficacy and toxicity. PMID:17344789

  13. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  14. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. RESULTS There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. CONCLUSIONS Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  15. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. Material/Methods We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. Results There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. Conclusions Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  16. Blood glucose monitors: a laboratory and patient assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, D J; Lovesay, J M; Ellis, A; Knight, A H

    1980-01-01

    The four blood glucose monitors available in the United Kingdom were compared by asking the opinions of 24 patients who used each monitor for two weeks, by correlating their blood glucose results with those obtained in the laboratory, and by having the monitors examined by an electronics engineer. Of the battery-operated monitors, patients preferred the Hypocount (15) to the Glucochek (9). The mains-operated units were less popular, with little to choose between Eyetone and Reflomat. Under field conditions the blood glucose results obtained with the Glucochek correlated poorly with the standard reference method. In contrast the Hypocount, Eyetone, and Reflomat machines produced good correlations. Poor results with the Glucochek were mainly due to faulty timing systems. The patients' preference for the Hypocount was supported by tests of performance under laboratory conditions and by the electronics engineer's report. PMID:7362972

  17. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110-586 mg/dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis.

  18. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110–586 mg∕dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis. PMID:26524683

  19. Blood glucose distribution and prevalence of diabetes in Hanoi (Vietnam).

    PubMed

    Quoc, P S; Charles, M A; Cuong, N H; Lieu, L H; Tuan, N A; Thomas, M; Balkau, B; Simon, D

    1994-04-01

    Few epidemiologic surveys have been performed to assess the prevalence of diabetes in representative samples, and few data are available on the epidemiologic features of diabetes in Southeast Asia. We report the results of a 1990 study performed in the Hanoi area (Vietnam) on 4,912 subjects (95.0% of the eligible population), aged 15 years or over, selected by a stratified random cluster procedure using the 1989 census list. A two-step design was used: 1) screening for diabetes by measuring capillary blood glucose (CBG) before dinner with a Glucometer II device; and 2) for subjects with a CBG measurement of > or = 105 mg/dl, a diagnostic test on the following morning, using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and World Health Organization criteria (93.9% of the positive screenees took this test). CBG values before dinner were unimodally distributed and skewed to the right, increasing with age in both sexes. Women had a significantly higher level of age-adjusted CBG than did men before dinner (p < 0.0001) as well as when fasting (p < 0.0001) and 2 hours after the oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.013). The prevalence of diabetes was 1.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-1.5) and of impaired glucose tolerance, 1.6% (95% CI 1.3-2.0). Women had a significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than did men (relative risk = 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.1). Of the 63 diabetic subjects, nine (14.3%) had been diagnosed before the study, only one was obviously insulin dependent, and only one was obese with a body mass index of > or = 27 kg/m2. The subjects living in the urban areas had higher levels of fasting and 2-hour CBG and a higher diabetes prevalence than did the rural inhabitants (relative risk = 1.3; 95% CI 1.04-3.23). Diabetes appears to be a rare disease in the Hanoi area (1.4% for subjects aged 30-64 years, after age standardization using the Segi distribution), affecting women two times as often as men. Typical insulin-dependent (type I) or obese non

  20. Accuracy of blood glucose estimates in adolescents with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, L; Kairys, S; Fritz, G; Wood, M

    1991-03-01

    Although self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an integral part of the daily self-care regimen for the effective management of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), compliance with this task remains a significant problem, particularly for adolescents. Research should be focused on identifying other management approaches which may supplement SMBG. One potential approach involves placing greater reliance on the patient's own ability to estimate glucose levels. Although some research has examined blood glucose self-estimation in adults, little is known about this construct in children and adolescents. The purpose of the current study was to examine the accuracy of blood glucose self-estimates in adolescents with IDDM and examine the relation between child characteristics and accuracy. The results for 70 adolescents with IDDM indicated that as a group they were moderately accurate in estimating their glucose levels; however, much variability in accuracy was found among subjects. Subject characteristics were not found to be significantly related to accuracy. PMID:2015234

  1. Hybrid CARS for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Pestov, Dmitry; Zhang, Aihua; Murawski, Robert; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Laane, Jaan; Scully, Marlan

    2007-10-01

    We develop a spectroscopy technique that combines the advantages of both the frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the time-resolved CARS. We use broadband preparation pulses to get an instantaneous coherent excitation of multiplex molecular vibration levels and subsequent optically shaped time-delayed narrowband probing pulse to detect these vibrations. This technique can suppress the nonresonant background and retrieve the molecular fingerprint signal efficiently and rapidly. We employ this technique to glucose detection, the final goal of which is accurate, non-invasive (i.e. painless) and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the Diabetes diagnosis to replace the current glucose measurement process, which requires painful fingerpricks and therefore cannot be performed more than a few times a day. We have gotten the CARS spectra of glucose aqueous solution down to 2 mM.

  2. Impact of Diet Composition on Blood Glucose Regulation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Björck, Inger; Delzenne, Nathalie; Gao, Dan; Griffiths, Helen R; Hadjilucas, Ellie; Juvonen, Kristiina; Lahtinen, Sampo; Lansink, Mirian; Loon, Luc Van; Mykkänen, Hannu; Östman, Elin; Riccardi, Gabriele; Vinoy, Sophie; Weickert, Martin O

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach, it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This comprehensive review summarizes the results from human dietary interventions exploring the impact of dietary components on blood glucose levels. Included are the major macronutrients; carbohydrate, protein and fat, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, nonnutrient phytochemicals and additional foods including low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar, and alcohol. Based on the evidence presented in this review, it is clear that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. An integrated approach that includes reducing excess body weight, increased physical activity along with a dietary regime to regulate blood glucose levels will not only be advantages in T2DM management, but will benefit the health of the population and limit the increasing worldwide incidence of T2DM. PMID:24219323

  3. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  4. Dynamical Analysis in the Mathematical Modelling of Human Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Saebyok; Kang, Byungmin

    2012-01-01

    We want to apply the geometrical method to a dynamical system of human blood glucose. Due to the educational importance of model building, we show a relatively general modelling process using observational facts. Next, two models of some concrete forms are analysed in the phase plane by means of linear stability, phase portrait and vector…

  5. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  6. Acute Inactivity Impairs Glycemic Control but Not Blood Flow to Glucose Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Leryn J; Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Leidy, Heather J; Fadel, Paul J; Thyfault, John P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Insulin-stimulated increases in skeletal muscle blood flow play a role in glucose disposal. Indeed, 7 days of aerobic exercise in type 2 diabetes patients increased blood flow responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and improved glucose tolerance. More recent work suggests that reduced daily physical activity impairs glycemic control (GC) in healthy individuals. Herein, we sought to determine if an acute reduction in daily activity (from >10,000 to <5,000 steps/day) for 5 days (RA5) in healthy individuals reduced insulin-stimulated blood flow and GC in parallel and if a 1 day return to activity (RTA1) improved these outcomes. Methods OGTTs were performed as a stimulus to increase insulin in 14 healthy, recreationally active men (24±1.1 yrs) at baseline, RA5, and RTA1. Measures of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and femoral and brachial artery blood flow were made during the OGTT. Free living measures of GC including peak postprandial glucose (peak PPG) were also made via continuous glucose monitoring. Results Femoral and brachial artery blood flow increased during the OGTT but neither was significantly impacted by changes in physical activity (p>0.05). However, insulin sensitivity was decreased by RA5 (11.3±1.5 to 8.0±1.0; p<0.05). Likewise, free living GC measures of peak post prandial blood glucose (113±3 to 123±5 mg/dL; p<0.05) was significantly increased at RA5. Interestingly, insulin sensitivity and GC as assessed by peak PPG were not restored after RTA1 (p>0.05). Conclusions Thus, acute reductions in physical activity impaired GC and insulin sensitivity; however blood flow responses to an OGTT were not affected. Further, a 1 day return to activity was not sufficient to normalize GC following 5 days of reduced daily physical activity. PMID:25207931

  7. System accuracy of blood glucose monitoring systems: impact of use by patients and ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christina; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-10-01

    For self-monitoring of blood glucose by people with diabetes, the reliability of the measured blood glucose values is a prerequisite in order to ensure correct therapeutic decisions. Requirements for system accuracy are defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the standard EN ISO 15197:2003. However, even a system with high analytical quality is not a guarantee for accurate and reliable measurement results. Under routine life conditions, blood glucose measurement results are affected by several factors. First, the act of performing measurements as well as the handling of the system may entail numerous possible error sources, such as traces of glucose-containing products on the fingertips, the use of deteriorated test strips, or the incorrect storage of test strips. Second, ambient and sampling conditions such as high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen, ambient temperature, and the use of alternate test sites can have an influence on measurement results. Therefore, the user-friendliness of a system and the quality of the manufacturer's labeling to reduce the risk of handling errors are also important aspects in ensuring reliable and accurate measurement results. In addition, the analytical performance of systems should be less prone to user errors and ambient conditions. Finally, people with diabetes must be aware of the information and instructions in the manufacturer's labeling and must be able to measure and interpret blood glucose results correctly. PMID:23883407

  8. Is There a Relationship between Mean Blood Glucose and Glycated Hemoglobin?

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Konstantinos; Spanou, Loukia

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is considered the gold standard for monitoring chronic glycemia of diabetes patients. Hemoglobin A1c indicates an average of blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. Its close association with the risk for the development of long-term complications is well established. However, HbA1c does not inform patients about blood glucose values on a daily basis; therefore, frequent measurements of blood glucose levels are necessary for the day-to-day management of diabetes. Clinicians understand what HbA1c means and how it relates to glucose, but this is not the case with patients. Therefore, the translation of the HbA1c results into something more familiar to patients seemed a necessity. The scope of this article is to review the literature to search for enough scientific evidence to support the idea of a close relationship between HbA1c and mean blood glucose (MBG), and to justify the translation of HbA1c into something that reflects the MBG. Most studies confirm a close relationship between HbA1c and MBG, although different studies result in different linear equations. Factors affecting this relationship may limit the usefulness and applicability of a unique mathematical equation to all diabetes populations. PMID:22226280

  9. Electroacupuncture for control of blood glucose in diabetes: literature review.

    PubMed

    Peplow, Philip V; Baxter, G David

    2012-02-01

    Electrical stimulation at acupuncture points (acupoints) has been investigated for its utility in lowering blood glucose in hyperglycemic humans and animal models. Only two studies were found using electroacupuncture in human subjects, and in both of these, the participants were normal (nondiabetic) and electrical stimulation was carried out at several acupoints. It had a hypoglycemic effect in obese women with calorific restriction diet using electrical stimulation of 2 Hz for 30 minutes/day for 20 days, but no change occurred in blood glucose of fasted patients in the other study using 1 Hz for 15 minutes. Fourteen animal studies were found, of which, 11 were performed in diabetic and normal rats. A hypoglycemic effect was observed in fasted type 1 diabetic rats using the Zusanli (ST36) leg acupoint with electrical stimulation of 15 Hz for 30 minutes and 60 minutes. In fasted type 2 diabetic rats, blood glucose was lowered using the Zusanli acupoint with electrical stimulation parameters of 15 Hz and 10 mA for 30 minutes. Also, using the Zhongwan (CV12) abdomen acupoint with electrical stimulation parameters of 15 Hz and 10 mA for 90 minutes had a hypoglycemic effect in fasted type 2 diabetic rats. In fasted normal rats, electrical stimulation of 2 Hz or 15 Hz for 30 minutes at the Zusanli or Zhongwan acupoint caused a decrease in blood glucose. Future studies are required in fasted diabetic rats to determine the effect of electroacupuncture on blood levels of insulin, lipids, fatty acids and β-endorphin, and blood flow and nerve conduction velocity. Studies with fasted normal and diabetic human subjects treated by electroacupuncture are warranted using data from animal experiments to inform such studies. PMID:22309901

  10. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  11. Near-infrared spectral methods for noninvasively measuring blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Sun; Kong, Deyi; Mei, Tao; Tao, Yongchun

    2004-05-01

    Determination of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients is a frequently occurring procedure and an important tool for diabetes management. Use of noninvasive detection techniques can relieve patients from the pain of frequent finger pokes and avoid the infection of disease via blood. This thesis discusses current research and analyzes the advantages and shortages of different measurement methods, including: optical methods (Transmission, Polarimetry and scattering), then, we give emphasis to analyze the technology of near-infrared (NIR) spectra. NIR spectral range 700 nm ~2300 nm was used because of its good transparency for biological tissue and presence of glucose absorption band. In this work, we present an outline of noninvasive blood glucose measurement. A near-infrared light beam is passed through the finger, and the spectral components of the emergent beam are measured using spectroscopic techniques. The device includes light sources having the wavelengths of 600 nm - 1800 nm to illuminate the tissue. Receptors associated with the light sources for receiving light and generating a transmission signal representing the light transmitted are also provided. Once a transmission signal is received by receptors, and the high and low values from each of the signals are stored in the device. The averaged values are then analyzed to determine the glucose concentration, which is displayed on the device.

  12. Effect of sucrose-containing snacks on blood glucose control.

    PubMed

    Wise, J E; Keim, K S; Huisinga, J L; Willmann, P A

    1989-06-01

    To determine whether ingestion of sucrose-containing snacks would affect blood glucose (BG) control, 16 subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus participated in a 5-day double-blind study at a diabetes camp. Eight subjects in the sucrose group ate sucrose-sweetened snacks twice a day, and 8 subjects in the control group ingested snacks that were sweetened with aspartame. The percentage of total daily calories derived from added sucrose was 7% for the sucrose group and 1% for the control group. Metabolic control was assessed by daily capillary BG measurements obtained before meals and the bedtime snack and by determination of serum fructosamine (F) concentrations on arrival at camp (day 0) and after 5 days on the study protocol (day 5). No significant difference was seen between the groups on day 0 (sucrose group [mean +/- SD]: BG 9.9 +/- 3.6 mM, F 3.54 +/- 0.38 mM; control group: BG 9.1 +/- 2.8 mM, F 3.74 +/- 0.71 mM) or day 5 (sucrose group: BG 8.8 +/- 2.6 mM, F 2.94 +/- 0.32 mM; control group: BG 7.4 +/- 2.8 mM, F 2.92 +/- 0.59 mM). We conclude that ingestion of sucrose, added to snacks in an amount up to 7% of total energy intake, does not adversely affect short-term BG control. PMID:2659302

  13. Noninvasive blood glucose measurement using multiple laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, E. T.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chen, J. H.; Soh, P. H.; Ng, K.; Yeo, J. H.

    2007-02-01

    In the event of diabetes clinicians have advocated that frequent monitoring of a diabetic's blood glucose level is the key to avoid future complications (kidney failure, blindness, amputations, premature death, etc.,) associated with the disease. While the test-strip glucose meters available in current consumer markets allow for frequent monitoring, a more convenient technique that is accurate, painless and sample-free is preferable in a diabetic's daily routine. This paper presents a non-invasive blood glucose measurement technique using diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) signals. This technique uses a set of laser diodes, each operating at fixed wavelengths in the first overtone region. The NIR signals from the laser diodes are channeled to the measurement site viz., the nail-bed by means of optical fibers. A series of in vivo experiments have been performed on eight normal human subjects using a standard Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) protocol. The reflected NIR signals are inputs to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm for calibration and future predictions. The calibration models used are developed using in vivo datasets and are unique to a particular individual. The 1218 paired points collected from the eight test subjects plotted on the Clarke Error Grid, revealed that 87.3% of these points fall within the A zone while the remainder, within the B zone, both of which, are clinically accepted. The standard error of prediction was +/-13.14mg/dL for the best calibration model. A Bland-Altman analysis of the 1218 paired points yields a 76.3% confidence level for a measurement accuracy of +/-20mg/dL. These results demonstrate the initial potential of the technique for non-invasive blood glucose measurements in vivo.

  14. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Regular coffee consumption significantly lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Coffee contains thousands of compounds; however, the specific component(s) responsible for this reduced risk is unknown. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) found in brewed coffee inhibit intestinal glucose uptake in vitro. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which CGA acts to mediate blood glucose response in vivo. Conscious, unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically catheterized and gavage-fed a standardized meal (59% carbohydrate, 25% fat, 12% protein), administered with or without CGA (120 mg·kg(-1)), in a randomized crossover design separated by a 3-day washout period. Acetaminophen was co-administered to assess the effects of CGA on gastric emptying. The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured. GLP-1 response in the presence of glucose and CGA was further examined, using the human colon cell line NCI-H716. Total area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose was significantly attenuated in rats fed CGA (p < 0.05). Despite this, no differences in plasma insulin or nonesterified fatty acids were observed, and gastric emptying was not altered. Plasma GIP response was blunted in rats fed CGA, with a lower peak concentration and AUC up to 180 min postprandially (p < 0.05). There were no changes in GLP-1 secretion in either the in vivo or in vitro study. In conclusion, CGA treatment resulted in beneficial effects on blood glucose response, with alterations seen in GIP concentrations. Given the widespread consumption and availability of coffee, CGA may be a viable prevention tool for T2D. PMID:21977912

  15. Development of Noninvasive Blood Glucose Sensor Using the Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Keiichi; Tamura, Kazuto; Kaneko, Wataru; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Toba, Eiji

    Recently, diabetics have been steadily increasing, because change of diet, lack of exercise, increase an alcoholic intake, and increase a stress. It is a very serious problem for us. About 23.6 millions of people in Japan approach the danger of diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to get insulin injection. And they have to measure blood glucose again and again a day. So, they are burden too heavy. This paper describes a new noninvasive measurement of blood glucose based on optical sensing. This uses Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection. Non-invasive measurement was carried out by using 3 methods. And standard error of prediction is about ±20mg/dl by 3 method. This paper also describes practical application of this method.

  16. Diabetic home blood glucose monitoring using a direct reading glucose sensitive test strip.

    PubMed

    Baker, J R; Mulvey, T T; Vivian, J A

    1981-10-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the BM Test Glycemie 20-800. Twelve diabetic patients were studied using the BM Test Glycemie 20-800, compared with one of the commonly available reflectance meters. The correlation coefficient for the BM 20-800 strip versus reference blood glucose result was significantly better than the reflectance meter (p = 0.01). In a separate study, laboratory staff tested both methods and achieved results which were similar to those of the patients using the BM Test Glycemie 20-800, but better than those of the patients using the reflectance meters. The BM Test Glycemie 20-800 is a cheap, reliable and acceptable method for the measurement of blood glucose levels. PMID:6948175

  17. Interferences and Limitations in Blood Glucose Self-Testing: An Overview of the Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Erbach, Michael; Freckmann, Guido; Hinzmann, Rolf; Kulzer, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ralph; Heinemann, Lutz; Schnell, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    In general, patients with diabetes performing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) can strongly rely on the accuracy of measurement results. However, various factors such as application errors, extreme environmental conditions, extreme hematocrit values, or medication interferences may potentially falsify blood glucose readings. Incorrect blood glucose readings may lead to treatment errors, for example, incorrect insulin dosing. Therefore, the diabetes team as well as the patients should be well informed about limitations in blood glucose testing. The aim of this publication is to review the current knowledge on limitations and interferences in blood glucose testing with the perspective of their clinical relevance. PMID:27044519

  18. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  19. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  20. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    PubMed

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine. PMID:27228466

  1. Qualitative study of telemonitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Janet; Fairbrother, Peter; Pagliari, Claudia; Paterson, Mary; Pinnock, Hilary; Sheikh, Aziz; Wild, Sarah; McKinstry, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of patients and professionals taking part in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of blood glucose, blood pressure (BP) and weight telemonitoring in type 2 diabetes supported by primary care, and identify factors facilitating or hindering the effectiveness of the intervention and those likely to influence its potential translation to routine practice. Design Qualitative study adopting an interpretive descriptive approach. Participants 23 patients, 6 nurses and 4 doctors who were participating in a RCT of blood glucose and BP telemonitoring. A maximum variation sample of patients from within the trial based on age, sex and deprivation status of the practice was sought. Setting 12 primary care practices in Scotland and England. Method Data were collected via recorded semistructured interviews. Analysis was inductive with themes presented within an overarching thematic framework. Multiple strategies were employed to ensure that the analysis was credible and trustworthy. Results Telemonitoring of blood glucose, BP and weight by people with type 2 diabetes was feasible. The data generated by telemonitoring supported self-care decisions and medical treatment decisions. Motivation to self-manage diet was increased by telemonitoring of blood glucose, and the ‘benign policing’ aspect of telemonitoring was considered by patients to be important. The convenience of home monitoring was very acceptable to patients although professionals had some concerns about telemonitoring increasing workload and costs. Conclusions Telemonitoring of blood glucose, BP and weight in primary care is a promising way of improving diabetes management which would be highly acceptable to the type of patients who volunteered for this study. Trial registration number ISRCTN71674628; Pre-results. PMID:26700275

  2. Detection of protein biomarker using a blood glucose meter.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    mHeath technologies are recognized to play important roles in the future of personal care and medicine. However, their full potentials have not been reached, as most of current technologies are restricted to monitoring physical and behavioral parameters, such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and physical movement, while direct monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids can provide much more accurate and useful information for medical diagnostics. A major barrier to realizing the full potential of mHealth is the high costs and long cycles of developing mHealth devices capable of monitoring biomarkers in body fluids. To lower the costs and shorten the developmental cycle, we have demonstrated the leveraging of the most successful portable medical monitoring device on the market, the blood glucose meter (BGM), with FDA-approved smartphone technologies that allow for wireless transmission and remote monitoring of a wide range of non-glucose targets. In this protocol, an aptamer-based assay for quantification of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using an off-the-shelf BGM is described. In this assay, an aptamer-based target recognition system is employed. When IFN-γ binds to the aptamer, it triggers the release of a reporter enzyme, invertase, which can catalyze the conversion of sucrose (not detected by BGM) to glucose. The glucose being produced is then detected using a BGM. The system mimics a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), where the traditional immunoassay is replaced by an aptamer binding assay; the reporter protein is replaced by invertase, and finally the optical or fluorescence detector is replaced with widely available BGMs. PMID:25626534

  3. Capillary bedside blood glucose measurement in neonates: missing a diagnosis of galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Öcal, Murat; Tanrıverdi, Sibel; Baysal, Birsen; Deniz, Ahmet; Öncel, Kahraman; Demirbilek, Hüseyin

    2015-03-01

    A number of factors may lead to inaccuracy in measurement of capillary blood glucose with a glucometer. Measurement of other carbohydrate molecules such as galactose and fructose along with glucose can potentially be a cause of error. We report a newborn patient who was referred to our hospital with conjugated bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and high capillary blood glucose levels measured with a glucometer. Simultaneous biochemical measurements revealed normal blood glucose levels. Further investigation led to a diagnosis of classical galactosemia. Capillary blood glucose level measured with glucometer also dropped to normal values following cessation of breastfeeding and initiation of feeding with a lactose-free formula. PMID:25800483

  4. Kinetics of metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 in steers as affected by injecting phlorizin and feeding propionate

    SciTech Connect

    Veenhuizen, J.J.; Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1988-11-01

    Effects of injecting phlorizin subcutaneously and/or feeding propionate on metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 were determined for four steers used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine a four-pool kinetic solution for the flux of carbon among plasma glucose, rumen propionate, blood CO2 and rumen CO2. Injecting 1 g of phlorizin twice daily for 19 d resulted in 7.1 mol glucose C/d being excreted in urine. The basal glucose production of 13.4 mol C/d was increased to 17.9 mol C/d with phlorizin. There was no change in glucose oxidation or propionate production. The percentage of plasma glucose derived from propionate was unaffected by phlorizin, but 54 +/- 0.4% of total propionate was converted to plasma glucose during phlorizin treatment versus 40 +/- 0.6% during the basal treatment. When propionate was fed (18.3 mol C/d) glucose production increased to 21.2 mol C/d from the basal value of 13.4 mol C/d, and propionate oxidation to CO2 increased to 14.9 mol C/d from the basal value of 4.1 mol C/d. Glucose derived from propionate was 43 +/- 5% for the basal treatment and 67 +/- 3% during propionate feeding. The percentage of propionate converted to plasma glucose and blood and rumen CO2 was not affected by feeding propionate. An increased need for glucose, because of glucose excretion during phlorizin treatment, caused an increased utilization of propionate for gluconeogenesis, but an increased availability of propionate caused an increase in glucose production without affecting the relative distribution of carbon from propionate.

  5. Effects of long duration exercise on cognitive function, blood glucose, and counterregulatory hormones in male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Grego, Fabien; Vallier, Jean-Marc; Collardeau, Maya; Bermon, Stéphane; Ferrari, Patricia; Candito, Mirande; Bayer, Pascale; Magnié, Marie-Noëlle; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2004-07-01

    Electrocortical effects of long duration exercise on cognitive function were investigated by analyzing P300 amplitude and latency changes during a 3-h cycling exercise. P300 components were measured in 12 well-trained cyclists and blood glucose, cortisol, insulin, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFAs) epinephrine and norepinephrine were analyzed. Results indicated that P300 components were affected by exercise with a temporary increase in amplitude between the 1st and the 2nd hour and an increase in latency after 2 h of exercise concomitant with some hormonal changes, including an increase in cortisol and epinephrine and a decrease in blood glucose. These findings suggest a combined effect of arousal and central fatigue on electrocortical indices of cognitive function during acute physical exercise. PMID:15196681

  6. Texturing Blood-Glucose-Monitoring Optics Using Oxygen Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A method has been invented for utilizing directed, hyperthermal oxygen atoms and ions for texturing tips of polymeric optical fibers or other polymeric optical components for use in optical measurement of concentration of glucose in blood. The required texture of the sensory surface of such a component amounts to a landscape of microscopic hills having high aspect ratios (hills taller than they are wide), with an average distance between hills of no more than about 5 m. This limit on the average distance between hills is chosen so that blood cells (which are wider) cannot enter the valleys between the hills, where they could obstruct optical sensing of glucose in the blood plasma. On the other hand, the plasma is required to enter the valleys, and a high aspect ratio is intended to maximize the hillside and valley surface area in contact with the plasma, thereby making it possible to obtain a given level of optical glucose- measurement sensitivity with a relatively small volume of blood. The present method of texturing by use of directed, hyperthermal (particle energy >1 eV) oxygen atoms and ions stands in contrast to a prior method of texturing by use of thermal monatomic oxygen characterized by a temperature of the order of 0.5 eV. The prior method yields low-aspect- ratio (approximately hemispherical) craters that are tens of microns wide . too wide to exclude blood cells. The figure schematically depicts parts of a typical apparatus for texturing according to the present method. One or more polymeric optical components to be textured (e.g., multiple optical fibers bundled together for simultaneous processing) are mounted in a vacuum chamber facing a suitable ion- or atom-accelerating device capable of generating a beam of oxygen atoms and/or ions having kinetic energies >1 eV. Typically, such a device includes a heated cathode, in which case it is desirable to interpose a water-cooled thermal-radiation shield to prevent melting of the polymeric component(s) to

  7. Sensitivity of central chemoreceptors controlling blood glucose and body temperature during glucose deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, A; Müller, E E

    1975-01-01

    1. The rise in blood glucose and the fall in body temperature which follows the injection of a glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) into the lateral cerebral ventricle (I.C.V) of unanaesthetized rats were studied and found to be dose-dependent. These 2-DG induced responses are elicited by the impairment of glucose metabolism within central "glucoreceptors'. 2. 2DG induced hyperglycaemia and hypothermia were completely prevented and even the converse effects occurred when fivefold equimolar amounts of D-fructose were simultaneously injected I.C.V.; fructose, at equimolar doses, did not modify the effects of 2-DG. 3. D-xylose and D-ribose, even at high doses, did not influence 2-DG hyperglycaemia, but increased slightly the 2-DG induced hypothermia. This suggests that the pentose phosphate pathway is unable to support the metabolism within the glucoreceptors. 4. Pyruvate suppressed the 2-DG induced hyperglycaemia with a marked delay, while acetate (as ethyl ester) and a mixture of malate plus oxaloacetate did not prevent 2-DG induced effects. These results may be accounted for by the low dosage used. 5. Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate did not prevent 2-DG hypothermia and hyperglycaemia. 6. An effective prevention of the 2-DG induced hyperglycaemia and hypothermia was achieved with fumarate and glutamate, indicating that the stimulation of the Krebs cycle within "glucoreceptors' removes the glucoprivic effects. 7. The results indicate that prevention of 2-DG induced effects occurred only with alternate source of metabolic fuel which can support high respiratory rates in brain tissue. It is concluded that central chemoreceptors are not specifically responsive to glucose, or hexoses, but to the rate of oxidative metabolism. PMID:1151783

  8. Prolonged Sleep Restriction Affects Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Hublin, Christer; Sallinen, Mikael; Härmä, Mikko; Hirvonen, Ari; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the effects of sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep on glucose homeostasis, serum leptin levels, and feelings of subjective satiety. Twenty-three healthy young men were allocated to a control group (CON) or an experimental (EXP) group. After two nights of 8 h in bed (baseline, BL), EXP spent 4 h in bed for five days (sleep restriction, SR), followed by two nights of 8 h (recovery, REC). CON spent 8 h in bed throughout the study. Blood samples were taken after the BL, SR, and REC period. In EXP, insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio increased after SR. IGF-1 levels increased after REC. Leptin levels were elevated after both SR and REC; subjective satiety remained unaffected. No changes were observed in CON. The observed increase of serum IGF-1 and insulin-to-glucose ratio indicates that sleep restriction may result in an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes. PMID:20414467

  9. Blood Glucose Pattern Management in Diabetes: Creating Order from Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, John C.; Genovese, Stefano; Reach, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is the most accessible way to assess glycemic patterns, and interpretation of these patterns can provide reasons for poor glycemic control and suggest management strategies. Furthermore, diabetes management based on blood glucose (BG) patterns is associated with improved patient outcomes. The aim of this review is therefore to evaluate the impact of pattern management in clinical practice. Methods We included a review of available literature, a discussion of obstacles to implementation of SMBG and pattern management, and suggestions on how clinicians and patients might work together to optimize this management feature. Results The literature review revealed eight publications specifically describing structured approaches to SMBG and pattern management. Specific information on how SMBG might be structured to detect BG patterns, however, remains limited. Barriers to pattern management include not just practical reasons, but emotional and psychological reasons as well. Conclusions Patterns are not always easy to detect or interpret, but on-meter and web-based tools can support both patients and clinicians. Ultimately, successful pattern management requires education and mutual commitment from the clinician and patient—ongoing collaboration is needed to obtain, review, and interpret SMBG values and to make changes based on the patterns. PMID:24351184

  10. Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Shirley F; Meister, Maureen; Mahmood, Maryam; Eldoumi, Heba; Peterson, Sandra; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Clarke, Stephen L; Payton, Mark; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometrics, body composition, and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Twenty obese adults (11 males and 9 females) ages 20- to 50-years old, received 10 g/day of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and final visits of the study. After 12 weeks, mango supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in both male (−4.45 mg/dL, P = 0.018) and female (−3.56 mg/dL, P = 0.003) participants. In addition, hip circumference was reduced in male (−3.3 cm, P = 0.048) but not in female participants. However, there were no significant changes in body weight or composition in either gender. Our findings indicate that regular consumption of freeze-dried mango by obese individuals does not negatively impact body weight but provides a positive effect on fasting blood glucose. PMID:25210462

  11. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the

  12. 75 FR 2549 - Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood... public meeting entitled: Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters. The purpose of the public meeting is to discuss the clinical accuracy requirements of blood glucose meters...

  13. A Simple Laboratory Experiment to Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    2008-01-01

    A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter, if this is available This experiment is proposed for use by students in a general chemistry, biology, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry…

  14. Dietary starch sources affect net portal appearance of amino acids and glucose in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, T-J; Dai, Q-Z; Yin, Y-L; Zhang, J; Huang, R-L; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z; Xie, M

    2008-05-01

    Four male pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; average initial (mean ± SEM) BW = 22.5 ± 1.1 kg), fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein and carotid artery, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design to measure the effect of dietary starch sources on the net portal appearance of glucose and amino acids. Dietary starch sources were resistant starch (RS), maize, sticky rice and brown rice. Diets were provided at 0730, 1530 and 2330 h during a 6-day adjustment period and 1-day collection period. On day 7 of each period, blood samples were collected from the portal vein and carotid artery at 0730 h (prior to feeding) and hourly up to 8 h after meal. Blood samples were used to determine glucose, amino acid, packed cell volume and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). When calculated per 100 g feed intake, cumulative portal glucose appearance was lower (P < 0.05) for resistant starch than for maize, sticky rice or brown rice up to 8 h after the meal. Cumulative portal glucose appearance was higher (P < 0.05) for sticky rice and brown rice than for other diets until 4 h after the meal, but maize had higher cumulative glucose appearance after 4 h. Net cumulative portal concentrations of most amino acids for resistant starch were also reduced (P < 0.05) than for the other starch sources. Cumulative portal appearance of amino acid represented 48.39%, 63.76%, 61.80% and 59.18% of dietary intake for resistant starch, maize, sticky rice and brown rice, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary starch sources substantially affect the appearance of amino acids and glucose in the portal circulation. PMID:22443597

  15. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  16. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Eickhoff, Malin; Forslund, Anders H; Isaksson, Johan; Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-04-30

    Reports of hypocortisolism and overweight in pediatric ADHD motivate an investigation of blood glucose regulation in this group. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were investigated in 10 children (10-15 years) with ADHD and 22 comparisons. Fasting blood glucose was similar in both groups. HbA1c values were higher in the ADHD-group. BMI-SDS was also higher in the ADHD-group but did not predict HbA1c. The results suggest an association between ADHD and an altered blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:25747679

  17. The Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose in Patients With Methamphetamine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dezhao; Zhang, Meijuan; Jin, Xuru; Zhao, Jiyun; Han, Bin; Su, Hang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Wenwei; He, Jincai

    2016-03-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a prevalently abused psychostimulant in the world. Previously published studies and case reports indicated potential associations between MA and body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular factors (eg, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose). However, these associations have not been studied clearly. This study aimed to investigate BMI and cardiovascular factors in the MA-dependent patients.A total of 1019 MA-dependent patients were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013. A case report was used to gather information on sociocharacteristics and drug-dependent history. Meanwhile, a number of 1019 age- and sex-matched controls' information were collected from the physical examination center. We measured BMI, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose among the participants.MA-dependent patients had significantly lower BMI (20.4 ± 0.1 vs 23.9 ± 0.1 kg/m, P < 0.001), lower fasting blood glucose (5.0 ± 0.01 vs 5.2 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and higher systolic blood pressure (122.1 ± 0.4 vs 114.8 ± 0.4 mmHg, P < 0.001) compared with the control group after adjustment of possible confounders. Additional, we only found the duration of MA use was independently associated with BMI (B = -0.08, P = 0.04).This study demonstrated that MA dependence was associated with BMI and cardiovascular factors. In addition, we found a negative association between duration of MA use and BMI. PMID:27015198

  18. The effect of moderate glycemic energy bar consumption on blood glucose and mood in dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ingesting quality carbohydrates has been shown to be essential for dancers. Given that most dance classes take place in the morning, it has been recommended that dancers eat a well-balanced breakfast containing carbohydrates, fats, and protein as a means of fuelling this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a moderate glycemic index energy (MGI) bar or a fasting condition on dancers' blood glucose levels and perceived pleasure-displeasure response during the first dance class of the day. In a randomized counterbalanced design, 10 female preprofessional dance students took their regular scheduled contemporary dance class, on four separate occasions. On each occasion, they consumed either a commercially prepared carbohydrate (CHO)-dense energy bar (47.3 g CHO) or water (FAST). Plasma glucose responses and pleasure-displeasure affect were measured before and at two time points during the class. Dancers who consumed the MGI bar had significantly greater peak blood glucose levels at all time points than those who fasted (p<0.05). Regarding affective state measures, participants who had breakfast had significantly greater pleasure scores than those who only ingested water(p<0.05). In conclusion, results suggest that CHO with an MGI value positively impacts blood glucose concentrations during a dance class. Further, we conclude that skipping breakfast can have an unfavorable effect on the pleasure-displeasure state of dancers. These findings highlight the impact of breakfast on how one feels, as well as the physiological and metabolic benefits of CHO as an exogenous energy source in dancers. PMID:24647459

  19. Blood glucose monitor: an alternative off-line method to measure glucose concentration during fermentations with Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Choy, Viviane; Patel, Nilesh; Thibault, Jules

    2007-07-01

    Two home, blood-glucose monitoring meters, OneTouch Ultra and Ascensia Contour, were used to determine the glucose concentration during fermentations of Trichoderma reesei in both flasks and bioreactors. The results, when compared to those given by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid reducing sugar assay, HPLC and YSI 2700 SELECT Biochemistry analyzer, showed that the glucose meters are a quick, reliable and economical alternative method for frequent glucose concentration measurement during fermentation. For T. reesei fermentations, the OneTouch meter was the more suitable. PMID:17377750

  20. A computer system for interpreting blood glucose data.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, T; Gergely, T; Trunov, V

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an overview on the design and implementation of a computer system for the interpretation of home monitoring data of diabetic patients. The comprehensive methodology covers the major information processing steps leading from raw data to a concise summary of what has happened between two subsequent visits. It includes techniques for summarising and interpreting data, checking for inconsistency, identifying and diagnosing metabolic problems and learning from patient data. Data interpretation focuses on extracting trend patterns and classifying/clustering daily blood glucose (BG) profiles. The software helps clinicians to explore data recorded before the main meals and bedtime, and to identify problems in the patient's metabolic control which should be addressed either by educating the patient and/or adjusting the current management regimen. PMID:15313541

  1. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (P<0.0001). The multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the blood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. PMID:25073916

  2. [Research of Outlier Samples Elimination Methods for Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Blood Glucose].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yongzhong; Li, Lina; Lin, Tianliang

    2015-12-01

    For the near-infrared (NIR) spectral analysis of the concentration of blood glucose, the calibration accuracy can be affected because of the existing of outlier samples. In this research, a Monte-Carlo cross validation (MCCV) method is constructed for eliminating outlier samples. The human blood plasma experiment in vitro and the human body experiment in vivo were introduced to evaluate the MCCV method for its application effect in NIR spectral analysis of blood glucose. And the uninformative sample elimination method based on modified uninformative variable elimination (MUVE-USE) was employed in this study for the comparison with MCCV. The results indicated that, like the MUVE-USE method, the outlier samples elimination method based on MCCV could be used to eliminate the outlier samples which came from gross errors (such as bad sample) or system errors (such as baseline drift). In addition, the outlier samples from the random errors of uncertain causes which affect model accuracy can be eliminated simultaneously by MCCV. The elimination of multiple outlier samples is beneficial to the improvement of prediction accuracy of calibration model. PMID:27079108

  3. Blood glucose levels in diabetic patients following corticosteroid injections into the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jeffrey G.; London, Daniel A.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify diabetic patients’ change in blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injection for common hand diseases and to assess which patient-level risk factors may predict an increase in blood glucose levels. Methods Patients were recruited for this case-crossover study in the clinic of fellowship-trained hand surgeons at a tertiary care center. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 receiving a corticosteroid injection recorded their morning fasting blood glucose levels for 14 days after their injection. Fasting glucose levels on days 1–7 after injection qualified as “case” data with levels on days 10–14 providing control data. A mixed model with a priori contrasts were used to compare post-injection blood glucose levels to baseline levels. A linear regression model was used to determine patient predictors of a post-injection rise in blood glucose levels. Results Forty of 67 patients (60%) recruited for the study returned completed blood glucose logs. There was a significant increase in fasting blood glucose levels following injection limited to post-injection days 1 and 2. Among patient risk factors in our linear regression model, type 1 diabetes and use of insulin each predicted a post-injection increase in blood glucose levels from baseline while higher HbA1c levels did not predict increases. Discussion Corticosteroid injections in the hand transiently increase blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetics are more likely to experience this transient rise in blood glucose levels. Level of Evidence Therapeutic Level III PMID:24679910

  4. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: Advice for providers and patients.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Shannon; Manroa, Pooja; Doshi, Krupa

    2016-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a critical element in diabetes management. Providers must determine if and when patients are to perform glucose self-monitoring, set blood glucose targets, and help patients to interpret the results. Patients have a variety of continually evolving meters, supplies, and technology from which to choose. Making sense of these expectations and options is perhaps the greatest challenge for providers and patients. Working together, healthcare providers and certified diabetes educators can ensure that people with diabetes get the most out of self-monitoring of blood glucose. PMID:27168511

  5. Carbon dot based non enzymatic approach for the detection and estimation of glucose in blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Krishna, A.; Nair, Priya A.; Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we generated a simple, reliable and selective approach based on carbon dots (CDs) and 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (CPBA) for blood glucose sensing. The methodology relies on the quenching of the emission of CDs by CPBA followed by its recovery by glucose. The system consisting of CDs and CPBA was characterised by Fourier transform infra red spectrum, transmissions electron microscopic, dynamic light scattering instrument, UV–visible and fluorescence techniques. The response of the probe, CD-BA in presence of different concentrations of glucose was assessed. Linear range was obtained for glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Interferences by other saccharides and various biomolecules coexisting in blood serum were negligible. The chemo sensor thus developed has been successfully used for the estimation of glucose in human blood serum. The system being sensitive, efficient and easy to perform is a promising platform for blood glucose sensing.

