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  1. Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — and how to control ... factors. By Mayo Clinic Staff Keeping your blood sugar levels within the range recommended by your doctor ...

  2. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  3. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  4. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... problems. Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( ...

  5. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a ...

  6. High blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood glucose - self-care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  7. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  8. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ...

  9. Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How

    MedlinePlus

    ... monitoring blood glucose — provides useful information for diabetes management. It can help you: Judge how well you're reaching overall treatment goals Understand how diet and exercise affect blood sugar ...

  10. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  11. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. Insulin is needed to move glucose into cells where it is stored or used for energy. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into the cells. This leads to symptoms of diabetes . Low blood ...

  12. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hypoglycemia - self-care; Low blood glucose - self-care ... Talk with your health care provider about when you should check your blood sugar every day. People who have low blood sugar need to check ...

  13. Controlling Blood Sugars

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, A.; Matwijiw, I.

    1985-01-01

    Management of the diabetic patient has undergone a minor revolution in the past decade. Better understanding of insulin's physiology, its interaction with glucose and other aspects of metabolism, and knowledge of hyperglycemia's detrimental effects, have contributed to a drive to keep blood glucose levels as close to non-diabetic norms as possible. One of the most important therapeutic advances has been the realization that patients must become their own chief therapists. They therefore must be adequately and intensively educated to understand the interrelationships of diet, insulin, and activity in controlling blood glucose levels. Self blood glucose monitoring is essential to gauge these interrelationships and allows the educated patient to make daily therapeutic decisions. PMID:21274022

  14. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... insulin therapy can help you achieve desired blood sugar control and what intensive insulin therapy requires of ... aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy requires close monitoring of ...

  15. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  16. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar levels at home using a blood glucose meter, which is a computerized device that measures the ... a testing strip that goes into the glucose meter, and the blood glucose reading appears on a ...

  17. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... elevado Glucose , or sugar, is the body's main fuel source. That means your body — including your brain — needs glucose to work properly. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be ...

  19. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body gets desperate for a source of fuel. The body wants to use glucose (sugar). But without insulin, that glucose stays stuck in the blood — and isn't available to the cells — so the body uses fat instead. But that ...

  20. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan. To avoid potential problems, check your blood sugar before, during and after exercise. By Mayo Clinic ... diabetes. Exercise can help you improve your blood sugar control, boost your overall fitness, and reduce your ...

  1. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... an X-ray Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Kids > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A What's in this article? ... del azúcar en la sangre Checking your blood sugar levels is a really important part of taking ...

  2. Superior reproductive success on human blood without sugar is not limited to highly anthropophilic mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Braks, M A H; Juliano, S A; Lounibos, L P

    2006-03-01

    Anthropophilic mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) have been shown to have superior reproductive success on human blood when sugar is not available. Life-table experiments were conducted with Aedes albopictus Skuse and Ae. aegypti to compare the effects of sugar availability on age-specific survivorship, lifetime and daily fecundity, and blood-feeding frequency when offered human blood daily. There were no significant interactions between the effects of sugar availability and mosquito species for these four variables, indicating similar effects of sugar availability for both species. Lifetime fecundity was not significantly affected by sugar availability, but sugar-deprived females had significantly reduced age-specific survivorship than did sugar-fed females. In absence of sugar, females took bloodmeals twice as often, resulting in a higher daily fecundity. The results indicate that superior reproductive success on human blood without sugar does not seem to be limited to highly anthropophilic mosquito species, such as Ae. aegypti. We conclude that evolution of a highly anthropophilic feeding strategy is not an inevitable result of the ability to thrive on human blood alone.

  3. Real-Time Statistical Modeling of Blood Sugar.

    PubMed

    Otoom, Mwaffaq; Alshraideh, Hussam; Almasaeid, Hisham M; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is considered a chronic disease that incurs various types of cost to the world. One major challenge in the control of Diabetes is the real time determination of the proper insulin dose. In this paper, we develop a prototype for real time blood sugar control, integrated with the cloud. Our system controls blood sugar by observing the blood sugar level and accordingly determining the appropriate insulin dose based on patient's historical data, all in real time and automatically. To determine the appropriate insulin dose, we propose two statistical models for modeling blood sugar profiles, namely ARIMA and Markov-based model. Our experiment used to evaluate the performance of the two models shows that the ARIMA model outperforms the Markov-based model in terms of prediction accuracy.

  4. Variability in Phoma species affecting sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phoma betae can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In ...

  5. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're controlling your diabetes too. The glycosylated hemoglobin test (also known as the hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c test) will tell you how ... regular visits with your diabetes health care team. Hemoglobin is the substance inside red blood cells that ...

  6. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... stored fat instead in an attempt to provide fuel to hungry cells. Feeling tired: Because the body can't use ... blood and can't get into the body's cells to be used for energy. This can ... body can't use glucose for fuel, it starts to use fat. When this happens, ...

  7. Postmortem Blood Sugar and Blood Urea Nitrogen Determinations

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, John F.; Kerenyi, Norbert A.

    1965-01-01

    Glucose and urea nitrogen determinations were made on blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples collected during 160 postmortem examinations in order to determine the usefulness of such tests in diagnosing diabetes and uremia at the time of autopsy. The results indicated that: (1) Blood is unsuitable for postmortem glucose determination, and no postmortem normal can be established. (2) Cerebrospinal fluid gave more uniform but very low glucose values. (3) Diabetics as a group had very high postmortem glucose levels but showed a marked overlap with non-diabetics. (4) Infants less than 3 months of age showed high postmortem glucose values. (5) Postmortem blood urea nitrogen and cerebrospinal fluid urea nitrogen levels were within normal limits in previously healthy persons who died suddenly from accidental causes. (6) Hospital autopsy cases had high urea nitrogen levels. (7) Postmortem urea nitrogen levels higher than 100 mg.% were indicative of uremia. PMID:14285288

  8. Supramolecular Structures with Blood Plasma Proteins, Sugars and Nanosilica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turov, V. V.; Gun'ko, V. M.; Galagan, N. P.; Rugal, A. A.; Barvinchenko, V. M.; Gorbyk, P. P.

    Supramolecular structures with blood plasma proteins (albumin, immunoglobulin and fibrinogen (HPF)), protein/water/silica and protein/water/ silica/sugar (glucose, fructose and saccharose) were studied by NMR, adsorption, IR and UV spectroscopy methods. Hydration parameters, amounts of weakly and strongly bound waters and interfacial energy (γ S) were determined over a wide range of component concentrations. The γ S(C protein,C silica) graphs were used to estimate the energy of protein-protein, protein-surface and particle-particle interactions. It was shown that interfacial energy of self-association (γ as) of protein molecules depends on a type of proteins. A large fraction of water bound to proteins can be displaced by sugars, and the effect of disaccharide (saccharose) was greater than that of monosugars. Changes in the structural parameters of cavities in HPF molecules and complexes with HPF/silica nanoparticles filled by bound water were analysed using NMR-cryoporometry showing that interaction of proteins with silica leads to a significant decrease in the amounts of water bound to both protein and silica surfaces. Bionanocomposites with BSA/nanosilica/sugar can be used to influence states of living cells and tissues after cryopreservation or other treatments. It was shown that interaction of proteins with silica leads to strong decrease in the volume of all types of internal cavities filled by water.

  9. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation.

  10. Interactions of dietary protein and carbohydrate determine blood sugar level and regulate nutrient selection in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Redak, R A

    2000-09-01

    The non-homeostatic regulation of blood sugar concentration in the insect Manduca sexta L. was affected by nutritional status. Larvae maintained on diets lacking sucrose displayed low concentrations of trehalose, the blood sugar of insects, which varied from 5 to 15 mM with increasing dietary casein level between 12.5 and 75 g/l. These insects were glucogenic, as demonstrated by the selective 13C enrichment of trehalose synthesized from [3-13C]alanine, and de novo synthesis was the sole source of blood sugar. The distribution of 13C in glutamine established that following transamination of the 13C substituted substrate, [3-13C]pyruvate carboxylation rather than decarboxylation was the principal pathway of Pyr metabolism. The mean blood trehalose level was higher in insects maintained on diets with sucrose. At the lowest dietary casein level blood trehalose was approximately 50 mM, and declined to 20 mM at the highest casein level. Gluconeogenesis was detected in insects maintained on sucrose-free diets at the higher protein levels examined, but [3-13C]pyruvate decarboxylation and TCA cycle metabolism was the principal fate of [3-13C]alanine following transamination, and dietary carbohydrate was the principal source of glucose for trehalose synthesis. Feeding studies established a relationship between nutritional status, blood sugar level and dietary self-selection. Insects preconditioned by feeding on diets without sucrose had low blood sugar levels regardless of dietary casein level, and when subsequently given a choice between a sucrose diet or a casein diet, selected the former. Larvae preconditioned on a diet containing sucrose and the lowest level of casein had high blood sugar levels and subsequently selected the casein diet. Larvae maintained on the sucrose diet with the highest casein level had low blood sugar and self-selected the sucrose diet. When preconditioned on diets with sucrose and intermediate levels of casein, insects selected more equally

  11. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  12. High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People with Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People With Type 1 Diabetes Pair of studies found patients taking insulin injections ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 1 Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood ...

  13. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar) of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males <1-day post-emergence were released in a mesocosm. Overnight they had access to either one or six Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net). In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar

  14. Effect of female size on fecundity and survivorship of Aedes aegypti fed only human blood versus human blood plus sugar.

    PubMed

    Naksathit, A T; Scott, T W

    1998-06-01

    We determined whether size, an indirect measure of teneral energy reserves, modifies the fitness advantage (sigma survival x egg production/female/day) conferred to female Aedes aegypti (L.) maintained on human blood over cohorts fed human blood plus sugar. Different sized females were obtained by rearing them at different larval densities and with different amounts of food per larva. Each female in 4 treatment groups of 23 mosquitoes each was maintained in a separate cage. A 10% sucrose solution was provided ad libitum to mosquitoes in the sugar-plus-blood treatments and water to the blood only groups. Eggs deposited and survival were monitored daily for each mosquito until all had died. Within a size category, survival of mosquitoes in different treatments was not different and mosquitoes fed only human blood laid more eggs than those fed blood plus sugar. The numbers of eggs laid by small mosquitoes fed human blood alone and large mosquitoes fed human blood plus sugar were not different. Mosquitoes fed only human blood had higher net replacement and intrinsic rates of growth than similar sized mosquitoes fed blood plus sugar. Female Ae. aegypti fed only human blood, regardless of the variation in size that we studied and thus energy reserves at emergence, had a fitness advantage over those fed a diet that included sugar.

  15. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having more than three drinks ...

  16. Association of δ¹³C in fingerstick blood with added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    PubMed

    Davy, Brenda M; Jahren, A Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L

    2011-06-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added-sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related comorbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of ¹³C, a naturally occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary dietary source, might be reflected in the δ¹³C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay because of its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the δ¹³C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Individuals aged 21 years and older (n = 60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire, sequence two: 4-day food intake record). Sequence one participants completed a food intake record at visit two, and nonfasting blood samples were obtained via routine fingersticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a beverage intake questionnaire at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for δ¹³C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ¹³C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added-sugar intake. Reported mean added-sugar consumption was 66 ± 5 g/day, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was 330 ± 53 g/day and 134 ± 25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick δ¹³C value was -19.94‰ ± 0.10‰, which differed by body mass index status. δ¹³C value was associated (all P < 0

  17. Loss of Sugar Detection by GLUT2 Affects Glucose Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stolarczyk, Emilie; Le Gall, Maude; Even, Patrick; Houllier, Anne; Serradas, Patricia; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Leturque, Armelle

    2007-01-01

    Background Mammals must sense the amount of sugar available to them and respond appropriately. For many years attention has focused on intracellular glucose sensing derived from glucose metabolism. Here, we studied the detection of extracellular glucose concentrations in vivo by invalidating the transduction pathway downstream from the transporter-detector GLUT2 and measured the physiological impact of this pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We produced mice that ubiquitously express the largest cytoplasmic loop of GLUT2, blocking glucose-mediated gene expression in vitro without affecting glucose metabolism. Impairment of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection transiently protected transgenic mice against starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, suggesting that both low- and high-glucose concentrations were not detected. Transgenic mice favored lipid oxidation, and oral glucose was slowly cleared from blood due to low insulin production, despite massive urinary glucose excretion. Kidney adaptation was characterized by a lower rate of glucose reabsorption, whereas pancreatic adaptation was associated with a larger number of small islets. Conclusions/Significance Molecular invalidation of sugar sensing in GLUT2-loop transgenic mice changed multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis, highlighting by a top-down approach, the role of membrane glucose receptors as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:18074013

  18. Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

  19. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? (For Girls) Video: ¿Soy ... meter. Within a few seconds, the blood glucose reading appears on a screen. When you're first ...

  20. Relationship between reported carbohydrate intake and fasting blood sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Elevated fasting blood glucose ranges from normal glucose tolerance (under 100 mg/dL) to impaired glucose tolerance (100-125 mg/dL) to diabetes mellitus (above 126 mg/dL). Dietary intake may have a direct influence on glucose metabolism. Objective: We hypothesized that dietary carbohydra...

  1. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  2. Investigation of opportunities of the optical non-invasive diagnostics method for the blood sugar control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of noninvasive method for determining the blood sugar is caused by necessity of regular monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients blood. Traditional invasive method is painful, because it requires a finger pricking. Despite the active studies in the field of non-invasive medical diagnostics, to date the painless and inexpensive instrument for blood sugar control for personal use doesn't exist. It's possible to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood with help of spectrophotometry method. It consists of registering and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the radiation which missed, reflected or absorbed by the object. The authors proposed a measuring scheme for studying the spectral characteristics of the radiation, missed by earlobe. Ultra-violet, visible and near infrared spectral ranges are considered. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed special retaining clip and results of experiment with real patient.

  3. A Kinesthetic Activity Using LEGO Bricks and Buckets for Illustrating the Regulation of Blood Sugar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urschler, Margaret; Meidl, Katherine; Browning, Samantha; Khan, Basima; Milanick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how, when first faced with understanding blood sugar regulation, students often resort to simple memorization.Many students would like to get more involved with the conceptual framework but do not know how to start. The authors have developed an activity based on the Modell approach, a "view from the inside." This…

  4. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Oogai, Yuichi; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS) and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans. PMID:28036052

  5. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  6. Sports-induced blood sugar utilization prevents development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinkui; Yin, Xiaojian; Jiang, Jiazhen

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a malignant tumor of extremely high lethality in humans. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is the predominant precancerous lesion for PDAC and is frequently detected in the normal and inflamed pancreas. However, only a few of PanIN eventually progress into PDAC. Thus, understanding of the regulation of PanIN-to-PDAC conversion appears to be critical for prevention of the occurrence of PDAC. Here, we evaluated the effect of sports on the progression of PanIN into PDAC in an established mouse PDAC model (Ptf1a-Cre; K-ras fx/fx). We found that swimming (3 min twice per day) since 12 weeks of age significantly decreased the incidence of the development of PDAC in these PanIN-baring mice at 24 weeks of age. Moreover, swimming significantly decreased fasting blood sugar and improved glucose response in these mice, compared to the control. Furthermore, implantation of insulin pellets into the mice not only reduced fasting blood sugar and improved glucose response, but also significantly reduced the incidence of development of PDAC, which mimicked the effect of swimming. Taken together, our study suggests that sports-induced blood sugar utilization may prevent development of PDAC.

  7. Development of automatic blood extraction device with a micro-needle for blood-sugar level measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanaka, Kaichiro; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2008-12-01

    In this study, a portable type HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is newly developed. It has features 1) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 2) extracting and transferring human blood and 3) measuring blood glucose level. This miniature SMBG (Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose) device employs a syringe reciprocal blood extraction system equipped with an electro-mechanical control unit for accurate and steady operations. The device consists of a) a disposable syringe unit, b) a non-disposable body unit, and c) a glucose enzyme sensor. The syringe unit consists of a syringe itself, its cover, a piston and a titanium alloy micro-needle, whose inner diameter is about 100µm. The body unit consists of a linear driven-type stepping motor, a piston jig, which connects directly to the shaft of the stepping motor, and a syringe jig, which is driven by combining with the piston jig and slider, which fixes the syringe jig. The required thrust to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Because of this driving mechanism, the automatic blood extraction and discharging processes are completed by only one linear driven-type stepping motor. The experimental results using our miniature SMBG device was confirmed to output more than 90% volumetric efficiency under the driving speed of the piston, 1.0mm/s. Further, the blood sugar level was measured successfully by using the glucose enzyme sensor.

  8. An acquired distaste: Sugar discrimination by the larval parasitoid Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is affected by prior sugar exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As sugar quality feeding is very important in the lives of adult parasitoids, we examined several feeding responses of Microplitis croceipes to sugars commonly found in nectar. We first examined the relationship between feeding time and consumption of sucrose, glucose, fructose and maltose by Microp...

  9. Influence of two anesthetic techniques on blood sugar level in head injury patients: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, Manoj; Malviya, Deepak; Malviya, P. S.; Kumar, Virendra; Tyagi, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Head injury presents a major worldwide social, economic, and health problem. Hyperglycemia is a significant indicator of the severity of injury and predictor of outcome, which can easily be prevented. There has been a long-standing controversy regarding the use of inhalational or intravenous (i.v.) anesthetic agents for surgery of head injury cases and impact of these agents on blood sugar level. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out anesthetic drugs and technique having minimal or no effect on the blood sugar, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of patients with a head injury by comparing two types of anesthetic techniques in surgery of head injury patients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, and comparative study, conducted on 60 adult head injury patients. The patients were divided into two groups of 30 each. Group I patients received induction with sevoflurane and then had O2 + air + sevoflurane for maintenance with controlled ventilation. Group II patients received induction with i.v. propofol and then had O2 + air + propofol for maintenance with controlled ventilation. Injection fentanyl was used in both the groups at the time of induction and in intermittent boluses in maintenance. In observation, blood sugar level and mean arterial pressure were assessed at different time periods perioperatively in both groups while GCS was analyzed pre- and post-operatively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Microsoft Excel 2010 using t-test for comparison between the two groups and Z-test for comparison of proportions. Results and Conclusion: Blood sugar level was found significantly higher in patients of sevoflurane group at 30 min after induction, at the end of surgery, and 1 h after the end of anesthesia than propofol group patients. This increase of blood sugar level did not have any significant alteration in the GCS profile of the patients in sevoflurane group as compared to propofol group

  10. Sugar-deprivation following a blood meal does not reduce yolk formation and fertility in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Van Handel, E

    1991-03-01

    Adult Culex quinquefasciatus, maintained from emergence on sugar, were fed blood and then fed either sugar (control) or water (starving) for 7 days. Analysis of ovaries and egg rafts for protein, lipids and glycogen showed that only glycogen levels were diminished by starvation. Eggs from both control and starving females, however, were equally viable. Nonbloodfed starving females lived longer than bloodfed starving females. These results suggest that the blood meal maximizes fertility, not longevity.

  11. Effects of pentolinium on blood sugar and serum potassium concentrations during anaesthesia and surgery.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, N R; Battit, G E

    1975-12-01

    Blood surgar and serum potassium (K+) concentrations were measured before, during and 60 min after surgery in two groups of 10 non-diabetic patients during nitrous oxide/halothane/tubocurarine anaesthesia. In the control group the arterial pressure was maintained within the patients' normal ranges, while in the study group pentolinium was administered i.v. (average 22 mg per patient) to achieve and maintain a mean arterial pressure of 50 mm Hg (+/-10 SEM). In the normotensive group the blood sugar concentration increased markedly and significantly during surgery and in the early postoperative period while the serum K+ concentration was essentially unchanged. In the hypotensive group pentolinium produced a striking modification of the surgery-induced hyperglycaemic response (but not to hypoglycaemic values) as well as a small but significant decrease in serum K+ concentration. The observed increase in the blood sugar concentration may be part of the autonomic response to surgical stress. Two mechanisms can explain the reduction in serum K+ concentration: (1) decreased hepatic glycogenolysis and (2) attenuation of the suppressive effect of adrenaline on insulin release, both effects being secondary to the ganglion-blocking property of pentolinium. These results are in contrast to the widely held belief that ganglion-blocking drugs cause hypoglycaemia.

  12. Blood Pressure: Is It Affected by Cold Weather?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your narrowed veins and arteries. In addition to cold weather, blood pressure may also be affected by a sudden change in weather patterns, such as a weather front or a storm. Your body — and blood vessels — ...

  13. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  14. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    PubMed

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-07

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  15. Measurement of diabetic sugar concentration in human blood using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Rashid, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrates the use of Raman spectroscopy for the direct measurement of diabetic sugar in human blood using 532 nm laser system. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 21 individuals. We have elicited a reliable glucose signature in diabetic patients, and measured glucose levels in blood serum of normal, healthy diabetic and diabetic patients with other malignancies like cancer and hepatitis. Quantitative predictions of glucose spectra illustrate the predictions based on molecular information carried by the Raman light in highly light-scattering and absorbing media. Raman spectrum peaks for diabetic blood serum are observed at 1168, 1531, 1463, 1021 cm-1 with intensity level 17000 to 18500 pixels attributed to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, collagen, and skeletal C-C stretch of lipids acyl chains. Raman spectra for normal, diabetic patients having cancer and hepatitis were also recorded. This in vitro glucose monitoring methodology will lead in vivo noninvasive on-line monitoring having painless and at the same time the data will be displayed on-line and in real time. The measured Raman peaks provides detailed bio-chemical fingerprint of the sample and could confer diagnostic benefit in a clinical setting.

  16. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food security has been defined as the “availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods”. Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of <0.05. Results Most subjects were female (68.7%). There was no significant relationship between gender and food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). Conclusions According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice. PMID:28163854

  17. Case report of excessive hand sweating that alters blood sugar measurements.

    PubMed

    Buller Viqueira, Eva; Cabello Pulido, Juana; Jiménez Fernández, José Antonio

    2015-07-21

    We present a clinical case that we did not find described in literature and yet is quite common in primary care. The patient described is female with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus treated with insulin and poor clinical response according to glycated haemoglobin measurements. In addition to the main diagnosis, she also shows excessive sweating in palms and feet, which explains why her blood sugar levels were wrong. This also led to treatment adjustments that were carried out with disregard to her true plasma glucose concentration. To conclude, this case report highlights the importance of treating subjects in lieu of separate conditions, as well as the need of a team approach to patients in care.

  18. Short–Term Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Mobile Phone Jammers Decreases the Fasting Blood Sugar in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shekoohi Shooli, F.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Jarideh, S.; Nematollahii, S.; Yousefi, F.; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shojaei-fard, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) above certain levels can affect human health through triggering some biological responses. According to WHO, short-term exposure to EMF at the levels present in the home/environment do not cause any apparent detrimental effects in healthy individuals. However, now, there is a debate on whether long-term exposure to low level EMF can evoke detrimental biological responses. Although based on the Communications Act of 1934, selling, advertising, using, or importing mobile jammers which block cell phone calls and text messages are illegal acts, in some countries these devices are being used for security purpose and for prevention of cheating during examinations. Methods In this study 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The control group received no radiation. The sham exposure group was exposed to a switched-off jammer device. After fasting for 12 hours, the exposure group was exposed to EMFs at a distance of 50 cm from the jammer. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein after 24, 48 and72 hours and fasting blood sugar was measured by using a common blood glucose monitor (BIONIME GM110, Taiwan). The significance level was considered 5% and SPSS Ver. 21 was used for statistical analysis. The data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. Results A statistically significant difference was observed between blood sugar level in the control and exposure groups after 24, 48 and 72 hours of continuous irradiation (p values were <0.001, <0.001 and 0.002, respectively). No significant difference was found between the level of fasting blood sugar in control and sham groups. Conclusion Short-term exposure to electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone jammer can reduce blood sugar level in adult male rats. These findings, in contrast with our previous results, lead us to this conclusion that the use of these signal blocking devices in very

  19. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (P<.05). The authors conclude that 10 weeks of consumption of fructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure.

  20. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality.

  1. Sugar does not affect the bending and tilt moduli of simple lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Nagle, John F; Jablin, Michael S; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The diffuse X-ray scattering method has been applied to samples composed of SOPC, DOPC, DMPC, and POPC with added sugar, either sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, or trehalose. Several sugar concentrations in the range 200-500 mM were investigated for each of the lipid/sugar samples. We observed no systematic change in the bending modulus KC or in the tilt modulus Kθ with increasing sugar concentration. The average values of both these moduli were the same as those of the respective pure lipid controls within statistical uncertainty of 2%. These results are inconsistent with previous reports of sugar concentration dependent values of KC.