  6. A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clovis S; Anzinger, Joshua J; Butterfield, Tiffany R; McCune, Joseph M; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that can be activated by pathogens and inflammation associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases. Activation of monocytes induces effector functions and a concomitant shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism that is accompanied by increased glucose transporter expression. This increased glycolytic metabolism is also observed for trained immunity of monocytes, a form of innate immunological memory. Although in vitro protocols examining glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake by monocytes have been described, none have been examined by multi-parametric flow cytometry in whole blood. We describe a multi-parametric flow cytometric protocol for the measurement of fluorescent glucose analog 2-NBDG uptake in whole blood by total monocytes and the classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocyte subpopulations. This method can be used to examine glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake for total monocytes and monocyte subpopulations during homeostasis and inflammatory disease, and can be easily modified to examine glucose uptake for other leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations within blood. PMID:27584036

  7. Blood alcohol concentrations: factors affecting predictions.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Esposito, F M

    1985-01-01

    As a result of extensive alcohol research conducted on both humans and animals, it is possible to predict a BAC, given pertinent data. In addition, it is possible to estimate from a given BAC the quantity of alcohol consumed. Caution must be used in these predictions, for certain factors will affect the final estimation. Absorption of alcohol is influenced by gastrointestinal contents and motility, and also the composition and quantity of the alcoholic beverage. The vascularity of tissues influences the distribution of alcohol, and their water content will determine the amount of alcohol present after equilibrium. Elimination of alcohol begins immediately after absorption. The elimination rate varies for individuals but falls between .015 percent to .020 percent per hour, with an average of .018 percent per hour. In addition to these factors, a BAC will depend on the subject's weight, percentage of alcohol in the beverage, and the rate of drinking. The principal effect of alcohol in the body is on the central nervous system. Its depressant effect consists of impairment to sensory, motor and learned functions. When combined with some other drugs, a more intoxicated state occurs. Although tolerance to alcohol at low blood concentrations is possible, the tolerance most noted is a learned tolerance among chronic drinkers. contamination of antemortem blood samples collected for alcohol analysis is minimal when swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is performed with routine clinical technique; sloppy swabbing has been shown to increase the BAC determination significantly. The alcoholic content of blood used for transfusion does not contribute significantly to the BAC of the recipient, since extensive dilution occurs; nor does the alcohol present in injectable medication contribute significantly. Although many factors may alter the concentration of alcohol present in autopsy specimens, postmortem synthesis of alcohol receives the most attention. The microorganisms that

  8. Effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose levels and postpartum screening in mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khorshidi Roozbahani, Rezvan; Geranmayeh, Mehrnaz; Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Mehran, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy. GDM, defined as glucose intolerance, first diagnosed or initiated during pregnancy affects 1-14% of pregnancies based on various studies. Screening and early diagnosis and appropriate glycemic control can improve prenatal outcomes. Telephone follow-up seems to be a reasonable way for pregnant women follow-up. The present study evaluated the effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose level during pregnancy and postpartum screening. Methods: Eighty mothers with GDM were enrolled in this clinical trial and randomly divided into intervention and control groups. All mothers were asked to check their blood sugar levels fivetimes daily. In intervention group, telephone intervention was performed for 10 weeks. In each follow-up, individuals were followed for insulin injections, diet, clinical tests and reminding the next visit. In control group, three times of telephone call was established to record blood sugar levels. Another telephone call was established at 6 weeks of postpartum in both study groups to evaluate the performance of the screening test for blood sugar. Results: The mean age of mothers was 30.9±5 years in the control and 30.7±5.1 years in the intervention groups In intervention group, mean level of blood glucose, 2 hours after lunch at 28 weeks of pregnancy was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Mean differences in levels of fasting blood glucose between 28 weeks and 32 and between 28 and 36 weeks of pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention than the control group (P<0.05). Rate of postpartum glucose screening test was significantly higher in the intervention group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that telephone follow-up could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose levels in mothers with gestational diabetes and also increased the rate of postpartum screening test. PMID:26793640

  9. Self-monitoring of tear glucose: the development of a tear based glucose sensor as an alternative to self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Adams, Anngela; Lin, Chi-En; Engelschall, Erica; Pratt, Breanna; Cook, Curtiss B

    2016-07-28

    Tear glucose sensing for diabetes management has long been sought as an alternative to more invasive self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). However, tear glucose sensors were known to have limitations, including correlation issues with blood glucose due to low sample volume, low concentration of glucose in the tear fluid, and evaporation of the tear sample. An engineering design approach to solve these problems led to the development of an integrated device capable of collecting the tear sample from the ocular surface with little to no stress on the eye, with an extremely low limit of detection, broad dynamic range, and rapid detection and analysis of sample. Here we present the development of a prototypical self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG) sensor, summarizing bench studies on the enzymes and their specificity, the development of the fluid capture device and its manufacture and performance and results of system testing in an animal study where safety, lag time and tear glucose to blood glucose correlation were assessed. PMID:27327531

  10. Dielectric properties of glucose solutions in the millimetre-wave range and control of glucose content in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriakri, V. V.; Chigrai, E. E.; Kim, D.; Nikitin, I. P.; Pangonis, L. I.; Parkhomenko, M. P.; Won, J. H.

    2007-04-01

    The measurement of the dielectric properties of sugar solutions, as well as blood imitators and blood, in the millimetre-wave range allows one to obtain valuable information on the possibility of real-time control of glucose concentration in blood. These measurements are also of interest for other applications, for example in the wine industry and for the determination of water content in oil, oil products and other liquids.

  11. Development of a novel noninvasive sensor for determination of blood glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2001-10-01

    Optical methods represent the most promising techniques to perform non-invasive glucose detection. Glucose concentration in the aqueous humor closely mimics glucose levels in the blood and therefore non-invasive optical measurement of glucose can be performed by an optical beam crossing the eye anterior chamber. We propose a polarimetric method that exploits the Brewster-reflection of circularly polarized light on the lens of the eye. After reflection, the resulting linearly polarized light is subject to rotation by the glucose in the aqueous humor and thus carries the concentration information. A preliminary experimental setup, using glucose samples in a beaker, was realized and investigated.

  12. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  13. Lower fasting blood glucose in neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Jansen, Ann Kristine; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Matos, Camila Maria; Souza, Marcio Leandro Ribeiro; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Riccardi, Vincent Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate a lower occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level is the main criterion used to diagnose DM and glucose intolerance. Therefore, this study compared FBG level between adults with NF1 and non-NF1 controls. We selected clinical records of 57 out of 701 individuals attending the Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The selected patients with NF1 were matched to non-NF1 controls selected from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health according to sex, age (range, 35–74 years) and BMI at a ratio of 1:3. In both groups, individuals with DM were excluded. Median FBG level in the NF1 group (86 mg/dl (range, 56–127 mg/dl)) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (102 mg/dl (range, 85–146 mg/dl)) (P<0.001). Prevalence of FBG level ≥100 mg/dl in the NF1 group (16%) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (63%) (P<0.05). The chance of a high FBG level was 89% lower in the NF1 group (odds ratio, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.067–0.188) (P<0.05). In conclusion, adults with NF1 showed a lower FBG level and a lower prevalence of high FBG level compared with non-NF1 controls. PMID:26631381

  14. Lower fasting blood glucose in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Jansen, Ann Kristine; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Matos, Camila Maria; Souza, Marcio Leandro Ribeiro; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Riccardi, Vincent Michael

    2016-01-01

    Studies indicate a lower occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level is the main criterion used to diagnose DM and glucose intolerance. Therefore, this study compared FBG level between adults with NF1 and non-NF1 controls. We selected clinical records of 57 out of 701 individuals attending the Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The selected patients with NF1 were matched to non-NF1 controls selected from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health according to sex, age (range, 35-74 years) and BMI at a ratio of 1:3. In both groups, individuals with DM were excluded. Median FBG level in the NF1 group (86 mg/dl (range, 56-127 mg/dl)) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (102 mg/dl (range, 85-146 mg/dl)) (P<0.001). Prevalence of FBG level ≥100 mg/dl in the NF1 group (16%) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (63%) (P<0.05). The chance of a high FBG level was 89% lower in the NF1 group (odds ratio, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.067-0.188) (P<0.05). In conclusion, adults with NF1 showed a lower FBG level and a lower prevalence of high FBG level compared with non-NF1 controls. PMID:26631381

  15. Multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen and glucose detection in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-An; Lin, Che-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    This research presents a multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose detection in human whole blood. A novel enzyme-doped thread coated with a thin polyvinylchloride (PVC) membrane is produced for on-site electrochemical detection of urea and glucose in whole blood. Multiple enzymes can be directly applied to the thread without delicate pretreatment or a surface modification process prior to sealing the thread with PVC membrane. Results indicate that the developed device exhibits a good linear dynamic range for detecting urea and glucose in concentrations from 0.1 mM-10.0 mM (R(2 )= 0.9850) and 0.1 mM-13.0 mM (R(2 )= 0.9668), which is suitable for adoption in detecting the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, 1.78-7.12 mM) and glucose (3.89-6.11 mM) in serum. The detection result also shows that the developed thread-based microfluidic system can successfully separate and detect the ions, BUN, and glucose in blood. The calculated concentrations of BUN and glucose ante cibum (glucose before meal) in the whole blood sample are 3.98 mM and 4.94 mM, respectively. The developed thread-based microfluidic system provides a simple yet high performance for clinical diagnostics. PMID:25825613

  16. Blood Glucose Control Using a Novel Continuous Blood Glucose Monitor and Repetitive Intravenous Insulin Boluses: Exploiting Natural Insulin Pulsatility as a Principle for a Future Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Skjaervold, Nils K.; Östling, Dan; Hjelme, Dag R.; Spigset, Olav; Lyng, Oddveig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a glucose regulatory algorithm by employing the natural pulsatile pattern of insulin secretion and the oscillatory pattern of resting blood glucose levels and further to regulate the blood glucose level in diabetic pigs by this method. We developed a control algorithm based on repetitive intravenous bolus injections of insulin and combined this with an intravascular blood glucose monitor. Four anesthetized pigs were used in the study. The animals developed a mildly diabetic state from streptozotocin pretreatment. They were steadily brought within the blood glucose target range of 4.5–6.0 mmol/L in 21 to 121 min and kept within that range for 128 to 238 min (hypoglycemic values varied from 2.9 to 51.1 min). The study confirmed our hypotheses regarding the feasibility of this new principle for blood glucose control, and the algorithm was constantly improved during the study to produce the best results in the last animals. The main obstacles were the drift of the IvS-1 sensor and problems with the calibration procedure, which calls for an improvement in the sensor stability before this method can be applied fully in new studies in animals and humans. PMID:24369461

  17. Fasting Blood Glucose-A Missing Variable for GFR-Estimation in Type 1 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; McQueen, R. Brett; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Cherney, David; Pyle, Laura; Perkins, Bruce; Rewers, Marian; Maahs, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is one of the current clinical methods for identifying risk for diabetic nephropathy in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Hyperglycemia is known to influence GFR in T1D and variability in blood glucose at the time of eGFR measurement could introduce bias in eGFR. We hypothesized that simultaneously measured blood glucose would influence eGFR in adults with T1D. Methods Longitudinal multivariable mixed-models were employed to investigate the relationships between blood glucose and eGFR by CKD-EPI eGFRCYSTATIN C over 6-years in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study. All subjects with T1D and complete data including blood glucose and cystatin C for at least one of the three visits (n = 616, 554, and 521, respectively) were included in the longitudinal analyses. Results In mixed-models adjusting for sex, HbA1c, ACEi/ARB, protein and sodium intake positive associations were observed between simultaneous blood glucose and eGFRCYSTATIN C (β±SE:0.14±0.04 per 10 mg/dL of blood glucose, p<0.0001), and hyperfiltration as a dichotomous outcome (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07 per 10 mg/dL of blood glucose, p = 0.02). Conclusions In our longitudinal data in subjects with T1D, simultaneous blood glucose has an independent positive effect on eGFRCYSTATIN C. The associations between blood glucose and eGFRCYSTATIN C may bias the accurate detection of early diabetic nephropathy, especially in people with longitudinal variability in blood glucose. PMID:24781861

  18. In a sweet mood? Effects of experimental modulation of blood glucose levels on mood-induction during fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kohn, N; Toygar, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Durst, A; Laoutidis, Z G; Karges, W; Schneider, F; Habel, U

    2015-06-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the human brain. Previous literature has shown that varying blood glucose levels may have a strong impact on behaviour, subjective mood, and the intensity of the BOLD signal measured in fMRI. Therefore, blood glucose levels varying even within the normal range may interact with cognitive and emotional processing as well as BOLD signal. Here, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study on 20 healthy women, we show that overnight fasting, compared to an elevated glucose condition, influences brain activation and the affective state during mood induction. Results indicate that our brain may compensate for low glucose levels during fasting by stronger recruitment of the brain areas relevant to the task at hand. Additionally, we systematically tested the effect of prior cognitive effort on behavioural and neural patterns and found that elevated activation is only associated with maintained performance as long as no prior cognitively challenging task is administered. Prior cognitive effort leads to deteriorated performance and a further increase in emotion-associated brain activation in the pregenual anterior and posterior cingulate, the superior frontal gyrus, and the pre-SMA. These results are in line with the strength model of self-regulation. Our results corroborate the strength model of self-regulation and extend it to affect regulation processes. Additionally, our observations suggest that experimentally controlling for fasting state or glucose levels may be beneficial, especially when studying processes that involve self-regulation. PMID:25795339

  19. Photoacoustic determination of glucose concentration in whole blood by a near-infrared laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllylae, Risto A.

    2001-06-01

    The near-infrared photoacoustic technique is recognized as a potential method for the non-invasive determination of human glucose, because near-infrared light can incident a few millimeters into human tissue, where it produces an acoustic wave capable of carrying information about the composition of the tissue. This paper demonstrates a photoacoustic glucose measurement in a blood sample as a step toward a non-invasive measurement. The experimental apparatus consists of a near-infrared laser diode operating with 4 micro joules pulse energy at 905 nm, a roller pump connected to a silicon plastic tube and a cuvette for circulating the blood sample. In addition, the apparatus comprises a PZT piezoelectric transducer integrated with a battery-powered preamplifier to receive the photoacoustic signal. During the experiment, a glucose solution is mixed into a human blood sample to change its concentration. Although the absorption coefficient of glucose is much smaller than that of blood in the near-infrared region, the osmotic and hydrophilic properties of glucose decrease the reduced scattering coefficient of blood caused by the dissolved glucose surrounding the blood cells. This changes the distribution of the absorbed optical energy in blood, which, in turn, produces a change in the photoacoustic signal. Our experiment demonstrates that signal amplitudes in fresh and stored blood samples in crease about 7% and 10%, respectively, when the glucose concentration reaches the upper limit of the physiological region (500 mg/dl).

  20. Blood-Induced Interference of Glucose Sensor Function in Vitro: Implications for in Vivo Sensor Function

    PubMed Central

    Klueh, Ulrike; Liu, Zenghe; Ouyang, Tianmei; Cho, Brian; Feldman, Ben; Henning, Timothy P.; Kreutzer, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background Although tissue hemorrhages, with resulting blood clots, are associated with glucose sensor implantation, virtually nothing known is about the impact of red blood cells and red blood cell clots on sensor function in vitro or in vivo. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that blood can directly interfere with glucose sensor function in vitro. Methods To test this hypothesis, heparinized human whole blood (HWB) and nonheparinized human whole blood (WB) were obtained from normal individuals. Aliquots of HWB and WB samples were also fractionated into plasma, serum, and total leukocyte (TL) components. Resulting HWB, WB, and WB components were incubated in vitro with an amperometric glucose sensor for 24 hours at 37°C. During incubation, blood glucose levels were determined periodically using a glucose monitor, and glucose sensor function (GSF) was monitored continuously as nanoampere output. Results Heparinized human whole blood had no significant effect on GSF in vitro, nor did TL, serum, or plasmaderived clots from WB. Sensors incubated with WB displayed a rapid signal loss associated with clot formation at 37°C. The half-life was 0.8 ± 0.2 hours (n = 16) for sensors incubated with WB compared to 3.2 ± 0.5 (n = 12) for sensors incubated with HWB with a blood glucose level of approximately 100 mg/dl. Conclusions These studies demonstrated that human whole blood interfered with GSF in vitro. These studies further demonstrated that this interference was related to blood clot formation, as HWB, serum, plasma-derived clots, or TL did not interfere with GSF in vitro in the same way that WB did. These in vitro studies supported the concept that the formation of blood clots at sites of glucose sensor implantation could have a negative impact on GSF in vivo. PMID:19885155

  1. Predictive roles of intraoperative blood glucose for post-transplant outcomes in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Soo

    2015-06-14

    Diabetogenic traits in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) are exacerbated intraoperatively by exogenous causes, such as surgical stress, steroids, blood transfusions, and catecholamines, which lead to intraoperative hyperglycemia. In contrast to the strict glucose control performed in the intensive care unit, no systematic protocol has been developed for glucose management during LT. Intraoperative blood glucose concentrations typically exceed 200 mg/dL in LT, and extreme hyperglycemia (> 300 mg/dL) is common during the neohepatic phase. Only a few retrospective studies have examined the relationship between intraoperative hyperglycemia and post-transplant complications, with reports of infectious complications or mortality. However, no prospective studies have been conducted regarding the influence of intraoperative hyperglycemia in LT on post-transplant outcome. In addition to absolute blood glucose values, the temporal patterns in blood glucose levels during LT may serve as prognostic features. Persistent neohepatic hyperglycemia (without a decline) throughout LT is a useful indicator of early graft dysfunction. Moreover, intraoperative variability in glucose levels may predict the need for reoperation for hemorrhage after LT. Thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for glucose control in these patients, as well as prospective studies on the impact of glucose control on various post-transplant complications. This report highlights some of the recent studies related to perioperative blood glucose management focused on LT and liver disease. PMID:26078559

  2. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Mariana Cristina; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city. METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288) of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics. RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively. CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved. PMID:25493676

  3. Utilization of Blood Glucose Data in Patient Education

    PubMed Central

    Kumah-Crystal, Yaa; Mulvaney, Shelagh

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have tested clinical and behavioral approaches for improving glycemic control in people with diabetes. We review research to identify how blood glucose (BG) values have been used in patient-focused clinical research and interventions. We sought to describe the frequency that BG values have been the focus of patient education research and to characterize the different methods to integrate BG into an intervention, the approaches implemented to support patient education and behavior change, and the nature of communication about BG values. Thirty-four eligible studies were identified that included patient education using BG values. Information regarding the study and intervention characteristics include: 1) Characteristics of the study sample, 2) How BG values were obtained, 3) Use of a graphical interface for BG values, 4) Use of a BG log, 5) BG interpretation and regimen adjustments, 6) Recommended actions to patient, 7) Modality of intervention, and 8) Intervention communication schedule. The review demonstrated that new BG technologies provide outstanding opportunities for greater access to BG data, and for patient support and intervention. However, it also indicated a need to improve and expand support for people with diabetes in their daily use of BG values to maintain and improve glycemic control. In order to make the most sustainable impact on behavior, generalizable skills such as problem solving need to be integrated into BG education. PMID:24057927

  4. Utilization of blood glucose data in patient education.

    PubMed

    Kumah-Crystal, Yaa; Mulvaney, Shelagh

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have tested clinical and behavioral approaches for improving glycemic control in people with diabetes. We reviewed studies to identify how blood glucose (BG) values have been used in patient-focused clinical research and interventions. We sought to describe the frequency that BG values have been the focus of patient education research and to characterize the different methods to integrate BG into an intervention, the approaches implemented to support patient education, and behavior change, and the nature of communication about BG values. Thirty-four eligible studies were identified that included patient education using BG values. Information regarding the study and intervention characteristics include: (1) characteristics of the study sample, (2) how BG values were obtained, (3) use of a graphical interface for BG values, (4) use of a BG log, (5) BG interpretation and regimen adjustments, (6) recommended actions to patient, (7) modality of intervention, and (8) intervention communication schedule. The review demonstrated that new BG technologies provide outstanding opportunities for greater access to BG data, and for patient support and intervention. However, it also indicated a need to improve and expand support for people with diabetes in their daily use of BG values to maintain and improve glycemic control. In order to make the most sustainable impact on behavior, generalizable skills such as problem solving need to be integrated into BG education. PMID:24057927

  5. Clinical results from a noninvasive blood glucose monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Thomas B.; Ruchti, Timothy L.; Lorenz, Alex D.; Monfre, Stephen L.; Makarewicz, M. R.; Mattu, Mutua; Hazen, Kevin

    2002-05-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has long been proposed as a means for advancing the management of diabetes through increased measurement and control. The use of a near-infrared, NIR, spectroscopy based methodology for noninvasive monitoring has been pursued by a number of groups. The accuracy of the NIR measurement technology is limited by challenges related to the instrumentation, the heterogeneity and time-variant nature of skin tissue, and the complexity of the calibration methodology. In this work, we discuss results from a clinical study that targeted the evaluation of individual calibrations for each subject based on a series of controlled calibration visits. While the customization of the calibrations to individuals was intended to reduce model complexity, the extensive requirements for each individual set of calibration data were difficult to achieve and required several days of measurement. Through the careful selection of a small subset of data from all samples collected on the 138 study participants in a previous study, we have developed a methodology for applying a single standard calibration to multiple persons. The standard calibrations have been applied to a plurality of individuals and shown to be persistent over periods greater than 24 weeks.

  6. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels. PMID:26932154

  7. Effects of acupuncture stimulation on blood glucose concentration in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, an animal model for type-2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hironori; Ishigami, Tatsuyo; Kawase, Yosihyuki; Yamada, Atsushi; Minagawa, Munenori; Fukuta, Hiroyasu; Kurono, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Hikaru

    2014-01-01

    Background Effects of acupuncture stimulation on blood glucose concentration and body weight were investigated in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model for type-2 diabetes. Material/Methods Three groups of rats were used: OLETF, acupuncture-treated OLETF (AcOLETF), and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (as control for the OLETF rats). In AcOLETF rats, acupuncture stimulation was applied twice a week to 6 points (zhongwan, tianshu, qihai, ganshu, pishu, shenshu) and changes in blood glucose concentration and body weight were measured. Results Initially, at 6 weeks old, there was no significant difference in blood glucose levels between groups. Blood glucose levels increased with age in each group, reaching a maximum of about 430 mg/dl at 37 weeks in OLETF rats. In AcOLETF rats, blood glucose levels increased at a slower rate than in OLETF rats, reaching a maximum concentration of about 280 mg/dl at 37 weeks of age, significantly lower than that in OLETF rats. The concentration of blood glucose in LETO rats had stabilized at a maximum value of 120~140 mg/dl by 16 weeks, remaining at this level for up to 39 weeks. In each group, body weight increased with age and was not affected by acupuncture treatment. Conclusions In OLETF rats, acupuncture treatment significantly reduced blood glucose levels, but not their body weight, suggesting that acupuncture therapy was effective in preventing the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24841896

  8. A meta-analysis of blood glucose effects on human decision making.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We identified 42 studies relating to 4 dimensions of decision making: willingness to pay, willingness to work, time discounting, and decision style. We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money. Low levels of blood glucose also increase the tendency to make more intuitive rather than deliberate decisions. However, this effect was only observed in situations unrelated to food. We conclude that blood glucose has domain-specific effects, influencing decision making differently depending on the relevance of the situation to acquiring food. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653865

  9. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  10. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  11. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-07-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  12. Effects of nicarbazin on the blood glucose and liver glycogen statuses of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Bafundo, K W; Womack, S K; Zhai, W; Pulikanti, R; Bennett, L W

    2012-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), an effective anticoccidial widely used by the global broiler industry, is known to produce some side effects in broilers. Recent field observations have suggested that NCZ could be associated with spiking mortality syndrome, a disease of uncertain etiology that is most commonly characterized by hypoglycemia. In turn, 2 trials were conducted to investigate the effects of NCZ on the blood glucose levels and liver glycogen content of Ross × Ross 708 male broilers. In 6 of 12 pens beginning at 1 d of age, NCZ was added to basal broiler diets at a rate of 125 mg/kg, and the other 6 pens were control pens in which birds received salinomycin instead of NCZ, at a rate of 66 mg/kg. Feed and water were provided ad libitum, feed was closely monitored in all pens to avoid shortages, no coccidial challenge was imposed, and room temperature never exceeded 29.4°C. At the end of the second trial, a photoperiod increase from 8L:16D to 24L:0D was imposed in an effort to induce stress due to feed engorgement. In response to NCZ in trial 1, 0 to 28 d feed conversion and relative liver weights on d 21 and 28 were higher, whereas 0 to 28 d cumulative BW gain was lower. In response to NCZ in trial 2, 0 to 13 d feed conversion was higher, whereas 0 to 13 d cumulative BW gain was lower. The added NCZ increased blood glucose on d 13 in trial 2, but did not affect at any time the liver constituents analyzed in both trials. In conclusion, the uninterrupted feeding of NCZ at 125 mg/kg in the starter and grower diets of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers increased feed conversion and reduced BW gain, but despite an increase in relative liver weight on d 21 and 28 posthatch, liver glucose and glycogen concentrations were not affected. PMID:22912452

  13. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study.

    PubMed

    Kriebel, Jennifer; Herder, Christian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 3.0x10(-3)). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10(-9)). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes

  14. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 3.0x10-3). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10-9). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits

  15. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    SciTech Connect

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  16. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  17. Normalization of blood glucose in diabetic rats with phlorizin treatment reverses insulin-resistant glucose transport in adipose cells without restoring glucose transporter gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, B B; Shulman, G I; DeFronzo, R A; Cushman, S W; Rossetti, L

    1991-01-01

    Evidence is emerging for a direct role of glucose, independent of changes in insulin, in the regulation of cellular glucose transport and glucose utilization in vivo. In this study we investigate potential cellular and molecular mechanisms for this regulatory effect of glucose by determining how normalization of glycemia without insulin therapy in diabetic rats influences 3-O-methylglucose transport and the expression and translocation of two genetically distinct species of glucose transporters (GTs) in adipose cells. These results are compared with alterations in glucose disposal in vivo measured by euglycemic clamp. In rats rendered diabetic by 90% pancreatectomy, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipose cells is decreased 50% in parallel with reduced insulin-mediated glucose disposal in vivo. Levels of adipose/muscle GTs measured by immunoblotting are decreased in adipose cell subcellular membrane fractions, as are the corresponding mRNA levels assessed by Northern blotting of total adipose cell RNA. Normalization of blood glucose in diabetic rats with phlorizin, which impairs renal tubular glucose reabsorption and thus enhances glucose excretion, restores insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipose cells and insulin-mediated glucose disposal in vivo. Importantly, levels of the adipose/muscle GT protein remain 43% reduced in the low-density microsomes in the basal state and 46% reduced in the plasma membranes in the insulin-stimulated state. Adipose/muscle GT mRNA levels remain approximately 50% depressed. Levels of the HepG2/brain GT protein and mRNA are unaltered by diabetes or phlorizin treatment. Thus, changes in ambient glucose independent of changes in ambient insulin can regulate the glucose transport response to insulin in isolated adipose cells and changes in responsiveness parallel alterations in glucose uptake in vivo. Since this effect can occur without alteration in the expression of the two species of glucose transporters present in

  18. Cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow in Huntington's Disease (HD)

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Wapenski, J.; Riege, W.; Baxter, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    Previous studies in the authors' Laboratory have been carried out on 13 patients symptomatic of HD (SHD) and 15 asymptomatic at-risk for HD (ARHD) with a ECAT II and identification of changes in caudate metabolism using an index technique. The authors report now studies of additional 28 subjects (11 SHD, 17 ARHD) studied drug free and compared to age/sex matched controls using the higher resolution NeuroECAT, FDG for glucose utilization (LCMRGlc) and 0-15 water for cerebral blood flow (CBF). Patients had neurological, psychiatric-tests, x-ray CT and were video taped to determine type, timing and amount of choreathetic movements during study. In SHD (disease duration 4.9 +- 2.7 yrs), significant decreases (30%) in LCMRGlc were found in striatum (SHD=19.3 +- 7.7, controls = 29.9 +- 5.8 ..mu.. moles/min/100g) despite no to moderate caudate atrophy on x-ray CT. Hemisphere and cortical CMRGlc were not significantly decreased. There was a significant correlation between disease duration and ratio of caudate to putamen (Cd/Put). Pattern of LCMRGlc and CBF matched in SHD. The caudate to hemisphere LCMRGlc ratio was not different between ARHD and controls except variance was about 4 times greater for ARHD (ARHD=1.21 +- 0.15, controls = 1.28 +- 0.04) indicating presence of subpopulations in ARHD group. Four ARHD subjects had a ratio of 1 Std. Dev. from mean of SHD (no normals had values in this range). The 2 ARHD subjects with lowest caudate LCMRGlc had Cd/Put ratios > 2 Std. Dev. from controls. Results show 1) LCMRGlc abnormalities in all SHD patients and subpopulations in ARHD, 2) metabolic alterations appear to begin in caudate and spread to putamen and that a Cd/Put value of 0.7 should be found at start of symptoms, and 3) cortex and thalamus are relatively spared in ARHD and early SHD.

  19. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  20. Blood glucose fluctuation accelerates renal injury involved to inhibit the AKT signaling pathway in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ying, Changjiang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhenzhen; Ling, Hongwei; Cheng, Xingbo; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Blood glucose fluctuation is associated with diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which blood glucose fluctuation accelerates renal injury is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of blood glucose fluctuation on diabetic nephropathy in rats and investigate its underlying mechanism. Diabetes in the rats was induced by a high sugar, high-fat diet, and a single dose of STZ (35 mg/kg)-injected intraperitoneally. Unstable blood sugar models were induced by subcutaneous insulin injection and intravenous glucose injection alternately. Body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and Creatinine clearance (Ccr) were assessed. T-SOD activity and MDA level were measured by assay kit. Change in renal tissue ultrastructure was observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Phosphorylated ser/thr protein kinase (p-AKT) (phosphor-Ser473), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) (phosphor-Ser9), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (BCL-2), and cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (caspase-3) levels were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We observed that BUN and Scr were increased in diabetic rats, and Ccr was decreased. Furthermore, blood glucose fluctuations could exacerbate the Ccr changes. Renal tissue ultrastructure was also seriously injured by glucose variability in diabetic rats. In addition, glucose fluctuation increased the oxidative stress of renal tissue. Moreover, fluctuating blood glucose decreased p-AKT level and BCL-2, and increased p-GSK-3β, BAX, cleaved-caspase-3 levels, and ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in the kidneys of diabetic rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that blood glucose fluctuation accelerated renal injury is due, at least in part to its oxidative stress promoting and inhibiting the AKT signaling pathway in diabetic rats. PMID:26860515

  1. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation. PMID:24095723

  2. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  3. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  4. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  5. The effect of euglucaemic hyperinsulinaemia on forearm blood flow and glucose uptake in the human forearm.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, A; Lind, L; Andersson, P E; Millgård, J; Hänni, A; Berne, C; Lithell, H

    1998-12-01

    Insulin-mediated stimulation of blood flow to skeletal muscle has been proposed to be of major importance for insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative importance of blood flow and glucose extraction as determinants of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the human forearm. Forearm blood flow (FBF), glucose extraction and oxygen consumption were evaluated for 100 min during the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (92 mU/l) in nine healthy subjects. FBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm glucose uptake increased sevenfold during the hyperinsulinaemia (P<0.001). Forearm glucose extraction showed a minor increase during the first 10 min of hyperinsulinaemia, but the most marked increase took place between 10 and 20 min (+170%). Thereafter, only a minor further increase was seen. During the first 10 min of hyperinsulinaemia FBF was unchanged. Thereafter, FBF increased steadily to a plateau reached after 60 min (+50%, P<0.001). A close relationship between whole body glucose uptake and FBF was seen at the end of the clamp (r = 0.75, P<0.02), but at this time the relationship between whole body glucose uptake and forearm glucose extraction was not significant. The modest increase in O2 consumption seen at the beginning of the clamp (+19%) was not related to FBF during the early phase of the clamp. In conclusion, the early course of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the human forearm was mainly due to an increase in glucose extraction. However, with time the insulin-mediated increase in blood flow increased in importance and after 100 min of hyperinsulinaemia FBF was the major determinant of glucose uptake. PMID:9934819

  6. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-06-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m(2)), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m(2)) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m(2)), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  7. Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Y. K.; Eun, J. S.; Lee, S. C.; Chu, G. M.; Lee, Sung S.; Moon, Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age) equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C), 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1), 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2) and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3) of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05) by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration. PMID:25557815

  8. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m2), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m2) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m2), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  9. Effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaf extract on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, P; Tan, C H; Tan, B K

    2000-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. leaves (Oxalidaceae, Common name: Bilimbi) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The optimal hypoglycemic dose (125 mg kg(-1)) was determined by performing the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both normal and STZ-diabetic rats. To investigate the effect of repeated administration of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi (ABe) leaves, diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (distilled water), ABe (125 mg kg(-1)) or metformin (500 mg kg(-1)) twice a day for 2 weeks. Like metformin, ABe significantly lowered blood glucose by 50% and blood triglyceride by 130% when compared with the vehicle. ABe also significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 60% compared with the vehicle. ABe thus significantly increased the anti-atherogenic index and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio. However, like metformin, ABe did not affect total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but significantly reduced the kidney lipid peroxidation level. These data show that ABe has hypoglycemic, hypotriglyceridemic, anti-lipid peroxidative and anti-atherogenic properties in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:10967456

  10. Adaptive Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Measurement Devices for Visually Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzinger, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes devices that people with visual impairments and diabetes can use to monitor blood glucose levels and measure insulin. A table lists devices, their manufacturers (including address and telephone number), and comments about the devices. (DB)

  11. Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

  12. Effect of Vanadate on Elevated Blood Glucose and Depressed Cardiac Performance of Diabetic Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyliger, Clayton E.; Tahiliani, Arun G.; McNeill, John H.

    1985-03-01

    The trace element vanadium has an unclear biological function. Vanadate, an oxidized form of vanadium, appears to have an insulin-like action. The effect of vanadate on blood glucose and cardiac performance was assessed in female Wistar rats 6 weeks after they were made diabetic with streptozotocin. When vanadate was administered for a 4-week period to the diabetic rats, their blood glucose was not significantly different from that of nondiabetic controls despite a low serum insulin. In contrast, blood glucose was increased about threefold in the diabetic rats that were not treated with vanadate; these rats also had low insulin levels. Cardiac performance was depressed in the untreated diabetic animals, but the cardiac performance of the vanadate-treated diabetic animals was not significantly different from that of nondiabetic controls. Thus vanadate controlled the high blood glucose and prevented the decline in cardiac performance due to diabetes.

  13. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  14. Postprandial blood glucose response in relation to gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2009-10-01

    Glucostatic appetite regulation has numerous determinants, among others: cephalic phase digestion, gastric emptying and absorption, together influencing postprandial blood glucose responses and satiety. This short communication presents and reviews studies of gastric emptying, antral distension and postprandial glucose response and their relation to reports of satiety in healthy non-obese over night fasting subjects. PMID:19607867

  15. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Praful P.; Sanki, Pradyut K.; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  16. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems. PMID:26133859

  17. Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.

  18. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  19. Interstitial Fluid Glucose Is Not Just a Shifted-in-Time but a Distorted Mirror of Blood Glucose: Insight from an In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be “delayed” with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. Methods: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way. In particular, we consider BG concentration measured after meal and exercise in 12 healthy volunteers, whereas ISF glucose is simulated using a well-accepted model of blood–ISF glucose kinetics, which permits calculation of the equilibration time, a parameter characterizing the system. Two metrics are defined: blood and ISF glucose difference at each time point and time to reach the same glucose value in blood and ISF. Results: The simulation performed and the two metrics show that the relationship between blood–ISF glucose profiles is more complex than a pure shift in time and that the pattern depends on both equilibration time and BG. Conclusions: In this in silico study, we have illustrated, with simple case studies, the meaning of the of ISF glucose with respect to BG. Understanding that ISF glucose is not just a shifted-in-time version but a distorted mirror of BG is important for a correct use of continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes management. PMID:27253751

  20. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. PMID:26940240

  1. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiori; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Okushima, Ayaka; Miyata, Yu; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Takahashi, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP) and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (P < 0.01), and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (P < 0.01). BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring. PMID:24348688

  2. Multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen and glucose detection in human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-An

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose detection in human whole blood. A novel enzyme-doped thread coated with a thin polyvinylchloride (PVC) membrane is produced for on-site electrochemical detection of urea and glucose in whole blood. Multiple enzymes can be directly applied to the thread without delicate pretreatment or a surface modification process prior to sealing the thread with PVC membrane. Results indicate that the developed device exhibits a good linear dynamic range for detecting urea and glucose in concentrations from 0.1 mM–10.0 mM (R2 = 0.9850) and 0.1 mM–13.0 mM (R2 = 0.9668), which is suitable for adoption in detecting the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, 1.78–7.12 mM) and glucose (3.89–6.11 mM) in serum. The detection result also shows that the developed thread-based microfluidic system can successfully separate and detect the ions, BUN, and glucose in blood. The calculated concentrations of BUN and glucose ante cibum (glucose before meal) in the whole blood sample are 3.98 mM and 4.94 mM, respectively. The developed thread-based microfluidic system provides a simple yet high performance for clinical diagnostics. PMID:25825613

  3. Brain metabolism is significantly impaired at blood glucose below 6 mM and brain glucose below 1 mM in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The optimal blood glucose target following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be defined. Cerebral microdialysis was used to investigate the influence of arterial blood and brain glucose on cerebral glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and calculated indices of downstream metabolism. Methods In twenty TBI patients, microdialysis catheters inserted in the edematous frontal lobe were dialyzed at 1 μl/min, collecting samples at 60 minute intervals. Occult metabolic alterations were determined by calculating the lactate- pyruvate (L/P), lactate- glucose (L/Glc), and lactate- glutamate (L/Glu) ratios. Results Brain glucose was influenced by arterial blood glucose. Elevated L/P and L/Glc were significantly reduced at brain glucose above 1 mM, reaching lowest values at blood and brain glucose levels between 6-9 mM (P < 0.001). Lowest cerebral glutamate was measured at brain glucose 3-5 mM with a significant increase at brain glucose below 3 mM and above 6 mM. While L/Glu was significantly increased at low brain glucose levels, it was significantly decreased at brain glucose above 5 mM (P < 0.001). Insulin administration increased brain glutamate at low brain glucose, but prevented increase in L/Glu. Conclusions Arterial blood glucose levels appear to be optimal at 6-9 mM. While low brain glucose levels below 1 mM are detrimental, elevated brain glucose are to be targeted despite increased brain glutamate at brain glucose >5 mM. Pathogenity of elevated glutamate appears to be relativized by L/Glu and suggests to exclude insulin- induced brain injury. PMID:20141631

  4. Blood Glucose, Diet-Based Glycemic Load and Cognitive Aging Among Dementia-Free Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Methods. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. Results. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Conclusion. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25149688

  5. High blood glucose level and increased risk of mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Sanjib; Bista, Sukirti

    2007-03-01

    102 patients, 38 from ICU and 64 from postoperative ward were evaluated. Out of these, 49 of the patients had random blood glucose level < 100 mg/dl, 46 had in the range 100 to 140 mg/dl and 7 had > 140 mg/dl. The mean random blood glucose level in medical patients was 146 mg/dl with a standard deviation of 20 and that in the post operative patients was 94.3 mg/dl with a standard deviation of 10. There was an overall mortality of 13.7% (14 patients), of which medical patients were 78.6% (11 patients) and surgical patients were 21.4% (3 patients). Amongst the dead, 81.8% had random blood glucose level > 110 mg/dl and all were medical patients. However all 3 deaths (18.2%) in surgical patients had their random blood glucose level < 110 mg/dl. Higher blood glucose level was observed in critically ill medical patients and mortality was higher among patients with random blood glucose level > 110 mg/dl. PMID:17593678

  6. Blood glucose regulation mechanism in depressive disorder animal model during hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Min; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-06-01

    Depression is more common among diabetes people than in the general population. In the present study, blood glucose change in depression animal model was characterized by various types of hyperglycemia models such as d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and drug-induced hyperglycemia models. First, the ICR mice were enforced into chronic restraint stress for 2h daily for 2 weeks to produce depression animal model. The animals were fed with d-glucose (2g/kg), forced into restraint stress for 30min, or administered with clonidine (5μg/5μl) supraspinally or spinally to produce hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level in depression group was down-regulated compared to that observed in the normal group in d-glucose-fed-, restraint stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia models. The up-regulated corticosterone level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group while the up-regulation of plasma corticosterone level is further elevated after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration in the depression group. The up-regulated insulin level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group. On the other hand, blood corticosterone level in depression group was up-regulated compared to the normal group after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration. Whereas the insulin level in depression group was not altered when mice were administered clonidine i.t. or i.c.v. Our results suggest that the blood glucose level in depression group is down-regulated compared to the normal group during d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia in mice. The down-regulation of the blood glucose level might be one of the important pathophysiologic changes in depression. PMID:27034116

  7. A vitamin, mineral, herb dietary supplement effect on blood glucose in uncontrolled type II diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    González, Michael J; Ricart, Carlos M; Miranda-Massari, Jorge

    2004-06-01

    We tested a dietary supplement formulated with a synergistic combination of vitamins, minerals, herbals in a group of 15 patients with uncontrolled diabetes type II. The supplement was given for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose was measured prior to the supplementation and at the end of the 30 days treatment period. Blood glucose was significantly reduced in all patients with no adverse effects. This orthomolecular correction of faulty glucose metabolism with a combination of nontoxic, safe and fairly inexpensive nutraceuticals needs to be further substantiated. Nervertheless the idea of correcting metabolism with micronutrients is a new concept of genetic nutritioneering that seems appealing and cost effective. PMID:15377060

  8. Polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry for blood glucose monitoring in human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Jitendra; Choudhary, Om Prakash; Sen, P.; Andrews, J. T.

    2013-07-01

    A device based on polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry is developed to monitor blood glucose levels in human subjects. The device was initially tested with tissue phantom. The measurements with human subjects for various glucose concentration levels are found to be linearly dependent on the ellipticity obtainable from the home-made phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry device. The linearity obtained between glucose concentration and ellipticity are explained with theoretical calculations using Mie theory. A comparison of results with standard clinical methods establishes the utility of the present device for non-invasive glucose monitoring.

  9. Glucose transporter of the human brain and blood-brain barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaria, R.N.; Gravina, S.A.; Schmidley, J.W.; Perry, G.; Harik, S.I.

    1988-12-01

    We identified and characterized the glucose transporter in the human cerebral cortex, cerebral microvessels, and choroid plexus by specific D-glucose-displaceable (3H)cytochalasin B binding. The binding was saturable, with a dissociation constant less than 1 microM. Maximal binding capacity was approximately 7 pmol/mg protein in the cerebral cortex, approximately 42 pmol/mg protein in brain microvessels, and approximately 27 pmol/mg protein in the choroid plexus. Several hexoses displaced specific (3H)cytochalasin B binding to microvessels in a rank-order that correlated well with their known ability to cross the blood-brain barrier; the only exception was 2-deoxy-D-glucose, which had much higher affinity for the glucose transporter than the natural substrate, D-glucose. Irreversible photoaffinity labeling of the glucose transporter of microvessels with (3H)cytochalasin B, followed by solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, labeled a protein band with an average molecular weight of approximately 55,000. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific to the human erythrocyte glucose transporter immunocytochemically stained brain blood vessels and the few trapped erythrocytes in situ, with minimal staining of the neuropil. In the choroid plexus, blood vessels did not stain, but the epithelium reacted positively. We conclude that human brain microvessels are richly endowed with a glucose transport moiety similar in molecular weight and antigenic characteristics to that of human erythrocytes and brain microvessels of other mammalian species.

  10. Using meta-differential evolution to enhance a calculation of a continuous blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Koutny, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new model of glucose dynamics. The model calculates blood glucose level as a function of transcapillary glucose transport. In previous studies, we validated the model with animal experiments. We used analytical method to determine model parameters. In this study, we validate the model with subjects with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we combine the analytic method with meta-differential evolution. To validate the model with human patients, we obtained a data set of type 1 diabetes study that was coordinated by Jaeb Center for Health Research. We calculated a continuous blood glucose level from continuously measured interstitial fluid glucose level. We used 6 different scenarios to ensure robust validation of the calculation. Over 96% of calculated blood glucose levels fit A+B zones of the Clarke Error Grid. No data set required any correction of model parameters during the time course of measuring. We successfully verified the possibility of calculating a continuous blood glucose level of subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study signals a successful transition of our research from an animal experiment to a human patient. Researchers can test our model with their data on-line at https://diabetes.zcu.cz. PMID:27393799

  11. Development of portable health monitoring system for automatic self-blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Huijun; Mizuno, Yoshihumi; Nakamachi, Eiji; Morita, Yusuke

    2010-02-01

    In this study, a new HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is developed for diabetic patient. This device mainly consists of I) 3D blood vessel searching unit and II) automatic blood glucose measurement (ABGM) unit. This device has features such as 1)3D blood vessel location search 2) laptop type, 3) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 4) very little blood sampling (10μl), and 5) automatic blood extraction and blood glucose measurement. In this study, ABGM unit is described in detail. It employs a syringe type's blood extraction mechanism because of its high accuracy. And it consists of the syringe component and the driving component. The syringe component consists of a syringe itself, a piston, a magnet, a ratchet and a micro-needle whose inner diameter is about 80μm. And the syringe component is disposable. The driving component consists of body parts, a linear stepping motor, a glucose enzyme sensor and a slider for accurate positioning control. The driving component has the all-in-one mechanism with a glucose enzyme sensor for compact size and stable blood transfer. On designing, required thrust force to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Further, only one linear stepping motor is employed for blood extraction and transportation processes. The experimental result showed more than 80% of volume ratio under the piston speed 2.4mm/s. Further, the blood glucose was measured successfully by using the prototype unit. Finally, the availability of our ABGM unit was confirmed.

  12. Blood flow is an important determinant of forearm glucose uptake following a mixed meal.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, A; Sarabi, M; Karlström, B; Berne, C; Lithell, H; Lind, L

    2003-09-01

    Insulin-mediated vasodilation has been suggested to be of importance for glucose uptake during normoglycemic hyperinsulinemia. If this also is valid after an ordinary mixed meal remains to be evaluated. Forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm glucose uptake change (evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography) and glucose arteriovenous differences were evaluated over 120 minutes in 10 healthy volunteers following an ordinary mixed meal (700-900 kcal, 34% of energy from fat). Fasting arterial glucose level was 4.9+/-0.9 mmol/l, and the maximum glucose level was reached 30 minutes after the start of ingestion (6.6+/-0.8 mmol/l, p<0.0001). Plasma insulin levels were increased four-fold. FBF increased rapidly within 20 minutes after the start of ingestion and reached its maximum after 50 minutes (94% higher than baseline level, p<0.01). After 2 hours FBF was still substantially elevated (75% above baseline level, p<0.01). Forearm glucose uptake increased fivefold already after 20 minutes ( p<0.01). During the 2 hours, the increase in FBF contributed to 41% of the forearm glucose uptake ( p<0.05). The present study showed that the increase in FBF seen after an ordinary mixed meal is important for the change in forearm glucose uptake. These results support the view that modulation of limb blood flow is a determinant of glucose uptake. PMID:14605966

  13. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow following graded forebrain ischemia in the rat: correlation with neuropathology

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Graham, D.I.; Busto, R.

    1985-10-01

    Regional patterns of cerebral glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and blood flow (rCBF) were examined in the early recovery period following transient forebrain ischemia in order to correlate early postischemic physiological events with regionally selective patterns of ischemic neuropathology. Wistar rats were subjected to 30 or 60 minutes of graded forebrain ischemia by a method combining unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery with moderate elevation of intracranial pressure and mild hypotension; this procedure results in a high-grade ischemic deficit affecting chiefly the lateral neocortex, striatum, and hippocampus ipsilateral to the carotid occlusion. Simultaneous measurements of rCMRglc and rCBF made in regional tissue samples after 2 and 4 hours of postischemic recirculation using a double-tracer radioisotopic strategy revealed a disproportionately high level of glucose metabolism relative to blood flow in the early postischemic striatum, owing to the resumption of nearly normal rCMRglc in the face of depressed flow. In contrast, the neocortex, which had been equally ischemic, showed parallel depressions of both metabolism and blood flow during early recovery. Light microscopy at 4 and 8 hours after recovery revealed the striatum to be the predominant locus of ischemic neuronal alterations, whereas neocortical lesions were much less prominent in extent and severity at this time. The resumption of normal levels of metabolism in the setting of a disproportionate depression of rCBF in the early postischemic period may accentuate the process of neuronal injury initiated by ischemia and may contribute to the genesis of neuronal necrosis in selectively vulnerable areas of the forebrain.

  14. Measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography: Implication for noninvasive blood glucose concentration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for analysis. There have been enormous efforts by many scientific groups and companies to quantify glucose concentration noninvasively using different optical techniques. However, these techniques face limitations associated with low sensitivity, accuracy, and insufficient specificity of glucose concentrations over a physiological range. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a new technology, is being applied for noninvasive imaging in tissues with high resolution. OCT utilizes sensitive detection of photons coherently scattered from tissue. The high resolution of this technique allows for exceptionally accurate measurement of tissue scattering from a specific layer of skin compared with other optical techniques and, therefore, may provide noninvasive and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration with high accuracy. In this dissertation work I experimentally and theoretically investigate feasibility of noninvasive, real-time, sensitive, and specific monitoring of blood glucose concentration using an OCT-based biosensor. The studies were performed in scattering media with stable optical properties (aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk), animals (New Zealand white rabbits and Yucatan micropigs), and normal subjects (during oral glucose tolerance tests). The results of these studies demonstrated: (1) capability of the OCT technique to detect changes in scattering coefficient with the accuracy of about 1.5%; (2) a sharp and linear decrease of the OCT signal slope in the dermis with the increase of blood glucose concentration; (3) the change in the OCT signal slope measured during bolus glucose injection experiments (characterized by a sharp increase of blood glucose concentration) is higher than that measured in

  15. Is blood glucose associated with descending modulation of spinal nociception as measured by the nociceptive flexion reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Ellen L; Güereca, Yvette M; Martin, Satin L; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prior research has shown a relationship between blood glucose levels and some forms of self-regulation (eg, executive function), with low blood glucose levels associated with impaired self-regulation. Further, engagement in self-regulation tasks depletes blood glucose. Given these relationships, the present study examined whether blood glucose is associated with another form of self-regulation, ie, descending pain modulatory processes. Methods Forty-seven (32 female) pain-free participants were recruited and completed testing. Blood glucose was measured from finger sticks and a digital meter before and after experimental pain tests. Pain tests included the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold to assess descending modulation of spinal nociception, but also electric pain threshold to assess perceptual pain detection. The Stroop color word naming test was also assessed before and after pain testing to examine changes in executive function. Results Results indicated that mean blood glucose levels decreased after pain testing, but Stroop performance did not significantly change. Importantly, changes in blood glucose were correlated with NFR threshold, such that decreases in blood glucose were associated with lower NFR thresholds (reduced descending inhibition). Changes in blood glucose were unrelated to pain threshold or executive function. Conclusion This study suggests that glucose depletion may impair performance of descending inhibitory processes, without impacting the perceptual detection of pain (pain threshold). Although findings need to be replicated, maintaining adequate glucose levels may be necessary to support inhibition of spinal nociception. PMID:27110138

  16. Development of the MOSFET hybrid biosensor for self-monitoring of blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Tatsuro; Hirai, Yasutomo; Iwamoto, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    We focus on the research to develop a compact Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). The SMBG consists of (1) a micro electrical pumping system for blood extraction, (2) a painless microneedle as same size as a female mosquito's labium and (3) a biosensor to detect and evaluate an amount of glucose in extracted blood, by using enzyme such as glucose oxidase (GOx). A gold (Au) plate immobilized GOx was used as a biosensor and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET. GOx was immobilized on a self-assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA (bovine serum albumin) as an additional bonding material. The electrode could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor system. The system can measure the change of gate voltage. The extracting speed for whole blood using the micro electrical pumping system was about 2 μl/min. The extracted volume was sufficient to determine the glucose level in the blood; it was comparable to the volume extracted in a commercial glucose level monitor. In the functional evaluation of the biosensor system using hydrogen peroxide solution, it is shown that the averaged output voltage increases in alignment to hydrogen peroxide concentration. The linear value was shown with the averaged output voltage in corresponding hydrogen peroxide concentration with the averaged output voltage obtained from the biosensor system by glucose solution concentration. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the averaged output voltage from the biosensor system obtained by whole blood showed the same voltage in corresponding glucose solution concentration. The hybrid biosensor obtained the useful performance for the SMBG.

  17. A non-invasive blood glucose meter design using multi-type sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D.; Nguyen, Hienvu; Roveda, Janet

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a design of a multi optical modalities blood glucose monitor. The Monte Carlo tissues optics simulation with typical human skin model suggests the SNR ratio for a detector sensor is 104 with high sensitivity that can detect low blood sugar limit at 1 mMole/dL ( <20 mg/dL). A Bayesian filtering algorithm is proposed for multisensor fusion to identify whether e user has the danger of having diabetes. The new design has real time response (on the average of 2 minutes) and provides great potential to perform real time monitoring for blood glucose.

  18. Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements.

    PubMed

    Olesberg, Jonathon T; Arnold, Mark A; Mermelstein, Carmen; Schmitz, Johannes; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Optical sensing of glucose would allow more frequent monitoring and tighter glucose control for people with diabetes. The key to a successful optical noninvasive measurement of glucose is the collection of an optical spectrum with a very high signal-to-noise ratio in a spectral region with significant glucose absorption. Unfortunately, the optical throughput of skin is low due to absorption and scattering. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a high-brightness tunable laser system for measurements in the 2.0-2.5 microm wavelength range. The system is based on a 2.3 microm wavelength, strained quantum-well laser diode incorporating GaInAsSb wells and AlGaAsSb barrier and cladding layers. Wavelength control is provided by coupling the laser diode to an external cavity that includes an acousto-optic tunable filter. Tuning ranges of greater than 110 nm have been obtained. Because the tunable filter has no moving parts, scans can be completed very quickly, typically in less than 10 ms. We describe the performance of the present laser system and avenues for extending the tuning range beyond 400 nm. PMID:16390586

  19. Frequency of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in subjects with fasting blood glucose below 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL).

    PubMed

    Khan, S H; Ijaz, A; Bokhari, S A Raza; Hanif, M S; Azam, N

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by the available criteria is controversial and relies heavily on fasting glucose results. This cross-sectional study in 2010-2011 aimed to measure the frequency of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in 127 subjects having fasting blood glucose < 7.0 mmol/L and to measure the agreement between different standard diagnostic criteria. Subjects presenting to a laboratory for analysis of fasting blood glucose for excluding diabetes mellitus underwent a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose challenge. A total of 40.6% of subjects with fasting blood glucose from 5.6-6.0 mmol/L had abnormal glucose regulation on the basis ofthe gold standard glucose challenge. Agreement between American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization diagnostic criteria was only fair (kappa = 0.32). Abnormalities of glucose metabolism including impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus can exist at fasting blood glucose results < 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL). PMID:23516829

  20. Study on optical measurement conditions for noninvasive blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kexin; Chen, Wenliang; Jiang, Jingying; Qiu, Qingjun

    2004-05-01

    Utilizing Near-infrared Spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose concentration sensing has been a focusing topic in biomedical optics applications. In this paper study on measuring conditions of spectroscopy on human body is carried out and a series of experiments on glucose concentration sensing are conducted. First, Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate and calculate photons" penetration depth within skin tissues at 1600 nm. The simulation results indicate that applying our designed optical probe, the detected photons can penetrate epidermis of the palm and meet the glucose sensing requirements within the dermis. Second, we analyze the influence of the measured position variations and the contact pressure between the optical fiber probe and the measured position on the measured spectrum during spectroscopic measurement of a human body. And, a measurement conditions reproduction system is introduced to enhance the measurement repeatability. Furthermore, through a series of transmittance experiments on glucose aqueous solutions sensing from simple to complex we found that though some absorption variation information of glucose can be obtained from measurements using NIR spectroscopy, while under the same measuring conditions and with the same modeling method, choices toward measured components reduce when complication degree of components increases, and this causes a decreased prediction accuracy. Finally, OGTT experiments were performed, and a PLS (Partial Least Square) mathematical model for a single experiment was built. We can easily get a prediction expressed as RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of Prediction) with a value of 0.5-0.8mmol/dl. But the model"s extended application and reliability need more investigation.

  1. Prediction of blood glucose using interstitial fluid extracted by ultrasound and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dachao; Yu, Haixia; Huang, Xian; Huang, Fuxiang; Hu, Xiaotang; Xu, Kexin

    2007-02-01

    Prediction of blood glucose using interstitial fluid extracted by ultrasound and vacuum is proposed by the paper. Low-frequency ultrasound with 55 KHz is applied for about 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability to interstitial fluid by disrupting the stratum corneum lipid bilayers and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin successfully by 10in.Hg vacuum for 15 minutes. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is measured by an instrument with immobilized enzyme sensor. And then a method of data analysis is set up to prediction the glucose concentration in the blood by the measurement of the glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid. At last, Clarke Error Grid analysis is performed to assess if the prediction accuracy could satisfy the requirements of clinical application. The whole method and experimental system above is set up in the article and the feasibility of this way for blood glucose detecting is primarily validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring. Additional a prototype of miniature diabetes monitoring device with the technique of surface plasma resonance to measure the glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is also being developed.

  2. Accuracy Evaluation of Five Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems: The North American Comparator Trial

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsdottir, Solveig; Warchal-Windham, Mary Ellen; Wallace, Jane F.; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan Lee; Simmons, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated differences in accuracy between the CONTOUR® NEXT EZ (EZ) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) and four other BGMSs [ACCU-CHEK® Aviva (ACAP), FreeStyle Freedom Lite® (FFL), ONE TOUCH® Ultra®2 (OTU2), and TRUEtrack® (TT)]. Methods Up to three capillary blood samples (N = 393) were collected from 146 subjects with and without diabetes. One sample per subject was tested with fresh (natural) blood; the other samples were glycolyzed to lower blood glucose to <70 mg/dl. Meter results were compared with results from plasma from the same sample tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer. Blood glucose monitoring system accuracy was compared using mean absolute relative difference (MARD; from laboratory reference method results) and other analyses. Separate analyses on fresh (natural) samples only were conducted to determine potential effects of glycolysis on MARD values of systems utilizing glucose-oxidase-based test strip chemistry. Results Across the tested glucose range, the EZ had the lowest MARD of 4.7%; the ACAP, FFL, OTU2, and TT had MARD values of 6.3%, 18.3%, 23.4%, and 26.2%, respectively. For samples with glucose concentrations <70 mg/dl, the EZ had the lowest MARD (0.65%), compared with the ACAP (2.5%), FFL (18.3%), OTU2 (22.4%), and TT (33.2%) systems. Conclusions The EZ had the lowest MARD across the tested glucose ranges when compared with four other BGMSs when all samples were analyzed as well as when natural samples only were analyzed. PMID:24124957

  3. Method and apparatus for non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Graham H.; Watson, Roger M.; Noell, J. Oakey

    1992-06-09

    A new and improved method and apparatus are provided for non-invasive monitoring of changes in blood glucose concentration in a tissue specimen and particularly in an individual. The method uses acoustic velocity measurements for monitoring the effect of glucose concentration upon the density and adiabatic compressibility of the serum. In a preferred embodiment, the acoustic velocity measurements are made through the earlobe of a subject by means of an acoustic probe or monitor which includes a transducer for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic energy pulses to and from the blood flowing in the subject's earlobe and a reflector for facilitating reflection of the acoustic pulses from the blood. The probe is designed in such a way that when properly affixed to an ear, the transducer is positioned flush against the anterior portion of an earlobe while the reflector is positioned flush against the interior portion of the earlobe. A microthermocouple is provided on the probe for monitoring the internal temperature of the blood being sampled. An electrical system, essentially comprising a frequency generator, a time intervalometer and an oscilloscope, is linked to the glucose monitoring probe. The electrical system analyzes selected ones of the pulses reflected from the blood sample in order to determine therefrom the acoustic velocity of the blood which, in turn, provides a representation of the blood glucose concentration levels at the time of the acoustic velocity measurements.

  4. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35-69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (P trend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (P trend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (P trend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  5. G6PC2 Modulates Fasting Blood Glucose In Male Mice in Response to Stress.

    PubMed

    Boortz, Kayla A; Syring, Kristen E; Dai, Chunhua; Pound, Lynley D; Oeser, James K; Jacobson, David A; Wang, Jen-Chywan; McGuinness, Owen P; Powers, Alvin C; O'Brien, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic 2 (G6PC2) gene is expressed specifically in pancreatic islet beta cells. Genome-wide association studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the G6PC2 gene are associated with variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG) but not fasting plasma insulin. Molecular analyses examining the functional effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrate that elevated G6PC2 expression is associated with elevated FBG. Studies in mice complement these genome-wide association data and show that deletion of the G6pc2 gene lowers FBG without affecting fasting plasma insulin. This suggests that, together with glucokinase, G6PC2 forms a substrate cycle that determines the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion. Because genome-wide association studies and mouse studies demonstrate that elevated G6PC2 expression raises FBG and because chronically elevated FBG is detrimental to human health, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unclear why G6PC2 evolved. We show here that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone strongly induces human G6PC2 promoter activity and endogenous G6PC2 expression in isolated human islets. Acute treatment with dexamethasone selectively induces endogenous G6pc2 expression in 129SvEv but not C57BL/6J mouse pancreas and isolated islets. The difference is due to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the C57BL/6J G6pc2 promoter that abolishes glucocorticoid receptor binding. In 6-hour fasted, nonstressed 129SvEv mice, deletion of G6pc2 lowers FBG. In response to the stress of repeated physical restraint, which is associated with elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels, G6pc2 gene expression is induced and the difference in FBG between wild-type and knockout mice is enhanced. These data suggest that G6PC2 may have evolved to modulate FBG in response to stress. PMID:27300767

  6. Performance of a New Meter Designed for Assisted Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Point-of-Care Testing

    PubMed Central

    MacRury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Methods Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9–59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. Results A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. Conclusions The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. PMID:23566997

  7. A Weak Signal Extraction Method for Human Blood Glucose Noninvasive Measurement using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Na; Li, Qing-Bo; Zhang, Guang-Jun

    2009-11-01

    Background interference from optical absorption of matrix components, low spectral selectivity and low spectral sensitivity are the main interference factors for human blood glucose noninvasive measurement using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In order to extract the weak glucose concentration information, a modified uninformative variable elimination (mUVE) method combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) named as mUVE-SPA, is proposed. mUVE is used to eliminate matrix background and high-frequency noise by wavelet multi-resolution technology. SPA is followed to select variables with minimum colinearity by projection algorithm in a vector space. The proposed method was applied in two NIR spectra data sets (plasma samples experiment in vitro and human blood glucose noninvasive measurement experiment in vivo) respectively. The performance and adaptability of the proposed strategy were discussed. The results indicate that the proposed hybrid method can give an alternative path to extract weak glucose information and yield more parsimonious models with higher precision.

  8. Alanine Aminotransferase Is Associated with an Adverse Nocturnal Blood Glucose Profile in Individuals with Normal Glucose Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. Methods A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00–20∶00) and nocturnal (20∶00–06∶00) mean blood glucose (MBG) levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. Results The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT <17 IU/L (P<0.05). Nocturnal MBG was positively correlated with ALT levels (Pearson correlation analysis: r = 0.187, P = 0.001), and the correlation remained significant after correction for the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.105, P = 0.041). No correlations were found between diurnal MBG and ALT, and nocturnal or diurnal MBG and aspartate aminotransferase or gamma-glutamyltransferase (all, P>0.05). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05). Conclusions Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation. PMID:23424646

  9. Glucose Transporters are Abundant in Cells with "Occluding" Junctions at the Blood-Eye Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harik, Sami I.; Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Whitney, Paul M.; Andersson, Lars; Lundahl, Per; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Perry, George

    1990-06-01

    We studied the distribution of the "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter protein in the human and rat eye by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C terminus of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. We found intense immunocytochemical staining in the endothelium of microvessels of the retina, optic nerve, and iris but not in microvessels of the choroid, ciliary body, sclera, and other retro-orbital tissues. In addition, we found marked immunocytochemical staining of retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body epithelium, and posterior epithelium of the iris. The common feature of all those endothelial and epithelial cells that stained intensely for the glucose transporter is the presence of "occluding" intercellular junctions, which constitute the anatomical bases of the blood-eye barriers. We propose that a high density of the glucose transporter is a biochemical concomitant of epithelial and endothelial cells with barrier characteristics, at least in tissues that have a high metabolic requirement for glucose.

  10. Increasing Blood Glucose Variability Is a Precursor of Sepsis and Mortality in Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pisarchik, Alexander N.; Pochepen, Olga N.; Pisarchyk, Liudmila A.

    2012-01-01

    High glycemic variability, rather than a mean glucose level, is an important factor associated with sepsis and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. In this retrospective study we analyze the blood glucose data of 172 nondiabetic patients 18–60 yrs old with second and third-degree burns of total body surface area greater than 30% and 5%, respectively, admitted to ICU in 2004–2008. The analysis identified significant association of increasing daily glucose excursion (DELTA) accompanied by evident episodes of hyperglycemia (>11 mmol/l) and hypoglycemia (<2.8 mmol/l), with sepsis and forthcoming death, even when the mean daily glucose was within a range of acceptable glycemia. No association was found in sepsis complication and hospital mortality with doses of intravenous insulin and glucose infusion. A strong increase in DELTA before sepsis and death is treated as fluctuation amplification near the onset of dynamical instability. PMID:23056354

  11. Glucose transporters are abundant in cells with "occluding" junctions at the blood-eye barriers.

    PubMed Central

    Harik, S I; Kalaria, R N; Whitney, P M; Andersson, L; Lundahl, P; Ledbetter, S R; Perry, G

    1990-01-01

    We studied the distribution of the "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter protein in the human and rat eye by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C terminus of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. We found intense immunocytochemical staining in the endothelium of microvessels of the retina, optic nerve, and iris but not in microvessels of the choroid, ciliary body, sclera, and other retro-orbital tissues. In addition, we found marked immunocytochemical staining of retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body epithelium, and posterior epithelium of the iris. The common feature of all those endothelial and epithelial cells that stained intensely for the glucose transporter is the presence of "occluding" intercellular junctions, which constitute the anatomical bases of the blood-eye barriers. We propose that a high density of the glucose transporter is a biochemical concomitant of epithelial and endothelial cells with barrier characteristics, at least in tissues that have a high metabolic requirement for glucose. Images PMID:2190218

  12. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level. PMID:25954123

  13. How to control the blood glucose level in the surgical diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Rossini, A A; Hare, J W

    1976-09-01

    This report is a sequel to "Why Control Blood Glucose Levels?" (Arch Surg 111:229, 1976), which linked complications of diabetes mellitus to poor control. Hyperglycemia, increased gluconeogenesis, nitrogen wasting, and increased ketogenesis occur in the perioperative period, partly as a result of contrainvents are aggravated in the diabetic. Zones of levels of blood glucose control are charted, as well as the corresponding insulin needs for each of these zones. Intermediate insulins should provide basic coverage; regular insulin is recommended only as a supplement. Several blood glucose determinations per day are necessary to maintain control. The hazards of dependence on urine testing and the "sliding scale" for control are among a number of caveats discussed. PMID:949254

  14. The Potential Use of Radio Frequency Identification Devices for Active Monitoring of Blood Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a diabetes patient receiving a text message on his mobile phone warning him that his blood glucose level is too low or a patient's mobile phone calling an emergency number when the patient goes into diabetic shock. Both scenarios depend on automatic, continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels and transmission of that information to a phone. The development of advanced biological sensors and integration with passive radio frequency identification technologies are the key to this. These hold the promise of being able to free patients from finger stick sampling or externally worn devices while providing continuous blood glucose monitoring that allows patients to manage their health more actively. To achieve this promise, however, a number of technical issues need to be addressed. PMID:20046663

  15. Investigating pipeline and state of the art blood glucose biosensors to formulate next steps.

    PubMed

    Aggidis, Anthony G A; Newman, Jeffrey D; Aggidis, George A

    2015-12-15

    Ten years on from a review in the twentieth issue of this journal, this contribution assess the direction research in the field of glucose sensing for diabetes is headed and various technologies to be seen in the future. The emphasis of this review was placed on the home blood glucose testing market. After an introduction to diabetes and glucose sensing, this review analyses state of the art and pipeline devices; in particular their user friendliness and technological advancement. This review complements conventional reviews based on scholarly published papers in journals. PMID:26143465

  16. Impact of epidemic rates of diabetes on the Chinese blood glucose testing market.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jamie; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-09-01

    China has become the country with the largest diabetes mellitus population in the world since the 1990s. About 100 million diabetes cases have been diagnosed since 2008. Handheld blood glucose meters and test strips are urgently needed for daily patient measurement. The glucose monitor with a screen-printed carbon-based glucose electrode has been in commercial production since 1994. Since then, approximately 20 companies have been involved in manufacturing and marketing meters and test strips in China. The current market and production volume and updates on technology issues are discussed in this article. PMID:22027332

  17. Wavelength-modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry for blood glucose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Mandelis, A.; Matvienko, A.; Sivagurunathan, K.; Zinman, B.

    2010-03-01

    A Wavelength-Modulated Differential Laser Photothermal Radiometer (WM-DPTR) technique was used for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring in the mid-IR range, where the prominent absorption peak is glucose specific and isolated from other interfering peaks in human blood. The WM-DPTR method consists of the out-of-phase modulated excitation at two discrete wavelengths 9.5 μm and 10.4 μm (near the peak and the baseline of glucose absorption), generated from two quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and the differential emission detection through a thermal-wave upconversion process via a HgCdZnTe (MCZT) detector (2-5 μm). The differential method suppresses the background signal and reduces source-detection interference, thus enhancing glucose detection sensitivity. The results from aqueous glucose phantom (0-440 mg/dl) measurements demonstrate that both amplitude and phase of the WM-DPTR signal can be used for glucose detection. The dynamic range and the sensitivity of the glucose detection are influenced greatly by the laser intensity ratio and modulation frequency. The optimal intensity ratio for high sensitivity is ~1. Other laser intensity ratios increase dynamic range but reduce sensitivity. Sensitivity increases with frequency.

  18. Smart point-of-care systems for molecular diagnostics based on nanotechnology: whole blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P.; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-07-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) film chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations of blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent was adsorbed onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the PET film chip. The AFSiO2 nanoparticles can immobilize the assay reagent with an electrostatic attraction and eased to develop the opaque platform which was technically suitable chip to analyze by the camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique. The photon number decreases with increasing glucose concentration. The simple sensing approach, utilizing enzyme immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticle chip and assay detection method was developed for quantitative glucose measurement.

  19. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hongbin; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Yu; Niyyati, Mahtab; Wang, Yaohui; Leshin, Jonathan; Levine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs) are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated. PMID:26870799

  20. A comprehensive evaluation of strip performance in multiple blood glucose monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laurence B; Macleod, Kirsty; Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Pfützner, Andreas; Setford, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose results are required for optimal insulin dosing and detection of hypoglycemia. However, blood glucose monitoring systems may be susceptible to error from test strip, user, environmental and pharmacological factors. This report evaluated 5 blood glucose monitoring systems that each use Verio glucose test strips for precision, effect of hematocrit and interferences in laboratory testing, and lay user and system accuracy in clinical testing according to the guidelines in ISO15197:2013(E). Performance of OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ met or exceeded standards described in ISO15197:2013 for precision, hematocrit performance and interference testing in a laboratory setting. Performance of OneTouch(®) Verio IQ™, OneTouch(®) Verio Pro™, OneTouch(®) Verio™, OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ and Omni Pod each met or exceeded accuracy standards for user performance and system accuracy in a clinical setting set forth in ISO15197:2013(E). PMID:25702769

  1. Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration by Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Vajravelu; Kumar, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early and non-invasive determination of blood glucose level is of great importance. We aimed to present a new technique to accurately infer the blood glucose concentration in peripheral blood flow using non-invasive optical monitoring system. Methods: The data for the research were obtained from 900 individuals. Of them, 750 people had diabetes mellitus (DM). The system was designed using a helium neon laser source of 632.8 nm wavelength with 5mW power, photo detectors and digital storage oscilloscope. The laser beam was directed through a single optical fiber to the index finger and the scattered beams were collected by the photo detectors placed circumferentially to the transmitting fiber. The received signals were filtered using band pass filter and finally sent to a digital storage oscilloscope. These signals were then decomposed into approximation and detail coefficients using modified Haar Wavelet Transform. Back propagation neural and radial basis functions were employed for the prediction of blood glucose concentration. Results: The data of 450 patients were randomly used for training, 225 for testing and the rest for validation. The data showed that outputs from radial basis function were nearer to the clinical value. Significant variations could be seen from signals obtained from patients with DM and those without DM. Conclusion: The proposed non-invasive optical glucose monitoring system is able to predict the glucose concentration by proving that there is a definite variation in hematological distribution between patients with DM and those without DM. PMID:23645958

  2. [Mathematical Modeling of the Blood Glucose Regulation System in Diabetes Mellitus Patients].

    PubMed

    Karpel'ev, V A; Filippov, Yu I; Tarasov, Yu V; Boyarsky, M D; Mayorov, A Yu; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the mathematical modeling of the carbohydrate metabolism regulation system increases in recent years. This is associated with a "closed loop" insulin pump development (it controls an insulin infusion depending on the blood glucose level). To create an algorithm for the automatic control of insulin (and other hormones) infusion using an insulin pump it is necessary to accurately predict glycaemia level. So, the primary objective of mathematical modeling is to predict the blood glucose level changes, caused by the wide range of external factors. This review discusses the main mathematical models of blood glucose level control physiological system (simplified insulin-glucose system). The two major classes of models--empirical and theoretical--are described in detail. The ideal mathematical model of carbohydrate metabolism regulatory system is absent. However, the success in the field of blood glucose level control modeling and simulating is essentialfor the further development of diabetes prevention and treatment technologies, and creating an artificial pancreas in particular. PMID:26846080

  3. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink a certain amount of glucose ( oral glucose tolerance test ) How the Test will Feel When the ... a fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test , or glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test ...

  4. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Shadvar, Kamran; Beigmohammadi, Mohammadtaghi; Iranpour, Afshin; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001). Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2). Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:27076705

  5. [Effect of glucose and swine blood on the effectiveness of the "SK" medium].

    PubMed

    Jóźwik, E; Kafel, S; Uradziński, J

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of the "SK" medium for growth of bacteria producing green discoloration in cured meat products was examined with the addition of various amounts of glucose (0.0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0%), pig blood (0.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%). It was found that pig blood in the medium was indispensable for growth and differentiation of the green-producing bacteria, and that its optimum concentration is 5%. The effectiveness of the medium was with addition of 0.1% glucose. PMID:2101179

  6. The food and drug administration is now preparing to establish tighter performance requirements for blood glucose monitors.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2010-05-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) Tight Glycemic Control. Many officials from the Center for Devices and Radiologic Health and the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices, which are the parts of FDA that regulate approval of blood glucose monitors, either spoke on the agenda or attended in the audience. Approximately 300 people attended; they were mostly clinicians (such as adult endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, internists, clinical chemists, intensivists, surgeons, nurses, and diabetes educators) or industry officials from companies involved in glucose monitoring, pharmaceutical products, data analysis, or regulatory consulting. PMID:20513313

  7. Classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Li, Gang; Yan, Wen-Juan; Lin, Ling

    2014-11-01

    Developing noninvasive blood glucose monitoring method is an to immense need to alleviate the pain and suffering of diabetics associated with the frequent pricking of skin for taking blood sample. A hybrid algorithm for multivariate calibration is proposed to improve the prediction performance of classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy noninvasively. The algorithm is based on wavelet prism modified uninformative variable elimination approach (WP-mUVE) combined with least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), named as WP-mUVE-LSSVM. The method is successfully applied to diabetic classification experiment (in vivo) and blood glucose concentration measurement experiment (in vivo) respectively. Human tongue is selected as the measuring site in this study. To evaluate effectiveness of pretreatment method and quality of calibration models, several usually used pretreatment methods and kernel functions of LSSVM are introduced comparing with our method. Higher quality data is obtained by our pretreatment method owing to the elimination of varying background and noise of spectra data simultaneously. Better prediction accuracy and adaptability are obtained by LSSVM model with radial basis kernel function. The results indicate that WP-mUVE-LSSVM holds promise for the classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively based on human tongue using NIR spectroscopy.

  8. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  9. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  10. Factors affecting the supply of glucose to the heart of the rat, in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, P M; Love, E R; Pratt, O E

    1980-01-01

    1. The influx of glucose into the heart of intact, living, anaesthetized rats was measured when the levels of insulin the blood were (a) low (as a result of fasting), (b) normal, and (c) high (as a result of injecting insulin). The findings showed that the transport of glucose into cardiac cells is carrier-mediated and is strongly insulin-independent. 2. The major barrier to the supply glucose to the heart from the circulating blood is at the surface membrane of the cardiac cells, rather than at the endothelium of the cardiac capillaries. 3. The extracellular space of the heart was measured and was found to be approximately 25% of the cardiac tissue. 4. During life, glucose, as well as its analogue, 3-O-methylglucose passes across the membranes of the cells of the heart by means of a transport system which is strongly dependent upon insulin and appears to be carried-mediated. A likely explanation for the effect of insulin is that it increases considerably the affinity of the transport carrier for glucose. Saturation of the carrier takes place when the levels of insulin and of glucose in the blood are high. However, when the concentration of insulin is low, e.g. during a fast, the affinity of the carrier for glucose is reduced so that saturation cannot be demonstrated. 5. It is suggested that the low level of insulin that is found in the blood in the early morning, which is due to the night fast, may lead to the cardiac dysfunction which often develops at that time. PMID:6788938

  11. [Gestational diabetes mellitus: importance of blood glucose monitoring].

    PubMed

    Flores Le-Roux, Juana A; Benaiges Boix, David; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common during pregnancy, and is frequently associated with maternal and perinatal complications. Intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy has been shown to reduce perinatal morbidity. In women with pregestational type 1 or 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia during labour and delivery is an important factor in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia. There are no generally accepted recommendations for women with GDM. Recent studies evaluating patients with GDM show that peripartum glucose control can be achieved in these women without the need for insulin use in the majority of cases. Hyperglycaemia during labour is not related with treatment established during pregnancy but rather with non-compliance of endocrinological follow-up. Factors such as ethnic origin, neonatal hypoxaemia, and large for gestational age seem to play an important role in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia. PMID:24183482

  12. On-line continuous measurement of blood glucose and meal pattern in free-feeding rats: the role of glucose in meal initiation.

    PubMed

    Campfield, L A; Brandon, P; Smith, F J

    1985-06-01

    Louis-Sylvestre and LeMagnen have suggested that the premeal decline in blood glucose is or reflects a signal for meal initiation in rats. In order to extend and test this hypothesis, a computer controlled system for continuously and concurrently measuring blood glucose and food intake in free-feeding rats was developed. In 18 experiments (with and without intravenous saline infusions), blood glucose declined about 12 minutes prior to meal onset. During 2-1/2 hours of observation, no decline in blood glucose and no meal occurred in 19 other experiments. In 7 experiments in which 10 percent glucose was infused IV to partially block the premeal decline (average blockade = 46.5%), the subsequent meal was significantly delayed. These results suggest that the pre-meal decline in blood glucose is not only correlated with but is also caudally related to meal onset. These studies suggest that the premeal decline in blood glucose is among the signals for meal initiation. PMID:4027699

  13. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Won; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Beyong Il; Shin, Choong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA). Methods Subjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA<34 weeks. Data on blood glucose levels, GA, body weight, glucose infusion rate, and other contributing factors in the first 7 days after birth were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of <40 mg/dL up to 24 hours after birth and as <50 mg/dL thereafter. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level >180 mg/dL. Results During the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6%) and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8%) neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8%) exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4%) developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4%) neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA) were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045) and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006), and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005). Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia). Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia). Conclusion Careful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia. PMID:26817008

  14. Human cervical carcinoma detection and glucose monitoring in blood micro vasculatures with swept source OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmed, E.; Ikram, M.

    2013-08-01

    We report a pilot method, i.e., speckle variance (SV) and structured optical coherence tomography to visualize normal and malignant blood microvasculature in three and two dimensions and to monitor the glucose levels in blood by analyzing the Brownian motion of the red blood cells. The technique was applied on nude live mouse's skin and the obtained images depict the enhanced intravasculature network forum up to the depth of ˜2 mm with axial resolution of ˜8 μm. Microscopic images have also been obtained for both types of blood vessels to observe the tumor spatially. Our SV-OCT methodologies and results give satisfactory techniques in real time imaging and can potentially be applied during therapeutic techniques such as photodynamic therapy as well as to quantify the higher glucose levels injected intravenously to animal by determining the translation diffusion coefficient.