  2. How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels?

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart disease, heart attack, and stroke . Smoking and Atherosclerosis The image shows how smoking can affect arteries ... a detailed view of a leg artery with atherosclerosis—plaque buildup that's partially blocking blood flow. Figure ...

  3. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children123

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. Objective: This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. Design: BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7–12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study—a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results: Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. Conclusions: These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated

  4. Effects of a diet high in salt, fat, and sugar on telemetric blood pressure measurements in conscious, unrestrained adult Yucatan miniature swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Myrie, Semone B; McKnight, Leslie L; King, J Christopher; McGuire, John J; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Bertolo, Robert F

    2012-08-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to evaluate diet-related elevation of blood pressure in adult Yucatan miniature swine. Systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), diastolic atrial blood pressure (DAP), heart rate, and locomotor activity were assessed in 9- or 11-mo-old Yucatan miniature pigs fed a standard diet or a North American-type diet high in salt, fat, and sugar (HSFS). Compared with pigs fed standard diet, pigs fed HSFS diet showed markedly elevated SAP (132 ± 3 compared with 156 ± 6 mm Hg), whereas DAP was unchanged (92 ± 2 compared with 99 ± 5 mm Hg). In addition, all pigs were modestly sensitive to short-term changes in dietary salt, as indicated by a 6% to 7% response in blood pressure parameters. According to these data, the increase in SAP for pigs on the HSFS diet was too large to be explained by the NaCl content of the diet alone. We found no evidence of endothelial dysfunction, and the relaxation responses of isolated coronary arteries actually were enhanced in the HSFS group. In conclusion, in a Yucatan miniature pigs model chronically fed a HSFS diet, DAP did not increase, but SAP and pulse pressure appeared to be affected by high dietary levels of fat or sugar (or both).

  5. Effects of a Diet High in Salt, Fat, and Sugar on Telemetric Blood Pressure Measurements in Conscious, Unrestrained Adult Yucatan Miniature Swine (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Myrie, Semone B; McKnight, Leslie L; King, J Christopher; McGuire, John J; Vliet, Bruce N Van; Bertolo, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to evaluate diet-related elevation of blood pressure in adult Yucatan miniature swine. Systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), diastolic atrial blood pressure (DAP), heart rate, and locomotor activity were assessed in 9- or 11-mo-old Yucatan miniature pigs fed a standard diet or a North American-type diet high in salt, fat, and sugar (HSFS). Compared with pigs fed standard diet, pigs fed HSFS diet showed markedly elevated SAP (132 ± 3 compared with 156 ± 6 mm Hg), whereas DAP was unchanged (92 ± 2 compared with 99 ± 5 mm Hg). In addition, all pigs were modestly sensitive to short-term changes in dietary salt, as indicated by a 6% to 7% response in blood pressure parameters. According to these data, the increase in SAP for pigs on the HSFS diet was too large to be explained by the NaCl content of the diet alone. We found no evidence of endothelial dysfunction, and the relaxation responses of isolated coronary arteries actually were enhanced in the HSFS group. In conclusion, in a Yucatan miniature pigs model chronically fed a HSFS diet, DAP did not increase, but SAP and pulse pressure appeared to be affected by high dietary levels of fat or sugar (or both). PMID:23043781

  6. Factors that Affect Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake in Rural, Southern College Students in the US.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Chau, Tak Yan; Rutledge, Julie M; Erickson, Dawn; Lim, Yunsook

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate factors that affect sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in rural, southern college students in the US. The majority of the participants were male (58 %) and Caucasian (63 %). The average total SSB consumption was 79.4 fl oz/day (2.35 L/d). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total SSB intake greater than 57.4 fl oz/day (1.8 L/d) versus less than 57.4 fl oz/day showed that factors associated with greater odds for high SSB intake were age greater than 20 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 3.551, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.385 - 9.104, p = 0.008) and being African American (OR = 3.477, 95 % CI = 1.291 - 9.363, p = 0.013). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total bottled water intake greater than 39.4 fl oz/day (median) versus less than 39.4 fl oz/day showed that consuming alcohol was significantly related to an increased probability of drinking more than 39.4 fl oz (1.17 L/d) of bottled water per day (median; OR = 2.914, 95 % CI = 1.223 - 6.943, p = 0.016). Culturally sensitive strategies are needed to raise awareness for making healthy beverage choices when dining on campus to effectively reduce college student's SSB consumption.

  7. Sweet future: fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting.

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Dvorak, Robert D

    2010-02-01

    This study explored metabolic mechanisms of future (delay) discounting, a choice phenomenon where people value present goods over future goods. Using fluctuating blood glucose as an index of body-energy budget, optimal discounting should regulate choice among rewards as a function of temporal caloric requirement. We identified this novel link between blood glucose levels measured in the lab and future-discounting rates of participants, who made choices between a "smaller and sooner" reward and a "larger but later" option, with possible actual monetary rewards. A group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained sugar showed a reduced rate of future discounting afterward, when we controlled for sex, age, body mass index, and the taste of the drink. In contrast, a group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained artificial sweetener showed an increased rate of future discounting. Blood glucose levels not only varied as a result of caloric intake but also regulated the rate of future discounting, according to participants' dynamic body-energy budget.

  8. Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Susana; Lorenz, Cindy; Crespo, Sara; Cabrera, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Escobar, Carolina; Hofmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant's circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source-sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant-nematode interactions.

  9. Sugar-rich sweet sorghum is distinctively affected by wall polymer features for biomass digestibility and ethanol fermentation in bagasse.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Feng, Shengqiu; Wu, Leiming; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Weihua; Tu, Yuanyuan; Jing, Hai-Chun; Li, Shizhong; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-09-01

    Sweet sorghum has been regarded as a typical species for rich soluble-sugar and high lignocellulose residues, but their effects on biomass digestibility remain unclear. In this study, we examined total 63 representative sweet sorghum accessions that displayed a varied sugar level at stalk and diverse cell wall composition at bagasse. Correlative analysis showed that both soluble-sugar and dry-bagasse could not significantly affect lignocellulose saccharification under chemical pretreatments. Comparative analyses of five typical pairs of samples indicated that DP of crystalline cellulose and arabinose substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses distinctively affected lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility. By comparison, lignin could not alter lignocellulose crystallinity, but the KOH-extractable G-monomer predominately determined lignin negative impacts on biomass digestions, and the G-levels released from pretreatments significantly inhibited yeast fermentation. The results also suggested potential genetic approaches for enhancing soluble-sugar level and lignocellulose digestibility and reducing ethanol conversion inhibition in sweet sorghum.

  10. Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... below 180 at other times. What is the treatment of HBG? Insulin is the best treatment for HBG in the ... sugar below 70 mg/dL) can occur with insulin treatment, if you are not eating, or after a ...

  11. Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.

    PubMed

    Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

    2003-06-01

    Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect

  12. Steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum affected by various salts and sugars: Time-independent properties.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Ali R; Eivazlou, Razieh; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2016-10-01

    The rheological properties of food hydrocolloids are remarkably influenced by the quality of solvent/cosolutes in a food system. In this work, the steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum (SSG, 0.5% w/w) at the presence of different levels of salts (KCl & MgCl2, 0-100mM) and sugars (sucrose, lactose & glucose, 0-6% w/w) was studied. It was found that the rheological properties of SSG were affected by the type of sugars and salts and their concentrations as well. Synergistic interaction was observed between SSG and sugars which enhanced the viscosity of gum solutions, while salts addition diminished the viscosity. SSG solutions exhibited a shear thinning behavior at all conditions tested. Various time-independent rheological models were used to fit the shear stress-shear rate data, although the Herschel-Bulkley (R(2)=0.994-0.999) and Sisko (R(2)=0.995-0.999) models showed the best results to describe the flow behavior of SSG. In the presence of salts, the yield stress (τ0), consistency coefficient (k), and flow behavior index (n) values decreased. The k and τ0 values enhanced and the n value lowered in the presence of sugars. Divalent cations of Mg(2+) and sucrose roughly showed more effect on rheological parameters than others.

  13. Effect of Honey Vinegar Syrup on Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group). Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25709798

  14. Factors Affecting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Availability in Competitive Venues of US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and…

  15. Factors affecting Brucella spp. blood cultures positivity in children.

    PubMed

    Apa, Hurşit; Devrim, Ilker; Memur, Seyma; Günay, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Celegen, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuri; Karaarslan, Utku; Bağ, Ozlem; Işgüder, Rana; Oztürk, Aysel; Inan, Seyhan; Unal, Nurrettin

    2013-03-01

    Brucella infections have a wide spectrum of symptoms especially in children, making the diagnosis a complicated process. The gold standard for the final diagnosis for brucellosis is to identify the Brucella spp. isolated from blood or bone marrow cultures. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the factors affecting the isolation of Brucella spp. from blood cultures. In our study, the ratio of fever, presence of hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In addition, C-reactive protein levels and liver function enzymes were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In our opinion, while evaluating the febrile child with suspected Brucella infection, we highly recommend sampling blood cultures regardless of the history of previous antimicrobial therapy and duration of the symptoms.

  16. The effect of complex exercise rehabilitation program on body composition, blood pressure, blood sugar, and vessel elasticity in elderly women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Kozyreva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify what kind of effects complex exercise rehabilitation program has on body composition of female, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood vessel elasticity and find more effective complex exercise program for elderly females. The subjects are selected 30 females applicants in exercise program in City of G and not restricted in mobility to perform the exercise without any particular disorders. Exercise program is a combination of aerobic and strength training with different ratio, for the first 6 months focused on strength training complex exercise, and for next 6 months focused on aerobic exercise. Except for strength training and aerobic exercise, durations for strength, rest, and wrapping-up are equal. The frequency of experiments is 90 min each, 2 times per a week. Body composition, blood pressure, and blood vessel elasticity are tested pre and post experiment to compare the effectiveness of both complex exercises. As results, in the complex exercise program focused on strength training, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic pressure increased. Blood vessel elasticity maintained its level or slightly decreased. In the complex exercise focused on aerobic exercise, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure decreased. Blood vessel elasticity on left foot and right foot are slightly different. Therefore, aerobic exercise is more effective than strength training for old obese females.

  17. Comparative evaluation of two different Artemisia dracunculus L. cultivars for blood sugar lowering effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Weinoehrl, Stefanie; Feistel, Bjoern; Pischel, Ivo; Kopp, Brigitte; Butterweck, Veronika

    2012-04-01

    Recent concerns about the potential carcinogenicity of estragole and methyleugenol led a number of regulatory bodies to call for restrictions on the use of herbs that contain these constituents. A number of medicinal plants produce essential oils that contain estragole and methyleugenol, including Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon). Previous studies have proven the antidiabetic properties of tarragon. In order to address the safety concerns of estragole containing tarragon extracts, an extraction procedure was developed to minimize the estragole and methyleugenol content in tarragon extracts and the ethanol versus aqueous extracts from two Artemisia dracunculus cultivars (French and Russian tarragon) were tested for blood glucose lowering effects in rats. It could be demonstrated that aqueous extracts of both Artemisia cultivars did not contain detectable amounts of estragole and methyleugenol, whereas ethanol extracts (60% v/v) of the French cultivar contained higher levels of the aforementioned compounds than those of the Russian cultivar. Further testing revealed that Russian tarragon lowered blood glucose levels in rats after glucose challenge, with the ethanol extract being as active as the aqueous extract. The results suggest that by using adequate production procedures the amount of potentially harmful compounds in extracts can be limited without affecting the overall pharmacological activities of these preparations.

  18. Polymer Brushes Containing Sulfonated Sugar Repeat Units: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Testing of Blood Coagulation Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, N.; Holt, D. J.; Jones, C.F.; Corum, L. E.; Grainger, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    A new polymer brush chemistry containing sulfonated carbohydrate repeat units has been synthesized from silicon substrates using ATRP methods and characterized both in bulk and using surface analysis. The polymer brush was designed to act as a mimic for the naturally occurring sulfonated glycosaminoglycan, heparin, commonly used for modifying blood-contacting surfaces both in vitro and in vivo. Surface analysis showed conversion of brush saccharide precursor chemistry to the desired sulfonated polymer product. The sulfonated polymer brush surface was further analyzed using three conventional in vitro tests for blood compatibility -- plasma recalcification times, complement activation, and thrombin generation. The sulfonated polymer brush films on silicon oxide wafers exhibited better assay performance in these blood component assays than the unsulfonated sugar functionalized polymer brush in all tests performed. PMID:19859552

  19. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community–based intervention study in rural south India

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Subitha; Bala, Soudarssanane M.; Ramanujam, Murugesan; Kannan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks), interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week) was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ‘t’ test; the ‘Intention-to-Treat’ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6%) complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2%) walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2%) dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population's BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m2. Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population's mean BP and blood sugar levels. PMID:22870410

  20. Mechanical properties and microstructure of frozen carrots during storage as affected by blanching in water and sugar solutions.

    PubMed

    Neri, Lilia; Hernando, Isabel; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Raw carrots and carrots blanched in water and in 4% trehalose and maltose solutions at 75°C for 3 (A) and 10 min (C) and at 90°C for 3 (B) and 10 min (D) were frozen and stored at -18°C for eight months. The effects of heating conditions and exogenous added sugars on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the vegetable after blanching and during frozen storage were studied. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis no significant differences were observed among samples A and B water-blanched and raw carrot while a thermo-protective effect due to the sugars addition was evidenced in sample D, undergone to the most severe thermal treatment. Freezing and frozen storage determined several fractures on both raw and blanched carrots due to ice crystals formation and re-crystallisation. The cryo-protective effect of the sugars on the vegetable microstructure was observed only in the 'over-blanched' sample D. The mechanical properties of carrots were affected by blanching which caused a hardness decrease but after freezing and one month of frozen storage, all samples showed a further dramatic reduction of hardness. Only samples characterised by a pectinesterase residual activity showed a softening also after one month of frozen storage likely for a competitive effect of the thermo-protective ability of trehalose on this enzyme. The exogenous trehalose was able to limit the hardness loss of carrots undergone to B, C and D blanching pre-treatments.

  1. Compatible GLRaV-3 viral infections affect berry ripening decreasing sugar accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Vega, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Cramer, Grant R; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-10-01

    Virus infections in grapevine cause important economic losses and affect fruit quality worldwide. Although the phenotypic symptoms associated to viral infections have been described, the molecular plant response triggered by virus infection is still poorly understood in Vitis vinifera. As a first step to understand the fruit changes and mechanisms involved in the compatible grapevine-virus interaction, we analyzed the berry transcriptome in two stages of development in the red wine cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon infected with Grapevine leaf-roll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3). Analysis of global gene expression patterns indicate incomplete berry maturation in infected berries as compared to uninfected fruit suggesting viral infection interrupts the normal berry maturation process. Genes with altered expression in berries harvested from GLRaV-3-infected vines as compared to uninfected tissue include anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism genes. The reduction in transcript accumulation for sugar and anthocyanin metabolism during fruit development is consistent with a dramatic reduction in anthocyanin biosynthesis as well as reduced sugar levels in berries, a hallmark phenotypic change observed in virus infected grapevines. Analysis of key regulatory factors provides a mechanism for the observed gene expression changes. Our results provide insight into commonly observed phenotypic alterations in virus infected vines and the molecular mechanisms associated with the plant response to the virus during berry ripening.

  2. [Determination of elements related to reducing blood sugar (ERBS) in tea and tea polysaccharide by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming-Yong; Nie, Shao-Ping; Fu, Bo-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2006-09-01

    Contents of elements related to reducing blood sugar (ERBS) in several kinds of green tea of Wuyuan county, their tea infusion extracted by warm water and boiling water and tea polysaccharide (TP) were determined by ICP-MS, after the samples were digested with acids by microwave method. The relation between the amount of ERBS and tea quality and the relation between the content of ERBS in TP and the total content in tea were discussed. The results showed that the amounts of ERBS in tea and TP are different in various samples. The amount of ERBS in TP extracted from coarse tea was higher than that from fresh tea. The percentage of certain ERBS in TP accounting for the ERBS in tea ranged from 0.03% to 9.57%. As to the total ERBS in TP extracted from Mt. Zhang super grade tea and grade 5 tea, the percentages were 1.11% and 2.10% respectively. As to Mt. Gu old tea, it was 0.85%. The results could provide data for selecting tea material used to extracting tea polysaccharide and for studying the mechanism of reducing blood sugar.

  3. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  4. Stable isotope models of sugar intake using hair, red blood cells, and plasma, but not fasting plasma glucose, predict sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population.

    PubMed

    Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Objectively measured biomarkers will help to resolve the controversial role of sugar intake in the etiology of obesity and related chronic diseases. We recently validated a dual-isotope model based on RBC carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope ratios that explained a large percentage of the variation in self-reported sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population. Stable isotope ratios can easily be measured from many tissues, including RBCs, plasma, and hair; however, it is not known how isotopic models of sugar intake compare among these tissues. Here, we compared self-reported sugar intake with models based on RBCs, plasma, and hair δ(13)C and δ(15)N in Yup'ik people. We also evaluated associations of sugar intake with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C. Finally, we evaluated relations between δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in hair, plasma, RBCs, and fasting plasma glucose to allow comparison of isotope ratios across tissue types. Models using RBCs, plasma, or hair isotope ratios explained similar amounts of variance in total sugar, added sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (∼53%, 48%, and 34%, respectively); however, the association with δ(13)C was strongest for models based on RBCs and hair. There were no associations with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C (R(2) = 0.03). The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of RBCs, plasma, and hair showed strong, positive correlations; the slopes of these relations did not differ from 1. This study demonstrates that RBC, plasma, and hair isotope ratios predict sugar intake and provides data that will allow comparison of studies using different sample types.

  5. Stability of α-tocopherol in freeze-dried sugar-protein-oil emulsion solids as affected by water plasticization and sugar crystallization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H

    2012-08-01

    Water plasticization of sugar-protein encapsulants may cause structural changes and decrease the stability of encapsulated compounds during storage. The retention of α-tocopherol in freeze-dried lactose-milk protein-oil, lactose-soy protein-oil, trehalose-milk protein-oil, and trehalose-soy protein-oil systems at various water activities (a(w)) and in the presence of sugar crystallization was studied. Water sorption was determined gravimetrically. Glass transition and sugar crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry and the retention of α-tocopherol spectrophotometrically. The loss of α-tocopherol followed lipid oxidation, but the greatest stability was found at 0 a(w) presumably because of α-tocopherol immobilization at interfaces and consequent reduction in antioxidant activity. A considerable loss of α-tocopherol coincided with sugar crystallization. The results showed that glassy matrices may protect encapsulated α-tocopherol; however, its role as an antioxidant at increasing aw accelerated its loss. Sugar crystallization excluded the oil-containing α-tocopherol from the protecting matrices and exposed it to surroundings, which decreased the stability of α-tocopherol.

  6. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    PubMed

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC.

  7. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  8. How the physical forms of starch affect filterability at a carbonatation refinery. Part I: Filterability of industrial sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study using the USDA starch research method was conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity. Sugar quality parameters, i.e., pol, colour, invert, ash, and dextran, were measured in fifty-five international raw sugars supplied b...

  9. Mastication Frequency and Postprandial Blood Sugar Levels in Normoglycaemic and Dysglycaemic Individuals: A Cross- Sectional Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Vinayak; Pawaskar, Priyanka Niwas; Madi, Deepak; Chowta, Nithyananda; Ramapuram, John Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mastication has potential to affect postprandial blood glucose levels by affecting cephalic phase of insulin release. However, limited number of studies done in this regard has yielded conflicting results. Aim To evaluate effects of mastication on postprandial blood glucose levels. Materials and Methods We compared routine and thorough mastication in 2 separate groups: dysglycaemic (prediabetics and diabetics) and normoglycaemic in prospective interventional study. Blood glucose levels were measured pre-prandial and postprandial (after 2 hours) on separate days after routine and thorough mastication in both groups. Results In normoglycaemic group, thorough mastication significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels at 2 hours (128.25± 7.82 mg/dl on routine mastication vs 119.74±9.08 mg/dl on thorough mastication, p<0.05). Comparatively, in dysglycaemic group, thorough mastication had little effect on postprandial blood glucose levels at 2 hours (244.07±22.37 mg/dl vs. 243.55±22.87 mg/dl). Conclusion In normoglycaemic group, postprandial blood glucose concentration upon thorough mastication was significantly lower, due to early-phase insulin secretion. This simple lifestyle modification of thorough mastication can be a useful preventive measure against diabetes in people with a strong family history and other risk factors for diabetes who have not yet developed diabetes or prediabetes. PMID:27630879

  10. The effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin a1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein a-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Hosseini, Payam; Mir Taheri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, causes many complications such as micro- and macro-vascular diseases. Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidative properties of ginger have been noticed in several researches. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, a total of 41 type 2 diabetic patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups (22 in ginger group and 19 in control group), received 2 g/day of ginger powder supplement or lactose as placebo for 12 weeks. The serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde were analyzed before and after the intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in ginger group in comparison to baseline, as well as control group, while it increased the level of apolipoprotein A-I (p<0.05). It seems that oral administration of ginger powder supplement can improves fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may have a role in alleviating the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

  11. Sugar Diet Affects Odor Reception but Variation in Sugar Concentration Plays Minimal Role in the Response of the Parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to Host-Related Plant Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Matthew; Morawo, Tolulope; Fadamiro, Henry

    2017-03-03

    Parasitoids utilize various sugar resources in nature, and rely on odor cues from plants to locate their food and hosts. However, lack of sugar in the diet may negatively impact odor reception in parasitoids, thus affecting foraging efficiency. We used Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a model species to test the hypothesis that variation in sugar diet of parasitoids affects their olfactory response to host-related odors. Heliothis virescens is a major pest of cotton and other important crops. Response of female M. croceipes fed different diet treatments (i.e., 40%, 20%, 10%, or 0% sucrose/water solution [w/v]) to select cotton volatiles were tested in electroantennogram (EAG) and Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The following cotton plant odors were tested: cis-3-hexenol, α-pinene, 50/50 v/v binary mixture of cis-3-hexenol and α-pinene, and H. virescens-infested cotton. Sucrose-fed parasitoids showed higher EAG response to the binary mixture and host-infested plant volatile extract, compared with sucrose-starved (0% sucrose) parasitoids. However, there was no significant difference in EAG response of parasitoids to odor treatments among individuals fed 40%, 20%, or 10% sucrose. In a Y-tube olfactometer, female M. croceipes fed 40% sucrose were significantly more attracted to host-infested cotton than to a control (no plant). However, parasitoids were not significantly attracted to other odor stimuli. These results suggest that the availability of sugar diet affects odor reception in M. croceipes but variation in sugar concentration probably plays a minimal role in olfactory response of M. croceipes to host-related odors.

  12. Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation colour affect perceived human health.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ian D; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice.

  13. Use of the periodogram in the analysis of high frequency basal blood sugar oscillations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Brodan, V; Hájek, M

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-four triplicate samples of the morning blood sugar of 17 fasting healthy women were taken from the cubital vein with a cannula at 15-sec intervals. The mean value was 4.44+/-0.69 mmol/l and the mean variation range 22.4+/-9.2%. Variability within the sets of three samples was 1.7+/-0.9%. In 23.5% of the cases, statistically significant periodicities (p less than 0.05) were detected by computing the periodogram. In 29.4%, several periodic components (2--4) were detected simultaneously. After deducting harmonic components, the residual scatter fell by an average 43.9%. In four cases the drop was significant in the F test at 1% and in one case at 5% level. The periodic components of the observed oscillations could be due to oscillation in feedback control circuits and the main role in the random component was evidently played by inadequate glucose blending in the circulation.

  14. The Effects of Different High-Protein Low-Carbohydrates Proprietary Foods on Blood Sugar in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lodi, Alessandra; Karsten, Bettina; Bosco, Gerardo; Gómez-López, Manuel; Brandão, Paula Paraguassú; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week. After determining the GS of each food in each individual, the mean GS of each test food was calculated. All test foods, compared with glucose, produced a significantly lower glycemic response. The GS of all test food resulted in being lower than 25 and the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose (mean 122 ± 15 mg/dL) and after the intake of the sweet test foods (mean 89 ± 7 mg/dL) was 33 mg/dL (P < .001), whereas the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose and after the intake of savory test foods (mean 91 ± 8 mg/dL) was of 31 mg/dL (P < .001).