  15. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration in Type 1 Diabetics Using Single Order Sliding Mode Control Combined with Fuzzy On-line Tunable Gain, a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Dinani, Soudabeh Taghian; Zekri, Maryam; Kamali, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as a global affecting disease with an increasing contribution to both mortality rate and cost damage in the society. Therefore, tight control of blood glucose levels has gained significant attention over the decades. This paper proposes a method for blood glucose level regulation in type 1 diabetics. The control strategy is based on combining the fuzzy logic theory and single order sliding mode control (SOSMC) to improve the properties of sliding mode control method and to alleviate its drawbacks. The aim of the proposed controller that is called SOSMC combined with fuzzy on-line tunable gain is to tune the gain of the controller adaptively. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. As a result, this method can decline the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating blood glucose level in diabetics caused by a low blood glucose level. Moreover, it attenuates the chattering observed in SOSMC significantly. It is worth noting that in this approach, a mathematical model called minimal model is applied instead of the intravenously infused insulin–blood glucose dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate a good performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. In addition, this method is compared to fuzzy high-order sliding mode control (FHOSMC) and the superiority of the new method compared to FHOSMC is shown in the results. PMID:26284169

  16. Direct analysis of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose dry blood spot enrichments by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Margarida; Mendes, Vera M; Lima, Inês S; Martins, Fátima O; Fernandes, Ana B; Macedo, M Paula; Jones, John G; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a triple-quadrupole scan mode was developed and comprehensively validated for the determination of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose enrichments from dried blood spots (DBS) without prior derivatization. The method is demonstrated with dried blood spots obtained from rats administered with a primed-constant infusion of [U-(13)C6]glucose and an oral glucose load enriched with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose. The sensitivity is sufficient for analysis of the equivalent to <5μL of blood and the overall method was accurate and precise for the determination of DBS isotopic enrichments. PMID:27107853

  17. Glucagon Receptor Blockade With a Human Antibody Normalizes Blood Glucose in Diabetic Mice and Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Haruka; Kim, Jinrang; Aglione, JohnPaul; Lee, Joseph; Cavino, Katie; Na, Erqian; Rafique, Ashique; Kim, Jee Hae; Harp, Joyce; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-08-01

    Antagonizing glucagon action represents an attractive therapeutic option for reducing hepatic glucose production in settings of hyperglycemia where glucagon excess plays a key pathophysiological role. We therefore generated REGN1193, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits glucagon receptor (GCGR) signaling in vitro. REGN1193 administration to diabetic ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice lowered blood glucose to levels observed in GCGR-deficient mice. In diet-induced obese mice, REGN1193 reduced food intake, adipose tissue mass, and body weight. REGN1193 increased circulating levels of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 and was associated with reversible expansion of pancreatic α-cell area. Hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia was observed in fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice treated with REGN1193. Single administration of REGN1193 to diabetic cynomolgus monkeys normalized fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance and increased circulating levels of glucagon and amino acids. Finally, administration of REGN1193 for 8 weeks to normoglycemic cynomolgus monkeys did not cause hypoglycemia or increase pancreatic α-cell area. In summary, the GCGR-blocking antibody REGN1193 normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice and monkeys but does not produce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic monkeys. Thus, REGN1193 provides a potential therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:26020795

  18. Design and In Vitro Interference Test of Microwave Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heungjae; Naylon, Jack; Luzio, Steve; Beutler, Jan; Birchall, James; Martin, Chris; Porch, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A design of a microwave noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring sensor and its interference test results are presented. The novelty of the proposed sensor is that it comprises two spatially separated split-ring resonators, where one interacts with the change in glucose level of a sample under test while the other ring is used as a reference. The reference ring has a slightly different resonant frequency and is desensitized to the sample owing to its location, thus allowing changes in temperature to be calibrated out. From an oral glucose tolerance test with two additional commercially available sensors (blood strip and continuous glucose monitor) in parallel, we obtained encouraging performance for our sensor comparable with those of the commercial sensors. The effects of endogenous interferents common to all subjects, i.e., common sugars, vitamins (ascorbic acid), and metabolites (uric acid) have also been investigated by using a large Franz cell assembly. From the interference test, it is shown that the change in sensor response is dominated by changes in glucose level for concentrations relevant to blood, and the effects of interferents are negligible in comparison. PMID:26568639

  19. Higher blood glucose level associated with body mass index and gut microbiota in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, Epp; Kolk, Helgi; Lõivukene, Krista; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Background Some dominant bacterial divisions of the intestines have been linked to metabolic diseases such as overweight and diabetes. Objective A pilot study aimed to evaluate the relations between the culturable intestinal bacteria with body mass index (BMI) and some principal cellular and metabolic markers of blood in people older than 65. Design Altogether 38 generally healthy elderly people were recruited: ambulatory (n=19) and orthopedic surgery (n=19). Questionnaires on general health, anthropometric measurements, routine clinical and laboratory data, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota were performed. Results Blood glucose level was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.402; p=0.014). Higher blood glucose level had negative correlation with relative share of intestinal anaerobic bacteria such as bacteroides (r=−0.434; p=0.0076) and gram-positive anaerobic cocci (r=−0.364; p=0.027). In contrast, the relative share of bifidobacteria (r=0.383; p=0.019) and staphylococci (r=0.433; p=0.008) was positively correlated to blood glucose level. In elderly people, a higher blood glucose concentration was predicted by the reduction of the anaerobes’ proportion (adj. sex, age, and BMI R2=0.192, p=0.028) and that of Bacteroides sp. (adj. R2=0.309, p=0.016). Conclusion A tight interplay between increased BMI, level of blood glucose, and the reduced proportion of cultivable bacteroides is taking place in the gut microbiota of elderly people. PMID:24936169

  20. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  1. Differential thermal wave radiometry for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: feasibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telenkov, Sergey A.

    2004-04-01

    Blood glucose monitoring is essential for management of diabetes especially for those patients who requires regular insulin injections. A reliable noninvasive technique may eliminate inconvenience associated with frequent skin puncture to draw blood for measurement by a standard meter. Laser-induced thermal waves in tissue and detection of resulting IR response may provide a valuable approach to development of noninvasive glucose sensor. The present report analyzes radiometric response of tissue at the two wavelengths in mid-IR spectral band with phase-sensitive detection to evaluate feasibility of differential phase radiometry for noninvasive glucose monitoring. Sensitivity of the differential phase method is computed using two models of laser-tissue interaction: homogeneous light absorption and a discrete chromophore heating.

  2. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  3. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

  4. Visual detection of blood glucose based on peroxidase-like activity of WS2 nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tianran; Zhong, Liangshuang; Song, Zhiping; Guo, Liangqia; Wu, Hanyin; Guo, Qingquan; Chen, Ying; Fu, FengFu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets were discovered to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and catalyze the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to produce a color reaction in the presence of H2O2. Based on this finding, a colorimetric method and a portable test kit for the visual detection of blood glucose have been developed by using glucose oxidase (GOx) and WS2 nanosheets-catalyzed reactions. The linear range for glucose was ranged from 5 to 300 μM (R(2)=0.999) with the detection limit of 2.9 μM. The portable test kit was successfully evaluated glucose levels in serum samples from normal persons and diabetes persons by the observable color change from pale yellow to yellow-green, blue-green. PMID:25032681

  5. The Effect of Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring Among Inmates With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hunter Buskey, Robin N; Mathieson, Kathleen; Leafman, Joan S; Feinglos, Mark N

    2015-10-01

    The increasing prevalence and risk of complications from diabetes necessitate patient participation and attentiveness to select appropriate foods, perform regular physical activity, and be active in diabetes management and self-maintenance. Diabetes is often largely asymptomatic; consequently, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Inmates are a unique population challenged by the increased prevalence of chronic conditions including diabetes. Diabetes standards for inmates contain diagnostic and treatment management guidelines that incorporate personal glucose monitoring for insulin users. In December 2009, the Federal Bureau of Prisons initiated a program to distribute glucose meters to insulin-dependent inmates to facilitate self-monitoring blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these glucose meters on hemoglobin A1c levels. PMID:26276137

  6. A Method for Manipulating Blood Glucose and Measuring Resulting Changes in Cognitive Accessibility of Target Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Prokosch, Marjorie L; Hill, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Much research in social psychology has investigated the impact of bodily energy need on cognition and decision-making. As such, blood glucose, the body's primary energy source, has been of special interest to researchers for years. Fluctuations in blood glucose have been linked to a variety of changes in cognitive and behavioral processes, such as self-control, political attitudes, and eating behavior. To help meet growing interest in the links between bodily energy need and these processes, this manuscript offers a simple methodology to experimentally manipulate blood glucose using a fasting procedure followed by administration of a sugar-sweetened, unsweetened, or artificially-sweetened beverage. This is followed by presentation of a method for measuring resulting changes in implicit cognition using a lexical decision-task. In this task, participants are asked to identify whether strings of letters are words or non-words and response latencies are recorded. Sample results from a recent publication are presented as an example of the applications for the experimental manipulation of blood glucose and the lexical decision task measures. PMID:27585282

  7. [Blood glucose monitoring in the management of type 1 diabetes in childhood].

    PubMed

    Robert, J J

    2003-04-01

    In the last twenty years, blood glucose self-monitoring has attained a nearly optimal level, with reliability, easiness, quickness and safety, which makes it tolerable to a greater number of patients and allows young diabetics to make more easily something which is mandatory to the management of type 1 diabetes. The principles of treatment are identical in children, adolescents and adults. However, many patients experience difficulties in applying the ideal therapeutic model. This must be particularly taken into account in children, who are in a stage of full intellectual and psychological development. Inappropriate demands can drive them to failure and go against the main objective at this period of life, which is education. Reference documents help pediatricians to the daily practice of home blood glucose monitoring and, more generally, management of childhood diabetes: ISPAD Consensus Guidelines (ISPAD=International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes), which has been translated in French, and Cahiers de l'AJD (AJD Note books), for educating new patients. Blood glucose monitoring is recommended: to evaluate the glycemic response to the effect of insulin; to confirm hypoglycemia; to prevent hyperglycemia in case of disease; in case of physical exercise. The frequency of home blood glucose monitoring should be individualized, depending on the acceptability for the young patients and the insulin therapeutic regimen. PMID:12746627

  8. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  9. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  10. A Bayesian network for modelling blood glucose concentration and exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ewings, Sean M; Sahu, Sujit K; Valletta, John J; Byrne, Christopher D; Chipperfield, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a new statistical approach to analysing the effects of everyday physical activity on blood glucose concentration in people with type 1 diabetes. A physiologically based model of blood glucose dynamics is developed to cope with frequently sampled data on food, insulin and habitual physical activity; the model is then converted to a Bayesian network to account for measurement error and variability in the physiological processes. A simulation study is conducted to determine the feasibility of using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for simultaneous estimation of all model parameters and prediction of blood glucose concentration. Although there are problems with parameter identification in a minority of cases, most parameters can be estimated without bias. Predictive performance is unaffected by parameter misspecification and is insensitive to misleading prior distributions. This article highlights important practical and theoretical issues not previously addressed in the quest for an artificial pancreas as treatment for type 1 diabetes. The proposed methods represent a new paradigm for analysis of deterministic mathematical models of blood glucose concentration. PMID:24492795

  11. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  12. Novel FIA chemiluminescence fiber optic biosensor for urinary and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Maurice V.; Luong, J. H. T.

    1993-05-01

    A chemiluminescence fiber optic biosensor system coupled to FIA was developed to measure glucose in bodily fluids. Glucose oxidase was immobilized on a preactivated nylon membrane and attached to the tip of a fiber optic bundle. This enzyme acts on (beta) -D-glucose to produce hydrogen peroxide which was then reacted with luminol in the presence of ferricyanide to produce a light signal. The sensitivity of the biosensor was determined to be 32 +/- 0.65 nV (mu) M-1 with a minimum detectable level of 5 (mu) M. The addition of a glucose oxidase column with a higher enzyme loading improved the sensitivity by at least 25-fold thus permitting the measurement of the lower glucose levels found in urine. The enzyme membrane could be reused for at least 50 analyses while the glucose oxidase column could be reused for over 500 analyses without losing the original activity. Endogenous ascorbate and urate usually present in urine samples which interfere with the chemiluminescence signal were effectively retained by an upstream ion exchange column. When applied for the determination of urinary and blood glucose levels, the results obtained compared well with those of the widely accepted hexokinase assay.

  13. Evaluation of intravascular microdialysis for continuous blood glucose monitoring in hypoglycemia: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Wallin, Mats; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that intravascular microdialysis in a central vein is an accurate method for continuous glucose monitoring in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, no hypoglycemia occurred in our earlier studies, prompting further evaluation of the accuracy of intravascular microdialysis in the hypoglycemic range. Thus, this animal study was performed. A porcine model was developed; hypoglycemia was induced using insulin injections. The pigs were monitored with intravascular microdialysis integrated in a triple-lumen central venous catheter. As reference, venous blood gas samples were taken every 5 minutes and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Ethical permission for the animal experiments was obtained from the Stockholm Regional Ethical Committee, reference no N397/09. A total of 213 paired samples were obtained for analysis, and 126 (59.2%) of these were in the hypoglycemic range (<74 mg/dl). Using Clarke error grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in region AB and 99% in region A. The ISO standard (ISO15197) was met. Bland-Altman analysis showed bias (mean difference) ± limits of agreement was -0.18 ± 16.2 mg/dl. No influence from glucose infusions was seen. The microdialysis monitoring system was found to be very responsive in rapid changes in blood glucose concentration. This study shows that intravascular microdialysis in a central vein is an accurate method for continuous glucose monitoring in hypoglycemia in a porcine experimental model. Furthermore, the system was not influenced by glucose administration and was found to be responsive in rapid blood glucose fluctuations. PMID:24876424

  14. [Blood glucose self-monitoring: visual or automated read-out? Comparative study of 6 methods of blood glucose determination by reactive strips].

    PubMed

    Arlot, S; Richard, J L; Selam, J L; Chaballier, L; Mirouze, J

    1984-01-01

    Home blood glucose monitoring is becoming increasingly popular in diabetic patients. The purpose of this work was to determine the accuracy of this technique. We have compared plasma glucose obtained in the laboratory and two reagent strips (Dextrostix and Haemoglukotest 20-800). No differences were found among visually-read values and meter-read values using either Dextrometer, Glukometer, Hypocount or Glucochek. Thus, visually-read strips seem to be sufficient for clinical purposes with best results for HGT. The performances of different meters are similar. Nevertheless must patients favoured the use of a meter because of the apparent "objectivity" of the values. Furthermore, meters provide to patients a better involvement in the management of their disease. PMID:6517429

  15. A novel automated discontinuous venous blood monitoring system for ex vivo glucose determination in humans.

    PubMed

    Schaller, R; Feichtner, F; Köhler, H; Bodenlenz, M; Plank, J; Wutte, A; Mader, J K; Ellmerer, M; Hellmich, R; Wedig, H; Hainisch, R; Pieber, T R; Schaupp, L

    2009-03-15

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients but imposes great demands on medical staff who must take frequent blood samples for the determination of glucose levels. A solution to this resourcing problem would be provided by an automated blood monitoring system. The aim of the present clinical study was to evaluate such a system comprising an automatic blood sampling unit linked to a glucose biosensor. Our approach was to determine the correlation and system error of the sampling unit alone and of the combined system with respect to reference levels over 12h in humans. Two venous cannulae were inserted to connect the automatic and reference systems to the subjects. Blood samples were taken at 15 and 30 min intervals. The median Pearson coefficient of correlation between manually and automatically withdrawn blood samples was 0.982 for the sampling unit alone and 0.950 for the complete system. The biosensor had a linear range up to 20 mmoll(-1) and a 95% response time of <2 min. Clark Error Grid analysis showed that 96.93% of the data (228 data pairs) was in zone A and 3.07% in zone B. Insulin Titration Error Grid analysis suggested an acceptable treatment in 99.56% of cases. Implementation of a "Keep Vein Open" saline infusion into the automated blood sampling system reduced blood withdrawal failures through occluded catheters fourfold. In summary, automated blood sampling from a peripheral vein coupled with automatic glucose determination is a promising alternative to frequent manual blood sampling. PMID:19135351

  16. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and blood pressure decrease: a valuable effect of a novel antidiabetic class?

    PubMed

    Imprialos, Konstantinos P; Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Karagiannis, Asterios I

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major issue of public health, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) in the renal proximal tubule are a novel class of agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inhibition of the SGLT-2 results in reduced glucose reabsorption and improvement in glycemic control. Alongside glucose excretion, SGLT-2 inhibitors also have mild natriuretic and diuretic effects, combining actions of a proximal tubule diuretic and an osmotic diuretic; these properties are expected to lead to small blood pressure (BP) reductions. Clinical studies with dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, ipragliflozin, luseogliflozin, and tofogliflozin used either as monotherapy or add-on therapy and compared with placebo or active treatment have also examined the effect of these agents on BP as a secondary endpoint. Although with some differences between individual agents, all of the approved SGLT-2 inhibitors provided a mild but meaningful reduction in office SBP and DBP. Recent studies with the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring suggest that the magnitude of this BP reduction can be even greater. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and present the studies reporting the effect of approved SGLT-2 inhibitors on BP. PMID:26372321

  17. Implementing Home Blood Glucose and Blood Pressure Telemonitoring in Primary Care Practices for Patients with Diabetes: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Bonnie J.; Johanning, Jennifer L.; Keplinger, Lynn E.; Kruse, Robin L.; Bomar, Marilee; Bernt, Beth; Wakefield, Douglas S.; Mehr, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Prior telemonitoring trials of blood pressure and blood glucose have shown improvements in blood pressure and glycemic targets. However, implementation of telemonitoring in primary care practices may not yield the same results as research trials with extra resources and rigid protocols. In this study we examined the process of implementing home telemonitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure for patients with diabetes in six primary care practices. Materials and Methods: Grounded theory qualitative analysis was conducted in parallel with a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of home telemonitoring. Data included semistructured interviews with 6 nurse care coordinators and 12 physicians in six participating practices and field notes from exit interviews with 93 of 108 randomized patients. Results: The three stakeholder groups (patients, nurse care coordinators, and physicians) exhibited some shared themes and some unique to the particular stakeholder group. Major themes were that practices should (1) understand the capabilities and limitations of the technology and the willingness of patient and physician stakeholders to use it, (2) understand the workflow, flow of information, and human factors needed to optimize use of the technology, (3) engage and prepare the physicians, and (4) involve the patient in the process. Although there was enthusiasm for a patient-centered medical home model that included between-visit telemonitoring, there was concern about the support and resources needed to provide this service to patients. Conclusions: As with many technology interventions, careful consideration of workflow and information flow will help enable effective implementations. PMID:24350806

  18. Insulin Control of Blood Glucose and GLUT4 Expression in the Skeletal Muscle of Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, GP; Cui, P; Cheng, Y; Lu, ZJ; Zhang, LE; Kissoon, N

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Insulin resistance is common in septic patients. The level at which the serum glucose should be maintained using insulin infusions for optimal utilization by skeletal muscles is not yet established. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) mRNA and GLUT4 expression and glucose utilization at the recommended glucose levels of 6–8 mmol/L (110-140 mg/dL) and 8–10 mmol/L (140–180 mg/dL) in septic rats. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study using 44 Sprague-Dawley rats (260– 330 g). Rats were anaesthetized with gaseous diethyl ether. Catheters were implanted into the jugular vein and artery. Following a laparotomy, rats in the experimental group (n = 36) were rendered septic by standard caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (O111:[B4], 1 mg/kg). Control animals (n = 8) underwent laparotomy, but no caecal ligation or puncture and no LPS injection. Four experimental groups were studied: sham-operated control, sepsis treated with fluid maintenance only, sepsis treated with fluid and insulin infusion controlling blood glucose concentration at 6–8 mmol/L and sepsis treated with fluid and insulin infusion controlling blood glucose concentration at 8–10 mmol/L. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp experiment was done before fluid maintenance and insulin treatment to calculate average glucose infusion rate. Results: All septic rats were markedly hyperglycaemic compared with sham-operated controls two hours after operation. Glucose infusion rate during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp experiment was slower in septic rats, suggesting that they were insulin resistant. At the 12th and 24th hour, skeletal muscle was taken to observe pathological change and analyse the GLUT4 mRNA and GLUT4 levels. There were more inflammatory cells, less GLUT4 mRNA and GLUT4 expression in the skeletal muscles of septic rats. Insulin increased

  19. Calibration Experiments Conducted for Noninvasive Blood Glucose Sensing Through the Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Bockle, Stefan; Suh, Kwang I.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2004-01-01

    There are more than 16 million diabetics in the United States and more than 100 million worldwide. Diabetes can lead to severe complications over time such as blindness, renal and cardiovascular diseases, and peripheral neuropathy in the limbs. Poor blood circulation in diabetics can lead to gangrene and the subsequent amputation of extremities. In addition, this pathology is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The most effective way to manage diabetes is frequent blood glucose monitoring performed by the patients themselves. However, because of pain, inconvenience, and the fear of developing infections from finger-prick blood tests or implants, many patients monitor their blood glucose levels less frequently than is recommended by their physicians. Therefore, a noninvasive, painless, and convenient method to monitor blood glucose would greatly benefit diabetics. Likewise, detecting, preventing, and treating the untoward effects of prolonged space travel (e.g., a human mission to Mars) in real-time requires the development of noninvasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. As a "window to the body," the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and to help develop preventative and therapeutic countermeasures early. The noninvasive feature of these technologies permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling an evaluation of the response to therapy.

  20. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-07-01

    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still provide a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an extremely important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient agents in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient agents in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient agents. This base line can

  1. Placental adiponectin gene DNA methylation levels are associated with mothers' blood glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Luigi; Hivert, Marie-France; Guay, Simon-Pierre; St-Pierre, Julie; Perron, Patrice; Brisson, Diane

    2012-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic profile changes occurring during fetal development in response to in utero environment variations could be one of the mechanisms involved in the early determinants of adult chronic diseases. In this study, we tested whether maternal glycemic status is associated with the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) DNA methylation profile in placenta tissue, in maternal circulating blood cells, and in cord blood cells. We found that lower DNA methylation levels in the promoter of ADIPOQ on the fetal side of the placenta were correlated with higher maternal glucose levels during the second trimester of pregnancy (2-h glucose after the oral glucose tolerance test; r(s) ≤ -0.21, P < 0.05). Lower DNA methylation levels on the maternal side of the placenta were associated with higher insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (r(s) ≤ -0.27, P < 0.05). Finally, lower DNA methylation levels were associated with higher maternal circulating adiponectin levels throughout pregnancy (r(s) ≤ -0.26, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the ADIPOQ DNA methylation profile was associated with maternal glucose status and with maternal circulating adiponectin concentration. Because adiponectin is suspected to have insulin-sensitizing proprieties, these epigenetic adaptations have the potential to induce sustained glucose metabolism changes in the mother and offspring later in life. PMID:22396200

  2. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:3522147

  3. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment. PMID:27393437

  4. Impairment of vesicular ATP release affects glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shohei; Miyaji, Takaaki; Hiasa, Miki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Uematsu, Akira; Iwatsuki, Ken; Shibata, Atsushi; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Omote, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine cells store ATP in secretory granules and release it along with hormones that may trigger a variety of cellular responses in a process called purinergic chemical transmission. Although the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) has been shown to be involved in vesicular storage and release of ATP, its physiological relevance in vivo is far less well understood. In Vnut knockout (Vnut−/−) mice, we found that the loss of functional VNUT in adrenal chromaffin granules and insulin granules in the islets of Langerhans led to several significant effects. Vesicular ATP accumulation and depolarization-dependent ATP release were absent in the chromaffin granules of Vnut−/− mice. Glucose-responsive ATP release was also absent in pancreatic β-cells in Vnut−/− mice, while glucose-responsive insulin secretion was enhanced to a greater extent than that in wild-type tissue. Vnut−/− mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance and low blood glucose upon fasting due to increased insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrated an essential role of VNUT in vesicular storage and release of ATP in neuroendocrine cells in vivo and suggest that vesicular ATP and/or its degradation products act as feedback regulators in catecholamine and insulin secretion, thereby regulating blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:25331291

  5. Impairment of vesicular ATP release affects glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shohei; Miyaji, Takaaki; Hiasa, Miki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Uematsu, Akira; Iwatsuki, Ken; Shibata, Atsushi; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Omote, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine cells store ATP in secretory granules and release it along with hormones that may trigger a variety of cellular responses in a process called purinergic chemical transmission. Although the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) has been shown to be involved in vesicular storage and release of ATP, its physiological relevance in vivo is far less well understood. In Vnut knockout (Vnut(-/-)) mice, we found that the loss of functional VNUT in adrenal chromaffin granules and insulin granules in the islets of Langerhans led to several significant effects. Vesicular ATP accumulation and depolarization-dependent ATP release were absent in the chromaffin granules of Vnut(-/-) mice. Glucose-responsive ATP release was also absent in pancreatic β-cells in Vnut(-/-) mice, while glucose-responsive insulin secretion was enhanced to a greater extent than that in wild-type tissue. Vnut(-/-) mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance and low blood glucose upon fasting due to increased insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrated an essential role of VNUT in vesicular storage and release of ATP in neuroendocrine cells in vivo and suggest that vesicular ATP and/or its degradation products act as feedback regulators in catecholamine and insulin secretion, thereby regulating blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:25331291

  6. L-tryptophan suppresses rise in blood glucose and preserves insulin secretion in type-2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Tomoko; Kamemura, Norio; Oda, Masataka; Sakurai, Jun; Nakaya, Yutaka; Harada, Nagakatsu; Suenaga, Midori; Matsunaga, Yoichi; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Katunuma, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Ample evidence indicates that a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet increases glucose energy expenditure and is beneficial in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of L-tryptophan in T2DM. Blood glucose was measured by the glucose dehydrogenase assay and serum insulin was measured with ELISA in both normal and hereditary T2DM rats after oral glucose administration with or without L-D-tryptophan and tryptamine. The effect of tryptophan on glucose absorption was examined in the small intestine of rats using the everted-sac method. Glucose incorporation in adipocytes was assayed with [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose using a liquid scintillation counter. Indirect computer-regulated respiratory gas-assay calorimetry was applied to assay energy expenditure in rats. L-Tryptophan suppressed both serum glucose and insulin levels after oral glucose administration and inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine. Tryptamine, but not L-tryptophan, enhanced insulin-stimulated [(3)H]-glucose incorporation into differentiated adipocytes. L-Tryptophan increased glucose-associated energy expenditure in rats in vivo. L-Tryptophan-rich chow consumed from a young age preserved the secretion of insulin and delayed the progression of T2DM in hereditary diabetic rats. The results suggested that L-tryptophan suppresses the elevation of blood glucose and lessens the burden associated with insulin secretion from β-cells. PMID:23419400

  7. Applications of ultrasensitive wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry to noninvasive glucose detection in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinxin; Mandelis, Andreas; Zinman, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Wavelength-Modulated Differential Laser Photothermal Radiometry (WM-DPTR) has been designed for noninvasive glucose measurements in the mid-infrared (MIR) range. Glucose measurements in human blood serum in the physiological range (20-320 mg/dl) with predicted error <10.3 mg/dl demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy to meet wide clinical detection requirements, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. The glucose sensitivity and specificity of WM-DPTR stem from the subtraction of the simultaneously measured signals from two excitation laser beams at wavelengths near the peak and the baseline of the strongest interference-free glucose absorption band in the MIR range. It was found that the serum glucose sensitivity and measurement precision strongly depend on the tunability and stability of the intensity ratio and the phase shift of the two laser beams. This level of accuracy was favorably compared to other MIR techniques. WM-DPTR has shown excellent potential to be developed into a clinically viable noninvasive glucose biosensor. PMID:22930666

  8. Silica-dispersed glucose oxidase for glucose sensing: in vitro testing in serum and blood and the effect of condensation pH

    PubMed Central

    Harris, James M.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Reichert, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using glucose oxidase (GOx) dispersed in a silica matrix for glucose monitoring in whole blood, and then to assess whether the flexibility of silica sol-gel chemistry could be exploited to enhance glucose sensor performance and stability. Silica-dispersed GOx was deployed on platinized platinum (Pt) wire to form a Clark-type amperometric glucose sensor. Sensors were calibrated using buffered glucose standard solutions, and then tested against glucose spiked human serum and whole blood. All serum and whole blood measurements met the minimum FDA requirement of falling within the “A+B region” of a Clark Error Grid. To our knowledge this is the first report of using silica-dispersed GOx to measure glucose in whole blood. The effect of condensation pH on sensor performance was assessed by dispersing GOx in silica condensed at pH 3, 7 and 12, and then testing the sensor response against glucose calibration standards. The pH 12 silica sensors had statistically faster response time, and higher sensor sensitivity compared to pH 7, pH 3 silica and glutaraldehyde crosslinked sensors. Membranes of the pH 12 silica had statistically higher glucose diffusion coefficient than did the pH 7 and 3 sensors. GOx dispersed in pH 12 silica also had the longest half life. We hypothesize that the gel-like pH 12 silica gels provided reduced barriers to glucose diffusion, and the more aqueous microenvironment provided greater stability for the enzyme. PMID:23024461

  9. Influence of hemorrhage on adrenal secretion, blood glucose and serum insulin in the awake pig.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, L C; Curtin, R; Sapira, J D

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an additonal series. Increase in blood glucose and epinephrine secretion rate following hemorrhage were found to be significantly dependent upon the rate of initial hemorrhage. Cortisol secretion was found to rise significantly during and following hemorrhage in both rapidly and slowly bled animals. Serum insulin levels remained at baseline levels during shock, despite the presence of significant hyperglycemia. In unbled animals infused with epinephrine at rates comparable to those measured in shock, elevations in blood glucose were markedly lower, shifting to the right of the dose-response curve during hemorrhage. Simultaneous infusions of cortisol and epinephrine resulted in a dose-response curve which did not differ significantly from that following infusion of epinephrine alone. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1247317

  10. Assessment of skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose metabolism with positron emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mossberg, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The potassium analog, Rb-82 was used to measure skeletal muscle blood flow and the glucose analog, 18-F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) was used to examine the kinetics of skeletal muscle transport and phosphorylation. New Zealand white rabbits' blood flow ranged from 1.0-70 ml/min/100g with the lowest flows occurring under baseline conditions and the highest flows were measured immediately after exercise. Elevated plasma glucose had no effect on increasing blood flow, whereas high physiologic to pharmacologic levels of insulin doubled flow as measured by the radiolabeled microspheres, but a proportionate increase was not detected by Rb-82. The data suggest that skeletal muscle blood flow can be measured using the positron emitting K+ analog Rb-82 under low flow and high flow conditions but not when insulin levels in the plasma are elevated. This may be due to the fact that insulin induces an increase in the Na+/K+-ATPase activity of the cell indirectly through a direct increase in the Na+/H+pump activity.

  11. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    PubMed Central

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  12. Does hyperketonemia affect protein or glucose kinetics in postabsorptive or traumatized man

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, P.J.; Royle, G.T.; Wagner, D.; Burke, J.F. )

    1989-10-01

    Leucine and glucose turnover were measured using simultaneous infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H)glucose before and during an infusion of Na DL-hydroxybutyrate (Na DL-HB) in overnight-fasted patients the day before and 3 days after total hip replacement. The ketone body infusion before surgery resulted in a significant increase in plasma leucine concentration and leucine turnover, while glucose concentration and turnover decreased. Surgery increased leucine turnover. Ketone body infusion after surgery caused a further increased leucine turnover while turnover fell as before surgery. We suggest that exogenous ketone bodies decrease hepatic glucose production and probably stimulate a rise in protein synthesis above breakdown leading to a decreased nitrogen excretion as observed by other investigators. Despite the metabolic adaptation to trauma, this response was not affected by surgery.

  13. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors. PMID:20144440

  14. Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Testing for Diabetes Care in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Glycemic control in hospitalized patients with diabetes requires accurate near-patient glucose monitoring systems. In the past decade, point-of-care blood glucose monitoring devices have become the mainstay of near-patient glucose monitoring in hospitals across the world. In this article, we focus on its history, accuracy, clinical use, and cost-effectiveness. Point-of-care devices have evolved from 1.2 kg instruments with no informatics to handheld lightweight portable devices with advanced connectivity features. Their accuracy however remains a subject of debate, and new standards for their approval have now been issued by both the International Organization for Standardization and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. While their cost-effectiveness remains to be proved, their clinical value for managing inpatients with diabetes remains unchallenged. This evidence-based review provides an overall view of its use in the hospital setting. PMID:25355711

  15. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, Detlev H.; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C.; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l−1 blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators. PMID:21490011

  16. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei. PMID:27166552

  17. Scale space methods for analysis of type 2 diabetes patients' blood glucose values.

    PubMed

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  18. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    PubMed Central

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  19. Fraction SX of maitake mushroom favorably influences blood glucose levels and blood pressure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Fu, Jia; Perricone, Nicholas V; Bagchi, Debasis; Kaylor, Mark; Zhuang, Cun

    2012-10-01

    We assessed whether fraction SX derived from maitake mushroom could play a beneficial role in the treatment of a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes by decreasing circulating glucose levels and lowering blood pressure (BP). We injected 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) into 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) to produce a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes. SD were divided into four groups of 12 SD. A control group ate straight pulverized rat chow. To three treatment groups, we added into the pulverized rat chow: gliclazide (10 mg/kg), pioglitazone (10-30 mg/kg), or maitake SX (2.5 g/kg). In addition to measuring BW, circulating glucose level, and BP, the following procedures were also carried out: insulin challenge (insulin sensitivity), losartan challenge (renin-angiotensin system activity), Nw-nitro-L arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride (LNAME) challenge (nitric oxide [NO] system activity), and evaluation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. All treatments compared with control generally decreased circulating glucose levels, but only the maitake SX consistently enhanced measured insulin sensitivity. We found that maitake SX could significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) in diabetic SD. In general, only SD receiving maitake SX, not the two drugs, showed decreased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and increased NO system activity compared with control under the conditions examined. Our results suggest that maitake SX may be useful for treating perturbations in glucose-insulin metabolism and elevated BP in type-1 diabetes. PMID:22873755

  20. Is there a relationship between admission blood glucose level following acute poisoning and clinical outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Adib, Nooshin; Safaeian, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the admission blood glucose level following acute poisoning, severity of acute poisoning and clinical outcome. Material and methods This prospective study was conducted on 345 deliberate self-poisoning patients. Standard demographic and clinical information; admission blood glucose level; poisoning severity score and outcome were recorded. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus, receipt of pre-sampling intravenous dextrose solution or glucocorticoids, and poisoning with toxic agents which produce hyper- or hypoglycaemia were excluded. Results Mean age of the patients was 27.5 ±8.6 years. Females outnumbered males (57.9%). Oral ingestion of more than one drug (46.7%) and opiates (14.2%) were the main causes of poisoning. Blood glucose values ranged from 50 mg/dl to 396 mg/dl. Hyper- and hypoglycaemia were observed in 23.8% and 13.91% respectively. A total of 24.41% and 22.92% of the patients in hyper- and hypoglycaemic groups had grade 3 and 4 severity score in comparison with 4.18% in the normoglycaemic group. Development of complications and death were 14.64% and 10.42% in patients with hyper- and hypoglycaemia versus 3.73% in patients with normoglycaemia. A significant difference between normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic patients in the severity of poisoning and clinical outcome was observed (P < 0.001). Conclusions Admission blood glucose levels may have a relationship with the severity of poisoning and clinical outcome following acute poisoning. PMID:22291737

  1. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  2. The relationship between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose levels of 75 and 100 gram oral glucose tolerance test during gestational diabetes diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mert, Meral; Purcu, Serhat; Soyluk, Ozlem; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Karakaya, Pinar; Tamer, Gonca; Adas, Mine; Ekin, Murat; Hatipoglu, Sami; Ure, Oznur Sari; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important issue in terms of prevention of maternal and fetal complications. In our study we aimed to evaluate the relation of HbA1c and blood glucose levels of 75 and 50-100 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant patients who were screened for GDM. Materials and methods: The parameters of 913 pregnant women screened for GDM are evaluated retrospectively. The two steps screening with 50-100 gram OGTT were used in 576 patients. The remaining 337 patients were screened with 75 gram OGTT. Results: The HbA1c levels of patients having high blood glucose (≥153 mg/dl) levels at 2nd hour in 75 gram OGTT were significantly higher than patients having normal blood glucose levels at 2nd hour of 75 gram OGTT (P=0.038). Correlation analyses showed no significant relation between any blood glucose level of 100 gram OGTT and HbA1c level. Whereas in 75 gram OGTT 1st and 2nd hour blood glucose levels were found to have a significant relation with A1c levels (P=0.001, P=0.001 respectively). Conclusion: HbA1c may be used as an important tool in the diagnosis of GDM. But due to the variation of HbA1c in pregnant women and there is not an absolute cut-off level for A1c, it may be more reliable to evaluate HbA1c level together with the blood glucose levels in OGTT. PMID:26550262

  3. Blood glucose regulation in diabetics. A flatness based nonlinear control simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocha, Guillermo; Podestá, Melina; Mazzadi, Alejandro; Amorena, Carlos; D’Atellis, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Flat systems are a generalization of linear systems, but the techniques used for controlling flat systems are much different than many of the existing techniques for linear systems. In this paper we present the flatness-based control of blood glucose regulation in human system. A non-near model, he Bergman Minimal Model, is used o represent he dynamics of blood regulation in humans and because of the flatness property, he system variables can be expressed as functions of he at output and heir time derivatives and a control aw developed.

  4. Method for Texturing Surfaces of Optical Fiber Sensors Used for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  5. Energetic atomic and ionic oxygen textured optical surfaces for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  6. Accuracy evaluation of blood glucose monitoring systems in children on overnight closed-loop control.

    PubMed

    DeSalvo, Daniel J; Shanmugham, Satya; Ly, Trang T; Wilson, Darrell M; Buckingham, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    This pilot study evaluated the difference in accuracy between the Bayer Contour® Next (CN) and HemoCue® (HC) glucose monitoring systems in children with type 1 diabetes participating in overnight closed-loop studies. Subjects aged 10-18 years old were admitted to a clinical research center and glucose values were obtained every 30 minutes overnight. Glucose values were measured using whole blood samples for CN and HC readings and results were compared to Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) reference values obtained with plasma from the same sample. System accuracy was compared using mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy standards. A total of 28 subjects were enrolled in the study. Glucose measurements were evaluated at 457 time points. CN performed better than HC with an average MARD of 3.13% compared to 10.73% for HC (P < .001). With a limited sample size, CN met ISO criteria (2003 and 2013) at all glucose ranges while HC did not. CN performed very well, and would make an excellent meter for future closed-loop studies outside of a research center. PMID:24876427

  7. Fluorescent blood glucose monitor by hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots based sensing system.

    PubMed

    He, Yuezhen; Wang, Xiaoxun; Sun, Jian; Jiao, Shoufeng; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun

    2014-01-31

    In the present work, a highly sensitive and specific fluorescent biosensor for blood glucose monitoring is developed based on hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and glucose oxidase (GOx) system. The GQDs which are simply prepared by pyrolyzing citric acid exhibit strong fluorescence and good water-solubility. Due to the noncovalent assembly between hemin and GQDs, the addition of hemin can make hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to destroy the passivated surface of GQDs, leading to significant fluorescence quenching of GQDs. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of glucose is from 9 to 300μM, and the limit of detection is 0.1μM. As unique properties of GQDs, the proposed biosensor is green, simple, cost-efficient, and it is successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human serum. In addition, the proposed method provides a new pathway to further design the biosensors based on the assembly of GQDs with hemin for detection of biomolecules. PMID:24439507

  8. Exploration of noninvasive determination of blood glucose concentration by using photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Ying; Huang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) noninvasive detection has become a research hotspot of measuring blood glucose concentration (BGC) in recent years. This novel method overcomes greatly the scattering light interference problem must be faced in near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A PA based BGC measurement set-up was established, in which a Q switched Nd: YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pulsed laser is used as the excitation source and lateral detection model was used to detetct the PA signals of glucose. To validate the profile model of real time PA signal, determine the characteristic wavelengths of glucose, a series of vitro experiments of glucose aqueous solutions were perfromed. Several wavelengths were preliminarily determined as the characteristic wavelengths via the peak-to-peak values difference. The prediction concentration model was established via least square fitting algorithm between PA peak-to-peak values with their different concentrations. The experimental results demonstrated that the PA profile of glucose is consistent with PA meachnism and the root-mean-squre error (RMSE) of prediction concentration can reach 0.77mmol/L. Therefore, this PA based set-up and scheme has the potential value in the BGC monitoring research.