  15. ["Blood and sugar": social representations of diabetes mellitus by chronic patients in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Torres-López, Teresa Margarita; Sandoval-Díaz, Manuel; Pando-Moreno, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze social representations of diabetes mellitus by chronic patients in a neighborhood in Guadalajara, Mexico. The methodology was qualitative and ethnographic. Thirty patients were interviewed at four moments over the course of two years, and the interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a dialectic hermeneutic focus using the Ethnograph software. The main results include a holistic representation of the disease, with multi-causality and key differences according to gender, allowing the expression of body sensations, pain, images, and individual meanings, the perception of a contaminated, unnatural physical environment, and a social context with economic limitations and affective, family, and marital problems. Diabetes is a means of expression, a vehicle, and a catalyst in an adverse environment which allows organizing what are perceived as negative internal and external events.

  16. Clinical inquiries: Do glucosamine and chondroitin worsen blood sugar control in diabetes?

    PubMed

    Marshall, Peter D; Poddar, Sourav; Tweed, Elizabeth M; Brandes, Lisa

    2006-12-01

    Despite theoretical risks based on animal models given high intravenous doses, glucosamine/chondroitin (1500 mg/1200 mg daily) does not adversely affect short-term glycemic control for patients whose diabetes is well-controlled, or for those without diabetes or glucose intolerance (SOR: A, consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence). Some preliminary evidence suggests that glucosamine may worsen glucose intolerance for patients with untreated or undiagnosed glucose intolerance or diabetes (SOR: C, extrapolation from disease-oriented evidence). Long-term effects are unknown; however, no compelling theoretical or incidental data suggest that long-term results should be different (SOR: C, expert opinion). Further studies are required to clarify the effects of glucosamine on patients with poorly controlled diabetes or glucose intolerance.

  17. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  18. Biorhythms of activities of liver and blood dehydrogenases and changes in body weight of the rats feeding normal diet or excess of sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Petrovich, Yu A; Volozhin, A I; Zubtsov, V A; Kichenko, S M

    2007-12-01

    Biorhythms with higher levels of activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in blood plasma, specific activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase in the liver, and body weight of rats were more pronounced in the spring-summer period than in the autumn-winter period. These specific features were revealed in animals feeding a normal diet or food with 54 and 27% sugar substitute sorbitol. However, specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the liver was higher in the autumn-winter period. Activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase in blood plasma increased by tens of times due to induction of sorbitol synthesis (substrate) in the liver. Sugar substitute xylitol is structurally similar to sorbitol, but is not the substrate for sorbitol dehydrogenase. However, the effect of xylitol on activities of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the spring-summer period was similar to that of sorbitol.

  19. Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-04-01

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses.

  20. Vasovagal syncope and blood donor return: examination of the role of experience and affective expectancies.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Etzel, Erin N; Ciesielski, Bethany G

    2010-03-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with blood donation and vasovagal sensations during blood donation uniquely predict the likelihood of donor return, even when controlling for affective expectancies. Participants presenting at community blood drives indicated how many times they have given blood and provided ratings of expected anxiety, pain, disgust, as well as fear of fainting before giving blood. After donating, participants completed a measure of vasovagal sensations experienced during blood donation. They also rated the pleasantness of the experience and willingness to donate blood in the future. The findings showed that experience with blood donation and vasovagal sensations during blood donation uniquely predicted willingness to donate blood in the future even when controlling for age and negative affective expectancies about giving blood. This finding suggests that vasovagal sensations and experience with blood donation have unique (and perhaps additive) effects on willingness to donate blood in the future, suggesting that behavior modification interventions that directly target these variables could potentially increase donor retention.

  1. Melatonin differentially affects vascular blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jonathan S; Sauder, Charity L; Ray, Chester A

    2011-02-01

    Melatonin is synthesized and released into the circulation by the pineal gland in a circadian rhythm. Melatonin has been demonstrated to differentially alter blood flow to assorted vascular beds by the activation of different melatonin receptors in animal models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of melatonin on blood flow to various vascular beds in humans. Renal (Doppler ultrasound), forearm (venous occlusion plethysmography), and cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler), arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured in 10 healthy subjects (29±1 yr; 5 men and 5 women) in the supine position for 3 min. The protocol began 45 min after the ingestion of either melatonin (3 mg) or placebo (sucrose). Subjects returned at least 2 days later at the same time of day to repeat the trial after ingesting the other substance. Melatonin did not alter heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Renal blood flow velocity (RBFV) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) were lower during the melatonin trial compared with placebo (RBFV, 40.5±2.9 vs. 45.4±1.5 cm/s; and RVC, 0.47±0.02 vs. 0.54±0.01 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively). In contrast, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were greater with melatonin compared with placebo (FBF, 2.4±0.2 vs. 1.9±0.1 ml·100 ml(-1)·min(-1); and FVC, 0.029±0.003 vs. 0.023±0.002 arbitrary units, respectively). Melatonin did not alter cerebral blood flow measurements compared with placebo. Additionally, phentolamine (5-mg bolus) after melatonin reversed the decrease in RVC, suggesting that melatonin increases sympathetic outflow to the kidney to mediate renal vasoconstriction. In summary, exogenous melatonin differentially alters vascular blood flow in humans. These data suggest the complex nature of melatonin on the vasculature in humans.

  2. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  3. Plausible Impact of Dietary Habits on Reduced Blood Sugar in Diabetic Opium Addicts with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of opium on glycemic control in diabetics is a controversial issue, as some studies have shown glucose lowering effect of opium in diabetes while the results of other studies do not support this idea. The possible role of opioid peptides in the regulation of food intake has been previously investigated. However, there is no data available about relationship between opium using and dietary pattern. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the daily intake of different nutrients in opium addict with diabetes diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods This study comprised 232 consecutive diabetic patients with CAD, and candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass surgery in Tehran Heart Center. Of these, 26 patients were opium addicts. Nutritional assessment was obtained by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Results In opium addicts compared to non-addicts, consumption of carbohydrates (360.0±120.9 versus 447.8±249.8 Gr/day, P=0.016) and vitamin A (1170.4±570.2 versus 1496.3±889.6 μg/d as Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE), P=0.040) was lower than non-addicts and intake of other nutrients were similar across two group of patients. Conclusions Opium addiction in diabetic patients may lead to decrease of vitamin A and carbohydrate intake. This study showed that carbohydrate intake in addicted diabetic patients is lower than their non-addict counterpart. Thus, the so called lowering effect of opium on blood sugar may be due to nutritional habit of addicted patients. PMID:24757596

  4. BEYOND BLOOD SUGAR.

    PubMed

    Zavadsky, Matt; Partain, Desiree

    2016-06-01

    Because POC testing has been shown to alter prehospital care in up to 30% of its uses, it may be logical for prehospital systems to consider implementing a POC testing system. Information gleaned from the i-STAT data can be used to treat electrolyte imbalances, adjust medications and ventilator settings, and even change IV fluid use. MIH providers can also use the data from POC testing to provide important feedback to physicians about enrolled patients. All of these uses support critical clinical decision making by field EMS providers, and will perhaps even help promote the value proposition we're all striving for in our EMS delivery models.

  5. Growth and some physiological parameters of four sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.) cultivars as affected by salinity.

    PubMed

    Khavari-Nejad, R A; Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, S

    2008-05-15

    The comparative responses of certain biochemical and physiological characteristics to salinity were studied in 4 cultivars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Eight weeks old plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 25 and 50 mM in nutrient solutions. Plants were grown under controlled environment and harvested after 3 weeks for measurements of biochemical and physiological parameters. Results showed that in 25 mM NaCl for cultivars of ET5 and C3-3, soluble sugars in leaves, photosynthetic rate and growth parameters were significantly increased as compared to those of other cultivars. In 50 mM NaCl photosynthetic rate and soluble sugars were significantly increased only in ET5 cultivar as compared with those of others. Results indicated that in 25 mM NaCl, ET5 cultivar showed high growth responses and tolerated to 50 mM NaCl.

  6. Productivity and quality of sugar beet as affecting by sowing methods, weed control treatments and nitrogen fertilizer levels.

    PubMed

    Seadh, S E; Attia, A N; Said, E M; El-Maghraby, Samia S; Ibrahim, M E M

    2013-08-01

    Two field experiments were carried out at Kafr El-Hamam Research Station, Zagazig district, Sharkia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing methods (manual and mechanical), weed control treatments (one hoeing, Goltix 70 WG (metamitron), Goltix+one hoeing and two hoeing) and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed) on yield, its components and quality of sugar beet cv. Hanrike. The obtained results could be summarized as follows; Mechanical sowing method of sugar beet significantly surpassed the traditional sowing method in root and foliage fresh weights/plant, root/top ratio, root length and diameter, root, top and sugar yields/fed in both seasons. Sowing methods showed significant effect on TSS, sucrose and purity percentages in both seasons, except purity% in the second season. Controlling weeds by two hand hoeings significantly recorded the highest values of root, top and sugar yields/fed and its components and purity percentage in both seasons. However, the highest percentages of TSS and sucrose were achieved from controlling weed by one hand hoeing in both seasons. Fertilizing sugar beet plants with 100 kg N/fed significantly increased yields and its components and markedly recorded the highest values in both seasons. From the obtained, it can be concluded that sowing sugar beet using mechanical sowing method (planter machine), controlling weeds by hand hoeing and mineral fertilizing with 100 kg N/fed could be recommended in order to maximize its productivity and quality under the environmental conditions of Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

  7. Do additional sugar sources affect the degree of attendance of Dysmicoccus brevipes by the fire ant Solenopsis geminata?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutualistic interactions between ants and Hemiptera are mediated to large extent by the amount and quality of sugar-rich honeydew produced. Throughout the neotropics, the fire ant Solenopsis geminata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is found in association with colonies of the pineapple mealybug Dysmi...

  8. Hydrolytic and pumping activity of H+-ATPase from leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) as affected by salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wakeel, Abdul; Hanstein, Stefan; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

    2010-06-15

    Cell wall extensibility plays an important role in plant growth. According to the acid-growth theory, lower apoplastic pH allows extension growth by affecting cell wall extensibility. A lowered apoplastic pH is presumed to activate wall-loosening enzymes that control plant growth. Plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases play a major role in the apoplastic acidification by H(+) transport from cytosol to the apoplast. A salt-induced decrease in H(+)-pumping activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases in salt-sensitive maize plants has previously been found. This led us to formulate the hypothesis that salt-resistant plant species such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) may have a mechanism to eliminate the effect of higher salt concentrations on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. In the present study, sugar beet plants were grown in 1mM NaCl (control) or 150 mM NaCl in hydroponics. H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were measured in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet shoots. We found that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were not affected by application of 150 mM NaCl. Moreover, apoplastic pH was also not affected under salt stress. However, a decrease in plant growth was observed. We assume that growth reduction was not due to a decrease in PM-H(+)-ATPase activity, but that other factors may be responsible for growth inhibition of sugar beet plants under salt stress.

  9. HIV and chronic methamphetamine dependence affect cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Ances, Beau M; Vaida, Florin; Cherner, Mariana; Yeh, Melinda J; Liang, Christine L; Gardner, Carly; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Buxton, Richard B

    2011-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine (METH) dependence are independently associated with neuronal dysfunction. The coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuronal activity is the basis of many task-based functional neuroimaging techniques. We examined the interaction between HIV infection and a previous history of METH dependence on CBF within the lenticular nuclei (LN). Twenty-four HIV-/METH-, eight HIV-/METH+, 24 HIV+/METH-, and 15 HIV+/METH+ participants performed a finger tapping paradigm. A multiple regression analysis of covariance assessed associations and two-way interactions between CBF and HIV serostatus and/or previous history of METH dependence. HIV+ individuals had a trend towards a lower baseline CBF (-10%, p = 0.07) and greater CBF changes for the functional task (+32%, p = 0.01) than HIV- subjects. Individuals with a previous history of METH dependence had a lower baseline CBF (-16%, p = 0.007) and greater CBF changes for a functional task (+33%, p = 0.02). However, no interaction existed between HIV serostatus and previous history of METH dependence for either baseline CBF (p = 0.53) or CBF changes for a functional task (p = 0.10). In addition, CBF and volume in the LN were not correlated. A possible additive relationship could exist between HIV infection and a history of METH dependence on CBF with a previous history of METH dependence having a larger contribution. Abnormalities in CBF could serve as a surrogate measure for assessing the chronic effects of HIV and previous METH dependence on brain function.

  10. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women.

  11. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit.

  12. AtSWEET4, a hexose facilitator, mediates sugar transport to axial sinks and affects plant development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaozhu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Chao; Tian, Zhihong; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-01-01

    Plants transport photoassimilates from source organs to sink tissues through the phloem translocation pathway. In the transport phloem, sugars that escape from the sieve tubes are released into the apoplasmic space between the sieve element/companion cell complex (SE/CC) and phloem parenchyma cells (PPCs) during the process of long-distance transport. The competition for sugar acquisition between SE/CC and adjoining PPCs is mediated by plasma membrane translocators. YFP-tagged AtSWEET4 protein is localized in the plasma membrane, and PromoterAtSWEET4-GUS analysis showed that AtSWEET4 is expressed in the stele of roots and veins of leaves and flowers. Overexpression of AtSWEET4 in Arabidopsis increases plant size and accumulates more glucose and fructose. By contrast, knock-down of AtSWEET4 by RNA-interference leads to small plant size, reduction in glucose and fructose contents, chlorosis in the leaf vein network, and reduction in chlorophyll content in leaves. Yeast assays demonstrated that AtSWEET4 is able to complement both fructose and glucose transport deficiency. Transgenic plants of AtSWEET4 overexpression exhibit higher freezing tolerance and support more growth of bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121. We conclude that AtSWEET4 plays an important role in mediating sugar transport in axial tissues during plant growth and development. PMID:27102826

  13. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  14. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors and blood donors with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this observational study, 23 non-diabetic blood donors and 21 blood donors with type 2 diabetes donated 475 mL whole blood and were followed prospectively for nine weeks. Each week blood samples were collected and analyzed for changes in HbA1c using three secondary reference measurement procedures. Results Twelve non-diabetic blood donors (52.2%) and 10 (58.8%) blood donors with type 2 diabetes had a significant reduction in HbA1c following blood donation (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). All non-diabetic blood donors with a normal ferritin concentration predonation had a significant reduction in HbA1c. In the non-diabetic group the maximum reduction was -11.9%, in the type 2 diabetes group -12.0%. When eligible to donate again, 52.2% of the non-diabetic blood donors and 41.2% of the blood donors with type 2 diabetes had HbA1c concentrations significantly lower compared to their predonation concentration (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes contributing to whole blood donation programs can be at risk of falsely lowered HbA1c. This could lead to a wrong interpretation of their glycemic control by their general practitioner or internist. PMID:28118412

  15. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  16. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  17. Toxic Effect of Blood Feeding in Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R.; Buss, Garrison K.; Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood- and sugar feeding of female mosquitoes has been frequently observed in the laboratory and in the field, but only sugar feeding of males has been reported. Here, we describe for the first time that Culex quinquefasciatus males feed on blood as well. Blood feeding easily happened on a blood-soaked cotton roll and, to a lesser extent, through a thin artificial layer. Mating history of a male specimen does not affect his blood feeding behavior. Male mosquitoes feed on blood even when they have a readily available sugar source. Nevertheless, feeding on blood reduces the survival rate of males to just a few days, as compared to more than a month for mosquitoes fed only on sugar. Comparing survival of male mosquitoes fed on blood only, sugar only, and a combination of both clearly demonstrated that mortality is not affected by malnutrition (reduced sugar levels), but rather due to ingested blood. On average male mosquitoes ingested ca. 0.5 μl of blood, i.e., about 10% of the amount of blood ingested by an engorged female. Although this unexpected observation of blood feeding in the laboratory by male mosquitoes is interesting, structural impairment prevents male feeding on vertebrate blood. In agreement with the literature, male and female proboscises and stylets were in general of similar size, but male mandibles were significantly shorter than female counterparts, thus explaining their inability to pierce through skin layers. PMID:26858651

  18. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  19. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    PubMed

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake.

  20. Honey and honey-based sugars partially affect reproductive trade-offs in parasitoids exhibiting different life-history and reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Essens, Tijl A; Las, Rutger A; van Veen, Cindy; Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha; Heinen, Robin; Gols, Rieta

    2016-12-23

    Adult dietary regimes in insects may affect egg production, fecundity and ultimately fitness. This is especially relevant in parasitoid wasps where many species serve as important biological control agents of agricultural pests. Here, we tested the effect of honey and sugar diets on daily fecundity schedules, lifetime reproductive success and longevity in four species of parasitoid wasps when reared on their respective hosts. The parasitoid species were selected based on dichotomies in host usage strategies and reproductive traits. Gelis agilis and G. areator are idiobiont ecto-parasitoids that develop in non-growing hosts, feed on protein-rich host fluids to maximize reproduction as adults and produce small numbers of large eggs. Meteorus pulchricornis and Microplitis mediator are koinobiont endoparasitoids that develop inside the bodies of growing hosts, do not host-feed, and produce greater numbers of small eggs. Parasitoids were reared on diets of either pure honey (containing trace amounts of proteins), heated honey (with denatured proteins) and a honey-mimic containing sugars only. We hypothesized that the benefits of proteins in honey would enhance reproduction in the ectoparasitoids due to their high metabolic investment per egg, but not in the koinobionts. Pure honey diet resulted in higher lifetime fecundity in G. agilis compared with the honey-mimic, whereas in both koinobionts, reproductive success did not vary significantly with diet. Longevity was less affected by diet in all of the parasitoids, although there were variable trade-offs between host access and longevity in the four species. We argue that there are both trait-based and association-specific effects of supplementary nutrients in honey on reproductive investment and success in parasitoid wasps.

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  2. Comparative evaluation of two different Opuntia ficus-indica extracts for blood sugar lowering effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Butterweck, Veronika; Semlin, Lydia; Feistel, Bjoern; Pischel, Ivo; Bauer, Katrin; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2011-03-01

    Stems of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (OFI) are traditionally used in Mexico to treat diabetes mellitus. Less research data are available for combinations of stem and fruit preparations. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract prepared from the cladodes and a proprietary stem/fruit skin-blend (stem/fruit skin ratio 75/25) of OFI on blood glucose and plasma insulin in normal rats. A dose finding study with the traditional cladode OFI extract revealed that maximum effects on blood glucose and insulin were observed after oral administration in a dose range of 6-176 mg/kg. The proprietary OFI blend significantly lowered blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test to a similar extent (p < 0.05 vs control) as the traditional aqueous cladode extract when administered in a dose of 6 mg/kg. In contrast to the aqueous extract, the proprietary blend significantly increased basal plasma insulin levels (p < 0.01 vs control) indicating a direct action on pancreatic beta cells. The results suggest that both OFI extracts exert hypoglycemic activities in rats in doses as low as 6 mg/kg but that the effects of the proprietary stem/fruit blend were more pronounced in our model.

  3. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  4. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  5. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe.

    PubMed

    Brøndum, E; Hasenkam, J M; Secher, N H; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Petersen, K K; Buhl, R; Aalkjaer, C; Baandrup, U; Nygaard, H; Smerup, M; Stegmann, F; Sloth, E; Ostergaard, K H; Nissen, P; Runge, M; Pitsillides, K; Wang, T

    2009-10-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.01), and jugular flow ceased as the jugular cross-sectional area increased to 3.2 +/- 0.6 cm(2) (P < 0.01), corresponding to accumulation of approximately 1.2 l of blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head is lowered, blood accumulates in the vein, affecting MAP.

  6. Pu-erh tea polysaccharides decrease blood sugar by inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yea-Tyz; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2015-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is mainly induced by environmental factors such as being overweight, decreased physical activity and inbalanced energy metabolism, such as pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance. Acarbose, a microbial carbohydrate and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, is currently a useful agent for attenuating type 2 diabetes. However, it is usually accompanied by many side effects, such as abdominal distention, flatulence, diarrhea and meteorism. These side effects may be caused by its strong inhibition of alpha-amylase, leading to the accumulation of several undigested carbohydrates. The bacteria residing in the colon can further ferment the undigested carbohydrate to release gas. Finding a new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with a low inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase is highly anticipated. In this report we describe a group of carbohydrates found in pu-erh tea polysaccharide (PTPS) that can inhibit alpha-glucosidase but have less of an inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase. The preliminary experiments on mice indicate that PTPS might be better than acarbose at suppressing blood glucose after oral administration of a carbohydrate diet; it is recommended that further clinical trials are required in type 2 diabetes in future studies.

  7. Risk factors affecting blood PCDDs and PCDFs in residents living near an industrial incinerator in Korea.

    PubMed

    Leem, J H; Lee, D S; Kim, J

    2006-10-01

    The contamination sources of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), such as industrial incinerators, can potentially change the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near the incinerators. In this study, we estimated whether the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near an incinerator were affected by its presence and investigated factors that characterize the risk of high exposure to PCDD/DFs in the area. We estimated the blood levels and homologue patterns of PCDD/DFs in a group of 40 residents living within 5 km of an industrial incinerator and in a group of 20 residents living 20 km away from an incinerator. We cannot assert that the operation of incinerator facilities was only cause of increased PCDD/DFs in these residents; however, the operation of incinerator facilities in agricultural areas increased PCDD/DF exposure to individuals. The group living next to the industrial incinerator especially represented the typical isomer pattern in which the proportions of OCDDs were lower and those of PCDFs higher than those in the other groups. The high-risk population with increased blood levels of PCDD/DFs included those who had lived longer in the contaminated area as well as those who frequently ate contaminated foods.

  8. How combine harvesting of green cane billets with different levels of trash affects production and processing. Part II: Pilot plant processing to sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New refineries in Louisiana, USA are requesting Louisiana sugarcane factories to deliver very high pol/very low color (VHP/VLC) raw sugar with low ash concentrations. This higher quality raw sugar will allow both growers and factory processors to share economic premiums from the new refineries. A ...

  9. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    PubMed

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  10. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices - How numerical implementation affects the results

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed. PMID:26679833

  11. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  12. The Impact of Demographic Factors and Blood Sugar Control on the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections in Khorramabad in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Raoofi, Azam; Ghavami, Maryam; Shahhamzeh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Mahmood; Hedartabar, Rostam; Salehi, Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most serious metabolic disorders to affect different organs in the body. Patients with diabetes are hence at risk of developing other problems. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the problems that occur more commonly in diabetic patients than in others. There are several risk factors that lead to the incidence of UTI in diabetic patients. Objectives: We conducted this study to determine the effect of different factors on the incidence of UTI in diabetic patients in order to decrease the incidence of this problem. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data concerning 233 patients who were referred to the largest diabetes center in Khorramabad, Lorestan province, Iran, were recorded. The relationships between various factors and the incidence of UTI in these patients were evaluated using SPSS version 16. We used chi-square and logistic regression to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The incidence of UTI increased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.009). The incidence of UTI was higher among females than among males, and it was higher among unemployed people than among those in other occupations. The prevalence of UTI among patients who control their diabetes through diet and exercise was lower than that among those undergoing other types of treatment; however, no significant relationship was found between the different types of oral medication and the incidence of UTI. We did not find any relationship between the incidence of UTI in diabetic patients and other factors such as literacy, marital status, BMI, addiction, history of hospitalization, and level of HbA1c. Conclusions: We found that age, gender, occupation, and the type of medication used are all risk factors for the incidence of UTI in diabetic patients. Other factors such as literacy, marital status, addiction, and history of hospitalization did not have any significant association with the

  13. The development of new molecular tools containing a chemically synthesized carbohydrate ligand for the elucidation of carbohydrate roles via photoaffinity labeling: carbohydrate-protein interactions are affected by the structures of the glycosidic bonds and the reducing-end sugar.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Isao; Sadakane, Yutaka; Hada, Noriyasu; Higuchi, Mari; Atsumi, Toshiyuki; Kakiuchi, Nobuko

    2014-08-01

    Photoaffinity labeling technology is a highly efficient method for cloning carbohydrate-binding proteins. When the carbohydrate probes are synthesized according to conventional methods, however, the reducing terminus of the sugar is opened to provide an acyclic structure. Our continued efforts to solve this problem led to the development of new molecular tools with an oligosaccharide structure that contains a phenyldiazirine group for the elucidation of carbohydrate-protein interactions. We investigated whether carbohydrate-lectin interactions are affected by differences in the glycosidic formation and synthesized three types of molecular tools containing Galp-GlcpNAc disaccharide ligands and a photoreactive group (1, 2, 3). Photoaffinity labeling validated the recognition of the new ligand by different glycosidic bonds. Photoaffinity labeling also demonstrated that both the reducing end sugar and non-reducing end sugar recognized the Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.