  9. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  10. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis mellifera) Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyyedeh Mahbubeh; Imani, Sohrab; Haghighi, Saeid; Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Karimi, Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats. Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined. Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01). On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in comparison with diabetic group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin) can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in diabetic rats. PMID:23378971

  11. System accuracy evaluation of the GlucoRx nexus voice TD-4280 blood glucose monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad; Broadbent, Keith; Morris, Mike; Ewins, David; Joseph, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    Use of blood glucose (BG) meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4%) and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%). Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines. PMID:25374434

  12. Daily Fasting Blood Glucose Rhythm in Male Mice: A Role of the Circadian Clock in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentaro; Shimba, Shigeki; Fujimura, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hepatic glucose production are regulated according to a circadian rhythm. An early morning increase in FBG levels, which is pronounced among diabetic patients, is known as the dawn phenomenon. Although the intracellular circadian clock generates various molecular rhythms, whether the hepatic clock is involved in FBG rhythm remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of phase shift and disruption of the hepatic clock on the FBG rhythm. In both C57BL/6J and diabetic ob/ob mice, FBG exhibited significant daily rhythms with a peak at the beginning of the dark phase. Light-phase restricted feeding altered the phase of FBG rhythm mildly in C57BL/6J mice and greatly in ob/ob mice, in concert with the phase shifts of mRNA expression rhythms of the clock and glucose production-related genes in the liver. Moreover, the rhythmicity of FBG and Glut2 expression was not detected in liver-specific Bmal1-deficient mice. Furthermore, treatment with octreotide suppressed the plasma growth hormone concentration but did not affect the hepatic mRNA expression of the clock genes or the rise in FBG during the latter half of the resting phase in C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that the hepatic circadian clock plays a critical role in regulating the daily FBG rhythm, including the dawn phenomenon. PMID:26653333

  13. Sucralose Affects Glycemic and Hormonal Responses to an Oral Glucose Load

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Tiemann, Courtney D.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Wice, Burton M.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), such as sucralose, have been reported to have metabolic effects in animal models. However, the relevance of these findings to human subjects is not clear. We evaluated the acute effects of sucralose ingestion on the metabolic response to an oral glucose load in obese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventeen obese subjects (BMI 42.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) who did not use NNS and were insulin sensitive (based on a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score ≤2.6) underwent a 5-h modified oral glucose tolerance test on two separate occasions preceded by consuming either sucralose (experimental condition) or water (control condition) 10 min before the glucose load in a randomized crossover design. Indices of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (SI), and insulin clearance rates were estimated by using minimal models of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide kinetics. RESULTS Compared with the control condition, sucralose ingestion caused 1) a greater incremental increase in peak plasma glucose concentrations (4.2 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.03), 2) a 20 ± 8% greater incremental increase in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (P < 0.03), 3) a 22 ± 7% greater peak insulin secretion rate (P < 0.02), 4) a 7 ± 4% decrease in insulin clearance (P = 0.04), and 5) a 23 ± 20% decrease in SI (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between conditions in active glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon incremental AUC, or indices of the sensitivity of the β-cell response to glucose. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that sucralose affects the glycemic and insulin responses to an oral glucose load in obese people who do not normally consume NNS. PMID:23633524

  14. Identification of informative bands in the short-wavelength NIR region for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    PubMed Central

    Uwadaira, Yasuhiro; Ikehata, Akifumi; Momose, Akiko; Miura, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    The “glucose-linked wavelength” in the short-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) region, in which the light intensity reflected from the hand palm exhibits a good correlation to the blood glucose value, was investigated. We performed 391 2-h carbohydrate tolerance tests (CTTs) using 34 participants and a glucose-linked wavelength was successfully observed in almost every CTT; however, this wavelength varied between CTTs even for the same person. The large resulting data set revealed the distribution of the informative wavelength. The blood glucose values were efficiently estimated by a simple linear regression with clinically acceptable accuracies. The result suggested the potential for constructing a personalized low-invasive blood glucose sensor using short-wavelength NIR spectroscopy. PMID:27446701

  15. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  16. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  17. [GLUCOSE CONTENT FLUCTUATION IN BLOOD OF NEWBORN RATS DEPENDING ON SEASON AND PATTERN OF SPONTANEOUS MOTOR ACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, N N; Selina, E N

    2015-01-01

    Earlier we have shown that in newborn rats the glucose level in blood serum changes depending on the pattern of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA). During rest periods, both under dominant decasecond rhythm and under dominant minute rhythm, the glucose level in blood serum is higher than during activity periods. We have also shown that the glucose level in the blood serum rises with age reaching the level of adult animals by day 10. In the present study carried out on 3-10-day-old rats under conditions of free behavior the blood glucose content was investigated in different periods of cycle during different seasons. It is found that in newborn rats of all ages studied (3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-day-old ones) the lowest glucose concentration in the blood is observed in the winter period. In spring its level increases and in summer reaches the maximum different significantly from the winter and spring levels in all age groups except day 5. In autumn the glucose level decreases and approaches the spring values but it is still different from the winter indices. In 5-day-old rats statistically significant differences of glucose levels in different seasons were not observed. The data obtained provide evidence of seasonal fluctuations of the glucose level in blood serum of newborn rats. At the same time during all seasons except spring the dependence of glucose level on the pattern of motor activity persists. In spring these differences are smoothed. Key words: ontogenesis, motor activity, metabolic factors, glucose, seasonal variations. PMID:26856074

  18. Blood glucose may be an alternative to cholesterol in CVD risk prediction charts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Established risk models for the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) include blood pressure, smoking and cholesterol parameters. The use of total cholesterol for CVD risk prediction has been questioned, particularly for primary prevention. We evaluated whether glucose could be used instead of total cholesterol for prediction of fatal CVD using data with long follow-up. Methods We followed-up 6,095 men and women aged ≥16 years who participated 1977-79 in a community based health study and were anonymously linked with the Swiss National Cohort until the end of 2008. During follow-up, 727 participants died of CVD. Based on the ESC SCORE methodology (Weibull regression), we used age, sex, blood pressure, smoking, and fasting glucose or total cholesterol. The mean Brier score (BS), area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were used for model comparison. We validated our models internally using cross-validation and externally using another data set. Results In our models, the p-value of total cholesterol was 0.046, that of glucose was p < 0.001. The model with glucose had a slightly better predictive capacity (BS: 2216x10-5 vs. 2232x10-5; AUC: 0.9181 vs. 0.9169, IDI: 0.009 with p-value 0.026) and could well discriminate the overall risk of persons with high and low concentrations. The external validation confirmed these findings. Conclusions Our study suggests that instead of total cholesterol glucose can be used in models predicting overall CVD mortality risk. PMID:23351551

  19. Spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masaru; Sato, Shun; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    To realize the non-invasive blood glucose measurement, it will be effective to acquire the spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for eliminating other biological-component's disturbances. Our proposed imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopic imaging can limit the measuring depth into focal plane with high light detection sensitivity. Thus, the proposed method will be suitable for measuring only near the skin surface with detecting weak reflected light from inner biomembrane. But reflectance of skin surface is more than 1000 times larger than inner skin's reflectance. Paying attention on Fresnel reflection, fingers what were illuminated by p-polarized beam from Brewster's angle were observed with crossed-Nicol dark field optics. We successfully acquired spectroscopic characteristics of hemoglobin at vein area near the skin surface.

  20. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    PubMed

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  1. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety. PMID:26987021

  2. An enzymatic glucose/O2 biofuel cell operating in human blood.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Marine; Gounel, Sébastien; Stines-Chaumeil, Claire; Brilland, Xavier; Rouhana, Jad; Louerat, Frédéric; Mano, Nicolas

    2016-09-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) may power implanted medical devices and will rely on the use of glucose and O2 available in human bodily fluids. Other than well-established experiments in aqueous buffer, little work has been performed in whole human blood because it contains numerous inhibiting molecules. Here, we tested our BFCs in 30 anonymized, random and disease-free whole human blood samples. We show that by designing our anodic and cathodic bioelectrocatalysts with osmium based redox polymers and home-made enzymes we could reach a high selectivity and biofunctionnality. After optimization, BFCs generate power densities directly proportional to the glycaemia of human blood and reached a maximum power density of 129µWcm(-2) at 0.38V vs. Ag/AgCl at 8.22mM glucose. This is to our knowledge the highest power density attained so far in human blood and open the way for the powering of integrated medical feedback loops. PMID:27107143

  3. The Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus on Blood Levels of Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khosrozadeh, Maryam; Heydari, Naval; Abootalebi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), this problem has a fast growing prevalence and, unfortunately, leaves permanent complications on different body systems. For this reasons, nowadays attentions has been paid to the traditional medicine such as Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus). The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) on blood levels of glucose in diabetes. Methods: This is a review article, which was obtained by a search in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Magiran by using keywords such as diabetes, Okra, and hypoglycemic effect. Results: Various studies on Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) showed that Abelmoscus esculentus (AE)/Okra extract has a hypoglycemic effect that helps decrease blood glucose level. Its properties can be a useful remedy to manage diabetes mellitus. In addition, it leads to inhibition of cholesterol absorption and subsequently decreases the level of lipid and fat in the blood. The results of an investigation on diabetic mice by using this material has shown the same effect and confirmed this conclusion. Conclusion: Based on the positive effects of Okra on reducing blood sugar level, the widespread use of this plant is recommended. Clearly, further research is required. PMID:27516694

  4. Lowering blood glucose during hip surgery does not influence coagulation activation

    PubMed Central

    Sechterberger, Marjolein K.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Kal, Jasper E.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Hoekstra, Joost B.L.; Hans DeVries, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia during and after hip surgery is associated with coagulation activation and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Whether lowering of glucose levels during hip surgery diminishes coagulation activation is unknown. We investigated the efficacy of the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide to lower glucose during and after hip surgery and studied its influence on coagulation activation. Methods A total of 37 obese subjects who underwent hip surgery were randomized to subcutaneous liraglutide or placebo for 4 consecutive days, starting one day prior to surgery. Glucose levels and coagulation indices at three fixed time-points (pre-operative, 2 h post-operative and 3 days post-operative) were measured. Results Liraglutide reduced glucose at day three post-surgery (median glucose (IQR) liraglutide 5.5 (5.2–5.7) vs. placebo 5.8 (5.5–6.2); difference 0.3 mmol/L, P = 0.04). Changes in 6 out of 8 coagulation indices studied did not differ between the two groups. Only D-dimer levels were significantly lower in the liraglutide group at day three post-surgery and FVIII levels were significantly higher in the liraglutide group 2 h post-surgery. Conclusion Although the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide moderately reduced post-operative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and prediabetic obese patients undergoing elective hip surgery, no changes were observed with respect to coagulation activation. PMID:26675337

  5. Patterns of self-monitoring of blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes: analysis of a Scottish population over time.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D; Harris, F M; Evans, J M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of a diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, Scotland, shows that a significant proportion of insulin-treated patients with diabetes are not self-monitoring blood glucose according to current clinical guidance and recommendations, with some not self-monitoring their blood glucose at all. Although there has been an increase in the number of reagent strips dispensed over the past decade, this increase is mainly accounted for by increased testing frequency among people with diabetes already testing. PMID:26990502

  6. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for portable blood glucose meter (glucometer) use in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Karen L; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2016-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGM, glucometers) are a convenient, cost effective, and quick means to assess patient blood glucose concentration. The number of commercially available PBGM is constantly increasing, making it challenging to determine whether certain glucometers may have benefits over others for veterinary testing. The challenge in selection of an appropriate glucometer from a quality perspective is compounded by the variety of analytic methods used to quantify glucose concentrations and disparate statistical analysis in many published studies. These guidelines were developed as part of the ASVCP QALS committee response to establish recommendations to improve the quality of testing using point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld and benchtop devices in veterinary medicine. They are intended for clinical pathologists and laboratory professionals to provide them with background knowledge and specific recommendations for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC), and to serve as a resource to assist the provision of advice to veterinarians and technicians to improve the quality of results obtained when using PBGM. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather they provide a minimum standard for management of PBGM in the veterinary setting. PMID:26748942

  7. Emotional Arousal, Blood Glucose Levels, and Memory Modulation: Three Laboratory Exercises in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between emotional arousal and cognition in humans represent an important field in cognitive neuroscience. Studies examining the characteristics of emotion-induced memory enhancement and the mechanisms through which these effects occur are becoming increasingly common. This article describes three affordable laboratory exercises of relevance to the growing interest in this field. Specifically, Experiment one reviews a protocol for examining memory, hypermnesia, reminiscence, and primacy/recency effects for emotional and neutral words. Experiments two and three provide opportunities to examine the relationships between blood glucose level and memory for either a list of pictures or the spatial location of pictures. Each laboratory exercise contains a certain amount of flexibility and is malleable to the specific needs of the instructor. For example, the use of blood glucose monitoring may be of value to a variety of different exercises examining stress and/or emotional arousal and the stimuli used in each of the protocols may be varied, creating opportunities for a number of different novel exercises. A series of questions have been provided at the end of each exercise in order to help stimulate inclass discussion. The potential application of this line of research in cognitive neuroscience is conveyed through a list of references where glucose has been used to attenuate cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease, age-related cognitive decline, and other neuropsychological conditions. PMID:23493939

  8. Emotional arousal, blood glucose levels, and memory modulation: three laboratory exercises in cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Flint, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between emotional arousal and cognition in humans represent an important field in cognitive neuroscience. Studies examining the characteristics of emotion-induced memory enhancement and the mechanisms through which these effects occur are becoming increasingly common. This article describes three affordable laboratory exercises of relevance to the growing interest in this field. Specifically, Experiment one reviews a protocol for examining memory, hypermnesia, reminiscence, and primacy/recency effects for emotional and neutral words. Experiments two and three provide opportunities to examine the relationships between blood glucose level and memory for either a list of pictures or the spatial location of pictures. Each laboratory exercise contains a certain amount of flexibility and is malleable to the specific needs of the instructor. For example, the use of blood glucose monitoring may be of value to a variety of different exercises examining stress and/or emotional arousal and the stimuli used in each of the protocols may be varied, creating opportunities for a number of different novel exercises. A series of questions have been provided at the end of each exercise in order to help stimulate inclass discussion. The potential application of this line of research in cognitive neuroscience is conveyed through a list of references where glucose has been used to attenuate cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease, age-related cognitive decline, and other neuropsychological conditions. PMID:23493939

  9. Amperometric flow system for blood glucose determination using an immobilized enzyme magnetic reactor.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Prisciliano; Rodriguez, Jose A; Galan, Carlos A; Castrillejo, Yolanda; Barrado, Enrique

    2013-03-15

    An amperometric flow system for glucose determination in blood serum samples after enzymatic reaction with glucose oxidase immobilized on magnetite covered with silica gel modified propylamine is described. The solid was magnetically retained on a mini-column and placed into the flow injection system preceding the amperometric detector using a modified screen printed electrode with [Fe(tris(3,5-dimetyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate)(2)](+)[FeCl(4)](-). The variables involved in the system such as flow rate, enzyme concentration, injection volume and reaction coil length were evaluated using a Taguchi parameter design. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of glucose sample was linear between 0.24 and 6.00 mM, and with a limit of detection of 0.08 mM. The repeatability for a 4.0mM glucose solution was 1.0%.The method was validated by comparing the obtained results to those provided by the enzymatic spectrophotometric method; no significant differences were observed. PMID:22959009

  10. A Risk Based Neural Network Approach for Predictive Modeling of Blood Glucose Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frandes, Mirela; Timar, Bogdan; Lungeanu, Diana

    2016-01-01

    For type 1 diabetes patients, maintaining the blood glucose (BG) at normal values is a challenging task due to e.g. variable insulin reactions, diets, lifestyles, emotional conditions, etc. Hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic events can generate various complications (e.g. diabetic ketoacidosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, etc.), so predicting BG values in time is of great importance for diabetes self-management. Herein, we propose a non-linear autoregressive neural network approach, based on the minimal dataset available from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor, with an integrated measure of intra-patient BG variability. The method kept the balance between accuracy and complexity, allowing a fast response with no additional effort or discomfort for the patient. PMID:27577449

  11. Effect of guar crispbread with cereal products and leguminous seeds on blood glucose concentrations of diabetics.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Barker, H M; Fielden, H; Jenkins, A L

    1980-11-01

    To compare the effect on blood glucose concentrations of guar incorporated into crispbreads with that of unprocessed high-fibre foods groups of four to six diabetics took a total of seven test breakfasts on separate days. By comparison with a breakfast of wholemeal bread and cheese, guar crispbread combined with bread reduced the area under the glucose response curve to 51% (p < 0.05); bread and soya beans reduced the area to 65% (p < 0.05); guar crispbread with soya beans to 25% (p < 0.002); and soya beans with lentils to 29% (p < 0.002). Porridge and cornflake breakfasts showed no difference. The favourable results with leguminous seeds may not make such meals more acceptable than meals of guar products, but a combination of leguminous seeds and guar may allow smaller and more acceptable amounts of both to be used. PMID:6253021

  12. Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of glucose in blood using partial least-squares analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, K.J.; Haaland, D.M.; Robinson, M.R.; Eaton, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of glucose in drawn samples of human blood has been determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate calibration. A twelve sample calibration set over the physiological glucose range of 50-400 mg/deciliter (dl) resulted in an average error of 5.2 mg/dl. These results were obtained using a cross validated PLS calibration over all infrared data in the frequency range of 950-1200 cm/sup /minus/1/. These results are a dramatic improvement relative to those obtained by previous studies of this system using univariate peak height analyses. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Epigallocatechin gallate affects glucose metabolism and increases fitness and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anika E.; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Rabe, Doerte; Baenas, Nieves; Schloesser, Anke; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Stocker, Achim; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested whether a standardized epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) rich green tea extract (comprising > 90% EGCG) affects fitness and lifespan as well as parameters of glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Following the application of the green tea extract a significant increase in the mean lifespan (+ 3.3 days) and the 50% survival (+ 4.3 days) as well as improved fitness was detected. These effects went along an increased expression of Spargel, the homolog of mammalian PGC1α, which has been reported to affect lifespan in flies. Intriguingly, in flies, treatment with the green tea extract decreased glucose concentrations, which were accompanied by an inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Computational docking analysis proved the potential of EGCG to dock into the substrate binding pocket of α-amylase and to a greater extent into α-glucosidase. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EGCG downregulates insulin-like peptide 5 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, major regulators of glucose metabolism, as well as the Drosophila homolog of leptin, unpaired 2. We propose that a decrease in glucose metabolism in connection with an upregulated expression of Spargel contribute to the better fitness and the extended lifespan in EGCG-treated flies. PMID:26375250

  14. Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure for 28 days affects glucose homeostasis and induces insulin hypersensitivity in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shengmin; Zhang, Hongxia; Zheng, Fei; Sheng, Nan; Guo, Xuejiang; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used in many applications due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Because of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndromes, including obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, concern has arisen about the roles of environmental pollutants in such diseases. Earlier epidemiologic studies showed a potential association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and glucose metabolism, but how PFOA influences glucose homeostasis is still unknown. Here, we report on the modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-serine/threonine protein kinase (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway in the livers of mice after 28 d of exposure to PFOA. Compared with normal mice, PFOA exposure significantly decreased the expression of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein and affected the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in the liver. Tolerance tests further indicated that PFOA exposure induced higher insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that PFOA exposure reduced hepatic glycogen synthesis, which might be attributed to gluconeogenesis inhibition. The levels of several circulating proteins were altered after PFOA exposure, including proteins potentially related to diabetes and liver disease. Our results suggest that PFOA affected glucose metabolism and induced insulin hypersensitivity in mice.

  15. Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure for 28 days affects glucose homeostasis and induces insulin hypersensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shengmin; Zhang, Hongxia; Zheng, Fei; Sheng, Nan; Guo, Xuejiang; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used in many applications due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Because of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndromes, including obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, concern has arisen about the roles of environmental pollutants in such diseases. Earlier epidemiologic studies showed a potential association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and glucose metabolism, but how PFOA influences glucose homeostasis is still unknown. Here, we report on the modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-serine/threonine protein kinase (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway in the livers of mice after 28 d of exposure to PFOA. Compared with normal mice, PFOA exposure significantly decreased the expression of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein and affected the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in the liver. Tolerance tests further indicated that PFOA exposure induced higher insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that PFOA exposure reduced hepatic glycogen synthesis, which might be attributed to gluconeogenesis inhibition. The levels of several circulating proteins were altered after PFOA exposure, including proteins potentially related to diabetes and liver disease. Our results suggest that PFOA affected glucose metabolism and induced insulin hypersensitivity in mice. PMID:26066376

  16. Blood glucose self-monitoring in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of patients' perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret; Lawton, Julia

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose is controversial in the management of type 2 diabetes. Some research suggests that self-monitoring improves glycaemic control, whereas other research is sceptical about its value for people with type 2 diabetes who are not on insulin. Although blood glucose meters are widely available and used by this group, patients' own views are absent from the debate. AIM: To explore the pros and cons of glucose monitoring from the patients' perspectives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative repeat-interview study. SETTING: Patients were recruited from 16 general practices and three hospital clinics within four local healthcare cooperatives in Lothian, Scotland. METHOD: Interview data from 40 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within the previous 6 months were analysed using thematic analysis informed by grounded theory. We report findings from round 1 and round 2 interviews. RESULTS: Glucose monitoring can heighten patients' awareness of the impact of lifestyle; for example, dietary choices, on blood glucose levels. Glucose monitoring amplifies a sense of 'success' or 'failure' about self-management, often resulting in anxiety and self-blame if glucose readings remain consistently high. Moreover, monitoring can negatively effect patients' self-management when readings are counter-intuitive. CONCLUSION: Our analysis highlights the importance of understanding the meanings that newly diagnosed patients attach to glucose self-monitoring. To maximise the positive effects of self-monitoring, health professionals should ensure that patients understand the purpose of monitoring and should clarify with patients how readings should be interpreted. PMID:15006123

  17. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  18. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M L; Singh, P

    2015-09-01

    The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  19. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  20. Blood concentrations of lactate, glucose and corticosterone in dispersing hatchling sea turtles

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carla M.; Booth, David T.; Bradley, Adrian J.; Limpus, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Natal dispersal of sea turtles is an energetically demanding activity that is fuelled primarily by aerobic metabolism. However, during intense exercise reptiles can use anaerobic metabolism to supplement their energy requirements. We assessed anaerobic metabolism in dispersing hatchling loggerhead and flatback turtles by measuring the concentrations of blood lactate during crawling and at different times during the first four hours of their frenzy swim. We also measured concentrations of blood glucose and corticosterone. Blood lactate (12.13 to 2.03 mmol/L), glucose (6.25 to 3.8 mmol/L) and corticosterone (8.13 to 2.01 ng/mL) concentrations decreased significantly over time in both loggerhead and flatback hatchlings and no significant differences were found between the species. These results indicate that anaerobic metabolism makes a significant contribution to the dispersal phase of hatchling sea turtles during the beach crawl and the first few hours of the frenzy swim. PMID:23336077

  1. Genetic Mapping of Novel Loci Affecting Canine Blood Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    White, Michelle E.; Hayward, Jessica J.; Stokol, Tracy; Boyko, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the dog genome and the construction of high-quality genome-wide SNP arrays, thousands of dogs have been genotyped for disease studies. For many of these dogs, additional clinical phenotypes are available, such as hematological and clinical chemistry results collected during routine veterinary care. Little is known about the genetic basis of variation in blood phenotypes, but this variation may play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases. From a cohort of dogs that had been previously genotyped on a semi-custom Illumina CanineHD array for various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) at Cornell University Hospital for Animals, we chose 353 clinically healthy, adult dogs for our analysis of clinical pathologic test results (14 hematological tests and 25 clinical chemistry tests). After correcting for age, body weight and sex, genetic associations were identified for amylase, segmented neutrophils, urea nitrogen, glucose, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Additionally, a strong genetic association (P = 8.1×10−13) was evident between a region of canine chromosome 13 (CFA13) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), explaining 23% of the variation in ALT levels. This region of CFA13 encompasses the GPT gene that encodes the transferase. Dogs homozygous for the derived allele exhibit lower ALT activity, making increased ALT activity a less useful marker of hepatic injury in these individuals. Overall, these associations provide a roadmap for identifying causal variants that could improve interpretation of clinical blood tests and understanding of genetic risk factors associated with diseases such as canine diabetes and anemia, and demonstrate the utility of holistic phenotyping of dogs genotyped for disease mapping studies. PMID:26683458

  2. New Approaches to Display of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Data

    PubMed Central

    Rodbard, David

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a need for improved methods for display and analysis of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data to facilitate identification of clinical problems, assist the clinician in the interpretation of daily patterns and longitudinal trends, serve as a guide to locating the most important segments of logbook data, and permit rapid analysis of the patient's pattern of glucose monitoring. Methods We developed prototype software to display SMBG data in a two-dimensional color-coded array: Time of day is displayed on the horizontal axis; date or sequential day is displayed on the vertical axis. Each glucose value is shown by a color-coded symbol categorizing it as “very high,” “high,” “within target range,” “low,” or “very low.” The number of categories and their ranges can be defined by the user, and different target ranges and limits for the categories can be used for different times of day. Placing the cursor over any observation activates a “pop-up box” showing the date, day of week, time of day, glucose value, and ancillary information. Several options and variations are available. Results This new type of display is compact, serves as a guide to assist the physician in locating the most important segments of the logbook, and permits display of glucose data from 90 or more days in a chart as small as 4 by 4 inches. This analysis permits rapid identification of measurements that are above or below the target range and facilitates rapid evaluation of patterns observed on different days or days of the week. Conclusion These new approaches complement other popular graphical displays by conveying information efficiently and effectively to the physician, other health care providers, the patient, and family caregivers in a new and novel, concise, standardized yet flexible format. PMID:20144425

  3. Patient and healthcare professional satisfaction with a new, high accuracy blood glucose meter with color range indicator and wireless connectivity.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laurence B; Grady, Mike; Stewart, Lorna; Cameron, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. The OneTouch VerioFlex(™) (OTVF) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) was evaluated for accuracy in a clinical setting. Patients also used OTVF for a 1-wk trial period and reported their level of satisfaction with meter features. In a separate study, healthcare professionals used an on-line simulator of the BGMS and answered questions about its potential utility to their patients. OTVF was accurate over a wide glucose range and met lay user and system accuracy blood glucose standards described in ISO15197:2013 as well as the accuracy requirements to fulfill US FDA expectations for 510(k) clearance of BGMS. Patients and healthcare professionals felt the features of OTVF, which has the capability to connect wirelessly to mobile devices and interact wirelessly with diabetes management software, could provide significant benefits to them or their patients. PMID:27232211

  4. Parathyroidectomy Ameliorates Glucose and Blood Pressure Control in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism, Type 2 Diabetes, and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alok; Singh, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Effect of parathyroidectomy on glucose control and hypertension is controversial. Here, we report a case of a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension in whom parathyroidectomy ameliorated both glucose control and blood pressure. Once high serum calcium levels were noticed, ultrasonography of neck confirmed a well-defined oval hypoechoic mass posterior to the right lobe of the thyroid, confirmed by scintiscan. Parathyroidectomy resulted in improvement of blood pressure and blood glucose. We could stop insulin and antihypertensive medications. We conclude that in patients with type 2 diabetes with vague complaints like fatigue, body ache, and refractory hypertension, as a part of the diagnostic workup, clinicians should also check serum calcium levels and parathyroid hormone to rule out hyperparathyroidism. Correction of hyperparathyroidism may result in improvement of hypertension and glucose control. PMID:26380561

  5. Self monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: longitudinal qualitative study of patients' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Margaret; Lawton, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore views of patients with type 2 diabetes about self monitoring of blood glucose over time. Design Longitudinal, qualitative study. Setting Primary and secondary care settings across Lothian, Scotland. Participants 18 patients with type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures Results from repeat in-depth interviews with patients over four years after clinical diagnosis. Results Analysis revealed three main themes—the role of health professionals, interpreting readings and managing high values, and the ongoing role of blood glucose self monitoring. Self monitoring decreased over time, and health professionals' behaviour seemed crucial in this: participants interpreted doctors' focus on levels of haemoglobin A1c, and lack of perceived interest in meter readings, as indicating that self monitoring was not worth continuing. Some participants saw readings as a proxy measure of good and bad behaviour—with women especially, chastising themselves when readings were high. Some participants continued to find readings difficult to interpret, with uncertainty about how to respond to high readings. Reassurance and habit were key reasons for continuing. There was little indication that participants were using self monitoring to effect and maintain behaviour change. Conclusions Clinical uncertainty about the efficacy and role of blood glucose self monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes is mirrored in patients' own accounts. Patients tended not to act on their self monitoring results, in part because of a lack of education about the appropriate response to readings. Health professionals should be explicit about whether and when such patients should self monitor and how they should interpret and act upon the results, especially high readings. PMID:17761996

  6. A Multicenter Performance Evaluation of a Blood Glucose Monitoring System in 21 Leading Hospitals in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bedini, José Luis; Wallace, Jane F.; Petruschke, Thorsten; Pardo, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose is crucial for the effective self-management of diabetes. The present study evaluated the accuracy of the Contour® XT blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) compared to the reference method in a large multicenter study under routine lab conditions at each hospital site. Methods: This study was conducted at 21 leading hospitals in Spain using leftover whole blood samples (n = 2100). Samples were tested with the BGMS using 1 commercial strip lot and the local laboratory hexokinase method. BGMS accuracy was assessed and results were compared to ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria and by using mean absolute relative difference analysis (MARD), consensus (Parkes) error grid (CEG), and surveillance error grid analyses (SEG). Results: Pooled analysis of 2100 measurements from all sites showed that 99.43% of the BGMS results were within the ranges accepted by the accuracy limit criteria. The overall MARD was 3.85%. MARD was 4.47% for glucose concentrations < 70 mg/dL and 3.81% for concentrations of 70-300 mg/dL. In CEG, most results (99.8%) were within zone A (“no effect on clinical action”); the remaining ones (0.2%) were in zone B (“little to no effect on clinical action”). The SEG analysis showed that most of the results (98.4%) were in the “no risk” zone, with the remaining results in the “slight, lower” risk zone. Conclusions: This is the largest multicenter study of Contour XT BGMS to date, and shows that this BGMS meets the ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria under local routine conditions in 21 leading Spanish hospitals. PMID:26253142

  7. D-Fagomine lowers postprandial blood glucose and modulates bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Livia; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Calvo-Torras, María Ángeles; Adelantado, Carles; Juan, M Emília; Planas, Joana M; Cañas, Xavier; Lozano, Carles; Pumarola, Sergio; Clapés, Pere; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-06-01

    D-Fagomine is an iminosugar originally isolated from seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum sculentum Moench), present in the human diet and now available as a pure crystalline product. We tested D-fagomine for activities connected to a reduction in the risk of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The activities were: intestinal sucrase inhibition in vitro (rat mucosa and everted intestine sleeves), modulation of postprandial blood glucose in rats, bacterial agglutination and bacterial adhesion to pig intestinal mucosa. When ingested together with sucrose or starch, D-fagomine lowered blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner without stimulating insulin secretion. D-Fagomine reduced the area under the curve (0-120 min) by 20 % (P < 0·01) and shifted the time to maximum blood glucose concentration (Tmax) by 15 min at doses of 1-2 mg/kg body weight when administered together with 1 g sucrose/kg body weight. Moreover, D-fagomine (0·14 mm) agglutinated 60 % of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) populations (P < 0·01), while it did not show this effect on Bifidobacterium spp. or Lactobacillus spp. At the same concentration, d-fagomine significantly (P < 0·001) inhibited the adhesion of Enterobacteriaceae (95-99 % cells in the supernatant) and promoted the adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus (56 % cells in the supernatant) to intestinal mucosa. D-Fagomine did not show any effect on bacterial cell viability. Based on all this evidence, D-fagomine may be used as a dietary ingredient or functional food component to reduce the health risks associated with an excessive intake of fast-digestible carbohydrates, or an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. PMID:22017795

  8. Perinatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Affects Glucose Metabolism in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hin T.; Zhao, Yin G.; Leung, Pik Y.; Wong, Chris K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally present in the environment and are widely distributed in human populations and wildlife. The chemicals are ubiquitous in human body fluids and have a long serum elimination half-life. The notorious member of PFAAs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is prioritized as a global concerning chemical at the Stockholm Convention in 2009, due to its harmful effects in mammals and aquatic organisms. PFOS is known to affect lipid metabolism in adults and was found to be able to cross human placenta. However the effects of in utero exposure to the susceptibility of metabolic disorders in offspring have not yet been elucidated. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were fed with 0, 0.3 or 3 mg PFOS/kg body weight/day in corn oil by oral gavage daily throughout gestational and lactation periods. We investigated the immediate effects of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism in both maternal and offspring after weaning (PND 21). To determine if the perinatal exposure predisposes the risk for metabolic disorder to the offspring, weaned animals without further PFOS exposure, were fed with either standard or high-fat diet until PND 63. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured while HOMA-IR index and glucose AUCs were reported. Our data illustrated the first time the effects of the environmental equivalent dose of PFOS exposure on the disturbance of glucose metabolism in F1 pups and F1 adults at PND 21 and 63, respectively. Although the biological effects of PFOS on the elevated levels of fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were observed in both pups and adults of F1, the phenotypes of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were only evident in the F1 adults. The effects were exacerbated under HFD, highlighting the synergistic action at postnatal growth on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:24498028

  9. The impact of high-dose vitamin C on blood glucose testing in ¹⁸F-FDG PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Rebekah L; Wilson, Don C

    2015-03-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies in addition to standard oncology protocols are commonly sought by cancer patients; however, few patients disclose their complementary treatments to their cancer care team. A lack of communication may result in unforeseen side effects and the potential for some alternative therapies to interfere with or inhibit conventional treatment. High-dose vitamin C therapy, in particular, may lead to an inability to measure a patient's blood glucose level before (18)F-FDG injection for PET/CT scanning. We report a case of a 52-y-old woman referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent colorectal cancer. The PET/CT scan immediately followed a single intravenous dose of 25 g of ascorbic acid from her naturopath. A glucometer that applies the glucose oxidase method for measuring fasting blood glucose was used, for which high doses of vitamin C are listed as a contraindication. The high concentration of ascorbic acid in the patient's blood sample interfered with the chemical reaction on the glucose strip, and therefore no blood glucose measurement could be attained. With more patients receiving alternative and complementary cancer therapies, it is important to know what the implications of orthomolecular therapy might be on routine blood glucose testing for (18)F-FDG PET scans. (18)F-FDG is in direct competition with glucose; therefore, elevated blood glucose levels will cause a decrease in (18)F-FDG absorption and may lead to a false-negative scan. PMID:25104819

  10. [The blood glucose content in newborn rats depending on level and pattern of spontaneous motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, S V; Selina, E N; Kuznetsova, N N

    2011-01-01

    Earlier we have shown that administration to newborn rats of the pentose phosphate cycle inhibitor hydroquinone leads to a change in intensity and pattern of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA) characteristic of early stages of development. The most typical was the disappearance of the rest period from the near-minute cycle "activity--rest" and the appearance of uninterrupted motor activity. In several cases, especially after 10 days of development, there was noted an enhancement in the SMPA pattern of the motor activity complexes following in the decasecond rhythm. In this study, on the 3-10-day old rats maintained under conditions of free behavior there was studied the blood glucose content in the animals at various periods of the activity-rest cycle. Apart from the SPMA phase, its composition (pattern) characterizing the maturity level and functional state of spinal motor centers was taken into account. In the 3, 7 and 10-day old rats at the rest period, the glucose concentration was established to differ depending on the motor activity pattern. In the case of the decasecond periodicity, it amounts to 5.7 +/- 0.2, 6.3 +/- +/- 0.3, and 7.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/l, while at the minute one--6.1 +/- 0.4, 7.8 +/- 0.3, and 7.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l. At the moment of bursts of motor excitation, the glucose concentration falls to 5.2 +/- 0.1, 6.1 +/- 0.4, and 7.1 +/- +/- 0.3 mm at the decasecond and to 5.4 +/- 0.5, 6.7 +/- 0.2, and 7.6 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at the near-minute rhythm (for the 3, 7 and 10-day old animals, respectively). The results obtained on the 5-day rat pups differ qualitatively from those observed in other age groups. Thus, the glucose concentration at the rest period amounts to 6.8 +/- 0.2 at the decasecond and to 6.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/l at the nearminute periodicity. At the period of motor excitation accompanied by the presence of the decasecond activity rhythm, the glucose concentration falls to the level of 6.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l by differing statistically significantly

  11. Molecular Weight Dependent Glucose Lowering Effect of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan Oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) on Postprandial Blood Glucose Level in SD Rats Model

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Sung-Hoon; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Jong-Gwan; Oh, Chen-Gum; Kim, Young-Cheul; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Kwon, Young-In

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of enzymatically digested low molecular weight (MW) chitosan oligosaccharide on type 2 diabetes prevention. Three different chitosan oligosaccharide samples with varying MW were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic α-amylase (GO2KA1; <1000 Da, GO2KA2; 1000–10,000 Da, GO2KA3; MW > 10,000 Da). The in vitro results showed that all tested samples had similar rat α-glucosidase inhibitory and porcine α-amylase inhibitory activity. Based on these observations, we decided to further investigate the effect of all three samples at a dose of 0.1 g/kg, on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model after sucrose loading test. In the animal trial, all tested samples had postprandial blood glucose reduction effect, when compared to control, however GO2KA1 supplementation had the strongest effect. The glucose peak (Cmax) for GO2KA1 and control was 152 mg/dL and 193 mg/dL, respectively. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUC) for GO2KA1 and control was 262 h mg/dL and 305 h mg/dL, respectively. Furthermore, the time of peak plasma concentration of blood glucose (Tmax) for GO2KA1 was significantly delayed (0.9 h) compared to control (0.5 h). These results suggest that GO2KA1 could have a beneficial effect for blood glucose management relevant to diabetes prevention in normal and pre-diabetic individuals. The suggested mechanism of action is via inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolysis enzyme α-glucosidase and since GO2KA1 (MW < 1000 Da) had higher in vivo effect, we hypothesize that it is more readily absorbed and might exert further biological effect once it is absorbed in the blood stream, relevant to blood glucose management. PMID:23839092

  12. Inhibition of local blood flow control systems in the mammary glands of lactating cows affects uptakes of energy metabolites from blood.

    PubMed

    Madsen, T G; Cieslar, S R L; Trout, D R; Nielsen, M O; Cant, J P

    2015-05-01

    To test the effect of mammary blood flow on net uptakes of milk precursors by the mammary glands, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) were infused into the mammary circulation of 4 lactating cows. Inhibitors were infused in a 4×4 Latin square design, where treatments were infusion for 1 h of saline, NOS inhibitor (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride), COX inhibitor (indomethacin), or both NOS + COX inhibitors into one external iliac artery. Para-aminohippuric acid was also infused to allow for estimation of iliac plasma flow (IPF), of which approximately 80% flows to the mammary glands. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after inhibitor infusion from the contralateral external iliac artery and ipsilateral mammary vein. Inhibition of COX and NOS each produced a decrease in IPF, although the NOS effect was smaller and IPF continued to be depressed throughout the recovery period. The combination of COX and NOS inhibition produced a 50% depression in IPF and there was no carryover into the recovery period. Treatments that depressed IPF also increased arterial concentrations of acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose. Similarly, arteriovenous differences of acetate, BHBA, and glucose were all increased during IPF depression. To correct for a potential effect of arterial concentration, arteriovenous differences were normalized to arterial concentration, producing an extraction percentage. Inhibition of COX increased glucose extraction and tended to increase acetate and BHBA extraction. Dual inhibition only increased BHBA extraction and had no effect on mammary extraction of other metabolites. These extractions did not increase because clearances of glucose and TAG decreased as IPF decreased, and clearances of acetate and BHBA tended to decrease. Net uptake of TAG was depressed by dual NOS/COX inhibition, whereas uptakes of acetate, BHBA, and glucose were not affected by any of the treatments. To separate

  13. Blood glucose concentration and risk of pancreatic cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Chih; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations between blood glucose and risk of pancreatic cancer. Design Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Data sources Search of PubMed, Scopus, and related reviews before 30 November 2013 without language restriction. Eligibility criteria Prospective studies evaluating the association between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic cancer. Retrospective and cross sectional studies excluded to avoid reverse causality. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted relevant information and assessed study quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Random effects dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to assess potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations. Results Nine studies were included for analysis, with a total of 2408 patients with pancreatic cancer. There was a strong linear dose-response association between fasting blood glucose concentration and the rate of pancreatic cancer across the range of prediabetes and diabetes. No non-linear association was detected. The pooled rate ratio of pancreatic cancer per 0.56 mmol/L (10 mg/dL) increase in fasting blood glucose was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001) without significant heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis excluding blood glucose categories in the range of diabetes showed similar results (pooled rate ratio per 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose was 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.27; P=0.003), strengthening the association between prediabetes and pancreatic cancer. Conclusions Every 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose is associated with a 14% increase in the rate of pancreatic cancer. As prediabetes can be improved or even reversed through lifestyle changes, early detection of prediabetes coupled with lifestyle changes could represent a viable strategy to curb the increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer. PMID

  14. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  15. Energetic Atomic and Ionic Oxygen Textured Optical Surfaces for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting of a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  16. Promotive effect of comprehensive management on achieving blood glucose control in senile type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Yan, S-T; Li, C-X; Li, C-L; Li, J; Shao, Y-H; Liu, Y; Zhong, W-W; Fang, F-S; Sun, B-R; Tian, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the control of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and its influencing factors, in elderly type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients undergoing comprehensive management. After years of comprehensive prevention of and control measures for diabetes, elderly T2DM patients who were receiving long-term health care were comprehensively evaluated through an annual physical examination. In addition to routine health examination, the patients were required to undergo HbA1c measurement. Among 688 patients, 652 were men and 36 were women, with a mean age of 78.2 ± 9.1 years. The average HbA1c was 6.6 ± 0.9%. A total of 50.6% of the patients had HbA1c <6.5%, whereas 76.3% had HbA1c <7.0%. Among all patients, 77.1, 46.4, 66.1, 67.8, 36.3, and 57.4% achieved the target total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) levels, respectively. The duration of disease and type of treatment, as well as the LDL, HDL, TG, BMI, and blood pressure levels, were significantly associated with HbA1c control. No patient was admitted because of ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma in 10 years. Approximately half of the T2DM patients achieved the target HbA1c level. The more effective blood glucose control observed in our study compared with previous studies can be attributed to the effective monitoring of medical conditions and comprehensive management of patients. PMID:25966070

  17. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p < 0.005) while for samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days. PMID:27103895

  18. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p < 0.005) while for samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days. PMID:27103895

  19. Prognostic Value of Admission Blood Glucose in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shichao; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Li, Hao; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Li

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate prognostic value of elevated admission blood glucose (ABG) for clinical outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a representative large cohort. Data of ICH patients with onset time ≤24 h were derived from the China National Stroke Registry. Clinical outcomes included 3-month poor outcome (death or dependency) and death. Logistic regression was performed for the association between ABG and clinical outcomes, both in the entire cohort and in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. 2951 ICH patients were enrolled, including 267 (9.0%) diabetics. In the entire cohort, there was a trend to increased risk of poor outcome with increasing ABG levels (adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15; P < 0.001). The risk of poor outcome was significantly greatest for the highest quartile (≥7.53 mmol/L) of ABG (adjusted OR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.17-2.03; p = 0.002, P for trend 0.004). We got similar association in non-diabetics but not in diabetics. Elevated ABG confers a higher risk of poor outcome in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. Elevated ABG is an independent predictor of 3-month poor outcome in ICH patients, the prognostic value of which is greater in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. PMID:27562114

  20. Prognostic Value of Admission Blood Glucose in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shichao; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Li, Hao; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Li

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate prognostic value of elevated admission blood glucose (ABG) for clinical outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a representative large cohort. Data of ICH patients with onset time ≤24 h were derived from the China National Stroke Registry. Clinical outcomes included 3-month poor outcome (death or dependency) and death. Logistic regression was performed for the association between ABG and clinical outcomes, both in the entire cohort and in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. 2951 ICH patients were enrolled, including 267 (9.0%) diabetics. In the entire cohort, there was a trend to increased risk of poor outcome with increasing ABG levels (adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.15; P < 0.001). The risk of poor outcome was significantly greatest for the highest quartile (≥7.53 mmol/L) of ABG (adjusted OR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.17–2.03; p = 0.002, P for trend 0.004). We got similar association in non-diabetics but not in diabetics. Elevated ABG confers a higher risk of poor outcome in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. Elevated ABG is an independent predictor of 3-month poor outcome in ICH patients, the prognostic value of which is greater in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. PMID:27562114

  1. Neuronal response of the hippocampal formation to injury: blood flow, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kameyama, M.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Ackermann, R.F.; Finch, D.; Lear, J.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1983-02-01

    The reaction of the hippocampal formation to entorhinal lesions was studied from the viewpoints of cerebral blood flow ((/sup 123/I)isopropyl-iodoamphetamine(IMP))-glucose utilization ((/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose), and protein synthesis ((/sup 14/C)leucine), using single- and double-label autoradiography. Researchers' studies showed decreased glucose utilization in the inner part, and increased glucose utilization in the outer part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, starting 3 days after the lesion; increased uptake of (/sup 123/I)IMP around the lesion from 1 to 3 days postlesion; and starting 3 days after the lesion, marked decrease in (/sup 14/C)leucine incorporation into proteins and cell loss in the dorsal CA1 and dorsal subiculum in about one-half of the rats. These changes were present only in animals with lesions which invaded the ventral hippocampal formation in which axons of CA1 cells travel. By contrast, transsection of the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves resulted, 3 to 9 days after injury, in a striking increase in protein synthesis in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. These results raise the possibility that in some neurons the failure of central regeneration may result from the cell's inability to increase its rate of protein synthesis in response to axonal injury.