  14. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  15. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... under control, checking them according to the diabetes management plan will help you and your child: feel ...

  16. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... lancets can make finger pricks less painful by changing the depth to which the needle enters the ...

  17. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  18. Coagulation is more affected by quick than slow bleeding in patients with massive blood loss.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Yang, Dejuan; Zheng, Dongyou

    2017-03-01

    Profuse blood loss affects blood coagulation to various degrees. However, whether bleeding speed affects coagulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bleeding speed on coagulation function. A total of 141 patients in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of our hospital were evaluated between January 2007 and February 2014. There are two groups of patients, those who received decortication for chronic encapsulated empyema were called the slow-bleeding group, and those who received thoracoscopic upper lobectomy were called the fast bleeding group; each group was further subdivided into three: group A, 1000 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 1500 ml; group B, 1500 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 1700 ml; group C, 1700 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 2000 ml. Then, coagulation function was assessed in all patients before and during surgery and at 1, 2, and 24 h after surgery, measuring prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets. Bleeding duration was overtly longer in the slow-bleeding group than that in quick bleeding individuals (2.3 ± 0.25 h vs. 0.41 ± 0.13 h, P < 0.001). Fibrinogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets strikingly decreased, whereas prothrombin time and APTT values significantly increased with bleeding amounts in both quick and slow-bleeding groups. Interestingly, compared with slow-bleeding patients, coagulation indices at each time point and bleeding amounts had significant differences in the quick bleeding group.Increased consumption of coagulation factors in quick bleeding may have greater impact on coagulation function.

  19. Effects of oat and wheat bread consumption on lipid profile, blood sugar, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Momenizadeh, Amir; Heidari, Ramin; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Tabesh, Faezeh; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Haghighatian, Zahra; Golshahi, Jafar; Baseri, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increased lipid profile after each meal can disturb the endothelial function. The present study assessed the effects of bread supplemented with oat bran on serum lipids and endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS This clinical trial was conducted on 60 isolated hypercholesterolemic patients. The subjects were randomly allocated to either intervention (consuming at least five daily servings of oat bread with 6 g beta-glucan) or control (receiving at least five servings of wheat bread). Anthropometric indicators, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles ere measured at baseline and after 6 weeks (in the end of the intervention). Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Within the group and between group differences were investigated using paired t-test and Student’s t-test, respectively. RESULTS Oat bread consumption could significantly reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.029). A significant increase in baseline and after ischemia brachial artery diameters at the end of the study was seen. However, it did not have a significant effect on FMD (P = 0.825). In the control group, none of the measured indices had changed significantly at the end of the study. Finally, only the mean change of brachial artery diameter after ischemia and baseline brachial artery diameter were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012 respectively). CONCLUSION Oat bread with beta-glucan could successfully reduce cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in this study oat bread did not reduce FMD more than wheat bread. Since hypercholesterolemia is a proven risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, hypercholesterolemic patients can hence be advised to eat oat bread. PMID:25477983

  20. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  2. Sugar 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart area Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 ( ... calories you need to meet your nutrient needs. Select low-fat and no-sugar-added foods to ...

  3. Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Yue, Zengyuan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Warming-up (WU) is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU); 2. extensive WU (EWU); 3. intensive WU (IWU). Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB), plasma ([LA]plasma) and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC). Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU) and +60 Watt (IWU) higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a “higher preloading” with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility. Key points Warm-up significantly improves performance during 30

  4. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( CBC ) Platelet count ... and this is the only time when this type of blood sample can be collected. You can also decide ...

  5. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; Sabo, V.; Samet, M. M.; Lelkes, P. I.

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  6. Classification accuracy of algorithms for blood chemistry data for three aquaculture-affected marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Coz-Rakovac, R; Topic Popovic, N; Smuc, T; Strunjak-Perovic, I; Jadan, M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was determination and discrimination of biochemical data among three aquaculture-affected marine fish species (sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax; sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and mullet, Mugil spp.) based on machine-learning methods. The approach relying on machine-learning methods gives more usable classification solutions and provides better insight into the collected data. So far, these new methods have been applied to the problem of discrimination of blood chemistry data with respect to season and feed of a single species. This is the first time these classification algorithms have been used as a framework for rapid differentiation among three fish species. Among the machine-learning methods used, decision trees provided the clearest model, which correctly classified 210 samples or 85.71%, and incorrectly classified 35 samples or 14.29% and clearly identified three investigated species from their biochemical traits.

  7. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  8. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids sugars and minerals as affected by seeding rates and row spacing in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the effects of seeding rates (SDR) and row spacing (RS) on soybean seed composition is almost non-existent. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of SDR and RS on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals using two soybean cultivars, P 93M90 (ear...

  9. Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quali...

  10. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned.

  11. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients.

  12. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone affect the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to mycobacterial antigens during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mahuad, C; Bay, M L; Farroni, M A; Bozza, V; Del Rey, A; Besedovsky, H; Bottasso, O A

    2004-12-01

    The effect of cortisol and/or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the immune response to antigens obtained from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients at various stages of lung tuberculosis (TB) and from healthy control people (HCo). The results obtained show for the first time that addition of cortisol within concentrations of physiological range can inhibit the mycobacterial antigen-driven proliferation of cells from HCo and TB patients and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), indicating that endogenous levels of cortisol may contribute to the decreased lymphoid cell response to mycobacterium antigens observed in TB patients. DHEA did not affect lymphoid cell proliferation, IFN-gamma production and the cortisol-mediated inhibitory effects. Interestingly, we found that DHEA, but not cortisol, suppressed the in vitro transforming growth factor-beta production by lymphoid cells from TB patients with an advanced disease, which is indicative of a selective direct effect of this hormone.

  13. Timing of adding blood to prime affects inflammatory response to neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Benjamin S; Jordan, James E; Lane, Magan R; DiPasquale, Vanessa M; Graf, Lori P; Ootaki, Yoshio; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2016-07-08

    Complications from systemic inflammation are reported in neonates following exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the use of asanguinous primes can reduce these complications, in neonates, this can result in significant haemodilution, requiring addition of blood. This study investigates whether the addition of blood after institution of bypass alters the inflammatory response compared with a blood prime. Neonatal swine were randomised into four groups: blood prime, blood after bypass but before cooling, blood after cooling but before low flow, and blood after re-warming. All groups were placed on central bypass, cooled, underwent low flow, and then re-warmed for a total bypass time of 2 hours. Although haematocrit values between groups varied throughout bypass, all groups ended with a similar value. Although they spent time with a lower haematocrit, asanguinous prime groups did not have elevated lactate levels at the end of bypass compared with blood prime. Asanguinous primes released less tumour necrosis factor α than blood primes (p=0.023). Asanguinous primes with blood added on bypass produced less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α (p=0.006, 0.019). Animals receiving blood while cool also showed less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α production than those that received blood warm (p=0.026, 0.033). Asanguinous primes exhibited less oedema than blood primes, with the least body weight gain noted in the end cool group (p=0.011). This study suggests that using an asanguinous prime for neonates being cooled to deep hypothermia is practical, and the later addition of blood reduces inflammation.

  14. Growth temperature affects sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and sugars in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Tor J; Hagen, Sidsel F; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Mølmann, Jørgen A B

    2016-04-01

    Swede is a root vegetable grown under a range of growth conditions that may influence the product quality. The objective of this controlled climate study was to find the effect of growth temperature on sensory quality and the contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and soluble sugars. High temperature (21 °C) enhanced the intensities of sensory attributes like pungent odour, bitterness, astringency and fibrousness, while low temperature (9 °C) was associated with acidic odour, sweet taste, crispiness and juiciness. Ten glucosinolates were quantified, with progoitrin as the dominant component followed by glucoberteroin, both with highest content at 21 °C. Vitamin C also had its highest content at 21 °C, while the total sugar content was lowest at this temperature. In conclusion, the study demonstrated clear effects of growth temperature on sensory quality and some chemical properties of swede and indicated a good eating quality of swedes grown at low temperatures.

  15. STUDIES IN RESUSCITATION: I. THE GENERAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING RESUSCITATION, AND THE RESUSCITATION OF THE BLOOD AND OF THE HEART

    PubMed Central

    Pike, F. H.; Guthrie, C. C.; Stewart, G. N.

    1908-01-01

    Our results may be briefly summarized: 1. Blood, when defibrinated, soon loses its power to maintain the activity of the higher nervous centers, and its nutritive properties for all tissues quickly diminish. 2. Artificial fluids, as a substitute for blood, are not satisfactory. 3. The proper oxygenation of the blood is an indispensable adjunct in the resuscitation of an animal. 4. The heart usually continues to beat for some minutes after it ceases to affect a mercury manometer, and resuscitation of it within this period by extra-thoracic massage and artificial respiration is sometimes successful. 5. Resuscitation of the heart by direct massage is the most certain method at our command. 6. A proper blood-pressure is an indispensable condition for the continued normal activity of the heart. 7. Anæsthetics, hemorrhage and induced currents applied to the heart render resuscitation more difficult than asphyxia alone. PMID:19867138

  16. Glucagon blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  17. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  18. Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Daniel D; Bettge, Arthur D; Morris, Craig F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality. Functional differences were examined relative to arabinoxylan content, protein content, and oxidative cross-linking potential of flour slurries. Oxidative cross-linking measurements were obtained on flour slurries with a low shear Bostwick consistometer and considered endogenous oxidative cross-linking potential (water alone) or enhanced oxidative cross-linking potential (with added hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase). A 2-way ANOVA indicated that flour blend was the greater source of variation compared to grain lot for all response variables except water-extractable arabinoxylan content. Patent flours produced larger sugar snap cookies and Japanese sponge cakes, and contained significantly less total and water-unextractable arabinoxylans, protein, and ash than did straight grade flours. Patent flours produced more viscous slurries for endogenous and enhanced cross-linking measurements compared to the straight grade flours. The functional differences between patent and straight grade flours appear to be related to the particular mill streams that were utilized in the formulation of the 2 flour blends and compositional differences among those streams.

  19. Blood lactate concentrations are mildly affected by mobile gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Scharhag-Rosenberger, F; Wochatz, M; Otto, C; Cassel, M; Mayer, F; Scharhag, J

    2014-06-01

    We sought to investigate the effects of wearing a mobile respiratory gas analysis system during a treadmill test on blood lactate (bLa) concentrations and commonly applied bLa thresholds. A total of 16 recreational athletes (31±3 years, VO2max: 58±6 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)) performed one multistage treadmill test with and one without gas exchange measurements (GEM and noGEM). The whole bLa curve, the lactate threshold (LT), the individual anaerobic thresholds according to Stegmann (IATSt) and Dickhuth (IATDi), and a fixed bLa concentration of 4 mmol ∙ l(-1) (OBLA) were evaluated. The bLa curve was shifted slightly leftward in GEM compared to noGEM (P<0.05), whereas the heart rate response was not different between conditions (P=0.89). There was no difference between GEM and noGEM for LT (2.61±0.34 vs. 2.64±0.39 m · s(-1), P=0.49) and IATSt (3.47±0.42 vs. 3.55±0.47 m · s(-1), P=0.12). However, IATDi (3.57±0.39 vs. 3.66±0.44 m · s(-1), P<0.01) and OBLA (3.85±0.46 vs. 3.96±0.47 m · s(-1), P<0.01) occurred at slower running velocities in GEM. The bLa response to treadmill tests is mildly affected by wearing a mobile gas analysis system. This also applies to bLa thresholds located at higher exercise intensities. While the magnitude of the effects is of little importance for recreational athletes, it might be relevant for elite athletes and scientific studies.

  20. Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; García Leal, Cristian; Stoner, Kathryn E; Schondube, Jorge E

    2013-02-01

    Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Ssugar preferences when the bats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment.

  1. Increased cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia is not affected by lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus

    SciTech Connect

    Harik, S.I.; Prado, R.; Busto, R.; Ginsberg, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the putative noradrenergic innervation of intraparenchymal cerebral blood vessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus mediates the vasodilatory response to hypercapnia, regional cerebral blood flow was measured by iodo-(/sup 14/C)antipyrine autoradiography in awake and restrained rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus and in unlesioned control rats. Hypercapnia, induced by the inhalation of 5% or 8% CO/sub 2/ in air for 8 minutes caused a 2 to 5-fold increase in regional cerebral blood flow. However, despite a marked reduction of about 90% in cortical norepinephrine levels ipsilateral to the lesion, blood flow to the frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum increased to the same extent in ipsilateral and contralateral regions. Thus, lesion of the locus ceruleus and the resultant depletion of endogenous cortical and hippocampal norepinephrine, does not influence the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia.

  2. Basic Blood Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the basic blood chemistry test include blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, which tell how well the kidneys ... amount of sugar in the blood. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a measure of how well the ...

  3. Does hormone therapy affect blood pressure changes in the Diabetes Prevention Program?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Golden, Sherita H.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Mather, Kieren J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether blood pressure reductions differ by estrogen use among overweight glucose-intolerant women. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal Diabetes Prevention Program participants who used oral estrogen with or without progestogen at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (n=324) vs. those who did not use at either time point (n=382). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes were examined by randomization arm (intensive lifestyle change (ILS), metformin 850 mg twice daily, or placebo). Associations between changes in blood pressure with changes in sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were also examined. Results Estrogen users and non-users had similar prevalences of baseline hypertension (33% vs. 34%, p=0.82) and use of blood pressure medications at baseline (p=0.25) and follow-up (p=0.10). Estrogen users and non-users randomized to ILS had similar decreases in SBP (-3.3 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.45) and DBP (-3.1 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.16). Among estrogen users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in SBP (p=0.016) and DBP (p=0.009) vs. placebo. Among non-users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in DBP (p=0.001) vs. placebo, but declines in SBP were not significant (p=0.11). Metformin was not associated with blood pressure reductions vs. placebo regardless of estrogen therapy. Blood pressure changes were not associated with changes in sex hormones regardless of estrogen therapy. Conclusions Among overweight women with dysglycemia, the magnitude of blood pressure reductions after ILS was unrelated to postmenopausal estrogen use. PMID:23942251

  4. Chemical factors affecting the interpretation of blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of methemoglobinemia caused by fire gases on blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims. Twenty-two fire victims with postmortem intervals of 8-48 h were involved. Blood cyanide concentrations at the time of death (C(0)) were estimated using the formula: C(0)=Ce(0.046 t) (C=blood cyanide concentration detected at autopsy, 0.046=first-order rate constant of cyanide disappearing from blood in corpses, and t=postmortem interval). Total (free and combined with cyanide) methemoglobin (MetHb) content was used to estimate the maximum capacity of MetHb for combining cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations at the time of death were very high (5.32-6.47 mg/l) in five victims. Three showed high saturation (54.7-63.0%) of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and elevated total MetHb contents (2.6-5.0%). MetHb at these levels is capable of scavenging up to 8.6-11.4 mg/l of blood cyanide. Thus, blood cyanide might have been completely combined with MetHb at the time of their death. In the remaining two victims, CO-Hb saturation was not high (30.9 and 37.9%) and no free MetHb was detected. As a result they may have exhibited severe toxic effects of cyanide at the time of their death. Our results indicate that MetHb contents and CO-Hb saturation should be determined to evaluate the toxic effects of cyanide in fire victims.

  5. Factors affecting the blood concentration of ionized magnesium in patients in the acute phase of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Kenji; Tachibana, Hideaki; Suzuki, Tomomi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    2004-11-01

    Magnesium is physiologically active in its free state (Mg2+). In the present study, we attempted to clarify factors affecting blood concentrations of Mg2+ in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (AMI). Subjects were 84 consecutive patients with AMI. Blood samples were collected at the time of admission, 24h after admission, and 1 week after admission, to measure blood concentration of Mg2+ and noradrenaline (NA). Furthermore, to assess daily Mg intake the hardness of local drinking water was determined, and a survey was conducted regarding dietary preferences and habits. Based on the results of this survey, the patients were defined as having a low Mg intake (L Group) or not. In addition, based on chronological shifts in blood Mg2+ concentrations, subjects were divided into the following four groups: Normal group, blood concentration of Mg2+ within normal range at all measurement points; Early recovery group, low at time of admission, but normalized on the next day; Delayed recovery group, low at time of admission, but normalized 1 week after admission; and Unrecovered group, below normal range at all measurement points. The mean blood Mg2+ concentration on admission was 0.52 +/- 0.06 mmol/l, significantly lower than the normal range (P < 0.05). A negative correlation between blood Mg2+ and NA concentrations on admission was observed (r = 0.49, P < 0.005). As a result, blood Mg2+ concentrations were normalized in 94% of subjects by 1 week after admission. Mean blood Mg2+ concentration on admission in the L Group was 0.47 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, significantly lower than that found in other subjects (0.52 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Eighty percent of the patients classified into the Unrecovered group belonged to the L Group. These findings suggest that lower blood concentrations of Mg2+ and higher plasma NA levels may be a result of serious AMI. However, chronic Mg intake deficiency may play a partial role in patients whose blood concentrations of Mg2+ remain low for

  6. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    PubMed

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence.

  7. Skin blood flow differentially affects near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume at rest and during dynamic leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Ruddock, Alan D; Saxton, John M

    2010-11-01

    The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy males. The protocol was repeated four times: twice without thigh heating for reliability, and twice with different grades of thigh heating for assessing the impact of cutaneous vasodilation on SmO(2) and Δ[tHb]. The reliability of our SmO(2) and [tHb] measurements was good. Thigh heating at 37 and 42°C caused marked increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during rest and exercise (P < 0.001 between each condition), and small increases in SmO(2) during rest (from 69 ± 8% to 71 ± 7% and 73 ± 6%, respectively; P < 0.05 between each condition), but not during exercise (e.g. 1 min exercise: 51 ± 11% vs. 51 ± 11% and 52 ± 11%, respectively; P > 0.05 at all time points). In contrast, heating-induced increases in %CVC(peak) were accompanied by increases in [tHb] at rest and during exercise and a decrease in Δ[tHb] during exercise (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that NIRS-derived measures of SmO(2) and blood volume are differentially affected by skin blood flow at rest and during exercise. The findings from this study should be considered in NIRS experiments where skin blood flow can change markedly (e.g. high-intensity and/or prolonged exercise).

  8. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  9. Antibiotics in ingested human blood affect the mosquito microbiota and capacity to transmit malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Rodgers, Faye H.; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé S.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Cohuet, Anna; Christophides, George K.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria reduction is most efficiently achieved by vector control whereby human populations at high risk of contracting and transmitting the disease are protected from mosquito bites. Here, we identify the presence of antibiotics in the blood of malaria-infected people as a new risk of increasing disease transmission. We show that antibiotics in ingested blood enhance the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to malaria infection by disturbing their gut microbiota. This effect is confirmed in a semi-natural setting by feeding mosquitoes with blood of children naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibiotic exposure additionally increases mosquito survival and fecundity, which are known to augment vectorial capacity. These findings suggest that malaria transmission may be exacerbated in areas of high antibiotic usage, and that regions targeted by mass drug administration programs against communicable diseases may necessitate increased vector control. PMID:25562286

  10. Factors affecting transfusion requirement after hip fracture: Can we reduce the need for blood?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sagar J.; Wood, Kristi S.; Marsh, Jackie; Bryant, Dianne; Abdo, Hussein; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Sanders, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hip fractures are common injuries that result in blood loss and frequently require the transfusion of blood products. We sought to identify risk factors leading to increased blood transfusion in patients presenting with hip fractures, especially those factors that are modifiable. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who had fixation of their hip fractures between October 2005 and February 2010. The need for transfusion was correlated with potential risk factors, including age, sex, preoperative hemoglobin, fracture type, fixation method and more. Results A total of 835 patients had fixation of their hip fractures during the study period; 631 met the inclusion criteria and 249 of them (39.5%) were transfused. We found an association between need for blood transfusion and female sex (p = 0.018), lower preoperative hemoglobin (p < 0.001), fracture type (p < 0.001) and fixation method (p < 0.001). Compared with femoral neck fractures, there was a 2.37 times greater risk of blood transfusion in patients with intertrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001) and a 4.03 times greater risk in those with subtrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001). Dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation decreased the risk of transfusion by about half compared with intramedullary nail or hemiarthroplasty. We found no association with age, delay to operation (p = 0.17) or duration of surgery (p = 0.30). Conclusion The only modifiable risk factor identified was fixation method. When considering blood transfusion requirements in isolation, we suggest a potential benefit in using a DHS for intertrochanteric and femoral neck fractures amenable to DHS fixation. PMID:25265109

  11. Does tropicamide affect choroidal blood flow in humans? a laser Doppler flowmetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Nithiyanantham; Riva, Charles E.; Rovati, Luigi; Cellini, Mauro; Gizzi, Corrado; Strobbe, Ernesto; Campos, Emilio C.

    2012-03-01

    The measurement of blood flow in the ocular fundus is of scientific and clinical interest. Investigating ocular blood flow in the choroid may be important to understand the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases, such as glaucoma or agerelated macular degeneration (AMD). Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was applied to measure relative velocity, volume and flux of red blood cells in the tissues of human eye. Its main application lies in the possibility of assessing alterations in blood flow early in the course of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pupil dilatation with one drop of 1% tropicamide on blood flow in the foveal region of the choroid of the human fundus. The blood flow parameters were measured in 24 eyes during 30 minutes (one measurement in every 3 minutes) after the application of the drop. Since the Doppler parameters depend on the scattering geometry, which may change as the pupil dilates; an artificial pupil of 4mm in diameter was placed directly in front the eye. Following the administration of tropicamide the mean pupil diameter was increased from 3.29 mm to 8.25 mm (P<0.0001, Paired student t-test). In comparison to the baseline values, the data shows no significant increases were observed in velocity, volume, and flow with 4 mm artificial pupil (0.2%, 1.3%, 0.8% respectively) and a statistically significant increases were observed without artificial pupil (10.7%, 13.9%, 12.8% respectively) following the application of tropicamide.

  12. Accessibility of blood affects the attractiveness of cattle to horn flies.

    PubMed

    Breijo, M; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Pedrana, G; Alonzo, P; Meikle, A

    2014-03-01

    The burden of infestation of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), differs among bovines within the same herd. We hypothesized that these differences might be related to the epidermal thickness of the cattle and the blood intake capacity of the fly. Results showed that dark animals carried more flies and had a thinner epidermis than light-coloured animals, which was consistent with the greater haemoglobin content found in flies caught on darker cattle. Similarly, epidermal thickness increased with body weight, whereas haemoglobin content decreased. Overall, we suggest that accessibility of blood is a factor that partially explains cattle attractiveness to flies.

  13. Does the Presence of Blood in the Catheter or the Degree of Difficulty of Embryo Transfer Affect Live Birth?

    PubMed

    Plowden, Torie C; Hill, Micah J; Miles, Shana M; Hoyt, Benjamin; Yauger, Belinda; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Chason, Rebecca J

    2016-09-21

    The technique used for embryo transfer (ET) can affect implantation. Prior research that evaluated the effect of postprocedural blood of the transfer catheter tip have yielded mixed results, and it is unclear whether this is actually a marker of difficulty of the transfer. Our objective was to estimate the effect of blood at the time of ET and the difficulty of ET on live birth rates (LBR). This retrospective cohort study utilized generalized estimating equations (GEEs) with nesting for repeated cycles for all analyses. Univariate modeling was performed and a final multivariate (adjusted) GEE model accounted for all significant confounders. Embryo transfers were subjectively graded (easy, medium, or hard) by a physician at the time of transfer. The presence of blood at ET was associated with more difficult ETs, retained embryos, and presence of mucous in the catheter. In the univariate analysis, ET with blood was not associated with live birth, while the degree of difficulty for ET had a negative impact on LBR. In the final multivariate GEE model, which accounts for repeated cycles from a patient, the only factors associated with an increased LBR were the degree of difficulty of the ET, female age, and blastocyst transfer. After controlling for confounding variables, the presence of blood in the transfer catheter was not associated with the likelihood of pregnancy and thus was not an independent predictor of cycle outcome. This indicates that the difficulty of the transfer itself was a strong negative predictor of pregnancy.