  2. Diabetes Technology: Markers, Monitoring, Assessment, and Control of Blood Glucose Fluctuations in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2012-01-01

    People with diabetes face a life-long optimization problem: to maintain strict glycemic control without increasing their risk for hypoglycemia. Since the discovery of insulin in 1921, the external regulation of diabetes by engineering means has became a hallmark of this optimization. Diabetes technology has progressed remarkably over the past 50 years—a progress that includes the development of markers for diabetes control, sophisticated monitoring techniques, mathematical models, assessment procedures, and control algorithms. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was introduced in 1999 and has evolved from means for retroactive review of blood glucose profiles to versatile reliable devices, which monitor the course of glucose fluctuations in real time and provide interactive feedback to the patient. Technology integrating CGM with insulin pumps is now available, opening the field for automated closed-loop control, known as the artificial pancreas. Following a number of in-clinic trials, the quest for a wearable ambulatory artificial pancreas is under way, with a first prototype tested in outpatient setting during the past year. This paper discusses key milestones of diabetes technology development, focusing on the progress in the past 10 years and on the artificial pancreas—still not a cure, but arguably the most promising treatment of diabetes to date. PMID:24278682

  3. Value of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Pattern Analysis in Improving Diabetes Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, Christopher G.; Davidson, Jaime A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important adjunct to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. This action can distinguish between fasting, preprandial, and postprandial hyperglycemia; detect glycemic excursions; identify and monitor resolution of hypoglycemia; and provide immediate feedback to patients about the effect of food choices, activity, and medication on glycemic control. Pattern analysis is a systematic approach to identifying glycemic patterns within SMBG data and then taking appropriate action based upon those results. The use of pattern analysis involves: (1) establishing pre- and postprandial glucose targets; (2) obtaining data on glucose levels, carbohydrate intake, medication administration (type, dosages, timing), activity levels and physical/emotional stress; (3) analyzing data to identify patterns of glycemic excursions, assessing any influential factors, and implementing appropriate action(s); and (4) performing ongoing SMBG to assess the impact of any therapeutic changes made. Computer-based and paper-based data collection and management tools can be developed to perform pattern analysis for identifying patterns in SMBG data. This approach to interpreting SMBG data facilitates rational therapeutic adjustments in response to this information. Pattern analysis of SMBG data can be of equal or greater value than measurement of HbA1c levels. PMID:20144288

  4. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

  5. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of glucocorticoid system.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-10-01

    The possible involvement of glucocorticoid system in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. In the first experiment, mice were treated intrathecally (i.t.) with IL-1β (100 pg). Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (hypothalamus) and c-Fos mRNA (pituitary gland, spinal cord, and the adrenal gland) levels were measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after IL-1β administration. We found that i.t. injection with IL-1β increased CRH mRNA level in the hypothalamus. The IL-1β administered i.t. elevated c-Fos mRNA levels in the spinal cord, pituitary and adrenal glands. Furthermore, i.t. administration of IL-1β significantly increased the plasma corticosterone level up to 60 min. In addition, the adrenalectomy caused the reductions of the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β injected i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with RU486 (100mg/kg) attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level and pain behavior via an activation of the glucocorticoid system. PMID:23773309

  6. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    PubMed

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals. PMID:24171932

  7. Practical approaches for self-monitoring of blood glucose: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ji, Linong; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Yu, Neng-Chun; Tan, Eng Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Comprehensive glycemic control is necessary to improve outcomes and avoid complications in individuals with diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key enabler of glycemic assessment, providing real-time information that complements HbA1c monitoring and supports treatment optimization. However, SMBG is under-utilized by patients and physicians within the Asia-Pacific region, because of barriers such as the cost of monitoring supplies, lack of diabetes self-management skills, or concerns about the reliability of blood glucose readings. Practice recommendations in international and regional guidelines vary widely, and may not be detailed or specific enough to guide SMBG use effectively. This contributes to uncertainty among patients and physicians about how best to utilize this tool: when and how often to test, and what action(s) to take in response to high or low readings. In developing a practical SMBG regimen, the first step is to determine the recommended SMBG frequency and intensity needed to support the chosen treatment regimen. If there are practical obstacles to monitoring, such as affordability or access, physicians should identify the most important aspects of glycemic control to target for individual patients, and modify monitoring patterns accordingly. This consensus paper proposes a selection of structured, flexible SMBG patterns that can be tailored to the clinical, educational, behavioral, and financial requirements of individuals with diabetes. PMID:25629789

  8. Accuracy in blood glucose measurement: what will a tightening of requirements yield?

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Lodwig, Volker; Freckmann, Guido

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays, almost all persons with diabetes--at least those using antidiabetic drug therapy--use one of a plethora of meters commercially available for self-monitoring of blood glucose. The accuracy of blood glucose (BG) measurement using these meters has been presumed to be adequate; that is, the accuracy of these devices was not usually questioned until recently. Health authorities in the United States (Food and Drug Administration) and in other countries are currently endeavoring to tighten the requirements for the accuracy of these meters above the level that is currently stated in the standard ISO 15197. At first glance, this does not appear to be a problem and is hardly worth further consideration, but a closer look reveals a considerable range of critical aspects that will be discussed in this commentary. In summary, one could say that as a result of modern production methods and ongoing technical advances, the demands placed on the quality of measurement results obtained with BG meters can be increased to a certain degree. One should also take into consideration that the system accuracy (which covers many more aspects as the analytical accuracy) required to make correct therapeutical decisions certainly varies for different types of therapy. At the end, in addition to analytical accuracy, thorough and systematic training of patients and regular refresher training is important to minimize errors. Only under such circumstances will patients make appropriate therapeutic interventions to optimize and maintain metabolic control. PMID:22538158

  9. Effect of atorvastatin and hydroxychloroquine combination on blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Anil; Yeole, P.G.; Tenpe, C.R.; Chandurkar, Nitin; Payghan, Ravikiran

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of atorvastatin and hydroxychloroquine combination in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Alloxan induced diabetic Wistar male rats were randomized into six groups of 6 rats each. (Normal rats, diabetic control, atorvastatin (ATV), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), ATV 5 mg /kg + HCQ 100 mg/kg, and ATV 10 mg/kg + HCQ 200 mg/kg). The rats were treated for 9 days and blood samples were collected at baseline and end of therapy. These samples were analyzed for plasma glucose by autoanalyzer. Changes in body weight, water, food intakes and total protein content were also recorded. Results: Atorvastatin and hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination reported significant fall in blood glucose level from baseline. Fall in glucose level was significantly more in high dose combination of atorvastatin and hydroxychloroquine (ATV: 10 mg/kg + HCQ: 200 mg/kg) as compared to other study treatment groups (ATV: 17% Vs HCQ: 7% Vs ATV 5mg/kg + HCQ 100mg /kg: 14% Vs ATV 10mg/kg + HCQ 200mg /kg: 21%; p<0.01). ATV and HCQ individually and in combination also improved the body weight loss. The weight gain was significantly more in combination treated rats as compared to positive control group and greater than those who received atorvastatin and hydroxychloroquine alone. Rats treated with the combination also reported significant decrease in food intake and significant increase in total protein. Conclusion: Increased hypoglycemic effect in combination may be due to potentiation or synergism between HCQ and ATV. Further studies are required to demonstrate clinically significant antidiabetic effect. PMID:20442820

  10. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yutian; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Yuhan; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Shili; Zhang, Huiping; Jiang, Lingling; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI) than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn), potassium (K), copper (Ca), and sodium (Na) as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05) were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se), and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038). Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33). Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98) but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02). Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95% CI = 1

  11. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors in Sana’a City, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nood, Hafiz A.; Bazara, Fakiha A.; Al-Absi, Rashad; Habori, Molham AL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among Yemeni people from different regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a, giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemeni male blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank at the National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in the capital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used for screening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activity and separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype. Results Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into the study, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiency prevalence of 7.1%. None of these deficient donors had history of anemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2%) showed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10% of normal activity), and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PD-Mediterranean variant. Conclusion The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiency type in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could represent an important health problem through occurrence of hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed to determine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and should be extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen. PMID:22359725

  12. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs’ treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs’ treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS. PMID:26730190

  13. Bedside monitoring of subcutaneous interstitial glucose in type 1 diabetic subjects using microdialysis and infrared spectrometry with optimal correlation to blood glucose concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Damm, Uwe; Kondepati, Venkata R.; Mader, J. K.; Ellmerer, M.

    2007-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been successfully employed in multi-component assays for the study of various biomedical samples. Two areas have found particular interest, i.e. in-vitro analysis in the clinical laboratory and point-of-care applications. With regard to the latter field, in-vivo blood glucose monitoring is an important topic for improving glycemic control in critically ill patients with non-adequate blood glucose regulation, similar to the situation faced for diabetic patients. For such application, a continuously operated mid-infrared spectroscopic system in combination with a subcutaneously implanted microdialysis probe and coupled by micro-fluidics has been developed. Using the dialysis process, the interstitial fluid matrix can be significantly simplified, since high molecular mass compounds such as proteins are separated. However, the micro-dialysis recovery rate is variable over time, so that a simultaneous determination of this parameter was implemented using the losses of an acetate marker from the perfusate across the dialysis membrane. Clinical measurements were carried out on type 1 diabetic subjects, with experiments lasting up to 28 hours. The concentrations of glucose, acetate and other components in the dialysates from interstitial body fluids were investigated. Two different multivariate calibration strategies, i.e. partial least squares (PLS) and classical least squares (CLS) regressions were applied. The results led to excellent correlation of the subcutaneous interstitial concentrations with those of laboratory blood glucose readings. Clarke-Error-Grid evaluations were employed for assessing the clinical applicability of the method.

  14. A paper disk equipped with graphene/polyaniline/Au nanoparticles/glucose oxidase biocomposite modified screen-printed electrode: toward whole blood glucose determination.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fen-Ying; Gu, Sai-Xi; Li, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ting-Ting; Xu, Qin; Wang, Wei

    2014-06-15

    In this work, a convenient, fast, low cost, small sample volume and in situ detection of glucose in human whole blood has been developed by using a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) coupled with a paper disk. To perform the assay, the SPCE was modified with graphene/polyaniline/Au nanoparticles/glucose oxidase (Gr/PANI/AuNPs/GOD) biocomposite and then covered by a paper disk impregnated with the sample. After introducing PBS on the paper disk, the electrochemical measurement was carried out. The assay was based on measuring the current decrease of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in GOD provoked by the enzyme-substrate reaction using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The analytical performance was comparable to conventional methods, and covered the full range of clinically relevant concentrations of glucose in whole blood. This new paper-based electrochemical glucose sensor shows promise in applying point-of-care (POC) device in whole blood tests, and particularly being appropriate for use in the developing world and in resource-limited settings. PMID:24469540

  15. In Vitro Fertilization Affects Growth and Glucose Metabolism in a Sex-Specific Manner in an Outbred Mouse Model1

    PubMed Central

    Donjacour, Annemarie; Liu, Xiaowei; Lin, Wingka; Simbulan, Rhodel; Rinaudo, Paolo F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The preimplantation period is a time of reprogramming that may be vulnerable to disruption. This question has wide clinical relevance since the number of children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) is rising. To examine this question, outbred mice (CF1 × B6D2F1) conceived by IVF and cultured using Whitten medium and 20% O2 (IVFWM group, less optimal) or K simplex optimized medium with amino acids and 5% O2 (IVFKAA group, more optimal and similar to conditions used in human IVF) were studied postnatally. We found that flushed blastocysts transferred to recipient mice provided the best control group (FB group), as this accounted for the effects of superovulation, embryo transfer, and litter size. We observed that many physiological parameters were normal. Reassuringly, IVFKAA offspring did not differ significantly from FB offspring. However, male IVFWM mice (but not females) were larger during the first 19 wk of life and exhibited glucose intolerance. Male IVFWM mice also showed enlarged left heart despite normal blood pressure. Expression of candidate imprinted genes (H19, Igf2, and Slc38a4) in multiple adult tissues did not show differences among the groups; only Slc38a4 was down-regulated following IVF (in both culture conditions) in female adipose tissue. These studies demonstrate that adult metabolism is affected by the type of conditions encountered during the preimplantation stage. Further, the postnatal growth trajectory and glucose homeostasis following ex vivo manipulation may be sexual dimorphic. Future work on the long-term effects of IVF offspring should focus on glucose metabolism and the cardiovascular system. PMID:24621920

  16. Eukaryotic release factor 1-2 affects Arabidopsis responses to glucose and phytohormones during germination and early seedling development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germination and early seedling development are coordinately regulated by glucose and phytohormones such as ABA, GA and ethylene. However, the molecules that affect plant responses to glucose and phytohormones remain to be fully elucidated. Eukaryotic release factor 1 (eRF1) is responsible for recogn...

  17. Factors affecting myocardial 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in positron emission tomography studies of normal humans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y; Brunken, R C; Hawkins, R A; Huang, S C; Buxton, D B; Hoh, C K; Phelps, M E; Schelbert, H R

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the anatomic and physiologic factors affecting left ventricular myocardial 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake and myocardial glucose utilization rates (MRGlc) in normal humans. Eighteen healthy male volunteers were studied in the fasting state (4-19 h) and 16 after oral glucose loading (100 g dextrose) with positron emission tomography (PET) and FDG. Substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in each study. The kinetics of myocardial FDG uptake were evaluated using both a three-compartment model and Patlak graphical analysis. Systolic blood pressures and rate pressure products were similar in the fasting and postglucose states. MRGlc averaged 0.24 +/- 0.17 mumol/min/g in fasting subjects and rose to 0.69 +/- 0.11 mumol/min/g after glucose loading. Phosphorylation rate constant, k3, and MRGlc were linearly related (P < 0.001). Increases in MRGlc following glucose loading were correlated with plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, ratios of insulin to glucagon levels, and influx rate constants of FDG. Glucose loading improved the diagnostic image quality due to more rapid clearance of tracer from blood and higher myocardial FDG uptake. When MRGlc, glucose and insulin concentrations, and insulin to glucagon ratios exceeded 0.2 mumol/min/g, 100 mg/dl, 19 microU/ml, and 0.2 microU/pg, respectively, myocardial uptake of FDG was always adequate for diagnostic use. FDG image quality and MRGlc were similar after relatively short (6 +/- 2 h) and overnight (16 +/- 2 h) fasting. Significant (P < 0.05) regional heterogeneity of myocardial FDG uptake and MRGlc was observed in both the fasting and the postglucose studies. MRGlc and FDG uptake values in the posterolateral wall were higher than those in the anterior wall and septum. Thus, both 6-h and overnight fasts resulted in similarly low myocardial glucose utilization rates. While MRGlc and myocardial FDG uptake depended on plasma glucose, free

  18. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  19. Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Nondiabetic Hypertensive Nigerians: Role of Fasting and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Okeahialam, B. N.; Muoneme, S. A.; Kolade-Yunusa, H. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) tracks atherosclerotic vascular disease. Hypertension and diabetes chiefly contribute to atherosclerosis with 75% of symptomatic cardiovascular disease cases having dysglycaemia even in normal cases. Hypothesising that postprandial hyperglycaemia contributes to cardiovascular morbidity, we sought to determine if any relationship existed between glycaemic profile in nondiabetic hypertensives and atherosclerosis. Methods. In a study of CIMT in nondiabetic, statin-naïve hypertensives, we evaluated fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2-hour postprandial sugar (2hPPBG) in the patients and compared them with the CIMT. CIMT was measured on both sides, 1 cm proximal to the carotid bulb using a 7.5 mHz transducer of ALOKA SSD-3500 ultrasound machine. Results. The subjects with complete data were 86 (63 F). The mean (SD) of CIMT was 0.89 (0.15) mm, FBG 4.8 (0.097) mmol/L, and 2hPPBG 6.5 (1.81) mmol/L. There was no significant correlation between FBG and 2hPPBG with CIMT. Blood pressure had no bearing on this. When blood glucose data were divided into quartiles and post hoc multiple comparison was done, there was significant difference in CIMT for the different ranges. This was not so for 2hPPBG. Conclusion. Though expected from other studies, we did not show any significant correlation between FBG and 2hPPBG status and CIMT. This may be our pattern as the degree of excursion of 2hPPBG was low. There may be a threshold level above which PPBG starts to impact CIMT. PMID:27144025

  20. Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jafri, M A; Aslam, M; Javed, K; Singh, S

    2000-06-01

    'Gulnar farsi', male abortive flowers of Punica granatum L., are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine. Oral administration of its aqueous-ethanolic (50%, v/v) extract led to significant blood glucose lowering effect in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This effect of the extract was maximum at 400 mg/kg, b.w. PMID:10837992

  1. Does topical phenylephrine, tropicamide, or proparacaine affect macular blood flow?

    PubMed

    Robinson, F; Petrig, B L; Sinclair, S H; Riva, C E; Grunwald, J E

    1985-08-01

    The acute effect of topical phenylephrine HCl 10%, tropicamide 1% and proparacaine HCl 0.5% on macular capillary blood flow was studied in six healthy human volunteers using the blue field simulation technique. This technique provides a method for quantifying the velocity of leukocytes flowing in one's own retinal macular capillaries. Patients adjusted the velocity of computer simulated leukocytes moving on a CRT screen to match that of their own entoptically perceived leukocytes before instillation of each of the tested preparations and for 35 minutes immediately thereafter A 5% NaCl solution was used as a control. We found no significant difference in leukocyte velocity between the control drop and any of the tested drugs. With the six subjects tested, the calculated average minimum percentage change in leukocyte velocity detectable with this technique (P less than 0.05, paired t-test) was 9%. None of the tested drugs affected macular leukocyte velocity, and presumably blood flow, by more than this amount. PMID:4047607

  2. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22749176

  3. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  4. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of glucose concentration in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y C; Davies, A G; Linfleld, E H; Elsey, T S; Taday, P F; Arnone, D D

    2003-07-01

    Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy has been used for the determination of glucose concentration in whole blood samples from 28 patients. A 4-vector partial least-squares calibration model, using the spectral range 950-1200 cm(-1), yielded a standard-error-of-prediction of 0.59 mM for an independent test set. For blood samples from a single patient, we found that the glucose concentration was proportional to the difference between the values of the second derivative spectrum at 1082 cm(-1) and 1093 cm(-1). This indicates that spectroscopy at these two specific wavenumbers alone could be used to determine the glucose concentration in blood plasma samples from a single patient, with a prediction error of 0.95 mM. PMID:12884933

  5. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better "storers" than donors of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Foudoulaki-Paparizos, Leontini E; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Papassideri, Issidora S; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2016-07-01

    Storage of packed red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with progressive accumulation of lesions, mostly triggered by energy and oxidative stresses, which potentially compromise the effectiveness of the transfusion therapy. Concerns arise as to whether glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects (G6PD(-)), ~5% of the population in the Mediterranean area, should be accepted as routine donors in the light of the increased oxidative stress their RBCs suffer from. To address this question, we first performed morphology (scanning electron microscopy), physiology and omics (proteomics and metabolomics) analyses on stored RBCs from healthy or G6PD(-) donors. We then used an in vitro model of transfusion to simulate transfusion outcomes involving G6PD(-) donors or recipients, by reconstituting G6PD(-) stored or fresh blood with fresh or stored blood from healthy volunteers, respectively, at body temperature. We found that G6PD(-) cells store well in relation to energy, calcium and morphology related parameters, though at the expenses of a compromised anti-oxidant system. Additional stimuli, mimicking post-transfusion conditions (37°C, reconstitution with fresh healthy blood, incubation with oxidants) promoted hemolysis and oxidative lesions in stored G6PD(-) cells in comparison to controls. On the other hand, stored healthy RBC units showed better oxidative parameters and lower removal signaling when reconstituted with G6PD(-) fresh blood compared to control. Although the measured parameters of stored RBCs from the G6PD deficient donors appeared to be acceptable, the results from the in vitro model of transfusion suggest that G6PD(-) RBCs could be more susceptible to hemolysis and oxidative stresses post-transfusion. On the other hand, their chronic exposure to oxidative stress might make them good recipients, as they better tolerate exposure to oxidatively damaged long stored healthy RBCs. PMID:27094493

  6. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Elhakeem, Ramaze Farouke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which

  7. Consensus Report of the Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Bergenstal, Richard; Blonde, Lawrence; Boren, Suzanne Austin; Church, Timothy S.; Gaffaney, Jenifer; Jovanovič, Lois; Kendall, David M.; Kollman, Craig; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Leippert, Claudia; DDG, Diabetesberaterin; Owens, David R.; Polonsky, William H.; Reach, Gérard; Renard, Eric; Riddell, Michael C.; Rubin, Richard R.; Schnell, Oliver; Siminiero, Linda M.; Vigersky, Robert A.; Wilson, Darrell M.; Wollitzer, Alison Okada

    2008-01-01

    The Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board, a group of nine academic clinicians and scientists from the United States and Europe, convened in San Francisco, California, on June 11–12, 2008, to discuss the appropriate uses of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and the measures necessary to accurately assess the potential benefit of this practice in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirteen consultants from the United States, Europe, and Canada from academia, practice, and government also participated and contributed based on their fields of expertise. These experts represent a range of disciplines that include adult endocrinology, pediatric endocrinology, health education, mathematics, statistics, psychology, nutrition, exercise physiology, and nursing. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Management, Inc. Among the participants, there was consensus that: protocols assessing the performance of SMBG in noninsulin treated T2DM must provide the SMBG intervention subjects with blood glucose (BG) goals and instructions on how to respond to BG data in randomized controlled trials (RCTs);intervention subjects in clinical trials of SMBG-driven interventions must aggressively titrate their therapeutic responses or lifestyle changes in response to hyperglycemia;control subjects in clinical trials of SMBG must be isolated from SMBG-driven interventions and not be contaminated by physician experience with study subjects receiving a SMBG intervention;the best endpoints to measure in a clinical trial of SMBG in T2DM include delta Hemoglobin A1c levels, hyperglycemic events, hypoglycemic events, time to titrate noninsulin therapy to a maximum necessary dosage, and quality of life indices;either individual randomization or cluster randomization may be appropriate methods for separating control subjects from SMBG intervention subjects, provided that precautions are taken to avoid bias and that the

  8. Post-glucose-load urinary C-peptide and glucose concentration obtained during OGTT do not affect oral minimal model-based plasma indices.

    PubMed

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; Wattimena, J L Darcos; Rietveld, Trinet; van Miert, Joram N I; Sijbrands, Eric J G; de Rooij, Felix W M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how renal loss of both C-peptide and glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) relate to and affect plasma-derived oral minimal model (OMM) indices. All individuals were recruited during family screening between August 2007 and January 2011 and underwent a 3.5-h OGTT, collecting nine plasma samples and urine during OGTT. We obtained the following three subgroups: normoglycemic, at risk, and T2D. We recruited South Asian and Caucasian families, and we report separate analyses if differences occurred. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed as AUCs during OGTT, OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion, and OMM beta-cell and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated to obtain disposition indices. Post-glucose load glucose and C-peptide in urine were measured and related to plasma-based indices. Urinary glucose corresponded well with plasma glucose AUC (Cau r = 0.64, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.69, P < 0.01), S I (Cau r = -0.51, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.41, P < 0.01), Φ dynamic (Cau r = -0.41, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.57, P < 0.01), and Φ oral (Cau r = -0.61, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.73, P < 0.01). Urinary C-peptide corresponded well to plasma C-peptide AUC (Cau r = 0.45, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.33, P < 0.05) and OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion (r = 0.42, P < 0.01). In general, glucose excretion plasma threshold for the presence of glucose in urine was ~10-10.5 mmol L(-1) in non-T2D individuals, but not measurable in T2D individuals. Renal glucose secretion during OGTT did not influence OMM indices in general nor in T2D patients (renal clearance range 0-2.1 %, with median 0.2 % of plasma glucose AUC). C-indices of urinary glucose to detect various stages of glucose intolerance were excellent (Cau 0.83-0.98; SA 0.75-0.89). The limited role of renal glucose secretion validates the neglecting of urinary glucose secretion in kinetic models of glucose

  9. [Blood glucose and insulin in arterial hypertension. The elderly hypertensive patient].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, T; Clara, J G; Bicho, M; Azevedo, M; Manso, C; da Costa, J N

    1993-11-01

    The clinical importance of relationship between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and high blood pressure is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age in the relation between hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertension (HT). Two groups of patients with moderate to severe essential hypertension, aged < 65 (n = 40) and > or = 65 (n = 55) were compared with two other groups of normotensive subjects (NT) matched for sex (n = 14) and age (n = 18). The radioimmunoassay method and glucose oxidase methods were used to evaluate plasma insulin and plasma glucose concentrations. The global analysis shows: The plasma glucose level was significantly lower (p < 0.02) in NT group (n = 32; glycemia: 67.52 +/- 44 mg/dl) than in the HT group (n = 95; glycemia: 86.25 +/- 34.7 mg/dl. Further more the plasma insulin level in NT (3.37 +/- 3.18 microU/ml) was also lower than in HT (4.29 +/- 3.08 microU/ml) although without statistical significance. The patients (HT) aged < 65 years old had higher glycemia (85.76 +/- 26.8 mg/dl) and insulinemia (4.92 +/- 3.56) than NT of same age (glycemia: 59.0 +/- 11.8 mg/dl, insulinemia: 2.86 +/- 1.86), respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.05. In HT aged > or = 65 the glycemia (82.38 +/- (9.67 mg/dl) was higher than in the NT matched group (65.5 +/- 20.36 mg/dl), p < 0.01, but plasma insulin was not different in the two groups (3.88 +/- 2.63 and 3.80 +/- 2.27 microU/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8305245

  10. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well. PMID:25571074

  11. Acute hepatitis C virus infection related to capillary blood glucose meter

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Rai, Aitzaz BinSultan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 130-150 million people worldwide, becoming the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. There are various preventable modes of transmission of HCV infection, including needlestick and sharps injuries. However, HCV infection secondary to needlestick injury by a capillary blood glucose meter (CBGM) lancet has not been previously well reported. We describe an unusual case of a 25-year-old male medical student, acquiring acute HCV infection with a lancing device of CBGM. The source patient was a 54-year-old diabetic male with positive anti-HCV test results. In our patient, after 3 months of initial exposure, a standard set of investigations confirmed the diagnosis of acute HCV infection with the same genotype (3a) as the source. The CBGM, as in our case, may have a role in the transmission of HCV infection warranting radical advancements in diabetes screening and monitoring technology. PMID:26739982

  12. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo ``programmed cell death,'' or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  13. [Delayed evaluation of test strips for blood glucose determination in small reflectometers].

    PubMed

    Schwingshandl, J; Petri, S; Borkenstein, M

    1991-01-01

    The precision and accuracy of reacted reagent strips (Haemoglucotest 20-800 R, Reflocheck) stored in an envelope and analysed 24 and 48 hours later, by means of glucose reflectance meters (Reflolux II, Reflocheck) was studied. A good correlation of the values estimated after 24 and 48 hours to the value analysed immediately after sampling was found for both systems (Reflolux II 24 hours later, r = 0.9713, y = 24.16 + 0.7369. x, and 48 hours later, r = 0.9388, y = 44.21 + 0.5234. x; Reflocheck 24 hours later, r = 0.977, y = 9.72 + 0.9525. x, and 48 hours later, r = 0.9433, y = 45.97 + 0.4802. x). Our data show, that the initial value can be calculated using the 24 and 48 hour values by means of linear regression. Therefore the analysis of reacted reagent strips for blood glucose determination is beneficial in the management of Typ-I-Diabetics. PMID:1749625

  14. Self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose: changing the performance of individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mazze, R S; Pasmantier, R; Murphy, J A; Shamoon, H

    1985-01-01

    Standard reflectance meters were modified by the addition of memory chips capable of storing 440 glucose determinations with corresponding time and date. These modified reflectance meters (MR) were given to 20 individuals with type I diabetes in an effort to determine the level of reliability and accuracy they could achieve on a self-monitoring regimen. During a 6-wk period these subjects measured their capillary blood glucose and recorded the results in a logbook (LB). At 2-wk intervals they visited the clinic. Data from the MR was offloaded onto an Apple IIe microcomputer (Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, California) and presented to the subjects in a graphic format, depicting the level of metabolic control over the previous 2 wk. The performance of subjects for the 6-wk period showed that they averaged 7 omissions from the LB for every 100 MR recordings; 1 added value in the LB for every 200 MR recordings; and 1 error in accurately copying the test value for every 100 determinations. In comparison with subjects who participated in an earlier study in which they were unaware of the memory function of the reflectance meter, performance during the current study improved in all categories. It was also observed that consistency in reliable and accurate record keeping did not diminish throughout the study period. Despite these positive changes in performance, no alteration in glycemic control was found. PMID:4006654

  15. [Diabetes in the Belgian province of Luxembourg: frequency, importance of the oral glucose tolerance test and a modestly increased fasting blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Hortulanus-Beck, D; Lefebvre, P J; Jeanjean, M F

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 1949 subjects aged 35-64 years has been studied in the Belgian Province of Luxembourg according with the MONICA project (MONItoring of Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Diseases) elaborated by the World Health Organization. Among the data collected, were a fasting glycaemia and a glycaemia at the second hour of a 75 grams oral glucose load. Analysis of these two parameters has allowed to divide the individuals of the study into: 4.1% of diabetic subjects which half of them being unknown, 5.2% of subjects presenting an impaired glucose tolerance, 3.4% of subjects with an early reactive hypoglycaemia and 87.3% of normoglycaemic subjects. The measurement of the fasting glycaemia alone has allowed to display 15 glucidic abnormalities (that is to say 0.8%) whereas the complementary realization of the oral glucose tolerance test has disclosed about 10% of additional abnormalities. The fact to consider a borderline fasting glycaemia (included between 110 and 140 mg/dl on venous plasma) result in a greater probability to find an abnormal blood glucose value at the second hour of the oral glucose tolerance test. PMID:2265736

  16. A retrospective review of the roles of multifunctional glucose-6-phosphatase in blood glucose homeostasis: Genesis of the tuning/retuning hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nordlie, Robert C.; Foster, James D.

    2010-01-01

    In a scientific career spanning from 1955–2000, my research focused on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Grounded in basic enzymology, and initially pursuing the steady-state rate behavior of isolated preparations of these critically important gluconeogenic enzymes, our key findings were confirmed and extended by in situ enzyme rate experiments exploiting isolated liver perfusions. These efforts culminated in the discovery of the liver cytosolic isozyme of carboxykinase, known today as (GTP)PEPCK-C (EC4.1.1.32) and also revealed a biosynthetic function and multicomponent nature of glucose-6-phosphatase (EC3.1.3.9). Discovery that glucose-6-phosphatase possessed an intrinsically biosynthetic activity, now known as carbamyl-P:glucose phosphotransferase– along with a deeper consideration of the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity as well as the action of liver glucokinase resulted in the evolution of Tuning/Retuning Hypothesis for blood glucose homeostasis in health and disease. This THEN & NOW review shares with the reader the joy and exhilaration of major scientific discovery and also contrasts the methodologies and approaches on which I relied with those currently in use. PMID:20603134

  17. Glucose buffer is suitable for blood group conversion with α-N acetylgalactosaminidase and α-galactosidase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Su-Bo; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Xue; Li, Hui; Wang, Ying-Li; Tan, Ying-Xia; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that the buffer plays a key role in the enzymatic reaction involved in blood group conversion. In previous study, we showed that a glycine buffer is suitable for A to O or B to O blood group conversion. In this study, we investigated the use of 5% glucose and other buffers for A to O or B to O blood group conversion by α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase or α-galactosidase. Materials and methods We compared the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase/α-galactosidase with red blood cells (RBC) in different reaction buffers, such as normal saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a disodium hydrogen phosphate-based buffer (PCS), and 5% commercial glucose solution. The doses of enzymes necessary for the A/B to O conversion in different reaction buffers were determined and compared. The enzymes’ ability to bind to RBC was evaluated by western blotting, and routine blood typing and fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to evaluate B/A to O conversion efficiency. Results The A to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.06 mg/mL pRBC). B to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was also similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.005 mg/mL pRBC). Most enzymes could bind with RBC in glycine or glucose buffer, but few enzymes could bind with RBC in PBS, PCS, or normal saline. Conclusion These results indicate that 5% glucose solution provides a suitable condition for enzymolysis, especially for enzymes combining with RBC. Meanwhile, the conversion efficiency of A/B to O was similar in glucose buffer and glycine buffer. Moreover, 5% glucose solution has been used for years in venous transfusion, it is safe for humans and its cost is lower. Our results do, therefore, suggest that 5% glucose solution could become a novel suitable buffer for A/B to O blood group conversion. PMID:24333060

  18. Alteration of blood glucose levels in the rat following exposure to hyperbaric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Eynan, Mirit; Mullokandov, Michael; Krinsky, Nitzan; Biram, Adi; Arieli, Yehuda

    2015-09-01

    Findings regarding blood glucose level (BGL) on exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) are contradictory. We investigated the influence of HBO on BGL, and of BGL on latency to central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT). The study was conducted on five groups of rats: Group 1, exposure to oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), 90 min/day for 7 days; Group 2, exposure to oxygen once a week from 2 to 6 ATA in increments of 1 ATA/wk, for a period of time calculated as 60% of the latency to CNS-OT (no convulsions); Group 3, exposure to 6 ATA breathing a gas mixture with a pO2 of 0.21; Group 4, received 10 U/kg insulin to induce hypoglycemia before exposure to HBO; Group 5, received 33% glucose to induce hyperglycemia before exposure to HBO. Blood samples were drawn before and after exposures for measurement of BGL. No change was observed in BGL after exposure to oxygen at 2.5 ATA, 90 min/day for 7 days. BGL was significantly elevated after exposure to oxygen at 6 ATA until the appearance of convulsions, and following exposure to 4, 5, and 6 ATA without convulsions (P < 0.01). No change was observed in BGL after exposure to 6 ATA breathing a gas mixture with a pO2 of 0.21. Hypoglycemia shortened latency to CNS oxygen toxicity, whereas hyperglycemia had no effect. Our results demonstrate an influence of HBO exposure on elevation of BGL, starting at 4 ATA. This implies that BGL may serve as a marker for the generation of CNS-OT. PMID:26183474

  19. Dietary Sodium Reduction Does Not Affect Circulating Glucose Concentrations in Fasting Children or Adults: Findings from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis1234

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena M; Cobb, Paul; Saydah, Sharon; Zhang, Xuanping; de Jesus, Janet M; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although evidence shows that reduced sodium intake lowers blood pressure, some studies suggest that sodium reduction may adversely affect insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. Objectives: The objectives were to assess the effects of sodium reduction on glucose tolerance, evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the relevant scientific literature, and provide direction for future research. Methods: We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science through August 2014. Both randomized and nonrandomized intervention trials were included in our meta-analyses. The effects of sodium reduction on glucose tolerance were evaluated in 37 articles, but because of a lack of comparable data, 8 trials were excluded from the meta-analyses. Results: Participants were 10–79 y old, either primarily healthy or with hypertension. In meta-analyses of 20 randomized, crossover trials (n = 504 participants) and 9 nonrandomized crossover trials (n = 337), circulating glucose concentrations of fasting participants were not affected by reduction in sodium intake. In contrast, in meta-analyses of 19 of the 20 randomized, crossover trials (n = 494), fasting insulin concentrations were 9.53 pmol/L higher (95% CI: 5.04, 14.02 pmol/L higher) with sodium reduction. In 9 nonrandomized trials (n = 337), fasting insulin did not differ with reduced sodium intake. Results differed little when the analyses were restricted to studies with a low risk of bias and duration of ≥7 d. Conclusions: This meta-analysis revealed no evidence that, in trials with a short intervention and large reductions in sodium, circulating glucose concentrations differed between groups. Recommendations for future studies include extending intervention durations, ensuring comparability of groups at baseline through randomization, and assessing sodium intakes relevant to population sodium reduction. In addition, analyses on other metabolic variables were limited because of the number of

  20. Effect of Full Correction Versus Partial Correction of Elevated Blood Glucose in the Emergency Department on Hospital Length of Stay.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Clague, Michaela; DiLeo, Jessica; Katz, Michael D; Patanwala, Asad E

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information to guide the extent to which asymptomatic hyperglycemia needs to be corrected in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with unrelated complaints. The objective of this study was to compare full correction (FC) versus partial correction (PC) of elevated blood glucose in the ED on hospital length of stay. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in an academic ED in the United States. Adult diabetic patients with hyperglycemia (blood glucose >200 mg/dL) in the ED who were treated with subcutaneous insulin were included. Patients were categorized based on the level of blood glucose control achieved within the first 24 hours from triage: (1) FC group for whom blood glucose <200 mg/dL was achieved or (2) PC group for whom blood glucose remained ≥200 mg/dL. The primary outcome measure was a comparison of hospital length of stay between groups. A total of 161 patients were included in this study (FC = 81, PC = 80). There was no significant difference between hospital length of stay in the FC [3 days (interquartile range, 1-5 days)] and PC [3 days (interquartile range, 2-6 days)] groups (P = 0.159). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, there was no significant association between level of correction and hospital length of stay (log-transformed) (coefficient 0.238; 95% confidence interval, -0.062 to 0.537; P = 0.119; R = 13%). The extent of glucose correction was not associated with a decrease in hospital length of stay in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia in the ED. PMID:25187094

  1. Effect of local corticosteroid injection of the hand and wrist on blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Louis W; Glickel, Steven Z; Barron, O Alton; Harrison, Richard; Marshall, Astrid; Purcelli-Lafer, Marissa

    2012-12-01

    Locally administered corticosteroids are a common therapy in many hand and wrist disorders. Corticosteroids pose a theoretical risk to patients with diabetes mellitus by potentially raising blood glucose to hyperglycemic levels. Although oral corticosteroids are known to have an effect on blood glucose control, limited data exist on extra-articular administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the systemic impact of extra-articularly administered corticosteroids in the hand and wrist on serum glucose concentration in patients with diabetes mellitus.Twenty-three patients with diabetes mellitus received a 1-mL triamcinolone acetonide injection for de Quervain's tenosynovitis, trigger finger, flexor carpi ulnaris tendonitis, or carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients recorded their daily morning blood glucose levels for 1 week before injection and for 4 weeks after injection. Average blood glucose levels increased slightly from baseline after injection, reaching statistical significance 1, 5, and 6 days after injection, but were not clinically significant (average increase, 14.2, 9.7, and 32.7 mg/dL, respectively). Isolated increases more than 2 times the standard deviation of preinjection values occurred at least once in the majority of patients. The frequency of hyperglycemic episodes increased after injection, but the proportions of patients with at least 1 hyperglycemic episode before and after injection were not significantly different.These results suggest that local corticosteroid injections are a clinically safe treatment option for inflammatory processes of the hand and wrist in patients with diabetes mellitus. On average, patients experienced slight increases in blood glucose after receiving an injection. Most experienced isolated increases substantially beyond baseline and isolated hyperglycemic effects, but these did not pose an apparent clinical risk. PMID:23218632

  2. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  3. Reliable long-term continuous blood glucose monitoring for patients in critical care using microdialysis and infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Damm, Uwe; Kondepati, Venkata R.

    2006-02-01

    For clinical research, in-vivo blood glucose monitoring is an ongoing important topic to improve glycemic control in patients with non-adequate blood glucose regulation. Critically ill patients received much interest, since the intensive insulin therapy treatment, as established for diabetics, reduces mortality significantly. Despite the existence of commercially available, mainly amperometric biosensors, continued interest is in infrared spectroscopic techniques for reagent-free glucose monitoring. For stable long-term operation, avoiding also sensor recalibration, a bed-side device coupled to a micro-dialysis probe was developed for quasi-continuous glucose monitoring. Multivariate calibration is required for glucose concentration prediction due to the complex composition of dialysates from interstitial body fluid. Measurements were carried out with different test persons, each experiment lasting for more than 8 hours. Owing to low dialysis recovery rates, glucose concentrations in the dialysates were between 0.83 and 4.44 mM. Standard errors of prediction (SEP) obtained with Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration and different cross-validation strategies were mainly between 0.13 and 0.18 mM based on either full interval data or specially selected spectral variables.