  14. rhG-CSF does not affect the phenotype of adult donor peripheral blood NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lassailly, F; Sielleur, I; Blaise, D; Chabannon, C

    2005-01-01

    Considerable evidence in preclinical models as well as in human transplantation now suggests that donor-derived natural killer (NK) cells can contribute to alloimmune recognition of recipient residual tumour cells. This makes the NK cell population an attractive target for in vitro or in vivo manipulations, in order to improve the antitumour effect of allogeneic transplantation. However, conditions in which allogeneic donor cells are collected vary; several reports have emphasised the different phenotypic and functional properties of T cells derived from marrow, cord blood or mobilised peripheral blood grafts; others have demonstrated different clinical outcomes following blood or marrow transplantation after myeloablative conditioning regimens. NK cells have been examined in this setting; the availability of new tools to study the expression of a variety of surface antigens that are involved in the control of NK cell activity offered us an opportunity to extensively characterise the phenotypic properties of NK cells from donors, before and after administration of pharmacological doses of rhG-CSF used for haematopoietic progenitor mobilisation. Our study suggests that rhG-CSF does not reproducibly alter blood NK cell phenotype in normal individuals, and thus that donor-derived cells are fully equipped to exert their potential antitumour effect.

  15. Sugar and sugar substitutes. Comparisons and indications.

    PubMed

    Alfin-Slater, R B; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1987-08-01

    Public confusion and concern about the use of sugar and sugar substitutes are widespread. Physicians must be prepared to answer patients' inquiries about these substances. Some population groups should avoid certain sugar substitutes. In particular, pregnant women and young children should avoid saccharin, and phenylketonuric homozygous persons should avoid aspartame. In a varied, balanced diet, the use of aspartame and saccharin is one safe way for the general population to enjoy sweet foods with fewer calories and less cariogenic potential. Sugar substitutes may be helpful in dietary compliance for overweight and diabetic patients.

  16. Do GSM 900MHz signals affect cerebral blood circulation? A near-infrared spectrophotometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Martin; Haensse, Daniel; Morren, Geert; Froehlich, Juerg

    2006-06-01

    Effects of GSM 900MHz signals (EMF) typical for a handheld mobile phone on the cerebral blood circulation were investigated using near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) in a three armed (12W/kg, 1.2W/kg, sham), double blind, randomized crossover trial in 16 healthy volunteers. During exposure we observed borderline significant short term responses of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration, which correspond to a decrease of cerebral blood flow and volume and were smaller than regular physiological changes. Due to the relatively high number of statistical tests, these responses may be spurious and require further studies. There was no detectable dose-response relation or long term response within 20min. The detection limit was a fraction of the regular physiological changes elicited by functional activation. Compared to previous studies using PET, NIRS provides a much higher time resolution, which allowed investigating the short term effects efficiently, noninvasively, without the use of radioactive tracers and with high sensitivity.

  17. Novel Genes Affecting Blood Pressure Detected Via Gene-Based Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Mo, Xing-Bo; Xu, Tan; Bu, Xiao-Qing; Lei, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disorder and one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to identify more novel genes for blood pressure. Based on the publically available SNP-based P values of a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies, we performed an initial gene-based association study in a total of 69,395 individuals. To find supplementary evidence to support the importance of the identified genes, we performed GRAIL (gene relationships among implicated loci) analysis, protein–protein interaction analysis, functional annotation clustering analysis, coronary artery disease association analysis, and other bioinformatics analyses. Approximately 22,129 genes on the human genome were analyzed for blood pressure in gene-based association analysis. A total of 43 genes were statistically significant after Bonferroni correction (P < 2.3×10−6). The evidence obtained from the analyses of this study suggested the importance of ID1 (P = 2.0×10−6), CYP17A1 (P = 4.58×10−9), ATXN2 (P = 1.07×10−13), CLCN6 (P = 4.79×10−9), FURIN (P = 1.38×10−6), HECTD4 (P = 3.95×10−11), NPPA (P = 1.60×10−6), and PTPN11 (P = 8.89×10−10) in the genetic basis of blood pressure. The present study found some important genes associated with blood pressure, which might provide insights into the genetic architecture of hypertension. PMID:25820152

  18. Hypercholesterolemia screening. Does knowledge of blood cholesterol level affect dietary fat intake?

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, M.; Godin, G.; Vézina, L.; Maziade, J.; Desharnais, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowing blood cholesterol test results influences people's intention to lower their dietary fat intake and to assess changes in diet after 3 months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. SETTING: Two hospital-based family medicine centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 patients aged 18 to 65, without prior knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels, were recruited. Seventy did not appear for their appointments, and 37 did not meet study criteria, leaving 419 participants. From that group, 391 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients submitted to cholesterol screening were randomly assigned to one of two groups, completing the study questionnaires either before (control group) or after (experimental group) being informed of their screening test results. All participants were called 3 months after transmission of test results to assess their dietary fat intake at that time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in intention to adopt a low-fat diet reported between the experimental and control groups and differences in dietary fat intake modification after 3 months between patients with normal and abnormal blood cholesterol test results. RESULTS: Knowledge of test results influenced patients' intentions to adopt low-fat diets (F1,417 = 5.4, P = .02). Patients reported lower mean dietary fat intake after 3 months than at baseline (P < .0001). The reduction was greater in patients with abnormal screening results (F2,388 = 3.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Being informed of personal blood cholesterol levels effects an immediate change in eating habits that translates into reduced dietary fat intake. PMID:9640523

  19. Systemic blood loss affects NF-kappa B regulatory mechanisms in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Moine, P; Shenkar, R; Kaneko, D; Le Tulzo, Y; Abraham, E

    1997-07-01

    The nuclear regulatory factor (NF)-kappa B is activated in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In experimental models of acute lung injury, activation of NF-kappa B contributes to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in the lungs. Because of the important role that NF-kappa B activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kappa B counterregulatory mechanisms in lung mononuclear cells, using a murine model in which inflammatory lung injury develops after blood loss. Sustained activation of NF-kappa B was present in lung mononuclear cells over the 4-h period after blood loss. The activation of NF-kappa B after hemorrhage was accompanied by alterations in levels of the NF-kappa B regulatory proteins I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3. Cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha were increased and nuclear Bcl-3 was decreased during the first hour after blood loss, but, by 4 h posthemorrhage, cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha levels were decreased and nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were increased. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity in otherwise unmanipulated unhemorrhaged mice resulted in increased levels of I kappa B alpha and decreased amounts of Bcl-3 in nuclear extracts from lung mononuclear cells. No changes in the levels of nuclear I kappa B alpha or Bcl-3 occurred after hemorrhage when xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited. These results demonstrate that blood loss, at least partly through xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanisms, produces alterations in the levels of both I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3 in lung mononuclear cell populations. The effects of hemorrhage on proteins that regulate activation of NF-kappa B may contribute to the frequent development of inflammatory lung injury in this setting.

  20. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Chapman, Robert W; Somerville, Stephen E; Guillette, Matthew P; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Smit, Willem J; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River.

  1. Factors affecting drug and gene delivery: effects of interaction with blood components.

    PubMed

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Nishikawa, Makiya; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2002-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery systems have been used extensively to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic activities of a wide variety of drugs and genes. In this article, we summarize the factors determining the tissue disposition of delivery systems: the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the delivery system and the anatomic and physiological characteristics of the tissues. There are several modes of drug and gene targeting, ranging from passive to active targeting, and each of these can be achieved by optimizing the design of the delivery system to suit a specific aim. After entering the systemic circulation, either by an intravascular injection or through absorption from an administration site, however, a delivery system encounters a variety of blood components, including blood cells and a range of serum proteins. These components are by no means inert as far as interaction with the delivery system is concerned, and they can sometimes markedly effect its tissue disposition. The interaction with blood components is known to occur with particulate delivery systems, such as liposomes, or with cationic charge-mediated delivery systems for genes. In addition to these rather nonspecific ones, interactions via the targeting ligand of the delivery system can occur. We recently found that mannosylated carriers interact with serum mannan binding protein, greatly altering their tissue disposition in a number of ways that depend on the properties of the carriers involved.

  2. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  3. Transcriptional and metabolic effects of glucose on Streptococcus pneumoniae sugar metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Laura; Caldas, José; Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Vinga, Susana; Neves, Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative human pathogen that relies on carbohydrate metabolism to generate energy for growth. The nasopharynx colonized by the bacterium is poor in free sugars, but mucosa lining glycans can provide a source of sugar. In blood and inflamed tissues glucose is the prevailing sugar. As a result during progression from colonization to disease S. pneumoniae has to cope with a pronounced shift in carbohydrate nature and availability. Thus, we set out to assess the pneumococcal response to sugars found in glycans and the influence of glucose (Glc) on this response at the transcriptional, physiological, and metabolic levels. Galactose (Gal), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and mannose (Man) affected the expression of 8 to 14% of the genes covering cellular functions including central carbon metabolism and virulence. The pattern of end-products as monitored by in vivo 13C-NMR is in good agreement with the fermentation profiles during growth, while the pools of phosphorylated metabolites are consistent with the type of fermentation observed (homolactic vs. mixed) and regulation at the metabolic level. Furthermore, the accumulation of α-Gal6P and Man6P indicate metabolic bottlenecks in the metabolism of Gal and Man, respectively. Glc added to cells actively metabolizing other sugar(s) was readily consumed and elicited a metabolic shift toward a homolactic profile. The transcriptional response to Glc was large (over 5% of the genome). In central carbon metabolism (most represented category), Glc exerted mostly negative regulation. The smallest response to Glc was observed on a sugar mix, suggesting that exposure to varied sugars improves the fitness of S. pneumoniae. The expression of virulence factors was negatively controlled by Glc in a sugar-dependent manner. Overall, our results shed new light on the link between carbohydrate metabolism, adaptation to host niches and virulence. PMID:26500614

  4. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies.

  5. Is the expression of autogeny by Culex molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) influenced by larval nutrition or by adult mating, sugar feeding, or blood feeding?

    PubMed

    Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2012-06-01

    Culex molestus Forskal is suspected to have been introduced into southern Australia during the 1940s. Investigations to determine factors influencing the expression of autogeny, the response of this mosquito to potential blood meals, and the subsequent influence on oviposition were undertaken. Immature mosquitoes raised at five feeding regimes had mortality rates, development rates, wing length, and autogenous egg raft size measured. All surviving female mosquitoes laid autogenous eggs but there was a significant difference between the mean number of eggs per raft. For mosquitoes raised at each of the feeding regimes, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of eggs per autogenous egg raft and wing length. Newly emerged mosquitoes were offered a blood meal (i.e., rodent) daily but no blood feeding occurred until the autogenous egg raft was laid. There was no statistical difference in the rate of autogenous oviposition or post-oviposition blood feeding between control or treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that Cx. molestus is perfectly adapted to subterranean habitats in close association with human habitation, but their preference to delay blood feeding until up to day 8 following emergence may reduce their relative importance as a vector of arboviruses.

  6. Understanding How Space Travel Affects Blood Vessels: Arterial Remodeling and Functional Adaptations Induced by Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Michael; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ever rise quickly from the couch to get something from the kitchen and suddenly feel dizzy? With a low heart rate and relaxed muscles, the cardiovascular system does not immediately provide the resistance necessary to keep enough blood going to your head. Gravity wins, at least for a short time, before your heart and blood vessels can respond to the sudden change in position and correct the situation. Actually, the human cardiovascular system is quite well adapted to the constant gravitational force of the Earth. When standing, vessels in the legs constrict to prevent blood from collecting in the lower extremities. In the space environment, the usual head-to-foot blood pressure and tissue fluid gradients that exist during the upright posture on Earth are removed. The subsequent shift in fluids from the lower to the upper portions of the body triggers adaptations within the cardiovascular system to accommodate the new pressure and fluid gradients. In animal models that simulate microgravity, the vessels in the head become more robust while those in the lower limbs become thin and lax. Similar changes may also occur in humans during spaceflight and while these adaptations are appropriate for a microgravity environment, they can cause problems when the astronauts return to Earth or perhaps another planet. Astronauts often develop orthostatic intolerance which means they become dizzy or faint when standing upright. This dizziness can persist for a number of days making routine activities difficult. In an effort to understand the physiological details of these cardiovascular adaptations, Dr. Michael Delp at Texas A&M University, uses the rat as a model for his studies. For the experiment flown on STS-107, he will test the hypothesis that blood vessels in the rats' hindlimbs become thinner, weaker, and constrict less in response to pressure changes and to chemical signals when exposed to microgravity. In addition, he will test the hypothesis that arteries in the brain

  7. [Sugar substitutes in the diabetic diet].

    PubMed

    Mehnert, H

    1976-01-01

    The decreased glucsoe utilization in diabetes mellitus justifies the use of sugar substitutes ("diabetic sugar") if two conditions are fulfilled: 1)The sugar substitute should be a carbohydrate which does not lead, or only to a slight degree, to hyperglycaemia and thus, in this respect, differs distinctly from sugars such as glucose and saccharose. 2) The sugar substitute must not cause undesired side-effects. The absorption, utilization and side-effects of the sugar substitutes fructose, sorbitol and xylitol were investigated. They were found to be more slowly absorbed than glucose and thus to offer the advantage of better utilization under conditions of limited insulin production. However, the particularly slow passive absorption of sorbitol and xylitol can sometimes be a disadvantage, since osmotic diarrhoea may occur after administration of high oral doses. The sugar substitutes enter the metabolism enzymatically and are utilized mainly in the liver. The peripheral state was investigated after intravenous, intraduodenal and oral administration of glucose and fructose to healthy subjects. Liver metabolism was examined (Dietze) by comparing hepatic venous and arterial concentrations after intravenous administration of the sugars. Also, diabetic patients received glucose and fructose orally. As previously demonstrated, the investigations using several techniques showed a smaller influence on blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations after administration of fructose, sorbitol and xylitol than after glucose. If no metabolic changes occur after intravenous administration of high doses, no such changes need be expected after oral administration of small doses. Nor did measurements in hepatic venous blood (Dietze) show any marked effect of fructose on the blood glucose level. The healthy subjects showed no significant changes in blood glucose or serum insulin concentration after either intraduodenal or oral administration of fructose, whereas they showed a

  8. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.

  9. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  10. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  11. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

  12. Sugar beet factory lime affects the mobilization of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    The impact of sugar beet factory lime (SBFL) on the release dynamics and mobilization of toxic metals (TMs) under dynamic redox conditions in floodplain soils has not been studied up to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the scientific hypothesis that SBFL is able to immobilize Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn under different redox potentials (EH) in a contaminated floodplain soil. For this purpose, the non-treated contaminated soil (CS) and the same soil treated with SBFL (CS+SBFL) were flooded in the laboratory using a highly sophisticated automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The experiment was conducted stepwise from reducing (-13 mV) to oxidizing (+519 mV) soil conditions. Soil pH decreased under oxic conditions in CS (from 6.9 to 4.0) and in CS+SBFL (from 7.5 to 4.4). The mobilization of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Fe were lower in CS+SBFL than in CS under both reducing/neutral and oxic/acidic conditions. Those results demonstrate that SBFL is able to decrease concentrations of these elements under a wide range of redox and pH conditions. The mobilization of Cd, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn were higher in CS+SBFL than in CS under reducing/neutral conditions; however, these concentrations showed an opposite behavior under oxic/acidic conditions and were lower in CS+SBFL than in CS. We conclude that SBFL immobilized Cu, Cr, Pb, and Fe under dynamic redox conditions and immobilized Cd, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn under oxic acidic conditions; however, the latter elements were mobilized under reducing neutral conditions in the studied soil. Therefore, the addition of SBFL to acid floodplain soils contaminated with TMs might be an important alternative for ameliorating these soils with view to a sustainable management of these soils.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor signaling affects vascular outgrowth and is required for the maintenance of blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Frederik; Tembuyser, Bieke; Lenard, Anna; Claes, Filip; Zhang, Jie; Michielsen, Christof; Van Schepdael, Ann; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bono, Françoise; Affolter, Markus; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-10-23

    Angiogenesis contributes to the development of numerous disorders. Even though fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were discovered as mediators of angiogenesis more than 30 years ago, their role in developmental angiogenesis still remains elusive. We use a recently described chemical probe, SSR128129E (SSR), that selectively inhibits the action of multiple FGF receptors (FGFRs), in combination with the zebrafish model to examine the role of FGF signaling in vascular development. We observe that while FGFR signaling is less important for vessel guidance, it affects vascular outgrowth and is especially required for the maintenance of blood vessel integrity by ensuring proper cell-cell junctions between endothelial cells. In conclusion, our work illustrates the power of a small molecule probe to reveal insights into blood vessel formation and stabilization and thus of broad interest to the vascular biology community.

  14. Homocysteine and its thiolactone-mediated modification of fibrinogen affect blood platelet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Joanna; Olas, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcys) and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) concentrations in organism are correlated with a number of serious pathologies. In the literature, there are few papers describing studies on the effects of homocysteine on proteins that participate in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in human. However, mechanisms involved in the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and hemostatic process are still unclear. The role of N- or S-homocysteinylation (induced by Hcys and its derivatives) of different hemostatic proteins, including fibrinogen is also still poorly known. The aim of this study was to establish the functional changes of the fibrinogen molecule induced by Hcys (at final doses of 10-100 µM) and the most reactive form of Hcys - its cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone (0.1-1 µM), and to examine the effects of these changes on the capability of fibrinogen to interact with human blood platelets (by measuring the platelet adhesion). Our present results demonstrated that Hcys-treated fibrinogen in comparison with native molecule had a distinct capability to mediate platelet adhesion. Both, unstimulated and thrombin-activated platelets showed a reduced ability to adhere to Hcys-mediated fibrinogen. HTL (at all tested concentrations) had similar properties when we used thrombin-activated platelets. In conclusion, the results reported in this study could be useful for a better understanding of changes in hemostasis during hyperhomocysteinemia.

  15. The sex of the foetus affects maternal blood glucose concentrations in overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Sumudu N; Derraik, José G B; Jiang, Yannan; McCowan, Lesley M E; Gusso, Silmara; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-12-26

    There is increasing evidence that the sex of the foetus may alter the maternal metabolic milieu during pregnancy. Following a randomized controlled trial of exercise in overweight and obese pregnant women, we assessed whether the sex of the foetus was associated with changes in maternal metabolism. Data were analysed on 74 randomized participants who completed the trial, including 38 mothers carrying males and 36 mothers carrying females. At 19 weeks of gestation, mothers carrying boys had higher blood glucose concentrations than those carrying girls (5.4 vs 4.9 mmol/l; p = .046). At 36 weeks of gestation, differences were more marked, with blood glucose concentrations 15% higher in mothers carrying females (5.7 vs 5.0 mmol/l; p = .004). In addition, mothers carrying girls had higher concentrations of hs-CRP across pregnancy (5.0 vs 3.6 mg/l; p = .029). Our findings provide further evidence that the sex of the foetus appears to influence maternal metabolism.

  16. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest: Collection efficiency and factors affecting it

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Aseem K.; Pandey, Prashant; Subbaraman, Harini; Bhargava, Rahul; Rawat, Ganesh; Madiraju, Shivani; Raina, Vimarsh; Bhargava, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Harvest of hematopoietic progenitor cells via leukapheresis is being used increasingly for transplants in India. Adequate yield of cells per kilogram body weight of recipient is required for successful engraftment. Collection efficiency (CE) is an objective quality parameter used to assess the quality of leukapheresis program. In this study, we calculated the CE of the ComTec cell separator (Fresenius Kabi, Germany) using two different formulae (CE1 and CE2) and analyzed various patient and procedural factors, which may affect it. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one consecutive procedures in 77 autologous donors carried out over 3 years period were retrospectively reviewed. Various characteristics like gender, age, weight, disease status, hematocrit, preprocedure total leukocyte count, preprocedure CD34 positive (CD34+) cells count, preprocedure absolute CD34+ cell count and processed apheresis volume effect on CE were compared. CE for each procedure was calculated using two different formulae, and results were compared using statistical correlation and regression analysis. Results: The mean CE1 and CE2 was 41.2 and 49.1, respectively. CE2 appeared to be more accurate indicator of overall CE as it considered the impact of continued mobilization of stem cells during apheresis procedure, itself. Of all the factors affecting CE, preprocedure absolute CD34+ was the only independent factor affecting CE. Conclusion: The only factor affecting CE was preprocedure absolute CD34+ cells. Though the mean CE2 was higher than CE1, it was not statistically significant. PMID:27011680

  17. Anomeric Anhydro Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Nathan W.; Williams, Spencer J.

    Anomeric anhydro sugars are sugar derivatives where the anomeric carbon participates in an acetal linkage with two of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar. They are essentially intramolecular glycosides, and their bicyclic nature provides a powerful conformational constraint that greatly influences their reactivity. This chapter reviews the occurrence, properties, formation, and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars. Particular emphasis is placed on 1,2- and 1,6-anhydropyranoses, including conformational aspects and ring-opening reactions. Epoxide-containing 1,6-anhydro sugars (Černý epoxides) are briefly reviewed, and the formation and some reactions of the 1,6-anhydro sugar enone, levoglucosenone, is covered. An overview is given of the use of 1,2-anhydro sugar as glycosyl donors. Also discussed are the formation and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars containing nitrogen, sulfur, or selenium.

  18. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G

    2002-03-15

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  19. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-02

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS.

  20. Key Immune Cell Cytokines Affects the Telomere Activity of Cord Blood Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazvan, Balal; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Montazer Saheb, Soheila; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Schmied, Laurent; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Darabi, Masoud; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Telomere is a nucleoprotein complex at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and its length is regulated by telomerase. The number of DNA repeat sequence (TTAGGG)n is reduced with each cell division in differentiated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SCF (Stem Cell Factor), Flt3 (Fms- Like tyrosine kinase-3), Interleukin-2, 7 and 15 on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in mononuclear and umbilical cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells) during development to lymphoid cells. Methods: The mononuclear cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Paque density gradient. Then cells were cultured for 21 days in the presence of different cytokines. Telomere length and hTERT gene expression were evaluated in freshly isolated cells, 7, 14 and 21 days of culture by real-time PCR. The same condition had been done for CD34+ cells but telomere length and hTERT gene expression were measured at initial and day 21 of the experiment. Results: Highest hTERT gene expression and maximum telomere length were measured at day14 of MNCs in the presence of IL-7 and IL-15. Also, there was a significant correlation between telomere length and telomerase gene expression in MNCs at 14 days in a combination of IL-7 and IL-15 (r = 0.998, p =0.04). In contrast, IL-2 showed no distinct effect on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in cells. Conclusion: Taken together, IL-7 and IL-15 increased telomere length and hTERT gene expression at 14 day of the experiment. In conclusion, it seems likely that cells maintain naïve phenotype due to prolonged exposure of IL-7 and IL-15. PMID:27478776

  1. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  2. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress.

  3. Is platelet function as measured by Thrombelastograph monitoring in whole blood affected by platelet inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lori A; Sistino, Joseph J; Uber, Walter E

    2005-03-01

    Platelet inhibitors, especially the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the acute ischemic complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and in improving clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary crisis. Three common platelet inhibitors observed in emergent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for failed PCI are abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban. An in vitro model was constructed in two parts to determine whether platelet aggregation inhibition induced by platelet inhibitors would be demonstrated by the Thrombelastograph (TEG) monitor when compared with baseline samples with no platelet inhibitor. In part A, 20 mL of fresh whole blood was divided into four groups: group I = baseline, group A = abcix-imab microg/mL, group E = eptifibatide ng/mL, and group T = tirofiban ng/mL. Platelet inhibitor concentrations in whole blood were derived starting with reported serum concentrations with escalation to achieve 80% platelet inhibition using the Medtronic hemoSTATUS and/or Lumi-aggregometer. A concentration range determined by our in vitro tests were chosen for each drug using concentrations achieving less than, equal to, or greater than 80% platelet inhibition. In part B, TEG analysis was then performed using baseline and concentrations for each drug derived in part A. Parameters measured were clot formation reaction time (R), coagulation time (K), maximum amplitude (MA) and alpha angle (A). Groups E1000 and E2000 extended R over control by 37% and 23%, respectively (p = 0.01 and 0.03). Groups E1000 and E2000 increased K times by 45% and 58% (p = .02 and .04). T160 samples prolonged K by 20% (p = 0.01). The angle or clot strength (A) was decreased in groups T160 and E1000 by 23% (+ 7.06 SD) and 18% (+ 11.23 SD), respectively (p = 0.001 and 0.01). The MA decrease was statistically significant in the T160, E1000 and E2000 by 9%, 6% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01). Samples treated with abciximab

  4. Perfectionism Affects Blood Pressure in Response to Repeated Exposure to Stress.

    PubMed

    Albert, Phebe; Rice, Kenneth G; Caffee, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of perfectionism on blood pressure (BP) in response to repeated exposure to mental arithmetic stressors. College students (N = 30) in a laboratory setting were administered a series of challenging mathematical tasks. BP was measured at baseline and after each task. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that BP tended to decline over the course of the mathematical tasks. However, higher levels of performance standards predicted relatively stable levels of systolic BP, whereas moderate and lower levels of standards predicted declines in systolic BP. Higher levels of self-critical perfectionism predicted generally sustained levels of diastolic BP, with moderate and low self-criticism predicting declines in diastolic BP during the repeated stressors. These preliminary results suggest that students with higher levels of perfectionism may be at risk for physiological problems associated with stress reactivity, perhaps especially so in situations in which they experience persistent stress. Although results were qualified by a relatively small sample size, effects were statistically significant and supported the importance of examining the short-term and long-term implications of the effects of perfectionism on cardiovascular function and the different implications of elevations in systolic and diastolic BP.

  5. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) blood sera affects proteolytic and hemolytic activities of rattlesnake venoms.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Coss, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus) from two sites in south central New Mexico, where prairie (Crotalus viridis viridis) and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox) rattlesnakes are common predators, were assayed for inhibition of rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic activities. At statistically significant levels rock squirrel blood sera reduced the metalloprotease and hemolytic activity of venoms from C. v. viridis and C. atrox more than venom from an allopatric snake species, the northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). In contrast, general proteolytic activity of venom from C. oreganus was inhibited more by S. variegatus serum defenses than activity of venom from sympatric snakes. For all three venoms, incubation with squirrel sera increased the level of fibrinolysis over venom-only treatments. These results suggest that rock squirrels (S. variegatus) can defend against metalloproteases and other proteases after envenomation from at least two of five rattlesnake predators they might encounter. However, there were statistically significant differences between general proteolytic activity and fibrinolytic activity of C. v. viridis and C. atrox venom, suggesting that rock squirrels might be differentially vulnerable to these two predators. The hypothesis that prey resistance influences snake venom evolution in a predator-prey arms race is given further support by the previously cryptic variation in venoms detected when assayed against prey defenses.

  6. Does Magnetic Field Affect Malaria Parasite Replication in Human Red Blood Cells?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanturiya, Alexandr N.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Yin, Dan; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Digestion of red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin by the malaria parasite results in the formation of paramagnetic hemazoin crystals inside the parasite body. A number of reports suggest that magnetic field interaction with hamazoin crystals significantly reduces the number of infected cells in culture, and thus magnetic field can be used to combat malaria. We studies the effects of magnetic filed on the Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle inside RBCs under various experimental conditions. No effect was found during prolonged exposure of infected RBCs to constant magnetic fields up to 6000 Gauss. Infected RBCs were also exposed, under temperature-controlled conditions, to oscillating magnetic fields with frequencies in the range of 500-20000 kHz, and field strength 30-600 Gauss. This exposure often changed the proportion of different parasite stages in treated culture compared to controls. However, no significant effect on parasitemia was observed in treated cultures. This result indicates that the magnetic field effect on Plasmodium falciparum is negligible, or that hypothetical negative and positive effects on different stages within one 48-hour compensate each other.

  7. Endurance exercise beneficially affects ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Buys, Roselien; Smart, Neil A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise is widely recommended as one of the key preventive lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of hypertension and to manage high blood pressure (BP), but individual studies investigating the effect of exercise on ambulatory BP have remained inconclusive. Therefore, the primary purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of aerobic endurance training on daytime and night-time BP in healthy adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Clinical trial registry from their inception to May 2012. Randomized controlled trials of at least 4 weeks investigating the effects of aerobic endurance training on ambulatory BP in healthy adults were included. Inverse weighted random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence limits. We included 15 randomized controlled trials, involving 17 study groups and 633 participants (394 exercise participants and 239 control participants). Overall, endurance training induced a significant reduction in daytime SBP [-3.2 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI), -5.0 to-1.3] and daytime DBP (-2.7 mmHg, 95% CI, -3.9 to -1.5). No effect was observed on night-time BP. The findings from this meta-analysis suggest that aerobic endurance exercise significantly decreases daytime, but not night-time, ambulatory BP.

  8. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid affects blood parameters, liver morphology and expression of selected hepatic genes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, A A; Banks, P; Szymczyk, B; Leszczyńska, T; Master, A; Piasna, E; Szczepański, W; Domagała, D; Kopeć, A; Piątkowska, E; Laidler, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research were to investigate the effect of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched diet on Isa Brown laying hen health status and to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in blood parameters, liver morphology and selected hepatic gene expression. Hens were allocated to the control and experimental group (diet enriched with 0.75% CLA) for a total period of 4 m. At the end of the experiment half of the hens from each group were slaughtered for analyses. The remaining hens were transferred to an organic farm for the next 5 m and fed on the diet without CLA supplementation. The CLA-enriched diet resulted in significant changes in blood and serum parameters; specifically, haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cells (WBC) count were decreased compared to the control. The total cholesterol (TC) was not significantly affected while the triacylglycerol's (TG) concentration was elevated. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased in the CLA-supplemented group, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed an increasing tendency. Liver biopsies showed pathological changes classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acids synthesis (ME1, ACLY, ACC, FASN, SCD1), oxidation (CPT1α, PPARA), detoxification processes (Cytochrome P450, CYP, Flavin-containing monooxygenase, FMO3), oxidative stress (NOX4, XbP1) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα) were elevated. Cessation of CLA supplementation for 5 m of organic farming resulted in normalisation of blood and hepatic parameters to the levels observed in control hens. The results of this study indicate that dietary CLA triggers an integrated stress response in laying hens and activates mechanisms involved in liver detoxification.

  9. Country of birth affects blood pressure in the French hypertensive diabetic population

    PubMed Central

    Aoun Bahous, Sola; Thomas, Frédérique; Pannier, Bruno; Danchin, Nicolas; Safar, Michel E.

    2015-01-01

    In a population of 56,242 individuals living in France, we showed that individuals born in France have significantly different levels of blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than African and Asian populations born in their own country but living long-term in France (average duration of stay, 5–10 years). The objective of our study was to investigate the impact of country of birth on BP and CV risk factors in a subpopulation of 9245 patients selected solely on the diagnosis of hypertension, either alone or with simultaneous type 2 diabetes. In the subgroup of individuals with hypertension alone, brachial systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR), augmentation index and PP amplification were significantly higher in African-born than French- and Asian-born populations. In the subgroup of individuals with both hypertension and diabetes, only augmentation index, PP amplification and brachial and central PP, but not brachial systolic, diastolic, mean BP, and HR, were elevated when the African-born subgroup was compared to the French- and Asian-born populations. Increased body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and deprivation scores, but not increased plasma lipids or glycemia, were consistently associated with the African-born population. The combination of diabetes and hypertension in African populations was associated with increased aortic stiffness and PP, together with greater body weight and WHR. In individuals with increased PP and hence systolic hypertension, increased PP requires systolic BP to be reduced whereas notable reductions in diastolic BP may have deleterious consequences. PMID:26388785

  10. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition.

  11. Can Acupuncture Affect the Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure? A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Cho, Ki-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension. Design The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Subjects were randomly divided into an active acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group. Each patient received real or sham acupuncture treatment twice a week for 8 weeks. Acupuncture needles were inserted at bilateral ST 36 plus PC 6; placebo points. Subjects Thirty-three (33) patients with essential hypertension were the subjects. Outcome measures Twenty-four (24)-hour ambulatory BP was assessed before and after treatment. Results After the treatment period, there was a significant increase in nocturnal diastolic BP dipping compared to that at baseline (10.20±7.56 mm Hg versus 5.21±10.19 mm Hg, p=0.038) in the active acupuncture group but not in the sham acupuncture group. The nocturnal diastolic BP dipping response to active acupuncture treatment was significantly different from the response seen with the sham acupuncture treatment (p=0.041). The number of dippers also increased from 4 to 8 in the active acupuncture group. Average systolic and diastolic BP was not changed significantly except for nighttime diastolic BP (90.32±11.47 mm Hg to 87.83±9.16 mm Hg, p=0.041). Conclusions It is suggested that acupuncture treatment could be useful for improving the circadian rhythm of BP in patients with hypertension. PMID:22906144

  12. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  13. Squeezing Blood From a Stone: How Income Inequality Affects the Health of the American Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Income inequality is very topical—in both political and economic circles—but although income and socioeconomic status are known determinants of health status, income inequality has garnered scant attention with respect to the health of US workers. By several measures, income inequality in the United States has risen since 1960. In addition to pressures from an increasingly competitive labor market, with cash wages losing out to benefits, workers face pressures from changes in work organization. We explored these factors and the mounting evidence of income inequality as a contributing factor to poorer health for the workforce. Although political differences may divide the policy approaches undertaken, addressing income inequality is likely to improve the overall social and health conditions for those affected. PMID:25713936

  14. Lanthanum Affects Bell Pepper Seedling Quality Depending on the Genotype and Time of Exposure by Differentially Modifying Plant Height, Stem Diameter and Concentrations of Chlorophylls, Sugars, Amino Acids, and Proteins.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Atonaltzin; Gómez-Merino, Fernando C; Tejeda-Sartorius, Olga; Trejo-Téllez, Libia I

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) is considered a beneficial element, capable of inducing hormesis. Hormesis is a dose-response relationship phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Herein we tested the effect of 0 and 10 μM La on growth and biomolecule concentrations of seedlings of four sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties, namely Sven, Sympathy, Yolo Wonder, and Zidenka. Seedling evaluations were performed 15 and 30 days after treatment applications (dat) under hydroponic greenhouse conditions. Seedling height was significantly increased by La, growing 20% taller in Yolo Wonder plants, in comparison to the control. Similarly, La significantly enhanced shoot diameter, with increases of 9 and 9.8% in measurements performed 15 and 30 dat, respectively, as compared to the control. Likewise, La-treated seedlings had a higher number of flower buds than the control. An increase in the number of leaves because of La application was observed in Yolo Wonder seedlings, both 15 and 30 dat, while leaf area was augmented in this variety only 30 dat. Nevertheless, La did not affect dry biomass accumulation. La effects on biomolecule concentration were differential over time. In all varieties, La stimulated the biosynthesis of chlorophyll a, b and total 15 dat, though 30 dat only the varieties Sympathy and Yolo Wonder showed enhanced concentrations of these molecules because of La. Total soluble sugars increased in La-treated seedlings 30 dat. Interestingly, while most varieties exposed to La showed a reduction in amino acid concentration 15 dat, the opposite trend was observed 30 dat. Importantly, in all varieties evaluated, La stimulated soluble protein concentration 30 dat. It is important to note that while chlorophyll concentrations increased in all varieties exposed to La, both 15 and 30 dat, those of soluble sugars and proteins consistently increased only 30 dat, but not 15 dat. Our results confirm that La may improve seedling quality by

  15. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  16. Deficits in plasma oxytocin responses and increased negative affect, stress, and blood pressure in mothers with cocaine exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Light, Kathleen C; Grewen, Karen M; Amico, Janet A; Boccia, Maria; Brownley, Kimberly A; Johns, Josephine M

    2004-11-01

    In animals, oxytocin enhances maternal behavior and lowers blood pressure (BP) and negative affect, while parturitional cocaine disrupts oxytocin activity and increases maternal neglect and aggression. Thus, we compared oxytocin, BP, maternal behavior, and affect in mothers of infants who used cocaine (cocaine, n = 10) or did not (no drug, n = 25) during pregnancy. Laboratory BP and circulating oxytocin, catecholamines, and cortisol were examined before and during a speech stressor on 2 days, with vs. without prestress baby holding. Ambulatory monitoring assessed BP, urinary norepinephrine, and cortisol for 24 h at home. The cocaine group had lower oxytocin levels, greater hostility and depressed mood, less support from others and mastery over life events, higher BP during all events of testing without the baby, and higher ambulatory BP and urinary norepinephrine at home, while cortisol and epinephrine responses were blunted. Although they tended to hold their babies less often at home, baby holding in the laboratory led to decreased BP in cocaine mothers who then did not differ from no-drug mothers in BP or observed affect.

  17. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  18. [Sugar and diabetes: international recommendations].

    PubMed

    Sanz París, Alejandro; Boj Carceller, Diana; Melchor Lacleta, Isabel; Albero Gamboa, Ramón

    2013-07-01

    Nutrition in the diabetic patient is not just a mere nutrient but his treatment is based. In fact, international scientific societies have called "medical nutrition therapy" to give it the emphasis it deserves. Nutritional recommendations of scientific societies have been changing in recent years with evidence-based medicine. Regarding the consumption of sugar, most believe it does not affect metabolic control if it is replaced by other carbohydrates, but does not indicate a specific amount.

  19. The effect of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) extract on blood sugar and serum levels of some hormones in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Mahmoodi; Javad, Hosseini; Seyed-Mostafa, Hosseini-Zijoud; Mohammadreza, Mirzaee; Ebrahim, Mirzajani

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by hyperglycemia, resulting from defective insulin secretion or function. It is widely believed that the antioxidant micronutrients obtained from plants afford significant protection against diseases like diabetes mellitus. Present study was aimed to examine the effects of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss) on FBS, HbA1c, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels in type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 8. The diabetic groups received 100 and 200 mg/kg Persian shallot extract, diabetic control and normal control received %0.9 saline for 30 days. At the end of treatments, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of FBS, HbA1c, insulin, T3 and T4 were measured. Our findings indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Persian shallot significantly decreased serum levels of FBS and HbA1c in treated groups (in a dose dependent manner) (p<0.05). The serum levels of insulin and T3 slightly increased by Persian shallot but the T4 serum level was declined. These beneficial effects of Persian shallot extracts in diabetic rats could probably be due to the antioxidant capacity of its phenolic and diallyl disulfide content.

  20. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kini, R. Manjunatha; Koh, Cho Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. PMID:27690102

  1. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Bianchi, Patrizia; De Bellis, Alberto; Soligo, Marzia; Rocco, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an increased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deficits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells. PMID:25206755

  2. Effects of alprostadil on blood rheology and nucleoside metabolism in patients affected with lower limb chronic ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Acciavatti, A; Laghi Pasini, F; Capecchi, P L; Messa, G L; Lazzerini, P E; De Giorgi, L; Acampa, M; Di Perri, T

    2001-01-01

    The acute (0.57 microg/kg i.v. in 2 hours) and long-term (0.57 microg/kg i.v. in 2 hours for 5 days over 4 weeks) effects of the PGE1 analogue alprostadil were studied in patients affected with intermittent claudication. Whole Blood Viscosity (WBV), Whole Blood Filterability (WBF), haematocrit (Htc) and fibrinogen plasma concentration, were studied together with P50, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and adenosine plasma levels. Moreover, in the long-term study, pain-free (PFWD) and maximal walking distance (MWD) were measured. Single alprostadil infusion induced an improvement in WBV, WBF, and oxygen transport, and an increase in adenosine plasma levels. Long-term alprostadil administration produced a decrease in WBV only, without significant changes in WBF, Htc, fibrinogen, P50, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, also inducing a significant prolongation of PFWD and MWD. The possibility is suggested that pulse rises in adenosine plasma levels play a role in the effects of chronic alprostadil administration, maybe in a way similar to that observed in the phenomenon of ischaemic preconditioning,

  3. Phospholipid-protein balance in affective disorders: Analysis of human blood serum using Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Depciuch, Joanna; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Nowak, Gabriel; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Parlińska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2016-11-30

    Raman and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopies provide information on the chemical structure of compounds through identification and analysis of functional groups. In the present study, both spectroscopic techniques were used for investigating the phospholipid - protein balance in blood serum of depressed subjects (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder type I or II) taking also into account their age and gender. The obtained results were compared with those of healthy subjects. The Raman and FTIR (using ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) technique), spectra show that a correlation between the level of phospholipids and proteins exists. Indeed, in depressed subjects the quantity of phospholipids and proteins is lower, compared to healthy ones. The second derivative of FTIR spectra shows that phospholipids directly affect the structure of proteins and their functions. In all male depressed subjects a higher amount of phospholipids and proteins compared to female depressed subjects was measured, offering them faster recovery perspectives. Spectroscopy results show that the phospholipids' and proteins' levels are lower in depressed subjects from 41 to 65 compared to the age group between 20 and 40, independently from the gender. Consequently, this study shows that Raman and infrared spectroscopies might be applied as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the balance between phospholipids and proteins in blood serum as a potential biomarker in depressive disorders.

  4. Do hummingbirds have a sweet-tooth? Gustatory sugar thresholds and sugar selection in the broad-billed hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Medina-Tapia, Nubia; Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Morales-Pérez, Lorena; Melo, Leticia Mirón; Schondube, Jorge E

    2012-03-01

    Nectar is a solution of mainly three sugars: sucrose, glucose and fructose. Studies have demonstrated that pollinators have preferences according to the sugar composition presented in their diet, and these preferences may be caused by sugar assimilation capacities. However, sugar flavor could also play an important role for sugar preferences of nectar-feeding animals. We evaluated the sugar gustatory thresholds of the broad-billed hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris for sucrose, glucose, fructose and a 1:1 mixture of glucose-fructose. We presented eight C. latirostris to paired feeders containing either a sugar solution or pure water. Additionally, we conducted sugar preference tests at three different concentrations (146, 730 and 1022mmolL(-1)), to relate sugar preferences with sugar gustatory thresholds. C. latirostris had different gustatory thresholds for the three different sugars tested. At low sugar concentrations (146mmolL(-1)), sugar selection followed the gustatory thresholds. Hummingbird sugar preference patterns can be affected by different mechanisms, both pre- and post-ingestive. At low concentrations gustatory thresholds may play an important role to determine sugar selection. However, at intermediate and high concentrations, sugar assimilation rates, and velocity of food processing generated by osmotic constraints, can be the mechanisms that explain the sugar selection of these animals.

  5. Impedance Spectroscopy of Human Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, Francisco; Bernal, José J.; Sosa, Modesto A.; Villagómez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual

    2004-09-01

    The blood is one of the corporal fluids more used with analytical purposes. When the blood is extracted, immediately it is affected by agents that act on it, producing transformations in its elements. Among the effects of these transformations the hemolysis phenomenon stands out, which consists of the membrane rupture and possible death of the red blood cells. The main purpose of this investigation was the quantification of this phenomenon. A Solartron SI-1260 Impedance Spectrometer was used, which covers a frequency range of work from 1 μHz to 10 MHz, and its accuracy has been tested in the accomplishment of several applications. Measurements were performed on 3 mL human blood samples, from healthy donors. Reactive strips for sugar test of 2 μL, from Bayer, were used as electrodes, which allow gathering a portion of the sample, to be analyzed by the spectrometer. Preliminary results of these measurements are presented.

  6. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  7. Lanthanum Affects Bell Pepper Seedling Quality Depending on the Genotype and Time of Exposure by Differentially Modifying Plant Height, Stem Diameter and Concentrations of Chlorophylls, Sugars, Amino Acids, and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    García-Jiménez, Atonaltzin; Gómez-Merino, Fernando C.; Tejeda-Sartorius, Olga; Trejo-Téllez, Libia I.

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) is considered a beneficial element, capable of inducing hormesis. Hormesis is a dose-response relationship phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Herein we tested the effect of 0 and 10 μM La on growth and biomolecule concentrations of seedlings of four sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties, namely Sven, Sympathy, Yolo Wonder, and Zidenka. Seedling evaluations were performed 15 and 30 days after treatment applications (dat) under hydroponic greenhouse conditions. Seedling height was significantly increased by La, growing 20% taller in Yolo Wonder plants, in comparison to the control. Similarly, La significantly enhanced shoot diameter, with increases of 9 and 9.8% in measurements performed 15 and 30 dat, respectively, as compared to the control. Likewise, La-treated seedlings had a higher number of flower buds than the control. An increase in the number of leaves because of La application was observed in Yolo Wonder seedlings, both 15 and 30 dat, while leaf area was augmented in this variety only 30 dat. Nevertheless, La did not affect dry biomass accumulation. La effects on biomolecule concentration were differential over time. In all varieties, La stimulated the biosynthesis of chlorophyll a, b and total 15 dat, though 30 dat only the varieties Sympathy and Yolo Wonder showed enhanced concentrations of these molecules because of La. Total soluble sugars increased in La-treated seedlings 30 dat. Interestingly, while most varieties exposed to La showed a reduction in amino acid concentration 15 dat, the opposite trend was observed 30 dat. Importantly, in all varieties evaluated, La stimulated soluble protein concentration 30 dat. It is important to note that while chlorophyll concentrations increased in all varieties exposed to La, both 15 and 30 dat, those of soluble sugars and proteins consistently increased only 30 dat, but not 15 dat. Our results confirm that La may improve seedling quality by

  8. Nephrology pre-dialysis care affects the psychological adjustment, not only blood pressure, anemia, and phosphorus control.

    PubMed

    Furusho, Masahide; Kawazu, Minami; Takeda, Kazuhito; Kurachi, Emiko; Nakashima, Takafumi; Sagara, Rikako; Hara, Takashi; Mukai, Hideyuki; Miura, Shuhei; Sugawara, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that pre-dialysis care is associated with clinical outcomes. However, little has been reported on the influence of pre-dialysis care on the psychological adjustment to dialysis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre-dialysis care on psychological adjustment to dialysis and clinical characteristics. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 52 patients who started hemodialysis at our hospital. They were divided into two groups according to the time of referral to our hospital: the early referral group (over 1 year prior to first dialysis: 19 patients, mean age 69.3 ± 11.1) and the late referral group (within 1 year prior to first dialysis: 33 patients, mean age 72.3 ± 8.9). We measured the clinical characteristics and evaluated the psychological adjustment to dialysis by Shontz's stage theory. Compared with the late referral group, the early referral group had a significantly better clinical characteristics concerning blood pressure (140.2 ± 23.7 vs. 156.9 ± 23.3 mmHg, P = 0.0150), hemoglobin (10.3 ± 1.5 vs. 9.4 ± 1.0 g/dL, P = 0.0078), and phosphorus (4.5 ± 1.5 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P = 0.0166). In addition, psychological adjustment to dialysis evaluated by Shontz's stage theory was significantly better in the early referral group (P = 0.017). Our results indicate that nephrology pre-dialysis care affects not only blood pressure, anemia, and phosphorus control but also the psychological adjustment to dialysis.

  9. Very-low-frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and blood pressure are affected by aging and cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Anouk; Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; Kessels, Roy P C; van Beek, Arenda H E A; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2014-01-15

    Spontaneous slow oscillations occur in cerebral hemodynamics and blood pressure (BP), and may reflect neurogenic, metabolic or myogenic control of the cerebral vasculature. Aging is accompanied by a degeneration of the vascular system, which may have consequences for regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive performance. This degeneration may be reflected in a reduction of spontaneous slow oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and BP. Therefore, we aimed to establish the dependency of slow oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and BP on the factors age and cognitive load, by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Fourteen healthy young (23-32 years) and 14 healthy older adults (64-78 years) performed a verbal n-back working-memory task. Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes were registered by two fNIRS channels located over left and right prefrontal cortex. BP was measured in the finger by photoplethysmography. We found that very-low-frequency oscillations (0.02-0.07 Hz) and low-frequency oscillations (0.07-0.2 Hz) of cerebral hemodynamics and BP were reduced in the older adults compared to the young during task performance. In young adults, very-low-frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and BP reduced with increased cognitive load. Cognitive load did not affect low-frequency oscillations of the cerebral hemodynamics and BP. Transfer function analysis indicated that the relationship between BP and cerebral hemodynamic oscillations does not change under influence of age and cognitive load. Our results suggest aging-related changes in the microvasculature such as declined spontaneous activity in microvascular smooth muscle cells and vessel stiffness. Moreover, our results indicate that in addition to local vasoregulatory processes, systemic processes also influence cerebral hemodynamic signals. It is therefore crucial to take the factors age and BP into consideration for the analysis and interpretation of hemodynamic

  10. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  11. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  12. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  13. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 15 All About Blood Glucose Keeping your blood glucose (sugar)in your target range can prevent or delay the health problems ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 1/15 Toolkit No.15: All About Blood Glucose continued team about when and ...