  4. Colorimetric Quantification of Glucose and Cholesterol in Human Blood Using a Nanocomposite Entrapping Magnetic Nanoparticles and Oxidases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Il; Cho, Daeyeon; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a microscale well-plate colorimetric assay for the multiplexed detection of glucose and cholesterol in clinical human blood samples has been developed. This system utilized one-pot nanocomposite entrapping Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as peroxidase mimetics and glucose oxidase (GOx)/cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) in mesoporous silica to detect glucose and cholesterol in blood samples. The sensing mechanism involves the generation of H2O2 by the catalytic action of an immobilized oxidase on the target molecules in the sample. This subsequently activates the MNPs in the mesopores, thereby leading to the conversion of the substrate into a colored end product. This strategy is used to detect the target glucose or cholesterol molecules in the concentration range of 15-250 mg/dL. The response is highly linear and the lower detection limit is 7.5 mg/dL. The aforementioned colorimetric assay is extremely convenient, and it exhibits a high degree of linearity, precision, and reproducibility when employing real human blood samples. Therefore, this assay can be used in clinical practice for the multiplexed and reliable quantification of glucose and cholesterol. PMID:26726446

  5. Effects of clozapine administration on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in male C57BL/6 mice: A parallel controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Yan; Liang, Hai-Xia; Liang, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Li, Huan-De

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clozapine has been associated with metabolic adverse events (AEs) (eg, elevated body weight, blood glucose concentrations, cholesterol, triglycerides [TG]), all of which have deleterious effects on health and medication compliance. However, little focus has been directed toward finding a suitable experimental model to study the metabolic AEs associated with clozapine. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clozapine administration for 28 days on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were grouped and treated with clozapine 2 or 10 mg/kg or vehicle intraperitoneally QD for 28 days. Body weight was assessed on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, and 28, and glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, insulin (calculated by insulin resistance index [IRI]), and plasma lipids (including total cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed on day 29. Results: Sixty 10-week-old, male C57BL/6 mice were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups (20 mice per group). The body weight significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg-treated group on days 14, 21, and 28 compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD] body weight: 21.61 [1.05] vs 22.79 [1.11], 22.53 [1.05] vs 24.17 [1.24], and 22.21 [1.07] vs 24.99 [1.39] g, respectively; all, P < 0.05). In the clozapine 10-mg/kg group, blood glucose concentrations significantly increased 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD]: 6.67 [1.25], 25.34 [5.85], 12.68 [3.39], and 7.52 [1.45] mmol/L, respectively, vs 4.61 [0.78], 21.54 [6.55], 11.46 [3.46], and 6.55 [1.42] mmol/L, respectively; all P < 0.05). The clozapine 10-mg/kg group also had significant increases in plasma insulin concentrations compared with the vehicle group (12.70 [5.27] vs 7.62 [4.54] μIU/mL; P < 0.05) and

  6. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Pantophlet, A J; Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Gerrits, W J J; Roelofsen, H; Priebe, M G; Vonk, R J

    2016-04-01

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight >100kg). Replacement of lactose by other dietary substrates can be economically attractive, and may also positively (or negatively) affect the risk of developing problems with glucose metabolism. An experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing one third of the dietary lactose by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian (body weight=114±2.4kg; age=97±1.4 d) calves were fed an MR containing 462g of lactose/kg (CON), or an MR in which 150g of lactose/kg of MR was replaced by glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), or glycerol (GLY). During the first 10d of the trial, all calves received CON. The CON group remained on this diet and the other groups received their experimental diets for a period of 8 wk. Measurements were conducted during the first (baseline) and last week of the trial. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin sensitivity and 24 h of urine was collected to measure glucose excretion. During the last week of the trial, a bolus of 1.5g of [U-(13)C] substrates was added to their respective meals and plasma glucose, insulin, and (13)C-glucose responses were measured. Insulin sensitivity was low at the start of the trial and remained low [1.2±0.1 and 1.0±0.1 (mU/L)(-1) × min(-1)], and no treatment effect was noted. Glucose excretion was low at the start of the trial (3.4±1.0g/d), but increased in CON and GLU calves (26.9±3.9 and 43.0±10.6g/d) but not in FRU and GLY calves. Postprandial glucose was higher in GLU, lower in FRU, and similar in GLY compared with CON calves. Postprandial insulin was lower in FRU and GLY and similar

  7. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm−1 that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%. PMID:26977373

  8. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    PubMed

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%. PMID:26977373

  9. [Comparative analysis of dependence of saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Morenkova, S A

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of determination of sorbitol and fructosamine in saliva has been studied in healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes. The dependence of these metabolites levels in saliva on blood glucose level was demonstrated. It is concluded that saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels measurements may be used as diagnostic tests in diabetes and serve as indicators of efficacy of therapy in diabetes. PMID:15707277

  10. Blood levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in uremia: effect of an oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schauder, P; Matthaei, D; Henning, H V; Scheler, F; Langenbeck, U

    1981-08-01

    The effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) on serum levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), i.e. alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KICA), alpha-keto-isovaleric acid (KIVA) and alpha-keto-beta methyl-n-valeric acid (KMVA) as well as on serum insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose levels was determined in uremic patients and in healthy control subjects. In controls, blood levels of KICA, KMVA and KIVA declined significantly following oral administration of 100 glucose. In uremic patients no decline of KICA was observed. The fall of KMVA was diminished, while suppression of KIVA blood levels in response to the oGGT remained unimpaired. Although serum insulin and C-peptide levels in uremic patients were not significantly different from the controls before and throughout the oGTT, six out of eight displayed abnormal glucose tolerance. It is suggested that the response of blood BCKA levels to an oGTT is altered in uremia, an abnormality restricted primarily to KICA and possibly explained by insulin antagonism and/or by insufficient insulin secretion. PMID:7021997

  11. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  12. Analysis article on the performance analysis of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Solnica, Bogdan

    2009-09-01

    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Chang and colleagues present the analytical performance evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose meter. This device is an advanced construction with a color display, used-strip ejector, no-button interface, and short assay time. Accuracy studies were performed using a YSI 2300 analyzer, considered the reference. Altogether, 349 pairs of results covering a wide range of blood glucose concentrations were analyzed. Patients with diabetes performed a significant part of the tests. Obtained results indicate good accuracy of OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system, satisfying the International Organization for Standardization recommendations and thereby locating >95% of tests within zone A of the error grid. Results of the precision studies indicate good reproducibility of measurements. In conclusion, the evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue meter revealed good analytical performance together with convenient handling useful for self-monitoring of blood glucose performed by elderly diabetes patients. PMID:20144432

  13. Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 - evaluation of the effect of evidence based patient information

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence-based patient information (EBPI) has been recognised as important tool for informed choice in particular in the matter of preventive options. An objective, on the best scientific evidence-based consumer information about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) and primary prevention of diabetes, is not available yet. Thus we developed a web-based EBPI and aim to evaluate its effects on informed decision making in people 50 years or older. Methods/Design We conduct a web-based randomised-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of information about elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention on five specific outcomes: (i) knowledge of elevated blood glucose level-related issues (primary outcome); (ii) attitudes to a metabolic testing; (iii) intention to undergo a metabolic testing; (iv) decision conflict; (v) satisfaction with the information. The intervention group receives a specially developed EBPI about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention, the control group information about this topic, available in the internet. The study population consists of people between 50 and 69 years of age without known diabetes. Participants will be recruited via the internet page of the cooperating health insurance company, Techniker Krankenkasse (TK), and the internet page of the German Diabetes Centre. Outcomes will be measured through online questionnaires. We expect better informed participants in the intervention group. Discussion The design of this study may be a prototype for other web-based prevention information and their evaluation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN22060616. PMID:20074337

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise on blood glucose in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; KarimiFard, Ozra; Shahidi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peritoneal dialysis has a number of complications including increased blood glucose. Although exercise has been suggested to resolve this complication, most patients are not active. The present study aimed at determining the effects of twice-weekly, 40-min sessions of pedaling on a stationary bicycle on mean fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2-h postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, convenience sampling was used to select 22 patients [age: 51.4 (12.3) years] undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis [mean duration: 12.5 (8.5) months] from university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (test and control). The test group participated in an 8-week exercise program in which they pedaled a stationary bicycle with an intensity of four on Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion. FBS and PPBS were measured at baseline and at the end of the 8th and 16th sessions of exercise. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: After the eighth session, the mean FBS and PPBS levels were lower in the test group than in the control group. However, the differences were not statistically significant. After 16 sessions of exercise, the mean FBS and PPBS levels in the intervention group were significantly less than the in control group. Conclusions: Forty minutes of pedaling on a stationary bicycle for two times a week can significantly reduce mean FBS and PPBS levels in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:25878690

  15. Effects of oral administration of some herbal extracts on food consumption and blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Musabayane, C T; Bwititi, P T; Ojewole, J A O

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories suggest that oral administration of some herbal extracts reduce blood glucose concentrations in rats, possibly by interfering with food consumption and/or gastrointestinal absorption of food. Accordingly, we monitored the amounts of food consumed and body weights in separate groups of nondiabetic and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats, orally treated with some plant extracts (20 mg 100 g -1 body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Control animals were administered the vehicle, citrate buffer (0.1 ml 100 g -1 body weight). Separate groups of rats administered allopathic hypoglycemic drugs metformin (50 mg 100 g -1 body weight) or glibenclamide (5 microg 100 g -1 body weight) acted as positive control animals. After 5 weeks, blood glucose concentrations were reduced in all the groups. Tapinanthus nyasicus leaf, Ficus thoningii bark, Solanum incanum fruit, and Morus alba leaf extracts decreased weekly food consumption throughout the 5-week study period. Similar results were obtained for the groups treated with metformin or glibenclamide. However, food consumption was increased by S. incanum root, Aloe chabaudii leaf, or Allium sativum bulb extracts, and this was associated with high prevalence of diarrhea. The herbal extracts and metformin did not affect serum insulin concentration in nondiabetic rats, while glibenclamide increased serum insulin concentration. In conclusion, it may be inferred that the herbal extracts examined produced hypoglycemia, probably by interfering with either food intake or gastrointestinal glucose absorption (as reported for metformin). These findings merit long-term investigation. PMID:16801983

  16. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  17. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Kobori, Nilce Naomi; Behle, Robert W; Dunlap, Christopher A; Delalibera Júnior, Ítalo

    2015-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is an economically important pathogen of numerous arthropod pests and is able to grow in submerged culture as filaments (mycelia) or as budding yeast-like blastospores. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen and high glucose concentrations on blastospore production by submerged cultures of two isolates of B. bassiana, ESALQ1432 and GHA. Results showed that maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels coupled with high glucose concentrations enhanced blastospore yields by both isolates. High glucose concentrations increased the osmotic pressure of the media and coincided with higher dissolved oxygen levels and increased production of significantly smaller blastospores compared with blastospores produced in media with lower concentrations of glucose. The desiccation tolerance of blastospores dried to less than 2.6 % moisture was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium but was isolate dependent. Blastospores of isolate ESALQ1432 produced in media containing 140 g glucose L(-1) showed greater virulence toward whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) as compared with blastospores produced in media containing 40 g glucose L(-1). These results suggest a synergistic effect between glucose concentration and oxygen availability on changing morphology and enhancing the yield and efficacy of blastospores of B. bassiana, thereby facilitating the development of a cost-effective production method for this blastospore-based bioinsecticide. PMID:25947245

  18. Physical Activity, Blood Glucose and C-Peptide in Healthy School-Children, a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Aim To further elucidate the relationship between physical activity and several risk factors for development of diabetes (glucose, C-peptide and obesity) over time. Methods A prospective longitudinal study where physical activity was measured on 199 children from Kalmar and Linköping at age 8, and the same 107 children from Linköping again at age 12. Anthropometric data was collected and blood was analyzed for C-peptide and f-glucose. The children in the study were representative for the general Swedish child population, and on an average lean. Results High physical activity was related to lower C-peptide at age 8 and 12. This correlation was especially pronounced in boys, who also were more physically active than girls at both time points. The association seen at 8 years of age was similar at age 12 in most children. Children with higher BMI Z-Score had a higher fasting C-peptide (age 12) but linear regression showed that children with more steps per day were less likely to have a higher fasting C-peptide irrespective of BMI. Longitudinal follow-up showed that a decrease in physical activity increased insulin resistance and β-cell load. Conclusions Already in young children, physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and decreases the need of C-peptide over time. This seems to become even more pronounced with increasing age when children are followed longitudinally. Low physical activity increases the load on insulin producing β-cells, might increase the risk for both type 1- and 2 diabetes. PMID:27270732

  19. [Multicenter evaluation of the reliability of five blood glucose monitoring systems].

    PubMed

    Jday-Daly, Ismahen; Augereau-Vacher, Christine; De Curraize, Claire; Fonfrède, Michèle; Lefevre, Guillaume; Lacour, Bernard; Hennequin-Le Meur, Carole

    2011-01-01

    As part of a tender AP-HP Paris Hospitals, an assessment of the reliability record of five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) (Optium Xceed (Abbott), Contour TS (Bayer), One Touch Ultra (Lifescan), Stat Strip Xpress (Nova) and Accu Check (Roche) and an evaluation of their sensitivity to changes in hematocrit were conducted in 4 hospitals of Paris. In terms of inaccuracy, all BGMSs have submitted CV repetability under the limits of acceptability. One BGMS (Lifescan) presented a CV of reproducibility outside limit of acceptability (13.1%). The inaccuracy was measured by a comparison method on multiparameter analyser relative to the hexokinase method for two sites, the glucose oxidase for the two others. The coefficients of correlation varied from 0.8405 to 0.9303. However, according to both defined acceptability criteria (absolute value difference between the result acquired on analyzer and those determined with the BGMS), the percentage of results outside acceptability was above 20% for two BGMSs (Abbott and Lifescan). Similarly, a net effect of changes in hematocrit was observed on the results of those two BGMSs. BGMS Nova was the most reliable, because of the correction device for hematocrit and blank substractions owed to interferences. In terms of expertise, BGMSs Nova and Roche have been selected with the best analytical performance and practicability satisfactory. In the future, accreditation with standard NF/EN 22870 requested for point of care testing, will require a close collaboration between biologists and clinicians to establish a system of strict quality control to detect deviations of these BGMSs. PMID:21463996

  20. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  1. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  2. Factors affecting contamination of blood samples for ethanol determinations.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Eastly, T

    1977-01-01

    Contamination of blood samples collected for alcohol analysis from swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is minimal (less than 0.6 mg/100 ml or 0.0006 percent ethanol) when routine clinical technique is followed. When technicians were told to be deliberately sloppy, considerable contamination (89 mg/100 ml or 0.09 percent ethanol) occurred. The incidence and extent of contamination from banked blood intended for transfusions are minimal. Two percent of the 1,450 samples analyzed contained alcohol. The average blood alcohol concentration was 26 mg/100 ml or 0.03 percent ethanol. One microliter of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, or one-tenth of a drop of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, increases the BAC 56.5 mg/100 ml (0.06 percent ethanol) and 67.5 mg/100 ml (0.07 percent ethanol), respectively. PMID:865218

  3. Hindbrain cytoglucopenia-induced increases in systemic blood glucose levels by 2-deoxyglucose depend on intact astrocytes and adenosine release.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard C; Ritter, Sue; Hermann, Gerlinda E

    2016-06-01

    The hindbrain contains critical neurocircuitry responsible for generating defensive physiological responses to hypoglycemia. This counter-regulatory response (CRR) is evoked by local hindbrain cytoglucopenia that causes an autonomically mediated increase in blood glucose, feeding behavior, and accelerated digestion; that is, actions that restore glucose homeostasis. Recent reports suggest that CRR may be initially triggered by astrocytes in the hindbrain. The present studies in thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats show that exposure of the fourth ventricle (4V) to 2-deoxyglucose (2DG; 15 μmol) produced a 35% increase in circulating glucose relative to baseline levels. While the 4V application of the astrocytic signal blocker, fluorocitrate (FC; 5 nmol), alone, had no effect on blood glucose levels, 2DG-induced increases in glucose were blocked by 4V FC. The 4V effect of 2DG to increase glycemia was also blocked by the pretreatment with caffeine (nonselective adenosine antagonist) or a potent adenosine A1 antagonist (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine; DPCPX) but not the NMDA antagonist (MK-801). These results suggest that CNS detection of glucopenia is mediated by astrocytes and that astrocytic release of adenosine that occurs after hypoglycemia may cause the activation of downstream neural circuits that drive CRR. PMID:27101298

  4. Blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance in healthy women and women with premenstrual syndrome: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Safar; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods From January of 2011 to the August of 2012, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among students in the School of Medicine of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 30 students with the most severe symptoms of PMS and 30 age frequency-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance by using the glucose oxidase method, radioimmunometric assay, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance equation, respectively. Results No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose of the two study groups were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases (p=0.011 vs. p<0.0001, respectively). The amounts of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of the two study groups were significantly different in the luteal phase (p=0.0005). Conclusion The level of blood glucose and insulin resistance was lower during the two phases of the menstrual cycle of the PMS group than that of the controls. PMID:23875163

  5. Glycemic penalty index for adequately assessing and comparing different blood glucose control algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Van Herpe, Tom; De Brabanter, Jos; Beullens, Martine; De Moor, Bart; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Blood glucose (BG) control performed by intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is becoming standard practice for critically ill patients. New (semi-automated) 'BG control' algorithms (or 'insulin titration' algorithms) are under development, but these require stringent validation before they can replace the currently used algorithms. Existing methods for objectively comparing different insulin titration algorithms show weaknesses. In the current study, a new approach for appropriately assessing the adequacy of different algorithms is proposed. Methods Two ICU patient populations (with different baseline characteristics) were studied, both treated with a similar 'nurse-driven' insulin titration algorithm targeting BG levels of 80 to 110 mg/dl. A new method for objectively evaluating BG deviations from normoglycemia was founded on a smooth penalty function. Next, the performance of this new evaluation tool was compared with the current standard assessment methods, on an individual as well as a population basis. Finally, the impact of four selected parameters (the average BG sampling frequency, the duration of algorithm application, the severity of disease, and the type of illness) on the performance of an insulin titration algorithm was determined by multiple regression analysis. Results The glycemic penalty index (GPI) was proposed as a tool for assessing the overall glycemic control behavior in ICU patients. The GPI of a patient is the average of all penalties that are individually assigned to each measured BG value based on the optimized smooth penalty function. The computation of this index returns a number between 0 (no penalty) and 100 (the highest penalty). For some patients, the assessment of the BG control behavior using the traditional standard evaluation methods was different from the evaluation with GPI. Two parameters were found to have a significant impact on GPI: the BG sampling frequency and the duration of algorithm application. A higher BG

  6. Parent-Child Interaction Using a Mobile and Wireless System for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Årsand, Eirik; Walseth, Ole Anders; Andersson, Niklas; Jenssen, Martin; Taylor, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Background Children with type 1 diabetes and their parents face rigorous procedures for blood glucose monitoring and regulation. Mobile telecommunication systems show potential as an aid for families’ self-management of diabetes. Objective A prototype designed to automatically transfer readings from a child’s blood glucose monitor to their parent’s mobile phone was tested. In this formative stage of development, we sought insights into the appropriateness of the concept, feasibility of use, and ideas for further development and research. Methods During four months, a self-selected sample of 15 children (aged 9 to 15 years) with type 1 diabetes and their parents (n = 30) used the prototype approximately three times daily. Parent and child experiences were collected through questionnaires and through interviews with 9 of the parents. Results System use was easily integrated into everyday life, and parents valued the sense of reassurance offered by the system. Parents’ ongoing struggle to balance control of their children with allowing independence was evident. For children who measured regularly, use appeared to reduce parental intrusions. For those who measured irregularly, however, parental reminders (eg, “nagging”) appeared to increase. Although increased reminders could be considered a positive outcome, they can potentially increase parent-child conflict and thus also undermine proper metabolic control. Parents felt that system appropriateness tapered off with the onset of adolescence, partly due to a potential sense of surveillance from the child’s perspective that could fuel oppositional behavior. Parental suggestions for further developments included similar alerts of irregular insulin dosages and automatically generated dietary and insulin dosage advice. Conclusions User enthusiasm suggests that such systems might find a consumer market regardless of whether or not they ultimately improve health outcomes. Thus, more rigorous studies are

  7. Development and Validation of a Rapid 13C6-Glucose Isotope Dilution UPLC-MRM Mass Spectrometry Method for Use in Determining System Accuracy and Performance of Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Risë K.; Angelides, Kimon; Engler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is currently considerable discussion about the accuracy of blood glucose concentrations determined by personal blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMS). To date, the FDA has allowed new BGMS to demonstrate accuracy in reference to other glucose measurement systems that use the same or similar enzymatic-based methods to determine glucose concentration. These types of reference measurement procedures are only comparative in nature and are subject to the same potential sources of error in measurement and system perturbations as the device under evaluation. It would be ideal to have a completely orthogonal primary method that could serve as a true standard reference measurement procedure for establishing the accuracy of new BGMS. Methods: An isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (ID-UPLC-MRM) assay was developed using 13C6-glucose as a stable isotope analogue to specifically measure glucose concentration in human plasma, and validated for use against NIST standard reference materials, and against fresh isolates of whole blood and plasma into which exogenous glucose had been spiked. Assay performance was quantified to NIST-traceable dry weight measures for both glucose and 13C6-glucose. Results: The newly developed assay method was shown to be rapid, highly specific, sensitive, accurate, and precise for measuring plasma glucose levels. The assay displayed sufficient dynamic range and linearity to measure across the range of both normal and diabetic blood glucose levels. Assay performance was measured to within the same uncertainty levels (<1%) as the NIST definitive method for glucose measurement in human serum. Conclusions: The newly developed ID UPLC-MRM assay can serve as a validated reference measurement procedure to which new BGMS can be assessed for glucose measurement performance. PMID:25986627

  8. Glucose Variability Assessed by Low Blood Glucose Index Is Predictive of Hypoglycemic Events in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Switched to Pump Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crenier, Laurent; Abou-Elias, Charlotte; Corvilain, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether subgroups of type 1 diabetic patients with different glucose variability indices respond differently to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in terms of reduced hypoglycemic events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 50 adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes switched to CSII because of persistently high A1C or frequent hypoglycemia despite well-managed intensive basal-bolus therapy. We compared A1C, hypoglycemic events, and glucose variability from self-monitoring of blood glucose profiles at baseline and after 6 months of CSII. Regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of response. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, baseline low blood glucose index (LBGI) was the best independent predictor of hypoglycemia outcome on CSII (R2 = 0.195, P = 0.0013). An ROC curve analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 70.8% (95% CI 48.9–87.4) and specificity of 73.1% (52.2–88.4) by using the LBGI cutoff of 3.34 as predictor of reduction of hypoglycemia on CSII. By grouping patients by LBGI tertiles, we found a 23.3% reduction in hypoglycemic events (<60 mg/dL [3.3 mmol/L]) in the third tertile (range 4.18–9.34) without change in A1C (P < 0.05). Conversely, the first tertile (range 0.62–2.05) demonstrated the greatest A1C reduction, −0.99% (P = 0.00001), but with increasing hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Baseline LBGI predicts the outcome of type 1 diabetic patients who switch to CSII in terms of hypoglycemia. PMID:23404296

  9. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wan-Li; Li, Xuan-She; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yong-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Lun; Zhang, Rui-Juan

    2007-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds have previously been shown to have hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects on type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and experimental diabetic animals. The Trigonella foenum-graecum extract has now been investigated for its effects on general properties, blood glucose and blood lipid, and hemorheological parameters in experimental diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were administrated by oral intragastric intubation separately with low dose (0.44 g/kg.d), middle dose (0.87 g/kg.d), high dose (1.74 g/kg.d) of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, and Metformin HCl (0.175 g/kg.d) for 6 weeks. Compared with diabetic group, rats treated with Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had an increase in body weight and a decrease in kidney /body weight ratio (p<0.05). Compared with diabetic group, rats treated Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had lower blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholestrol and higher higher-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity of high shear rate (200 s-1) and low shear rate (40 s-1), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, whole blood reduction viscosity and platelet conglutination were significantly reduced in diabetic rats treated with high and middle doses of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, but not in those treated with low dose of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. It may be concluded that Trigonella foenum-graecum extract can lower kidney /body weight ratio, blood glucose, blood lipid levels and improve hemorheological properties in experimental diabetic rats following repeated treatment for 6 weeks. PMID:17392143

  10. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Jönsson, Jenny Maria; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Darwich, Gassan; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298 PMID:19531257

  11. Investigation on how to choose measurement sites for non-invasive near-infrared blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zou, Da; Min, Xiaolin; Ma, Zhenhe; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    With the changing of human diet and the future of an aging society, the number of diabetic patients is growing rapidly and steadily. The major therapeutic method to that disease is monitoring the blood glucose concentration frequently to adjust the dose of the drugs and insulin. In order to avoid the painful finger prick, we choose the ear lobe as a measurement site with finger as a reference. Firstly, we compare the blood glucose concentration results of ear lobe and finger during an oral glucose tolerance test, the results showed a good correlation of the two sites. Secondly, the three-layered skin structure of finger and ear lobe has been studied by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. The result shows that the thickness of each layer at ear lobe is thinner. Finally, the difference between reflectance spectra of finger and ear lobe is compared due to the diverse skin thickness. The results still show a higher absorbance value for ear lobe. In conclusion, the ear lobe is an ideal measurement site for noninvasive blood glucose sensing.

  12. Glucose supplementation has minimal effects on blood neutrophil functionand gene expression in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During early lactation, glucose availability is low and the effect of glucose supply on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of glucose supplementation on the function and transcriptomic inflammatory respons...

  13. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. PMID:26452867

  14. Factors affecting postoperative blood loss in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the influence of cyanotic disease on postoperative blood loss is closely related to age in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of a cyanotic disease is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in children aged 1 to 6 months. Children with cyanotic disease and aged<1 month who received fresh frozen plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass had less postoperative blood loss and higher maximal clot firmness on FIBTEM than cyanotic children from all other groups. Additional studies are needed to define optimal pathophysiology-based management in children undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:24512988

  15. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P < 0.05) when compared with counterparts fed 6% nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:10347696

  16. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  17. Blood glucose lowering activity of aloe based composition, UP780, in alloxan induced insulin dependent mouse diabetes model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are a few nutritional approaches to address the increased needs of managing diabetic conditions. Previously it has been reported that UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an aloe polysaccharide, has a significant impact in reducing HbA1C, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and plasma insulin level in humans and improved impaired glucose and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced and db/db non-insulin dependent diabetic mouse models. Here we describe activity of UP780 and its constituents to improve insulin sensitivity in alloxan induced insulin dependent diabetic mouse model. Materials and method Insulin dependent diabetes was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 150 mg/kg to CD-1 mice. Aloesin (UP394) was formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder polysaccharide (Qmatrix) to yield a composition designated UP780. Efficacy of oral administration of UP780 at 2000 mg/kg and its constituents (aloesin at 80 mg/kg and Qmatrix at 1920 mg/kg) were evaluated in this model. Glyburide, a sulfonylurea drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, was used at 5 mg/kg as a positive control. Effect of UP780 on non-diabetic normal mice was also addressed. Results Mice administered intraperitoneal alloxan monohydrate developed progressive type-1 diabetes like symptom. After 4 weeks of daily oral administration, reductions of 35.9%, 17.2% and 11.6% in fasting blood glucose levels were observed for UP780, the UP780 Aloe vera inner leaf gel polysaccharide preparation without chromone (Qmatrix), and Aloesin (UP394), treated animals respectively, compared to vehicle treated animals. UP780 has no impact on blood glucose level of non-diabetic healthy mice. UP780 showed statistically significant improvement for blood glucose clearance in oral glucose tolerance tests. Similarly, enhanced improvement in plasma insulin level and statistically significant reduction in

  18. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety. PMID

  19. A soluble activin receptor type IIB does not improve blood glucose in streptozotocin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  20. Non-invasive detection of fasting blood glucose level via electrochemical measurement of saliva.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sarul; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Anand, Sneh; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning techniques such as logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to detect fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL) in a mixed population of healthy and diseased individuals in an Indian population. The occurrence of elevated FBGL was estimated in a non-invasive manner from the status of an individual's salivary electrochemical parameters such as pH, redox potential, conductivity and concentration of sodium, potassium and calcium ions. The samples were obtained from 175 randomly selected volunteers comprising half healthy and half diabetic patients. The models were trained using 70 % of the total data, and tested upon the remaining set. For each algorithm, data points were cross-validated by randomly shuffling them three times prior to implementing the model. The performance of the machine learning technique was reported in terms of four statistically significant parameters-accuracy, precision, sensitivity and F1 score. SVM using RBF kernel showed the best performance for classifying high FBGLs with approximately 85 % accuracy, 84 % precision, 85 % sensitivity and 85 % F1 score. This study has been approved by the ethical committee of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India with the reference number: IEC/NP-278/01-08-2014, RP-29/2014. PMID:27350930

  1. Do currently available blood glucose monitors meet regulatory standards? 1-day public meeting in Arlington, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Reyes, Juliet S

    2013-07-01

    Blood glucose monitors (BGMs) are approved by regulatory agencies based on their performance during strict testing conducted by their manufacturers. However, after approval, there is uncertainty whether BGMs maintain the accuracy levels that were achieved in the initial data. The availability of inaccurate BGM systems pose a public health problem because their readings serve as a basis for treatment decisions that can be incorrect. Several articles have concluded that BGMs in the marketplace may not consistently provide accurate results in accordance with the regulatory standards that led to approval. To address this growing concern, Diabetes Technology Society organized and conducted a 1-day public meeting on May 21, 2013, in Arlington, VA, presided by its president, David Klonoff, M.D., FACP, Fellow AIMBE, to determine whether BGMs on the market meet regulatory standards. The meeting consisted of four sessions in which Food and Drug Administration diabetes experts as well as leading academic clinicians and clinical chemists participated: (1) How is BGM performance determined? (2) Do approved BGMs perform according to International Organization for Standardization standards? (3) How do approved BGMs perform when used by patients and health care professionals? (4) What could be the consequence of poor BGM performance? PMID:23911191

  2. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy. PMID:25571075

  3. Do Currently Available Blood Glucose Monitors Meet Regulatory Standards? 1-Day Public Meeting in Arlington, Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Reyes, Juliet S.

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitors (BGMs) are approved by regulatory agencies based on their performance during strict testing conducted by their manufacturers. However, after approval, there is uncertainty whether BGMs maintain the accuracy levels that were achieved in the initial data. The availability of inaccurate BGM systems pose a public health problem because their readings serve as a basis for treatment decisions that can be incorrect. Several articles have concluded that BGMs in the marketplace may not consistently provide accurate results in accordance with the regulatory standards that led to approval. To address this growing concern, Diabetes Technology Society organized and conducted a 1-day public meeting on May 21, 2013, in Arlington, VA, presided by its president, David Klonoff, M.D., FACP, Fellow AIMBE, to determine whether BGMs on the market meet regulatory standards. The meeting consisted of four sessions in which Food and Drug Administration diabetes experts as well as leading academic clinicians and clinical chemists participated: (1) How is BGM performance determined? (2) Do approved BGMs perform according to International Organization for Standardization standards? (3) How do approved BGMs perform when used by patients and health care professionals? (4) What could be the consequence of poor BGM performance? PMID:23911191

  4. Blood glucose lowering effects of brown rice in normal and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Panlasigui, Leonora N; Thompson, Lilian U

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrate foods, which produce low glycemic responses, have been shown to be beneficial in the dietary management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. This study determined the starch digestion rate in vitro and, in a randomised crossover design, the postprandial blood glucose response of 10 healthy and nine type 2 diabetic volunteers to brown rice compared to milled rice from the same batch and variety. The total sugar released in vitro was 23.7% lower in brown rice than in milled rice. In healthy volunteers, the glycemic area and glycemic index were, respectively, 19.8% and 12.1% lower (p < 0.05) in brown rice than milled rice, while in diabetics, the respective values were 35.2% and 35.6% lower. The effect was partly due to the higher amounts of phytic acid, polyphenols, dietary fiber and oil in brown compared to milled rice and the difference in some physicochemical properties of the rice samples such as minimum cooking time and degree of gelatinisation. In conclusion, brown rice is a more health beneficial food for diabetics and hyperglycemic individuals than milled rice. PMID:17127465

  5. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (p<0.001). For exposure to 4 days' average of concentrations, a 100 μg/m(3) increase in SO2, NO2, and PM10 was associated with 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15-0.19), 0.53 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.42-0.65), and 0.11 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.07-0.15) increase in FBG, respectively. In the multi-pollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues. PMID:26433332

  6. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  7. Acupuncture affects regional blood flow in various organs.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae; Hotta, Harumi

    2008-06-01

    In this review, our recent studies using anesthetized animals concerning the neural mechanisms of vasodilative effect of acupuncture-like stimulation in various organs are briefly summarized. Responses of cortical cerebral blood flow and uterine blood flow are characterized as non-segmental and segmental reflexes. Among acupuncture-like stimuli delivered to five different segmental areas of the body; afferent inputs to the brain stem (face) and to the spinal cord at the cervical (forepaw), thoracic (chest or abdomen), lumbar (hindpaw) and sacral (perineum) levels, cortical cerebral blood flow was increased by stimuli to face, forepaw and hindpaw. The afferent pathway of the responses is composed of somatic groups III and IV afferent nerves and whose efferent nerve pathway includes intrinsic cholinergic vasodilators originating in the basal forebrain. Uterine blood flow was increased by cutaneous stimulation of the hindpaw and perineal area, with perineal predominance. The afferent pathway of the response is composed of somatic group II, III and IV afferent nerves and the efferent nerve pathway includes the pelvic parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator nerves. Furthermore, we briefly summarize vasodilative regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow via a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induced by antidromic activation of group IV somatic afferent nerves. These findings in healthy but anesthetized animals may be applicable to understanding the neural mechanisms improving blood flow in various organs following clinical acupuncture. PMID:18604254

  8. Bio-enhancing Effect of Piperine with Metformin on Lowering Blood Glucose Level in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Atal, Shubham; Atal, Sarjana; Vyas, Savita; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper) is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal) diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL), Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg), Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg), and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg). All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28). Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg) showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14th and 28th day (P < 0.05). Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg) showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg) alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects. SUMMARY Piperine is known for its bioenhancing property. This study evaluates the effect of piperine in combination with oral antidiabetic drug metformin. Drugs were administered for 28 days in alloxan induced diabetic mice and blood glucose lowering effect was seen. Results showed significantly better effect of combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin in comparison to metformin alone. Piperine

  9. The juice of fresh leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. reduces blood glucose in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Nammi, Srinivas; Boini, Murthy K; Lodagala, Srinivas D; Behara, Ravindra Babu S

    2003-01-01

    Background The leaf juice or water decoction of Catharanthus roseus L. (Apocyanaceae) is used as a folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes all over the world. In the present investigation, the leaf juice of C. roseus has been evaluated for its hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Methods The blood glucose lowering activity of the leaf juice was studied in normal and alloxan-induced (100 mg/kg, i.v.) diabetic rabbits, after oral administration at doses of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ml/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected from the marginal ear vein before and also at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20 & 24 h after drug administration and blood glucose was analyzed by Nelson-Somogyi's method using a visible spectrophotometer. The data was compared statistically by using Student's t-test. Results The leaf juice of C. roseus produced dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose of both normal and diabetic rabbits and comparable with that of the standard drug, glibenclamide. The results indicate a prolonged action in reduction of blood glucose by C. roseus and the mode of action of the active compound(s) of C. roseus is probably mediated through enhance secretion of insulin from the β-cells of Langerhans or through extrapancreatic mechanism. Conclusions The present study clearly indicated a significant antidiabetic activity with the leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus and supports the traditional usage of the fresh leaves by Ayurvedic physicians for the control of diabetes. PMID:12950994

  10. A Novel Role for Arabidopsis CBL1 in Affecting Plant Responses to Glucose and Gibberellin during Germination and Seedling Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Chen, Yang; He, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Guang-Xiao; Chen, Ming; Li, Lian-Cheng; Ma, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Glucose and phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and gibberellin (GA) coordinately regulate germination and seedling development. However, there is still inadequate evidence to link their molecular roles in affecting plant responses. Calcium acts as a second messenger in a diverse range of signal transduction pathways. As calcium sensors unique to plants, calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins are well known to modulate abiotic stress responses. In this study, it was found that CBL1 was induced by glucose in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function mutant cbl1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthetic inhibitor. Several sugar-responsive and GA biosynthetic gene expressions were altered in the cbl1 mutant. CBL1 protein physically interacted with AKINβ1, the regulatory β subunit of the SnRK1 complex which has a central role in sugar signaling. Our results indicate a novel role for CBL1 in modulating responses to glucose and GA signals. PMID:23437128

  11. The role of self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients treated with SGLT-2 inhibitors: a European expert recommendation.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Oliver; Alawi, Hasan; Battelino, Tadej; Ceriello, Antonio; Diem, Peter; Felton, Anne-Marie; Harno, Kari; Satman, Ilhan; Vergès, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    The role for the novel treatment approach of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) in type 2 diabetes is increasing. Structured self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), based on a less intensive and a more intensive scheme, may contribute to an optimization of SGLT-2 inhibitor based treatment. The current expert recommendation suggests individualized approaches of SMBG, using simple and clinically applicable schemes. Potential benefits of SMBG in SGLT-2 inhibitor based treatment approaches are early assessment of treatment success or failure, timely modification of treatment, detection of hypoglycemic episodes, assessment of glucose excursions, and support of diabetes management and education. The length and frequency of SMBG should depend on the clinical setting and the quality of metabolic control. PMID:24876442

  12. Polyphenol- and fibre-rich dried fruits with green tea attenuate starch-derived postprandial blood glucose and insulin: a randomised, controlled, single-blind, cross-over intervention.

    PubMed

    Nyambe-Silavwe, H; Williamson, G

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenol- and fibre-rich foods (PFRF) have the potential to affect postprandial glycaemic responses by reducing glucose absorption, and thus decreasing the glycaemic response of foods when consumed together. A randomised, single-blind, cross-over study was conducted on sixteen healthy volunteers to test whether PFRF could attenuate postprandial blood glucose in healthy volunteers when added to a source of carbohydrate (starch in bread). This is the first study to examine the effects of a meal comprised of components to inhibit each stage of the biochemical pathway, leading up to the appearance of glucose in the blood. The volunteers were fasted and attended four visits: two control visits (bread, water, balancing sugars) and two test visits (single and double dose of PFRF) where they consumed bread, water and PFRF. Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasted), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after consumption. The PFRF components were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential in vitro. Plasma glucose was lower after consumption of both doses compared with controls: lower dose, change in mean incremental areas under the glucose curves (IAUC)=-27·4 (sd 7·5) %, P<0·001; higher dose, IAUC=-49·0 (sd 15·3) %, P<0·001; insulin IAUC was also attenuated by-46·9 (sd 13·4) %, P<0·01. Consistent with this, the polyphenol components of the PFRF inhibited α-amylase (green tea, strawberry, blackberry and blackcurrant) and α-glucosidase (green tea) activities in vitro. The PFRF have a pronounced and significant lowering effect on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in humans, due in part to inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as glucose transport. PMID:27278405

  13. Somatic-cell selection is a major determinant of the blood-cell phenotype in heterozygotes for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations causing severe enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Filosa, S.; Giacometti, N.; Wangwei, C.; De Mattia, D.; Pagnini, D.; Alfinito, F.; Schettini, F.; Luzzatto, L.; Martini, G.

    1996-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation in mammals is regarded as an essentially random process, but the resulting somatic-cell mosaicism creates the opportunity for cell selection. In most people with red-blood-cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the enzyme-deficient phenotype is only moderately expressed in nucleated cells. However, in a small subset of hemizygous males who suffer from chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, the underlying mutations (designated class I) cause more-severe G6PD deficiency, and this might provide an opportunity for selection in heterozygous females during development. In order to test this possibility we have analyzed four heterozygotes for class I G6PD mutations: two with G6PD Portici (1178G-->A) and two with G6PD Bari (1187C-->T). We found that in fractionated blood cell types (including erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cell lineages) there was a significant excess of G6PD-normal cells. The significant concordance that we have observed in the degree of imbalance in the different blood-cell lineages indicates that a selective mechanism is likely to operate at the level of pluripotent blood stem cells. Thus, it appears that severe G6PD deficiency affects adversely the proliferation or the survival of nucleated blood cells and that this phenotypic characteristic is critical during hematopoiesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8808605

  14. Somatic-cell selection is a major determinant of the blood-cell phenotype in heterozygotes for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations causing severe enzyme deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Filosa, S.; Giacometti, N.; Wangwei, C.; Martini, G.