  15. Blood Gases Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrolytes to determine if an electrolyte imbalance is present, glucose to evaluate blood sugar concentrations, and BUN ... top What does the test result mean? Normal values will vary from lab to lab. They are ...

  16. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    PubMed Central

    KİLİC, Kerem; ARSLAN, Soley; DEMETOGLU, Goknil Alkan; ZARARSIZ, Gokmen; KESİM, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods: Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results: There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences found between the control and the other groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination. PMID:23559118

  17. Do Sustained Lung Inflations during Neonatal Resuscitation Affect Cerebral Blood Volume in Preterm Infants? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwaberger, Bernhard; Pichler, Gerhard; Avian, Alexander; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Baik, Nariae; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained lung inflations (SLI) during neonatal resuscitation may promote alveolar recruitment in preterm infants. While most of the studies focus on respiratory outcome, the impact of SLI on the brain hasn’t been investigated yet. Objective Do SLI affect cerebral blood volume (CBV) in preterm infants? Methods Preterm infants of gestation 28 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days with requirement for respiratory support (RS) were included in this randomized controlled pilot trial. Within the first 15 minutes after birth near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements using ‘NIRO-200-NX’ (Hamamatsu, Japan) were performed to evaluate changes in CBV and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Two groups were compared based on RS: In SLI group RS was given by applying 1–3 SLI (30 cmH2O for 15 s) continued by respiratory standard care. Control group received respiratory standard care only. Results 40 infants (20 in each group) with mean gestational age of 32 weeks one day (±2 days) and birth weight of 1707 (±470) g were included. In the control group ΔCBV was significantly decreasing, whereas in SLI group ΔCBV showed similar values during the whole period of 15 minutes. Comparing both groups within the first 15 minutes ΔCBV showed a tendency toward different overall courses (p = 0.051). Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating an impact of SLI on CBV. Further studies are warranted including reconfirmation of the present findings in infants with lower gestational age. Future investigations on SLI should not only focus on respiratory outcome but also on the consequences on the developing brain. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005161 https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do PMID:26406467

  18. 5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  19. Blood-type and age affect human plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein in a large population.

    PubMed

    Drasin, T; Sahud, M

    1996-11-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein that was first described by Heimberger, et al, in 1972. Today, HRG is generally regarded as a mild prothrombotic protein. Blood samples of 585 individuals were collected with the aid of the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association (ACCMA) Blood Bank, Oakland, CA. Sex, age, ethnic origin, and blood-type information were available for each sample. The blood was processed to isolate the cell free plasma, and plasma HRG concentration was measured relative to that of a normal pool through a modified Laurell technique. Among Caucasian individuals, the mean HRG level of blood-type AB subjects, 125 +/- 28%, was found to be significantly greater than the means for subjects with A and O blood-types, 103 +/- 35% and 105 +/- 30% respectively (P = .0246). In addition, the average HRG level appears to increase linearly with age. The mean plasma level of HRG in subjects 50-59 years old was significantly greater than the level in subjects 30-39 years old (P = .0020). The correlation observed between blood-type and plasma HRG level in this study supports previously reported results that indicate significant genetic control over the plasma level of this protein. The age and blood-type based correlations observed in this study raise the question of whether these variables need be addressed if HRG level were to be employed in a clinical setting as a diagnostic tool.

  20. Complete blood count using VCS (volume, conductivity, light scatter) technology is affected by hyperlipidemia in a child with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gokcebay, D G; Azik, F M; Isik, P; Bozkaya, I O; Kara, A; Tavil, E B; Yarali, N; Tunc, B

    2011-12-01

    Asparaginase, an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has become an important component of most childhood ALL regimens during the remission induction or intensification phases of treatment. The incidence range of asparaginase-associated lipid abnormalities that are seen in children is 67-72%. Lipemia causes erroneous results, which uses photometric methods to analyze blood samples. We describe a case of l-asparaginase-associated severe hyperlipidemia with complete blood count abnormalities. Complete blood count analysis was performed with Beckman COULTER(®) GEN·S™ system, which uses the Coulter Volume, Conductivity, Scatter technology to probe hydrodynamically focused cells. Although an expected significant inaccuracy in hemoglobin determination occurred starting from a lipid value of 3450 mg/dl, we observed that triglyceride level was 1466 mg/dl. Complete blood count analysis revealed that exceptionally high hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels vs. discordant with red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, and hematocrit levels. Total leukocyte count altered spontaneously in a wide range, and was checked with blood smear. Platelet count was in expected range (Table 1). Thus, we thought it was a laboratory error, and the patient's follow-up especially for red cell parameters was made by red blood cell and hematocrit values.

  1. Nitrite-induced methemoglobinaemia affects blood ionized and total magnesium level by hydrolysis of plasma adenosine triphosphate in rat.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kim, Gi-Beum; Hong, Chul-Un; Lee, Young-Up; Kim, Sung-Zoo; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium nitrite (NaNO(2))-induced methemoglobinaemia on plasma ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and corresponding changes of blood-ionized magnesium (iMg(2+)) as well as total magnesium (tMg(2+)) in a time-dependent manner. This study was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to which NaNO(2) was injected (10 mg/kg i.p.) to induce methemoglobinaemia. Methemoglobin (MetHb) in blood was measured before (0 min.) and after 10, 30, 60 and 120 min. of NaNO(2) injection. At respective time points, the tMg(2+), blood ions and gases were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion selective electrode, respectively. Haematological parameters were checked by automatic blood cell count, and blood films were observed under light microscope. Plasma ATP was measured by bioluminescence assay using a luminometer, and plasma proteins were measured by an automatic analyser. Blood cell count (RBC, WBC and platelet), haematocrit, and haemoglobin were found to be decreased with the advancement of MetHb concentration. With the gradual increase of MetHb concentration, the plasma ATP decreased and blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) increased significantly as time passed by in comparison with the pre-drug values. A significant decrease of the ratio of ionized calcium to iMg(2+), Na(+) and increase of K(+) was observed. In conclusion, NaNO(2)-induced methemoglobinaemia is a cause of hydrolysis of plasma ATP which is responsible for the increase of blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) in rats.

  2. Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. PMID:24490079

  3. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  4. [Sugar and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Gómez Morales, Luis; Beltrán Romero, Luis Matías; García Puig, Juan

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Spanish population and may be a relationship between the prevalence of these and excessive sugar consumption. In recent years, researchers have focused on the properties of these nutrients. Although there are many studies examining this association, the results are not unanimous. In any case there is sufficient basis for designing public health strategies in order to reduce the consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, the question we address is: sugar intake in abundant amounts, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease? We use as the focus of the discussion SAFO analysis model.

  5. Fluorescence study of sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongjamroon, Sunida; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart

    2015-07-01

    We studied photoemission of monosaccharides and disaccharides using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A 532- nm, 10 mW, laser was used to excite the samples and back-scattering signals were collected by a spectrometer. We found that most sugars show weak fluorescence in solid phase but do not fluoresce when dissolved in water solutions. The emission spectra show similar peak intensity at 590 nm, but they are different in emission intensities. We suggest that the fluorescence spectra may be used to differentiate sugar type, even though the origin of the fluorescence is unclear and needed further study.

  6. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism.

  7. Fructose-Containing Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease12

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the United States and worldwide. Numerous risk factors have been identified for CVD, including a number of nutritional factors. Recently, attention has been focused on fructose-containing sugars and their putative link to risk factors for CVD. In this review, we focus on recent studies related to sugar consumption and cardiovascular risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. We then examine the scientific basis for competing recommendations for sugar intake. We conclude that although it appears prudent to avoid excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars, levels within the normal range of human consumption are not uniquely related to CVD risk factors with the exception of triglycerides, which may rise when simple sugars exceed 20% of energy per day, particularly in hypercaloric settings. PMID:26178027

  8. Gender differences in associations of diurnal blood pressure variation, awake physical activity, and sleep quality with negative affect: the work site blood pressure study.

    PubMed

    Kario, K; Schwartz, J E; Davidson, K W; Pickering, T G

    2001-11-01

    This study reports on the associations among depression, anxiety, awake physical activity, sleep quality (assessed by nocturnal physical activity), and diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation in a nonpsychiatric sample (The Work Site Blood Pressure Study). We conducted ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring and actigraphy in 231 working men and women. Depression and anxiety were measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory. There were gender-specific associations between depression or anxiety and ABP parameters. In men, depression was associated positively with the sleep/awake systolic BP (SBP) ratio (r=0.24, P=0.006). After controlling for age, body mass index, and awake and sleep activity, depression remained significantly associated with the sleep/awake SBP ratio (r=0.25, P=0.005) and was also significantly related to sleep SBP (r=0.21, P=0.02). Anxiety, which was related to depression (r=0.73, P<0.0001), had a similar but slightly weaker pattern of associations with ABP and activity. These associations were not found in women, but there were associations of anxiety with awake SBP (r=0.24, P=0.01) and pulse rate (r=0.27, P=0.006). In conclusion, depression is associated with disrupted diurnal BP variation independent of ambulatory physical activity in working men, whereas anxiety is associated with awake SBP and pulse rate in women.

  9. Factors that Affect Willingness to Donate Blood for the Purpose of Biospecimen Research in the Korean American Community

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Glorian P.; Davey, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Biorepositories have been key resources in examining genetically-linked diseases, particularly cancer. Asian Americans contribute to biorepositories at lower rates than other racial groups, but the reasons for this are unclear. We hypothesized that attitudes toward biospecimen research mediate the relationship between demographic and healthcare access factors, and willingness to donate blood for research purposes among individuals of Korean heritage. Methods: Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were utilized to characterize the sample with respect to demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral variables. Structural equation modeling with 5000 re-sample bootstrapping was used to assess each component of the proposed simple mediation models. Results: Attitudes towards biospecimen research fully mediate associations between age, income, number of years lived in the United States, and having a regular physician and willingness to donate blood for the purpose of research. Conclusion: Participants were willing to donate blood for the purpose of research despite having neutral feelings towards biospecimen research as a whole. Participants reported higher willingness to donate blood for research purposes when they were older, had lived in the United States longer, had higher income, and had a regular doctor that they visited. Many of the significant relationships between demographic and health care access factors, attitudes towards biospecimen research, and willingness to donate blood for the purpose of research may be explained by the extent of acculturation of the participants in the United States. PMID:25853387

  10. The Liquid Glass Transition in Sugars and Sugar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Oh, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The liquid-glass transition in sugars and sugar mixtures was studied with calorimetry, Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. Sugars are particular interest among other glass forming materials because sugars are main constitution of the biological system and sugar glasses play an important role in preservation and protection of biological cells. We studied a number of sugars and sugar mixtures including glucose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, trehalose, glucose/sucrose, sucrose/trehalose, using calorimetry (DTA and DSC), Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. We found the following: (1) Brillouin scattering technique can be used to determine the glass transition temperature. (2) In sugar mixtures, the volume compression effect from the molecule size and shape played an important role in the glass transition temperature. (3) The origin of the secondary relaxation in glucose-water mixtures maybe relate to the rotation-translation coupling constant in the schematic mode coupling theory.

  11. Cognitive tasks during walking affect cerebral blood flow signal features in middle cerebral arteries and their correlation to gait characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gatouillat, Arthur; Bleton, Héloïse; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Perera, Subashan; Thompson, Scott; Smith, Traci; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-09-26

    Gait is a complex process involving both cognitive and sensory ability and is strongly impacted by the environment. In this paper, we propose to study of the impact of a cognitive task during gait on the cerebral blood flow velocity, the blood flow signal features and the correlation of gait and blood flow features through a dual task methodology. Both cerebral blood flow velocity and gait characteristics of eleven participants with no history of brain or gait conditions were recorded using transcranial Doppler on mid-cerebral artery while on a treadmill. The cognitive task was induced by a backward counting starting from 10,000 with decrement of 7. Central blood flow velocity raw and envelope features were extracted in both time, frequency and time-scale domain; information-theoretic metrics were also extracted and statistical significances were inspected. A similar feature extraction was performed on the stride interval signal. Statistical differences between the cognitive and baseline trials, between the left and right mid-cerebral arteries signals and the impact of the antropometric variables where studied using linear mixed models. No statistical differences were found between the left and right mid-cerebral arteries flows or the baseline and cognitive state gait features, while statistical differences for specific features were measured between cognitive and baseline states. These statistical differences found between the baseline and cognitive states show that cognitive process has an impact on the cerebral activity during walking. The state was found to have an impact on the correlation between the gait and blood flow features.

  12. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  14. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  15. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  16. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  17. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Acid-catalyzed conversion of mono- and poly-sugars into platform chemicals: effects of molecular structure of sugar substrate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xun; Wu, Liping; Wang, Yi; Song, Yao; Mourant, Daniel; Gunawan, Richard; Gholizadeh, Mortaza; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Hydrolysis/pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass always produces a mixture of sugars with distinct structures as intermediates or products. This study tried to elucidate the effects of molecular structure of sugars on their acid-catalyzed conversions in ethanol/water. Location of carbonyl group in sugars (fructose versus glucose) and steric configuration of hydroxyl groups (glucose versus galactose) significantly affected yields of levulinic acid/ester (fructose>glucose>galactose). The dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural produces much less soluble polymer than that from glucose and galactose, which results in high yields of levulinic acid/ester from fructose. Anhydrate sugar such as levoglucosan tends to undergo the undesirable decomposition to form less levulinic acid/ester. Catalytic behaviors of the poly-sugars (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, β-cyclodextrins) were determined much by their basic units. However, their big molecular sizes create the steric hindrance that significantly affects their followed conversion over solid acid catalyst.

  19. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  20. Carbohydrate supplementation affects blood granulocyte and monocyte trafficking but not function after 2.5 h or running.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Fagoaga, O R; Butterworth, D E; Warren, B J; Utter, A; Davis, J M; Henson, D A; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S L

    1997-07-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on the granulocyte and monocyte response to 2.5 h of high-intensity running [76.7 +/- 0.4% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)]. Thirty experienced marathon runners (VO2max 53.4 +/- 1.0 mL.kg-1.min-1, age 41.5 +/- 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to carbohydrate-supplement (n = 17) and placebo (n = 13) groups. Subjects rested for 10-15 min before a blood sample was taken at 0715, and then ingested 0.75 L carbohydrate beverage or placebo. At 0730 subjects began running at 75-80% of VO2max for 2.5 h, and drank 0.25 L carbohydrate or placebo fluid every 15 min. Immediately after the 2.5-h run (1000), another blood sample was taken, followed by 1.5-h, 3-h, and 6-h recovery samples. Carbohydrate supplementation had a significant effect compared with placebo on the pattern of change in plasma glucose and cortisol, and the blood concentration of neutrophils (F[14, 112] = 5.13, P = 0.001) and monocytes (F[14, 112] = 4.78, P = 0.001), but not on blood granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis or oxidative burst activity after 2.5 h of intensive running.

  1. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  2. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  3. Baroreceptor mediated blood pressure regulation is not affected during dose dependent inhibition of prostatic contractions by terazosin.

    PubMed

    Pawar, A; Fahim, M

    2004-10-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), common in aging males is often treated with alpha1-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists. In view of known hypotensive effect of most of the alpha1-AR antagonists, this work examined the effect of a selected alpha1-AR antagonist, terazosin on the baroreceptor mediated regulation of blood pressure. The three doses of terazosin (10, 100, 300 microg/kg body weight) used in anesthetized dogs inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the prostatic contractions and rise in blood pressure induced by phenylphrine. Impairment of arterial baroreflex, an important neural regulatory mechanism for the maintenance of normal arterial pressure, by alpha1-AR antagonist (prazosin) has been suggested in an earlier study. Hence, the effects of terazosin in doses 10, 100 and 300 microg/kg on baroreflex sensitivity (calculated as the ratio of heart rate change to acute increase in blood pressure by phenylephrine) were investigated. Terazocin did not produce any change in the baroreflex sensitivity. Therefore, in the absence of any adverse effect on the baroreceptor mediated regulation of the blood pressure, terazosin can be treated as a safer drug for the symptomatic treatment of BPH.

  4. Variability in Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beets in the United States – Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows can cause significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Research in our laboratory and others on variability in Fusarium oxysporum associated with sugar beets demonstrated that isolates that are pathogenic on sugar beet can be hig...

  5. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Allergies and Hyperactivity Page Content Article Body Parents often blame candies ... children get unruly. Some insist that sugar triggers hyperactivity . However, when put to the test, the sugar- ...

  6. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans.

    PubMed

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2014-07-15

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ≥ 0.41, P ≤ 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction.

  7. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

    PubMed Central

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial–venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12–23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension () (R2 ≥ 0.41, P ≤ 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

  8. Do maximal aerobic power and blood lactate concentration affect Specific Judo Fitness Test performance in female judo athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Garbouj, H; Selmi, MA; Sassi, R Haj; Yahmed, M Haj; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors’ judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8.0 kg · m-2) took part in this study. All participants performed the SJFT, 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), and 30 m straight sprint test (SST), from which we calculated both acceleration (10 m) and the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS: flying 20 m sprint). A blood sample was taken 3 min after the SJFT. The number of throws was significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (r=0.795, p=0.0001) and both acceleration (r=0.63, p =0.006) and MAnS (r=0.76, p=0.0004). Peak blood lactate recorded after the SJFT was 13.90±1.39 mmol · l-1. No significant correlation was found between blood lactate concentration and the SJFT performance indices. The lack of significant correlation between blood lactate and SJFT performance suggests that lactic anaerobic metabolism has no effect on this type of judo-specific supra-maximal exercise. The observed results can provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with relevant information for the interpretation of SJFT performance and the prescription of specific training programmes for female judo athletes. PMID:28090141

  9. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B.; McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B.R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  10. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR.

  11. The Ratio of Blood Products Transfused Affects Mortality in Patients Receiving Massive Transfusions at a Combat Support Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    products (RBC, FFP, cryoprecipitate, recombinant FVIIa [rFVIIa], apheresis platelet [aPLT], and fresh whole blood [FWB] units) administered within 24...RBC units transfused was calculated as the number of both stored RBC and FWB units transfused and plasma as FFP plus FWB units. One apheresis platelet ...calculation of apheresis platelet units transfused, though FWB has previously been shown to be as effective as 10 units of platelet concentrate.33 The

  12. UNRELATED UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD TRANSPLANT FOR JUVENILE METACHROMATIC LEUKODYSTROPHY: A FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP IN THREE AFFECTED SIBLINGS

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Casey; Finkel, Richard S; Lehky, Tanya J; Biassou, Nadia M; Wiggs, Edythe A; Bunin, Nancy; Pierson, Tyler Mark

    2010-01-01

    Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) was used to treat three siblings with juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy (jMLD). The efficacy of this therapy was measured over a five-year period with serial neurological exams, neuroimaging, nerve conduction studies (NCS), and neuropsychological evaluations (NPE). Outcomes were a function of disease stage at time of UCBT with alteration of disease course occurring in the first two years after UCBT and then subsequent halting of progression and stabilization of symptoms and disease. PMID:21035368

  13. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  14. [Sugar's introduction in apothecary].

    PubMed

    Plouvier, L

    1999-01-01

    In ancient times, the medicaments used to be sweetened with honey. Subsequently, the Arab apothecaries progressively replaced it by sugar, as witnessed by their formularies, that were known as grabadins. These were introduced to the West as from the XIth century A.D. The latin world also produced its very own formularies, of which the Antidotarium magnum (circa 1100) and the Antidotarium Mesuae (appearing at around the same period) are the most famous. The latter accords to sugar a place of honour and has recourse to it for the best part of the formulae intended for internal usage (namely syrops, julebs, electuaries, loochs, aromatic powders, condita, conservae, etc.) whilst not abandoning the use of honey.

  15. Pyrolysis of table sugar.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Adnan; Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro- α -d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C.

  16. The gut microbiome of kittens is affected by dietary protein:carbohydrate ratio and associated with blood metabolite and hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Seema; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Kerr, Katherine R; Dowd, Scot E; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-05-01

    High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diets are common in cats, but their effect on the gut microbiome has been ignored. The present study was conducted to test the effects of dietary protein:carbohydrate ratio on the gut microbiota of growing kittens. Male domestic shorthair kittens were raised by mothers fed moderate-protein, moderate-carbohydrate (MPMC; n 7) or HPLC (n 7) diets, and then weaned at 8 weeks onto the same diet. Fresh faeces were collected at 8, 12 and 16 weeks; DNA was extracted, followed by amplification of the V4–V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 384 588 sequences (average of 9374 per sample) were generated. Dual hierarchical clustering indicated distinct clustering based on the protein:carbohydrate ratio regardless of age. The protein:carbohydrate ratio affected faecal bacteria. Faecal Actinobacteria were greater (P< 0·05) and Fusobacteria were lower (P< 0·05) in MPMC-fed kittens. Faecal Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Blautia and Eubacterium were greater (P< 0·05) in HPLC-fed kittens, while Dialister, Acidaminococcus, Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera and Mitsuokella were greater (P< 0·05) in MPMC-fed kittens. Principal component analysis of faecal bacteria and blood metabolites and hormones resulted in distinct clusters. Of particular interest was the clustering of blood TAG with faecal Clostridiaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Fusobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae; blood ghrelin with faecal Coriobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae and Veillonellaceae; and blood glucose, cholesterol and leptin with faecal Lactobacillaceae. The present results demonstrate that the protein:carbohydrate ratio affects the faecal microbiome, and highlight the associations between faecal microbes and circulating hormones and metabolites that may be important in terms of satiety and host metabolism.

  17. Increased micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes contributes to cancer risk in the methyl isocyanate-affected population of Bhopal.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Akhter, Sameena; Malla, Tahir Mohiuddin; Sah, Nand Kishore; Ganesh, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    The Bhopal gas tragedy involving methyl isocyanate (MIC) is one of the most horrific industrial accidents in recent decades. We investigated the genotoxic effects of MIC in long-term survivors and their offspring born after the 1984 occurrence. There are a few cytogenetic reports showing genetic damage in the MIC-exposed survivors, but there is no information about the associated cancer risk. The same is true about offspring. For the first time, we here assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequency using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay to predict cancer risk in the MIC-affected population of Bhopal. A total of 92 healthy volunteers (46 MIC- affected and 46 controls) from Bhopal and various regions of India were studied taking gender and age into consideration. Binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (BNMN), total number of micronuclei in lymphocytes (MNL), and nuclear division index (NDI) frequencies and their relationship to age, gender and several lifestyle variabilities (smoking, alcohol consumption and tobacco-chewing) were investigated. Our observations showed relatively higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.05) in the MIC-affected than in the controls. Exposed females (EF) exhibited significantly higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.01) than their unexposed counterparts. Similarly, female offspring of the exposed (FOE) also suffered higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.05) than in controls. A significant reduction in NDI (P<0.05) was found only in EF. The affected group of non-smokers and non-alcoholics featured a higher frequency of BNMN and MNL than the control group of non-smokers and non-alcoholics (P<0.01). Similarly, the affected group of tobacco chewers showed significantly higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.001) than the non-chewers. Amongst the affected, smoking and alcohol consumption were not associated with statistically significant differences in BNMN, MNL and NDI. Nevertheless, tobacco-chewing had a preponderant effect with respect to MNL. A reasonable correlation between MNL and

  18. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation may adversely affect long-term blood pressure, energy intake, and physical activity of 7-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Asserhøj, Marie; Nehammer, Sofie; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2009-02-01

    Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7 y. Diet and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed by 4-d weighed dietary records and ActiReg. The PAL value was 4% lower (P = 0.048) and energy intake (EI) of the boys was 1.1 +/- 0.4 MJ/d higher (P = 0.014) in the FO group than in the OO group. Starch intake was 15 +/- 6 g/d higher (P = 0.012) in the FO group, but there were no other differences in diet. Body composition did not differ between the randomized groups with or without adjustment for starch intake, EI, and PAL. FO boys had 6 mm Hg higher diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure than OO boys (P < 0.01), but girls did not differ. Within the randomized groups, blood pressure was not correlated with maternal RBC (n-3) LCPUFA after the intervention, but PAL values were (r = -0.277; P = 0.038). We previously found higher BMI at 2.5 y in the FO group, but the difference did not persist. The differences in blood pressure, EI, and PAL, particularly among boys, suggest that early (n-3) LCPUFA intake may have adverse effects, which should be investigated in future studies.

  19. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm), osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1) and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS) of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA) required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi. PMID:27525653

  20. Free sugar profile in cycads

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  1. Blood from a turnip: tissue origin of low-coverage shotgun sequencing libraries affects recovery of mitogenome sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F. Keith; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Tomback, Diana F.