    1996-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation in mammals is regarded as an essentially random process, but the resulting somatic-cell mosaicism creates the opportunity for cell selection. In most people with red-blood-cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the enzyme-deficient phenotype is only moderately expressed in nucleated cells. However, in a small subset of hemizygous males who suffer from chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, the underlying mutations (designated class I) cause more-severe G6PD deficiency, and this might provide an opportunity for selection in heterozygous females during development. In order to test this possibility we have analyzed four heterozygotes for class I G6PD mutations: two with G6PD Portici (1178G{r_arrow}A) and two with G6PD Bari (1187C{r_arrow}T). We found that in fractionated blood cell types (including erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cell lineages) there was a significant excess of G6PD-normal cells. The significant concordance that we have observed in the degree of imbalance in the different blood-cell lineages indicates that a selective mechanism is likely to operate at the level of pluripotent blood stem cells. Thus, it appears that severe G6PD deficiency affects adversely the proliferation or the survival of nucleated blood cells and that this phenotypic characteristic is critical during hematopoiesis. 65 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10-0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04-0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05-0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09-0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  16. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10–0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04–0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05–0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09–0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  17. Bats: Body mass index, forearm mass index, blood glucose levels and SLC2A2 genes for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wenjie; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Bats have an unusually large volume of endocrine tissue, with a large population of beta cells, and an elevated sensitivity to glucose and insulin. This makes them excellent animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. We evaluated bats as models for diabetes in terms of lifestyle and genetic factors. For lifestyle factors, we generated data sets of 149 body mass index (BMI) and 860 forearm mass index (FMI) measurements for different species of bats. Both showed negative inter-species correlations with blood glucose levels in sixteen bats examined. The negative inter-species correlations may reflect adaptation of a small insectivorous ancestor to a larger frugivore. We identified an 11 bp deletion in the proximal promoter of SLC2A2 that we predicted would disrupt binding sites for the transcription repressor ZNF354C. In frugivorous bats this could explain the relatively high expression of this gene, resulting in a better capacity to absorb glucose and decrease blood glucose levels. PMID:27439361

  18. The Role of Untimed Blood Glucose in Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a High Prevalent Diabetic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cuschieri, Sarah; Craus, Johann; Savona-Ventura, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Global prevalence increase of diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes (GDM) has led to increased awareness and screening of pregnant women for GDM. Ideally screening for GDM should be done by an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT), which is laborious and time consuming. A randomized glucose test incorporated with anthropomorphic characteristics may be an appropriate cost-effective combined clinical and biochemical screening protocol for clinical practice as well as cutting down on oGTTs. A retrospective observational study was performed on a randomized sample of pregnant women who required an OGTT during their pregnancy. Biochemical and anthropomorphic data along with obstetric outcomes were statistically analyzed. Backward stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics curves were used to obtain a suitable predictor for GDM without an oGTT and formulate a screening protocol. Significant GDM predictive variables were fasting blood glucose (p = 0.0001) and random blood glucose (p = 0.012). Different RBG and FBG cutoff points with anthropomorphic characteristics were compared to carbohydrate metabolic status to diagnose GDM without oGTT, leading to a screening protocol. A screening protocol incorporating IADPSG diagnostic criteria, BMI, and different RBG and FBG criteria would help predict GDM among high-risk populations earlier and reduce the need for oGTT test. PMID:26998382

  19. Effect of acute anemia on endurance capacity, glucose and lactate kinetics, and the relative distribution of blood flow in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms investigated include lactate and glucose kinetics and alterations in the relative distribution of blood flow during submaximal exercise. Acute plasma transfusions were performed to lower the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Vo{sub 2max} decreased 18% in both sedentary and endurance trained animals. The sedentary anemic animals suffered a 78% decrease in distance when run to exhaustion whereas the trained anemic animals suffered only a 39% decrease in endurance distance, compared to the respective controls. Continuous infusions of (6-{sup 3}H)glucose and (U-{sup 14}C)lactate were performed. At rest there were no differences in the glucose of lactate turnover rates between anemic and control animals. There was an increase in the rates of glucose turnover in anemic animals compared to control animals, as well as elevated lactate turnover rates during exercise compared to control animals. Acute anemia resulted in an increase in sympathetic stimulation during exercise. Furthermore, epinephrine levels were significantly correlated to rate of lactate turnover.

  20. Bats: Body mass index, forearm mass index, blood glucose levels and SLC2A2 genes for diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wenjie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Bats have an unusually large volume of endocrine tissue, with a large population of beta cells, and an elevated sensitivity to glucose and insulin. This makes them excellent animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. We evaluated bats as models for diabetes in terms of lifestyle and genetic factors. For lifestyle factors, we generated data sets of 149 body mass index (BMI) and 860 forearm mass index (FMI) measurements for different species of bats. Both showed negative inter-species correlations with blood glucose levels in sixteen bats examined. The negative inter-species correlations may reflect adaptation of a small insectivorous ancestor to a larger frugivore. We identified an 11 bp deletion in the proximal promoter of SLC2A2 that we predicted would disrupt binding sites for the transcription repressor ZNF354C. In frugivorous bats this could explain the relatively high expression of this gene, resulting in a better capacity to absorb glucose and decrease blood glucose levels. PMID:27439361

  1. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  2. 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): April 16–18, 2015, Republic of Malta

    PubMed Central

    Homberg, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) with a focus on personalized diabetes management. The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2015 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. PMID:26496678

  3. Analysis of Blood Glucose Distribution Characteristics and Its Risk Factors among a Health Examination Population in Wuhu (China)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiangen; Zha, Xiaojuan; Li, Haibo; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) represent serious threats to human health, and as a result, this study was aimed at understanding the blood glucose distribution characteristics and the risk factors among a large health examination population in China. Methods: An investigation with physical and biochemical examinations and questionnaires was conducted in the physical examination center from 2011 to 2014 and as a result 175,122 physical examination attendees were enrolled in this study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the factors influencing blood sugar levels. Results: The rates of IFG and DM were 6.0% and 3.8%. Prevalence were 7.6%/5.1% in males and 5.1%/2.8% in females for IFG and DM, respectively. The prevalence of IFG and DM were thus higher in males than in females. In the normal group, except high density lipoprotein (HDL) that was significantly higher than in the IFG and DM group, the other indexes (age, body mass index (BMI), glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (TC) and total glycerides (TG) were lower than those in the IFG and DM group. The proportion of IFG and DM also increased with the increases in proportion of abnormal blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that increasing age, high BMI, high TC, high TG and low HDL increased the risk of diabetes, while in males, in addition to the above factors, the smoking and drinking factors also increased the risk of diabetes. After the age of 65, the blood glucose level reached a peak in males, while in females, the increasing trends was on the rise. The inflexion age of the fast rise was younger in males than in females. Conclusion: The study population showed a high prevalence of DM and IFG among the adults. Regular physical examination for the early detection of diabetes is recommended in the high-risk population. PMID:27043603

  4. 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): April 16-18, 2015, Republic of Malta.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Christopher G; Homberg, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 8(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) with a focus on personalized diabetes management. The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2015 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. PMID:26496678

  5. Community pharmacy-based intervention to improve self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Uta; Hämmerlein, Andrea; Casper, Annette; Schulz, Martin

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is clearly correlated with increased life expectancy and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective The objective of our study was to record and assess the errors patients make in preparing, performing, and processing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Furthermore, the study aimed to determine to what extent a single standardized SMBG instruction session in a community pharmacy might reduce the number of patients making errors or the number of errors per patient. Methods Between May and October 2005, SMBG of 462 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes was monitored in 32 pharmacies specialized in diabetes care. The patients performed blood glucose self-tests using their own blood glucose meters. Self-testing was monitored using a standardized documentation sheet on which any error made during the performance of the test was recorded. If necessary, patients were instructed in the accurate operation of their meter and the use of the necessary equipment. Additionally, patients obtained written instructions. Six weeks later, assessment of the quality of patient’s SMBG was repeated. Results During the first observation, 383 patients (83%) made at least one mistake performing SMBG. By the time of the second observation, this frequency had fallen to 189 (41%) (p<0.001). The average number of mistakes fell from 3.1 to 0.8 per patient. Mistakes that may potentially have led to inaccurate readings were initially recorded for 283 (61%) and at study end for 110 (24%) patients (p<0.001). Conclusion It is important to periodically instruct type 2 diabetic patients in the proper SMBG technique in order to ensure accurate measurements. In this study it was shown that community pharmacies specialized in diabetes care can provide this service effectively. PMID:25214909

  6. 7th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG), May 8–10, 2014, Helsinki, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Mlinac, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 7th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2014 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. PMID:25211215

  7. Glucose concentration in the blood of intact and alloxan-treated mice after pretreatment with commercial preparations of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Aleksandar; Gavrilovic, Maja; Jakovljevic, Vida; Sabo, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The study was concerned with the effect of mice pretreatment with two commercial products of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on the blood glucose concentration. One group of mice was pretreated four days with 200 mg/kg of Stevita (Stevita Co, INC, Arlington Texas) (stevia) and the other with 20 mg/kg of Clear Steviosides liquid (Stevita Co, INC, Herbal supplement, Brazil) (stevioside), whereas the animals of control group received at the same time physiological solution. Blood glucose concentration was measured before pretreatment and four days after that. The changes in glucose level were provoked by glucose-tolerance test (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline (0.2 mg/kg). The same procedure of measuring blood glucose was applied on the mice with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (two doses of 100 mg/kg with a 24-hour interval). Blood glucose levels in mice pretreated with stevia and stevioside were lower compared with control (7.82:6.82:8.01). Also, a smaller increase in this parameter compared to control was registered with pretreated mice in the glucose-tolerance test, pretreatment with stevioside being again more effective (8.68:6.36:5.82). Pretreatment with stevioside caused no significant increase in blood glucose concentration after administering adrenaline, which was not the case with the animals pretreated with stevia and control. Pretreatment with stevia, and to a greater extent with stevioside, protected test animals from the toxic action of alloxan compared with controls. PMID:15230335

  8. Near-infrared noninvasive blood glucose prediction without using multivariate analyses: introduction of imaginary spectra due to scattering change in the skin.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Yukio

    2015-04-01

    A noninvasive measurement method is proposed and examined to continuously predict blood glucose contents using near-infrared diffuse reflection difference spectra measured at the skin tissue without using multivariate analyses. Using the modified Beer’s law, the difference spectra are assumed to be synthesized from four major components in the human skin (water, protein, glucose, and fat) and a scattering equivalent component called baseline. As a result, one of the origins of the errors in blood glucose prediction using near-infrared is found to be the similarity of the shapes of the absorption spectrum between glucose and baseline. After separating the glucose contributions from the difference spectra at the characteristic wavelengths of baseline and fat, an imaginary component combining baseline and fat is introduced by considering that both the change in the fat contribution and the generation of baseline originate from the change in scattering in the skin. The imaginary component enables us to reduce the errors in blood glucose prediction. In contrast to the methods using multivariate analyses, the calculation process of the blood glucose contents from the measured reflection spectra is clear in this method, thus, it is easy to estimate the origins of the changes and contributions of the components in the measured difference spectra. The proposed method may become a useful tool for realization of noninvasive blood glucose prediction using near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:25859836

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism Measured With Positron Emission Tomography Are Decreased in Human Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    van Golen, Larissa W.; Huisman, Marc C.; Ijzerman, Richard G.; Hoetjes, Nikie J.; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical systemic microvascular dysfunction exists in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that microangiopathy, resulting from long-standing systemic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, may be generalized to the brain, resulting in changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in these patients. We performed dynamic [15O]H2O and [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose brain positron emission tomography scans to measure CBF and cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu), respectively, in 30 type 1 diabetic patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls after an overnight fast. Regions of interest were automatically delineated on coregistered magnetic resonance images and full kinetic analysis was performed. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were higher in patients versus controls. Total gray matter CBF was 9%, whereas CMRglu was 21% lower in type 1 diabetic subjects versus control subjects. We conclude that at real-life fasting glucose and insulin levels, type 1 diabetes is associated with decreased resting cerebral glucose metabolism, which is only partially explained by the decreased CBF. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than generalized microangiopathy account for the altered CMRglu observed in well-controlled type 1 diabetes. PMID:23530004

  10. Identification of individualised empirical models of carbohydrate and insulin effects on T1DM blood glucose dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescon, Marzia; Johansson, Rolf; Renard, Eric; Maran, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    One of the main limiting factors in improving glucose control for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) subjects is the lack of a precise description of meal and insulin intake effects on blood glucose. Knowing the magnitude and duration of such effects would be useful not only for patients and physicians, but also for the development of a controller targeting glycaemia regulation. Therefore, in this paper we focus on estimating low-complexity yet physiologically sound and individualised multi-input single-output (MISO) models of the glucose metabolism in T1DM able to reflect the basic dynamical features of the glucose-insulin metabolic system in response to a meal intake or an insulin injection. The models are continuous-time second-order transfer functions relating the amount of carbohydrate of a meal and the insulin units of the accordingly administered dose (inputs) to plasma glucose evolution (output) and consist of few parameters clinically relevant to be estimated. The estimation strategy is continuous-time data-driven system identification and exploits a database in which meals and insulin boluses are separated in time, allowing the unique identification of the model parameters.

  11. Clinical significance of barriers to blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients with insufficient glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeo; Takei, Ryoko; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Shuji; Kaise, Toshihiko; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess actual barriers to blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to investigate barrier-related factors in an exploratory manner. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated as outpatients at medical institutions within Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Barriers to blood glucose control were examined in patients with glycated hemoglobin ≥6.9% using a nine-item questionnaire. Answers were also obtained from physicians in charge of the patients for seven of nine questions. Results Seven hundred and thirteen patients answered the questionnaire. Many physicians and patients described barriers that involved difficulty in complying with diet therapy. For six of the seven barriers, patient awareness was lower than physician awareness. Patient-reported lack of concern for diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among patients with macrovascular complications. Patients who reported difficulty in compliance with exercise therapy and fear of hypoglycemia were more likely to suffer from microvascular complications. Conclusion For many of the barriers to blood glucose control, patients were less aware than physicians, suggesting that we need to take action to raise patient awareness. Of interest are the observations that the relevant barriers differed for macrovascular and microvascular complications and that the relationship between presence of macrovascular complications and lack of concern about diabetes mellitus. PMID:26170633

  12. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    KASUYA, NORIAKI; OHTA, SHOICHIRO; TAKANAMI, YOSHIKAZU; KAWAI, YUKARI; INOUE, YUTAKA; MURATA, ISAMU; KANAMOTO, IKUO

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25780409

  13. Effects of optical clearing agents on noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with optical coherence tomography: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ruoyu; Wei, Huajiang; Gu, Huimin; Zhu, Zhengguo; Zhang, Yuqing; Guo, Xiao; Cai, Tiantian

    2012-10-01

    Recently, the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. In this work, we investigate the administration of chemical agents onto human skin tissue to increase the transparency of the surface of the skin, as a means of improving the capability of OCT imaging for clinically relevant applications. Eight groups of experiments were proposed, in which different optical clearing agents (OCA) were used. The results indicate that, when properly used, some OCAs perform well in promoting the capability of OCT for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. Among the four kinds of OCA we used, 50% v/v glycerol solute turns out to be the best enhancer. Compared with the results of the experiments in which no OCA was used, when 50% glycerol was applied onto the human skin topically, the correlation coefficient between the OCT signal slope (OCTSS) and blood glucose concentration (BGC) was improved by 7.1% on average, and the lag time between changes in the OCTSS and BGC was cut by 8 min on average. The results of 10 w/v mannitol were also good, but not as pronounced.

  14. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: use, frequency drivers, and cost in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Elgart, Jorge F; González, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    Although test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent around 50% of diabetes treatment cost in Argentina, little is known about their current use and relationship with different types of treatment. We therefore aimed to estimate the current use of test strips and identify the major use drivers and the percentage they represent of total prescription costs in 2 entities of the social security system (SSS) of Argentina. Observational retrospective study measuring test strip prescriptions delivered by pharmacies from the province of Buenos Aires (8115 records collected during 3 months provided by the Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) of affiliates with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from 2 large entities of the SSS system. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG was 97.5 ± 70.1. This number varied according to treatment: monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. Test strips represented a higher percentage of the total prescription cost in people under OAD monotherapy (84.6%) and lower in those with insulin analogs (46.9%). In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG and its impact on the total prescription cost depends on the kind of such treatment. Since it has been shown that patients' education and prescription audit can optimize test strip use and treatment outcomes, implementation of such strategies could appropriately support, optimize, and reduce ineffective test strip use in people with T2DM. PMID:25208965

  15. Impacts of small arteriovenous malformations (AVM) on regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Chu, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of small AVMs (<3 cm) on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and on the glucose metabolism (rCGlcM) by [F-18]-FDG PET. Seven AVM patients (pts) were studied. All AVMs were confirmed by cerebral angiography and CT/MR scans. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and [F-18]-PDG PET images were interpreted visually to detect the changes of rCBF and rCGlcM. All pts except one brain stem AVM had defects in the regions of nidi on HMPAO and FDG images. FDG PET disclosed low rCGlcM in surrounding areas of AVMs in 6 pts, while HMPAO SPECT detected only 4 cases. One AVM had increased rCBF surrounding the nidus despite of decreased rCGlcM in the same region. Five pts had abnormal rCGlcM over ipsilateral remote cortex but only one had corresponding abnormal rCBF. Contralateral cortical hypofunction was noted in 3 pts by FDG PET but none by HMPAO SPECT. Cross cerebellar diaschisis was found in 2 AVMs by FDG PET and only one by HMPAO SPECT. All regions with abnormal HMPAO uptake did not look as discernibly as seen on the FDG PET scan. CT/MR scans detected the nidi of AVMs of all pts and old hemorrhage in one pt. In conclusion, either HMPAO SPECT or FDG PET is sensitive to detect the functional abnormalities in the region of nidus of small AVM and the surrounding brain tissue. FDG PET is better than HMPAO SPECT to detect functional changes in the remote cortex and diaschisis.

  16. Autoantibodies against β1-adrenoceptor induce blood glucose enhancement and insulin insufficient via T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yulin; Xiong, Haiyan; Du, Yunhui; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Suli; Li, Xiao; Liu, Huirong

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder with a high morbidity and mortality, but its pathogenesis is not fully understood. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that an immune mechanism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We demonstrated previously that the long-term presence of autoantibodies against the second extracellular loop of the β1-adrenoceptor (β1-AA) could change the ratio of peripheral CD4+T/CD8+T in rats, which was accompanied by lymphocytes infiltration in the rat heart, liver, and kidneys. To investigate whether β1-AA is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, BALB/c or nude mice were passively immunized with monoclonal antibodies against β1-AR (β1-AR mAb). Compared with vehicle control mice, β1-AA-positive BALB/c mice exhibited significantly increased blood glucose (P < 0.01) and increased fasting insulin (P < 0.05). However, the same changes did not occur in the nude mice. And altered islet morphology was found at week 28 in β1-AA immunization group compared with vehicle control. The basal insulin level of NIT-1 β-cells was decreased markedly (P < 0.01), and the lactate dehydrogenase level was increased (P < 0.01) after the administration of conditioned media from T lymphocytes that had been treated with β1-AA alone. However, these effects were reversed by treatment with metoprolol or peptides of the second extracellular loop of β1-adrenoceptor (β1-AR-ECII). These results suggest that β1-AA could induce hyperglycemia in both rats and mice, and also impair insulin secretion and change islet structure. T lymphocytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of these changes in the islets. PMID:26639354

  17. Eukaryotic release factor 1-2 affects Arabidopsis responses to glucose and phytohormones during germination and early seedling development

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Cooke, Peter; Li, Li

    2010-01-01

    Germination and early seedling development are coordinately regulated by glucose and phytohormones such as ABA, GA, and ethylene. However, the molecules that affect plant responses to glucose and phytohormones remain to be fully elucidated. Eukaryotic release factor 1 (eRF1) is responsible for the recognition of the stop codons in mRNAs during protein synthesis. Accumulating evidence indicates that eRF1 functions in other processes in addition to translation termination. The physiological role of eRF1-2, a member of the eRF1 family, in Arabidopsis was examined here. The eRF1-2 gene was found to be specifically induced by glucose. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing eRF1-2 were hypersensitive to glucose during germination and early seedling development. Such hypersensitivity to glucose was accompanied by a dramatic reduction of the expression of glucose-regulated genes, chlorophyll a/b binding protein and plastocyanin. The hypersensitive response was not due to the enhanced accumulation of ABA. In addition, the eRF1-2 overexpressing plants showed increased sensitivity to paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, and exogenous GA restored their normal growth. By contrast, the loss-of-function erf1-2 mutant exhibited resistance to paclobutrazol, suggesting that eRF1-2 may exert a negative effect on the GA signalling pathway. Collectively, these data provide evidence in support of a novel role of eRF1-2 in affecting glucose and phytohormone responses in modulating plant growth and development. PMID:19939886

  18. Factors Affecting the Pathways of Glucose Catabolism and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Pseudomonas natriegens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H. W.; Eagon, R. G.

    1967-01-01

    Less than 50% of theoretical oxygen uptake was observed when glucose was dissimilated by resting cells of Pseudomonas natriegens. Low oxygen uptakes were also observed when a variety of other substrates were dissimilated. When uniformly labeled glucose-14C was used as substrate, 56% of the label was shown to accumulate in these resting cells. This material consisted, in part, of a polysaccharide which, although it did not give typical glycogen reactions, yielded glucose after its hydrolysis. Resting cells previously cultivated on media containing glucose completely catabolized glucose and formed a large amount of pyruvate within 30 min. Resting cells cultivated in the absence of glucose catabolized glucose more slowly and produced little pyruvate. Pyruvate disappeared after further incubation. In this latter case, experimental results suggested (i) that pyruvate was converted to other acidic products (e.g., acetate and lactate) and (ii) that pyruvate was further catabolized via the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Growth on glucose repressed the level of key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and of lactic dehydrogenase. Growth on glycerol stimulated the level of these enzymes. A low level of isocitratase, but not malate synthetase, was noted in extracts of glucose-grown cells. Isocitric dehydrogenase was shown to require nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as cofactor. Previous experiments have shown that reduced NADP (NADPH2) cannot be readily oxidized and that pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase could not be detected in extracts. It was concluded that acetate, lactate, and pyruvate accumulate under growing conditions when P. natriegens is cultivated on glucose (i) because of a rapid initial catabolism of glucose via an aerobic glycolytic pathway and (ii) because of a sluggishly functioning tricarboxylic acid cycle due to the accumulation of NADPH2 and to repressed levels of key enzymes. PMID:4381634

  19. The long term oral regulation of blood glucose in diabetic patients by using of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 expressing CTB-IGF-1 hybrid protein.

    PubMed

    Bazi, Zahra; Jalili, Mahsa; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2013-11-01

    Regarding to the high prevalence and comorbidities of chronic high blood glucose in diabetic patients and the limited efficacy and current painful treatments. It is necessary to improve new treatments that are non-invasive and long-term for controlling blood glucose. Recent studies have shown that the healthy microflora in different body organs can perform as the gene vectors for expressing different types of gene therapies in situ. We have proposed that by constructing a recombinant Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 that expresses CTB-IGF-1 hybrid gene under control of ompC glucose sensitive promoter, the intestinal glucose level can be regulated. This method in comparison with other methods is a non-invasive way to control the blood glucose orally and it can be used for all types of diabetes. PMID:24074833

  20. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Litwak, Sara A.; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J.; Pappas, Evan G.; Wali, Jibran A.; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14–17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  1. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Litwak, Sara A; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J; Pappas, Evan G; Wali, Jibran A; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E; Gurzov, Esteban N

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14-17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  2. Sustained sleep fragmentation affects brain temperature, food intake and glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Baud, Maxime O; Magistretti, Pierre J; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Sleep fragmentation is present in numerous sleep pathologies and constitutes a major feature of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. A prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity has been shown to be associated to obstructive sleep apnea. While sleep fragmentation has been shown to impact sleep homeostasis, its specific effects on metabolic variables are only beginning to emerge. In this context, it is important to develop realistic animal models that would account for chronic metabolic effects of sleep fragmentation. We developed a 14-day model of instrumental sleep fragmentation in mice, and show an impact on both brain-specific and general metabolism. We first report that sleep fragmentation increases food intake without affecting body weight. This imbalance was accompanied by the inability to adequately decrease brain temperature during fragmented sleep. In addition, we report that sleep-fragmented mice develop glucose intolerance. We also observe that sleep fragmentation slightly increases the circadian peak level of glucocorticoids, a factor that may be involved in the observed metabolic effects. Our results confirm that poor-quality sleep with sustained sleep fragmentation has similar effects on general metabolism as actual sleep loss. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that sleep fragmentation is an aggravating factor for the development of metabolic dysfunctions that may be relevant for sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:22734931

  3. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  4. Zinc status affects glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in patients with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ellen B; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-06-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (-19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  5. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer. PMID:26378663

  6. The Effect of Family-centered Care on Management of Blood Glucose Levels in Adolescents with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Fatemeh; Shamsaei, Farshid; Mortazavi, Sayyedeh Zohreh; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background Responsibility for diabetes management tasks must shift from caregivers to adolescents as adolescents grow older. Also, family-centered care is a way to provide efficient care for them at home. This study aimed to identify the effect of family-centered care on management of blood glucose levels in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods This is a Pre-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. The participants consisted of forty adolescents with T1DM, aged between 10-14 years, with their caregivers who were selected through simple random sampling from Hamadan Diabetes Research Center in Iran in 2013. The sample was divided into four similar groups. Educational sessions were conducted for each group for 30 to 40 minutes. Data collection tools were “Supervisory Behaviors of Caregiver” (SBC), “Management Behaviors of adolescents” (MBA) questionnaires, and the “Blood Glucose Levels Record Sheet”. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 and based on descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, paired t-test and Pearson coefficient. Results There was a significant difference between the subjects’ MBA and SBC mean scores before (110.17±26.6) and after (134.6±1.28) intervention in four domains: “blood glucose testing”, “insulin therapy”, “meal plan” and “physical activity” (P<0.001). There were significant differences between the mean levels of recorded blood glucose during a week before and after intervention and between the mean levels of Glycated Hemoglobin level (HbA1c) before (8.4±1.12) and three months after (7.78±1.2) it (P<0.001). Pearson coefficient showed a positive relationship between the supervisory behaviors of caregivers with management behaviors of adolescents before and after the intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion Empowering adolescents with T1DM and their caregivers in home-centered care could improve diabetic adolescents’ management of blood glucose levels and reduce their HbA1Clevels

  7. Drug-Induced Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence for Statins and Other Drugs Affecting Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Anyanwagu, U; Idris, I; Donnelly, R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and glucose tolerance, either because of a reduction in tissue sensitivity to insulin (e.g., in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues) and/or a reduction in pancreatic insulin secretion, are associated with a number of unwanted health outcomes. Even small increases in circulating glucose levels (often described as dysglycemia or prediabetes) may confer an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression to overt type 2 diabetes. A number of drug therapies, many of them used long term in chronic disease management, have adverse effects on glucose metabolism, diabetes risk, and glycemic control among patients with preexisting diabetes. In this study, we review the evidence, underlying mechanisms, and the clinical significance of drug-related adverse effects on glucose metabolism. PMID:26440603

  8. The activity of isolated snail neurons controlling locomotion is affected by glucose

    PubMed Central

    Dyakonova, Varvara; Hernádi, László; Ito, Etsuro; Dyakonova, Taisia; Zakharov, Igor; Sakharov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of serotonin in mediating hunger-related changes in behavioral state has been described in many invertebrates. However, the mechanisms by which hunger signals to serotonergic cells remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that serotonergic neurons can directly sense the concentration of glucose, a metabolic indicator of nutritional state. In the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, we demonstrate that completely isolated pedal serotonergic neurons that control locomotion changed their biophysical characteristics in response to glucose application by lowering membrane potential and decreasing the firing rate. Additionally, the excitatory response of the isolated serotonergic neurons to the neuroactive microenvironment of the pedal ganglia was significantly lowered by glucose application. Because hunger has been reported to increase the activity of select neurons and their responses to the pedal ganglia microenvironment, these responses to glucose are in accordance with the hypothesis that direct glucose signaling is involved in the mediation of the hunger-related behavioral state. PMID:27493515

  9. Effects of Topical Anesthetics on Behavior, Plasma Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose Levels after Tail Biopsy of C57BL/6NHSD Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Johnson, Robert A; French, DeAnne C; Boivin, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Tail biopsy is a common procedure that is performed to obtain genetic material for determining genotype of transgenic mice. The use of anesthetics or analgesics is recommended, although identifying safe and effective drugs for this purpose has been challenging. We evaluated the effects of topical 2.5% lidocaine-2.5% prilocaine cream applied to the distal tail tip at 5 or 60 min before biopsy, immersion of the tail tip for 10 seconds in ice-cold 70% ethanol just prior to biopsy, and immersion of the tail tip in 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 s after biopsy. Mice were 7, 11, or 15 d old at the time of tail biopsy. Acute behavioral responses, plasma corticosterone, and blood glucose were measured after biopsy, and body weight and performance in elevated plus maze and open-field tests after weaning. Ice-cold ethanol prior to biopsy prevented acute behavioral responses to biopsy, and both ice-cold ethanol and bupivacaine prevented elevations in corticosterone and blood glucose after biopsy. Tail biopsy with or without anesthesia did not affect body weight or performance on elevated plus maze or open-field tests. We recommend the use of ice-cold ethanol for topical anesthesia prior to tail biopsy in mice 7 to 15 d old. PMID:27423152

  10. Consensus Report: The Current Role of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Non-Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C; Blonde, Lawrence; Cembrowski, George; Chacra, Antonio Roberto; Charpentier, Guillaume; Colagiuri, Stephen; Dailey, George; Gabbay, Robert A; Heinemann, Lutz; Kerr, David; Nicolucci, Antonio; Polonsky, William; Schnell, Oliver; Vigersky, Robert; Yale, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board convened a meeting in San Francisco, CA, July 20–21, 2011, to discuss the current practice of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin-treated (NIT) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twelve physician panel members from academia, practice, and government attended this meeting. These experts came from the United States, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. In addition, three consultants from Australia, Germany, and the United States contributed to the group’s final report. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Society. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was studied from eight perspectives related to patients with NIT T2DM: (1) epidemiological studies; (2) randomized controlled trials (RCT)s and meta-analyses; (3) targets, timing, and frequency of SMBG use; (4) incidence and role of SMBG in preventing hypoglycemia with single-drug regimens and combination regimens consisting of antihyperglycemic agents other than secretagogues and insulin; (5) comparison of SMBG with continuous glucose monitoring; (6) technological capabilities and limitations of SMBG; (7) barriers to appropriate use of SMBG; and (8) methods and end points for appropriate future clinical trials. The panel emphasized recent studies, which reflect the current approach for applying this intervention. Among the participants there was consensus that: SMBG is an established practice for patients with NIT T2DM, and to be most effective, it should be performed in a structured format where information obtained from this measurement is used to guide treatment; New, high-quality efficacy data from RCTs have demonstrated efficacy of SMBG in NIT T2DM in trials reported since 2008; Both patients and health care professionals require education on how to respond to the data for SMBG to be effective; and Additional well-defined studies are needed to assess the benefits and

  11. Consensus report: the current role of self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Blonde, Lawrence; Cembrowski, George; Chacra, Antonio Roberto; Charpentier, Guillaume; Colagiuri, Stephen; Dailey, George; Gabbay, Robert A; Heinemann, Lutz; Kerr, David; Nicolucci, Antonio; Polonsky, William; Schnell, Oliver; Vigersky, Robert; Yale, Jean-François

    2011-11-01

    The Coalition for Clinical Research--Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board convened a meeting in San Francisco, CA, July 20-21, 2011, to discuss the current practice of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin-treated (NIT) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twelve physician panel members from academia, practice, and government attended this meeting. These experts came from the United States, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. In addition, three consultants from Australia, Germany, and the United States contributed to the group's final report. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Society. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was studied from eight perspectives related to patients with NIT T2DM: (1) epidemiological studies; (2) randomized controlled trials (RCT)s and meta-analyses; (3) targets, timing, and frequency of SMBG use; (4) incidence and role of SMBG in preventing hypoglycemia with single-drug regimens and combination regimens consisting of antihyperglycemic agents other than secretagogues and insulin; (5) comparison of SMBG with continuous glucose monitoring; (6) technological capabilities and limitations of SMBG; (7) barriers to appropriate use of SMBG; and (8) methods and end points for appropriate future clinical trials. The panel emphasized recent studies, which reflect the current approach for applying this intervention. Among the participants there was consensus that: SMBG is an established practice for patients with NIT T2DM, and to be most effective, it should be performed in a structured format where information obtained from this measurement is used to guide treatment; New, high-quality efficacy data from RCTs have demonstrated efficacy of SMBG in NIT T2DM in trials reported since 2008; Both patients and health care professionals require education on how to respond to the data for SMBG to be effective; and Additional well-defined studies are needed to assess the benefits and costs of

  12. The effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Movahhedi Rad, Saeid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Lak, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Surgical procedures performed using spinal anesthetic techniques present a special challenge to anesthesiologists, because patients are awake and are exposed to multiple anxiety provoking visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, this study was carried out to define the effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients under spinal anesthesia. In this semi-experimental research, 90 men aging from 18-48 years with ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) class I, who underwent urological and abdominal surgery, were investigated. Patients were divided randomly into three groups of thirty subjects. Music group (headphone with music), Silence group (headphone without music) and the control group (without interference). The level of cortisol and blood sugar was measured half an hour before and after the operation. Moreover, the physiological indicators in each of these three groups were monitored and recorded from ten minutes before getting spinal anesthesia to ten minutes after the operation. The level of blood cortisol didn't have any increase in the music group after operation compared to the time before that. However, in the groups of silence and control this level had risen (p< 0.05). The level of blood glucose in music group had declined and in the other two groups it had increased. Our data showed that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels and some of the physiological variables. Therefore the researcher offers to be used music therapy as a complementary method in patients on the reduce anxiety. PMID:27350774

  13. A Review of Standards and Statistics Used to Describe Blood Glucose Monitor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Krouwer, Jan S.; Cembrowski, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Glucose performance is reviewed in the context of total error, which includes error from all sources, not just analytical. Many standards require less than 100% of results to be within specific tolerance limits. Analytical error represents the difference between tested glucose and reference method glucose. Medical errors include analytical errors whose magnitude is great enough to likely result in patient harm. The 95% requirements of International Organization for Standardization 15197 and others make little sense, as up to 5% of results can be medically unacceptable. The current American Diabetes Association standard lacks a specification for user error. Error grids can meaningfully specify allowable glucose error. Infrequently, glucose meters do not provide a glucose result; such an occurrence can be devastating when associated with a life-threatening event. Nonreporting failures are ignored by standards. Estimates of analytical error can be classified into the four following categories: imprecision, random patient interferences, protocol-independent bias, and protocol-dependent bias. Methods to estimate total error are parametric, nonparametric, modeling, or direct. The Westgard method underestimates total error by failing to account for random patient interferences. Lawton's method is a more complete model. Bland–Altman, mountain plots, and error grids are direct methods and are easier to use as they do not require modeling. Three types of protocols can be used to estimate glucose errors: method comparison, special studies and risk management, and monitoring performance of meters in the field. Current standards for glucose meter performance are inadequate. The level of performance required in regulatory standards should be based on clinical needs but can only deal with currently achievable performance. Clinical standards state what is needed, whether it can be achieved or not. Rational regulatory decisions about glucose monitors should be based on robust

  14. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available. This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research. PMID:26001176

  15. Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception.

    PubMed

    Melanson, K J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Campfield, L A; Saris, W H

    1999-12-01

    In a study of the impact of aspartame, fat, and carbohydrate on appetite, we monitored blood glucose continuously for 431 (SE 16) min. Ten healthy males (19-31 years) participated in three time-blinded visits. As blood glucose was monitored, appetite ratings were scored at randomized times. On the first meal initiation, volunteers consumed one of three isovolumetric drinks (aspartame, 1 MJ simple carbohydrate, and 1 MJ high-fat; randomized order). High-fat and high-carbohydrate foods were available ad libitum subsequently. Blood glucose patterns following the carbohydrate drink (+1.78 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 38 (SE 3) min) and high-fat drink (+0.83 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 49 (SE 6) min) were predictive of the next intermeal interval (R 0.64 and R 0.97 respectively). Aspartame ingestion was followed by blood glucose declines (40% of subjects), increases (20%), or stability (40%). These patterns were related to the volunteers' perception of sweetness of the drink (R 0.81, P = 0.014), and were predictive of subsequent intakes (R -0.71, P = 0.048). For all drinks combined, declines in blood glucose and meal initiation were significantly associated (chi 2 16.8, P < 0.001), the duration of blood glucose responses and intermeal intervals correlated significantly (R 0.715, P = 0.0001), and sweetness perception correlated negatively with hunger suppression (R -0.471, P = 0.015). Effects of fat, carbohydrate, and aspartame on meal initiation, meal size, and intermeal interval relate to blood glucose patterns. Varied blood glucose responses after aspartame support the controversy over its effects, and may relate to sweetness perception. PMID:10690159

  16. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Ashley N.; Stockert, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10−10. The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone. PMID:23882151

  17. Quantitative classification of HbA1C and blood glucose level for diabetes diagnosis using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Saraoğlu, Hamdi Melih; Temurtas, Feyzullah; Altıkat, Sayit

    2013-12-01

    In this study, artificial neural network structures were used for the quantitative classification of Haemoglobin A1C and blood glucose level for diabetes diagnosis as a non-invasive measurement technique. The neural network structures make inferences from the relationship between the palm perspiration and blood data values. For this purpose, feed forward multilayer, Elman, and radial basis neural network structures were used. The quartz crystal microbalance type and humidity sensors were used for the detection of palm perspiration rates. Total 297 volunteer's data is used in this study. Three quarters of the data was used to train the neural networks. The remaining data were used as test data. The best results for the quantitative classification were obtained from the feed forward NN structure for the detection of the glucose and HbA1C level quantities. And, the performances of all neural networks for the HbA1C value were better than the performances of these neural networks for the glucose level. PMID:23975344

  18. The effect of anti-emetic doses of dexamethasone on postoperative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and diabetic patients: a prospective randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tien, M; Gan, T J; Dhakal, I; White, W D; Olufolabi, A J; Fink, R; Mishriky, B M; Lacassie, H J; Habib, A S

    2016-09-01

    There are few data regarding postoperative hyperglycaemia in non-diabetic compared with diabetic patients following postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis with dexamethasone. Eighty-five non-diabetic patients and patients with type-2 diabetes were randomly allocated to receive intravenous dexamethasone (8 mg) or ondansetron (4 mg). Blood glucose levels were measured at baseline and then 2, 4 and 24 h following induction of anaesthesia. In non-diabetic patients, the mean (SD) maximum blood glucose was higher in those who received dexamethasone compared with ondansetron (9.1 (2.2) mmol.l(-1) vs. 7.8 (1.4) mmol.l(-1) , p = 0.04). In diabetic patients, the mean (SD) maximum blood glucose was also higher in those who received dexamethasone compared with ondansetron (14.0 (2.5) mmol.l(-1) vs. 10.7 (2.4) mmol.l(-1) , p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone administration was a significant predictor of maximum postoperative blood glucose increase (p < 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no interaction between baseline blood glucose level, or presence or absence of diabetes, and dexamethasone administration. We conclude that dexamethasone increases postoperative blood glucose levels in both non-diabetics and diabetics. PMID:27523051

  19. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (p<0.01-0.0001). Fatal diabetic ketoacidosis cases had evidently high glucose levels at each site; whereas in the non-diabetic group, blood glucose level was higher in fatal alcohol abuse, saltwater drowning, electrocution, cerebrovascular disease and sudden cardiac death due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition. PMID:26593993

  20. Targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing local transmission of malaria.

    PubMed

    Domanović, D; Kitchen, A; Politis, C; Panagiotopoulos, T; Bluemel, J; Van Bortel, W; Overbosch, D; Lieshout-Krikke, R; Fabra, C; Facco, G; Zeller, H

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of locally acquired Plasmodium vivax malaria in Greece started in 2009 and peaked in 2011. Targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing transmission of malaria raised questions of how to define spatial boundaries of such an area and when to trigger any specific blood safety measures, including whether and which blood donation screening strategy to apply. To provide scientific advice the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) organised expert meetings in 2013. The outcomes of these consultations are expert opinions covering spatial targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing local transmission of malaria and blood donation screening strategy for evidence of malaria infection in these areas. Opinions could help EU national blood safety authorities in developing a preventive strategy during malaria outbreaks. PMID:27238883

  1. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  2. Glucose cryoprotectant affects glutathione-responsive antitumor drug release from polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Manuela; Blanco-Fernández, Bárbara; Costoya, Alejandro; Concheiro, Angel; Puoci, Francesco; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare polysaccharide-based nanoparticles (NPs) sensitive to glutathione (GSH), and to elucidate the effect of the concentration of glucose used as cryoprotectant during freeze-drying on the GSH-responsiveness. NPs were obtained via ionic interaction between negatively charged polysaccharides, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, and the positively charged thiolated chitosan (CSSH), and crosslinking of CSSH before or after the nanoparticles formation with a disulfide-bond containing crosslinker, N,N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BAC). NPs were freeze-dried with glucose at two different concentrations (0.5 and 5.0%w/w) and then characterized as methotrexate delivery systems, studying the effect of GSH concentration on drug release, efficacy against tumor cells and cellular internalization. Non-loaded NPs were highly compatible with murine fibroblasts and showed a suitable size for being used in anticancer therapy. When methotrexate-loaded NPs were freeze-dried with the highest glucose concentration, they lost their responsiveness to GSH concentration in vitro. Drug-loaded NPs were shown to inhibit the growth of tumor cells (HeLa and CHO-K1) with greater efficiency than free methotrexate, disregarding the concentration of glucose used for freeze-drying. Nevertheless, confocal microscopy studies revealed that cellular internalization of NPs freeze-dried with 5.0% glucose is more difficult than for NPs freeze-dried with lower glucose concentration. Thus, concentration of glucose cryoprotectant should be taken into account during development of NPs intended to release the drug as a function of GSH levels, due to the specific interactions of glucose with GSH. PMID:25917641

  3. Longitudinal 3-week tracking of blood glucose concentration from thermo-optical response measurements on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-jen; Kantor, Stan; Hanna, Charles; Shain, Eric; Hohs, Ronald; Khalil, Omar S.

    2006-08-01

    We designed a dual-sensor instrument for measuring optical signals from the arms of human volunteers. The instrument had two temperature-controlled localized reflectance optical probes. Each probe had one illumination fiber and four detection fibers at different source-detector distances. The two probes were maintained at 30 °C. Thirty seconds after contact with the skin one was heated and the other was cooled at the same rate. The effect of heating and cooling on the signal was measured and correlated with blood glucose concentration. The measurements were performed 3 to 5 times a day for each volunteer over the span of three weeks. The data points from the first two weeks were used to establish a calibration model for each volunteer, which was used to predict glucose values from the third week optical data. Successftil calibration was possible for two of the three volunteers.