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing methods allow rapid, economical accumulation of data that have many applications, even at relatively low levels of genome coverage. However, the utility of shotgun sequencing data sets for specific goals may vary depending on the biological nature of the samples sequenced. We show that the ability to assemble mitogenomes from three avian samples of two different tissue types varies widely. In particular, data with coverage typical of microsatellite development efforts (∼1×) from DNA extracted from avian blood failed to cover even 50% of the mitogenome, relative to at least 500-fold coverage from muscle-derived data. Researchers should consider possible applications of their data and select the tissue source for their work accordingly. Practitioners analyzing low-coverage shotgun sequencing data (including for microsatellite locus development) should consider the potential benefits of mitogenome assembly, including internal barcode verification of species identity, mitochondrial primer development, and phylogenetics.

  2. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  3. Campylobacter sugars sticking out.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Patricia; Szymanski, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates that are found in Campylobacter jejuni includes lipooligosaccharides mimicking human glycolipids, capsular polysaccharides with complex and unusual sugars, and proteins that are post-translationally modified with either O- or N-linked glycans. Thus, the glycome of this important food-borne pathogen is an excellent toolbox for glycobiologists to understand the fundamentals of these pathways and their role in host-microbe interactions, develop new techniques for glycobiology and exploit these pathways for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The exciting surge in recent research activities will be summarized in this review.

  4. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  5. Why do sugars taste good?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, I

    1990-01-01

    The preference humans and animals show for sweet solutions has been the subject of hundreds of publications. Nevertheless, the evolutionary origin of sweet preference remains enigmatic because of the relatively low nutritional value of sugars and the absence of specific tastes for other, more essential, nutrients. Moderate concentrations of sugars are found in most plant foods because sugars play an important role in plant physiology. Widespread occurrence of sugars in plants is paralleled by widespread preference for sugar solutions in mammals. These observations suggest that preference for sugars evolved because they are common in plants and easy to detect rather than because of any special nutritional merits they offer. Perception of sweetness cannot be used to accurately meter the metabolizable energy or nutritive value of a food.

  6. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Function and Dendritic Cell Differentiation Are Affected by Bisphenol-A Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ariemma, Fabiana; Cimmino, Ilaria; Bruzzese, Dario; Scerbo, Roberta; Picascia, Stefania; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, including endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), interfere on human health, leading to hormonal, immune and metabolic perturbations. Bisphenol-A (BPA), a main component of polycarbonate plastics, has been receiving increased attention due to its worldwide distribution with a large exposure. In humans, BPA, for its estrogenic activity, may have a role in autoimmunity, inflammatory and allergic diseases. To this aim, we assessed the effect of low BPA doses on functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and on in vitro differentiation of dendritic cells from monocytes (mDCs). Fresh peripheral blood samples were obtained from 12 healthy adult volunteers. PBMCs were left unstimulated or were activated with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies and incubated in presence or absence of BPA at 0.1 and 1nM concentrations. The immune-modulatory effect of BPA was assessed by evaluating the cell proliferation and the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) secreted by PBMCs. mDCs were differentiated with IL-4 and GC-CSF with or without BPA and the expression of differentiation/maturation markers (CD11c, CD1a, CD86, HLA-DR) was evaluated by flow cytometry; furthermore, a panel of 27 different cytokines, growth factors and chemokines were assayed in the mDC culture supernatants. PBMCs proliferation significantly increased upon BPA exposure compared to BPA untreated cells. In addition, a significant decrease in IL-10 secretion was observed in PBMCs incubated with BPA, either in unstimulated or mitogen-stimulated cells, and at both 0.1 and 1nM BPA concentrations. Similarly, IL-13 was reduced, mainly in cells activated by antiCD3/CD28. By contrast, no significant changes in IFN-γ and IL-4 production were found in any condition assayed. Finally, BPA at 1nM increased the density of dendritic cells expressing CD1a and concomitantly

  7. Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods decimate populations of Anopheles malaria vectors in arid environments regardless of the local availability of favoured sugar-source blossoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods are a new and promising "attract and kill" strategy for mosquito control. Sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes attracted to ATSB solutions, either sprayed on plants or in bait stations, ingest an incorporated low-risk toxin such as boric acid and are killed. This field study in the arid malaria-free oasis environment of Israel compares how the availability of a primary natural sugar source for Anopheles sergentii mosquitoes: flowering Acacia raddiana trees, affects the efficacy of ATSB methods for mosquito control. Methods A 47-day field trial was conducted to compare impacts of a single application of ATSB treatment on mosquito densities and age structure in isolated uninhabited sugar-rich and sugar-poor oases relative to an untreated sugar-rich oasis that served as a control. Results ATSB spraying on patches of non-flowering vegetation around freshwater springs reduced densities of female An. sergentii by 95.2% in the sugar-rich oasis and 98.6% in the sugar-poor oasis; males in both oases were practically eliminated. It reduced daily survival rates of female An. sergentii from 0.77 to 0.35 in the sugar-poor oasis and from 0.85 to 0.51 in the sugar-rich oasis. ATSB treatment reduced the proportion of older more epidemiologically dangerous mosquitoes (three or more gonotrophic cycles) by 100% and 96.7%, respectively, in the sugar-poor and sugar-rich oases. Overall, malaria vectorial capacity was reduced from 11.2 to 0.0 in the sugar-poor oasis and from 79.0 to 0.03 in the sugar-rich oasis. Reduction in vector capacity to negligible levels days after ATSB application in the sugar-poor oasis, but not until after 2 weeks in the sugar-rich oasis, show that natural sugar sources compete with the applied ATSB solutions. Conclusion While readily available natural sugar sources delay ATSB impact, they do not affect overall outcomes because the high frequency of sugar feeding by mosquitoes has an accumulating effect

  8. Sequential immunological studies on an asbestos-exposed population. I. Factors affecting peripheral blood leucocytes and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, M M; Campbell, M J; Edwards, R E

    1979-01-01

    Peripheral blood leucocyte counts, and E binding rosettes were measured on 138 men on five separate occasions. Little effect was seen from age, or length of asbestos exposure. Overall the most marked effect was that obtained from smoking. Most relevant was an increase in percentage of E-rosettes read after 1 1/2 hrs, which was obtained in the group of those with radiological evidence of fibrosis who smoked. Restricted to subjects with small opacities, those who smoke have a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) percentage E 1 1/2 hr rosettes than those who do not smoke. (Percentage E rosettes read overnight remained unaltered by smoking or X-ray). This increase was found on each occasion that it was measured. Since the absolute number of T lymphocytes rosetting at 1 1/2 hr did not increase, it is suggested that there is either no stimulation of the central pool of T lymphocytes or a decrease in the absolute number of T lymphocytes which could only rosette overnight. PMID:316753

  9. Does continuous passive motion during keyboarding affect hand blood flow and wrist function? A prospective case report.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J R; Blake, J M; Douglas, T F; Kercheval, D M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective case report was to evaluate the use of a keyboard platform device that uses continuous passive motion (CPM) on vascular flow to the hand for clerical employees who perform daily keyboarding tasks. Subjects were two female volunteers, one symptomatic of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), who were employed in clerical positions and perform daily keyboarding tasks for most of their workday. Data collection consisted of baseline and follow-up measurements at 6 weeks, including: 1) screening for symptoms based on the Carpal Tunnel Function Disability Form, 2) evaluation using standard physical therapy examination and assessment techniques, including modified Semmes- Weinstein monofilament testing, 3) a typing productivity test, and 4) Doppler ultrasound examination to quantify vascular flow at the wrist. Results revealed that both subjects demonstrated an overall increase in both radial and ulnar blood flow velocity with no decrement in typing productivity. The symptomatic subject also demonstrated an overall improvement of 10 wpm in the typing tests, a decrease in her disability score and symptom severity, and improvement in function. Results suggest that use of CPM as a non-intrusive ergonomic intervention may be used to treat, as well as prevent, carpal tunnel-like symptoms in those who keyboard.

  10. Exercise training favourably affects autonomic and blood pressure responses during mental and physical stressors in African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Bartels, M N; Sloan, R P; Millis, R M; Zion, A S; Andrews, N; De Meersman, R E

    2009-04-01

    Aerobic exercise is a powerful mechanism by which cardiovascular and autonomic parameters may be improved. We sought to quantify the extent of benefit that could be achieved by a short-term monitored exercise regimen on several autonomic parameters during recognized mental and physical stressors in young normotensive African-American men matched for a family history of hypertension, a group at high risk for the development of hypertension. Autonomic modulations were derived using spectral decomposition of the electrocardiogram and beat-to-beat blood pressures (BPs). Arterial compliance was obtained using contour analysis of the radial artery pulse wave. The analysis of variance revealed that compared with a matched sedentary control group, aerobic capacity of the trained group significantly increased by 16%. Autonomic modulations, arterial compliance and BP responses significantly improved during some of the stressors, whereas no such improvements were seen in the control group. Attenuated responses, mediated through a favourable shift in sympathovagal balance and enhanced arterial compliance, provide mechanistic evidence of how certain variables may be improved due to aerobic conditioning in a population at high risk for the development of hypertension.

  11. Psychosocial maternal stress during pregnancy affects serum corticosterone, blood immune parameters and anxiety behaviour in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Götz, Alexander A; Stefanski, Volker

    2007-01-30

    Exposure to prenatal stress can impair the behavioural and hormonal development in mammals. However, the consequences for the immune system are rarely investigated and there is only limited evidence that naturalistic prenatal stressors do also have the potential to affect the offspring. Thus, by using a social conflict model in female Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of prenatal social stress on several behavioural, hormonal and immunological parameters. Offspring from stressed and non-stressed pregnant females were housed in pairs after weaning, and tested at an age of 4-6 months. Prenatally stressed (PS) males were more active in the elevated plus-maze test as indicated by significantly more frequent entries into the open arms compared to prenatal control males (PC). In addition, PS males had significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations under basal conditions as well as after ACTH-challenge. The basal number of total leukocytes was significantly lower in the PS group due to significantly lower lymphocyte counts. In particular, the CD4+ T-helper cell subset was affected. The lymphocyte proliferation to pokeweed mitogen was lower in PS males. Because some of the present findings do not correspond to previous studies using conventional stressors, we assume that the nature of the stressor plays an important role for pregnancy outcome and behaviour and physiology of the offspring in later life.

  12. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal Register. FOR...

  13. A mixture of phytosterols from Dunaliella tertiolecta affects proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in sheep.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Albenzio, Marzia; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Francavilla, Matteo; Sevi, Agostino

    2012-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory role of a mixture of phytosterols extracted from the microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from sheep. PBMC were treated to determine cell proliferation and cytokine production with different sterols: ergosterol (E), a mixture of eleven Algae sterols extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta (Algae Extract, AE), a mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta (Purified Extract, PE). Cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10) was evaluated after cell treatment with Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta showed a suppressive effect on cell proliferation, and a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Furthermore, a stimulatory effect on the production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 was found. The immunosuppressive effect exerted by the mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol from D. tertiolecta was dose-dependent both in suppressing cell proliferation and in stimulating IL-10 production. Present results showed that the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities were more apparent in the purified extract characterized by the mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol, and might depend on the existence of a synergic effect of the structures of the two phytosterols. Furthermore, findings from our study suggest that the purified extract characterized by the mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol from D. tertiolecta could be used to reduce immune reactions resulting from inflammatory diseases in sheep production systems, and could have innovative implications on the modulation of sheep immune system when used as feed supplements.

  14. Fish oil diet affects on oxidative senescence of red blood cells linked to degeneration of spleen cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Oarada, M; Furukawa, H; Majima, T; Miyazawa, T

    2000-08-24

    The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and immunocompetent cells in mice was studied comparatively using seven dietary oils (15% oil/diet, w/w) including fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3). A 43% increase in spleen weight, about twice as many spleen cells and no change in the subpopulations of spleen cells, as well as a significant depression of mitogen-induced blastogenesis of both T and B cells in the spleen were observed in mice fed fish oil for 30 days in comparison with soybean oil diet-fed mice. In the fish oil diet-fed mice, membranous lipid hydroperoxide (hydroperoxides of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation as a marker of oxidative senescence in red blood cells (RBC) was 2.7-3.5 times higher than that in mice fed soybean oil, although there was no difference in the plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide concentration. In spite of the supplementation of alpha-tocopherol to up to 10 times the level in the basal diet, the degeneration of spleen cells and the stimulated oxidative senescence of RBC found by the fish oil feeding could not be prevented. The results suggest that oral intake of excess polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. EPA and DHA, in a fish oil diet can lead to acceleration of membrane lipid peroxidation resulting in RBC senescence linked to the lowering of immune response of spleen cells, and that supplementation of alpha-tocopherol as antioxidant does not always effectively prevent such oxidative degeneration as observed in spleen cells and RBC in vivo.

  15. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  16. Systemic sclerosis sera affect fibrillin-1 deposition by dermal blood microvascular endothelial cells: therapeutic implications of cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by endothelial cell injury, autoimmunity and fibrosis. The following three fibrillin-1 alterations have been reported in SSc. (1) Fibrillin-1 microfibrils are disorganized in SSc dermis. (2) Fibrillin-1 microfibrils produced by SSc fibroblasts are unstable. (3) Mutations in the FBN1 gene and anti-fibrillin-1 autoantibodies have been reported in SSc. Fibrillin-1 microfibrils, which are abundantly produced by blood and lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (B-MVECs and Ly-MVECs, respectively), sequester in the extracellular matrix the latent form of the potent profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SSc sera on the deposition of fibrillin-1 and microfibril-associated glycoprotein 1 (MAGP-1) and the expression of focal adhesion molecules by dermal B-MVECs and Ly-MVECs. Methods Dermal B-MVECs and Ly-MVECs were challenged with sera from SSc patients who were treatment-naïve or under cyclophosphamide (CYC) treatment and with sera from healthy controls. Fibrillin-1/MAGP-1 synthesis and deposition and the expression of αvβ3 integrin/phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase and vinculin/actin were evaluated by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric analysis. Results Fibrillin-1 and MAGP-1 colocalized in all experimental conditions, forming a honeycomb pattern in B-MVECs and a dense mesh of short segments in Ly-MVECs. In B-MVECs, fibrillin-1/MAGP-1 production and αvβ3 integrin expression significantly decreased upon challenge with sera from naïve SSc patients compared with healthy controls. Upon challenge of B-MVECs with sera from CYC-treated SSc patients, fibrillin-1/MAGP-1 and αvβ3 integrin levels were comparable to those of cells treated with healthy sera. Ly-MVECs challenged with SSc sera did not differ from those treated with healthy control sera in the expression of any of the molecules assayed

  17. Essential trace elements in milk and blood serum of lactating donkeys as affected by lactation stage and dietary supplementation with trace elements.

    PubMed

    Fantuz, F; Ferraro, S; Todini, L; Mariani, P; Piloni, R; Salimei, E

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the concentration of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co) and iodine (I) in milk and blood serum of lactating donkeys, taking into account the effects of lactation stage and dietary supplementation with trace elements. During a 3-month period, 16 clinically healthy lactating donkeys (Martina-Franca-derived population), randomly divided into two homogeneous groups (control (CTL) and trace elements (TE)), were used to provide milk and blood samples at 2-week intervals. Donkeys in both groups had continuous access to meadow hay and were fed 2.5 kg of mixed feed daily, divided into two meals. The mixed feed for the TE group had the same ingredients as the CTL, but was supplemented with a commercial premix providing 163 mg Zn, 185 mg Fe, 36 mg Cu, 216 mg Mn, 0.67 mg Se, 2.78 mg Co and 3.20 mg I/kg mixed feed. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, Co and I were measured in feeds, milk and blood serum by inductively coupled plasma-MS. Data were processed by ANOVA for repeated measures. The milk concentrations of all the investigated elements were not significantly affected by the dietary supplementation with TE. Serum concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu Mn and Se were not affected by dietary treatment, but TE-supplemented donkeys showed significantly higher concentrations of serum Co (1.34 v. 0.69 μg/l) and I (24.42 v. 21.43 μg/l) than unsupplemented donkeys. The effect of lactation stage was significant for all the investigated elements in milk and blood serum, except for serum manganese. A clear negative trend during lactation was observed for milk Cu and Se concentrations (-38%), whereas that of Mn tended to increase. The serum Cu concentration was generally constant and that of Co tended to increase. If compared with data reported in the literature for human milk, donkey milk showed similarities for Zn, Mn, Co and I. Furthermore, this study indicated that, in the current experimental conditions

  18. Blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow negatively affects in vitro fertilization by disturbing spermatozoa function.

    PubMed

    González, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2015-04-15

    Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns.

  19. Sweeter future with fewer sugars.

    PubMed

    Winkler, J T

    1994-07-09

    Britain's food industry is entering a new phase. For as far ahead as we can see, manufacturers will be creating an expanding, ever more complex range of reduced sugar and sugar-free products. These innovations will vastly strengthen the structural approach to oral health promotion: improving food as well as educating people.

  20. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  1. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  2. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins’ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with

  3. Turgor-mediated transport of sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Daie, J.

    1986-04-01

    Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of /sup 14/C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions.

  4. Separation of sugars by continuous annular chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.J.; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.

    1987-08-01

    Continuous chromatographic separations of aqueous fructose-glucose-sucrose solutions have been investigated in a laboratory-scale continuous annular chromatograph (CAC) using calcium-exchanged Dowex 50W-X8 resin. Comparative studies have also been conducted using a conventional fixed-bed column packed with the same resin. Complete resolution of fructose-glucose mixtures could be obtained both in a 60-cm-long CAC and in a conventional column of the same length with a sugar feed concentration of up to 200 g/L. Partial resolution of sucrose in three component mixtures was also obtained, and the three sugars were completely separated from added higher-molecular-weight saccharides. Results have been analyzed in terms of approximate linear chromatographic theories and orthogonal collocation of exact mass transfer model equations for fixed and rotating beds. A systematic, comparative evaluation of factors affecting process performance and design procedures is presented.

  5. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  6. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  7. How selection for reproduction or foundation for longevity could have affected blood lymphocyte populations of rabbit does under conventional and heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferrian, Selena; Guerrero, Irene; Blas, Enrique; García-Diego, Fernando J; Viana, David; Pascual, Juan J; Corpa, Juan M

    2012-11-15

    The present work characterises how selection for reproduction (by comparing two generations - 16th and 36th - of the V line selected for litter size at weaning) or foundation for reproductive longevity (the LP line) can affect the blood lymphocytes populations of reproductive rabbit does under normal [conventional housing, average daily minimum and maximum temperatures of 14°C and 20°C, respectively] and heat stress conditions [climatic chamber, 25°C and 36°C] from the first to the second parturition. Housing under heat stress conditions significantly reduced the B lymphocytes counts in female rabbits (-34 × 10(6)/L; P<0.05). The highest lymphocytes population value in blood (total, T CD5(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+)) was noted at the first parturition, while the B lymphocytes count was significantly lower at the second parturition (-61 × 10(6)/L; P<0.05). Selection for litter size at weaning (V females) reduced the average counts of total and B lymphocytes in blood (-502 and -60 × 10(6)/L, respectively; P<0.01), mainly because these populations in V36 females continuously lowered from the first to the second parturition under normal housing conditions. Thus, more selected females (V36) at the second parturition showed significantly lower counts in blood for total, T CD5(+) and CD25(+) lymphocytes (-1303, -446 and -33 × 10(6)/L, respectively; P<0.05). The main differences in blood counts between V36 and V16 females disappeared when housed under heat stress conditions, except for T CD5(+) and CD25(+), which significantly increased (T CD5(+): +428 × 10(6)/L; CD25(+): +41 × 10(6)/L; P<0.01) in the V16 vs. V36 females on day 10 post-partum. Under normal conditions, no differences between LP and V36 females were found for most lymphocyte populations; only higher counts were noted in CD25(+) (+20 × 10(6)/L; P<0.05) for LP females. However, the lymphocytes counts [especially total (+1327 × 10(6)/L; P<0.01) and T CD5(+) (+376 × 10(6)/L; P<0.10)] of LP females

  8. Feeding soybean meal increases the blood level of isoflavones and reduces the steroidogenic capacity in bovine corpora lutea, without affecting peripheral progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Vanhaecke, L; Heyerick, A; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-01-30

    Thirty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were followed from 14 days pre partum until the fourth ovulation post partum. Housing conditions and basic ration were identical for all animals. Concentrates were individually supplemented according to the daily milk production level, using two different types of protein rich concentrates: soybean meal and rapeseed meal. Soybean and rapeseed meal are known to be respectively high and low in isoflavones. Cows were randomly divided into three groups and blocked for parity. Group I (n=11) was supplemented with soybean meal and acted as control group. Groups II (n=11) and III (n=11) were respectively supplemented with soybean and rapeseed meal and were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum at day 9 of the first three postpartal estrous cycles. Soybean meal supplementation to lactating dairy cows (1.72 kg on average) induced an increase in the blood concentration of equol, dihydrodaidzein, o-desmethylangolensin in both soy groups and resulted in a reduced area occupied by steroidogenic (P=0.012) and endothelial cells (P=0.0007) in the luteal biopsies. Blood concentrations of equol and glycitein were negatively correlated with the areas occupied by steroidogenic (r=-0.410 with P=0.0002, respectively r=-0.351 with P=0.008) and endothelial cells (r=-0.337 with P=0.01, respectively r=-0.233 with P=0.085) in the 3 first estrous cycles. The latter however did not affect the diestrous peripheral blood progesterone concentration.

  9. Xenobiotics that affect oxidative phosphorylation alter differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells at concentrations that are found in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Llobet, Laura; Toivonen, Janne M.; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Gallardo, Ester

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adipogenesis is accompanied by differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells to adipocytes. As part of this differentiation, biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system occurs. Many chemical compounds used in medicine, agriculture or other human activities affect oxidative phosphorylation function. Therefore, these xenobiotics could alter adipogenesis. We have analyzed the effects on adipocyte differentiation of some xenobiotics that act on the oxidative phosphorylation system. The tested concentrations have been previously reported in human blood. Our results show that pharmaceutical drugs that decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as ribosomal antibiotics, diminish adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion. By contrast, the environmental chemical pollutant tributyltin chloride, which inhibits the ATP synthase of the oxidative phosphorylation system, can promote adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome as postulated by the obesogen hypothesis. PMID:26398948

  10. Xenobiotics that affect oxidative phosphorylation alter differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells at concentrations that are found in human blood.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Laura; Toivonen, Janne M; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Gallardo, Ester

    2015-11-01

    Adipogenesis is accompanied by differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells to adipocytes. As part of this differentiation, biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system occurs. Many chemical compounds used in medicine, agriculture or other human activities affect oxidative phosphorylation function. Therefore, these xenobiotics could alter adipogenesis. We have analyzed the effects on adipocyte differentiation of some xenobiotics that act on the oxidative phosphorylation system. The tested concentrations have been previously reported in human blood. Our results show that pharmaceutical drugs that decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as ribosomal antibiotics, diminish adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion. By contrast, the environmental chemical pollutant tributyltin chloride, which inhibits the ATP synthase of the oxidative phosphorylation system, can promote adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome as postulated by the obesogen hypothesis.

  11. Rinseback during red blood cell exchange with COBE Spectra does not affect fraction of cells remaining or post-exchange hematocrit.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Ramesh; Matevosyan, Karén; Jones, Rebecca; Vetus, Maria L; Burner, James; Sarode, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    CaridianBCT currently does not recommend rinseback with its COBE Spectra cell separator during red blood cell (RBC) exchange procedure, as the machine's software does not take into account the "rinseback" when calculating the fraction of cells remaining (FCR, and therefore target hemoglobin S (HbS) value) and postexchange hematocrit (Hct). To our knowledge, no study has investigated the effect of rinseback on these laboratory values. Therefore, we performed pre- and postrinseback evaluations of FCR and Hct in 22 consecutive combined Isovolemic Hemodilution/Red blood cell (IHD-RBCx) exchange procedures in sickle cell anemia patients with stroke currently enrolled in our institution's chronic RBC exchange program. The pre- and-post rinseback values for HbS were 9.9 ± 4.66 and 10.7 ± 4.83 (P = 0.56) with corresponding FCRs of 22.6 ± 8.57 and 24.7 ± 8.75 (P = 0.44), and for Hct were 32.4 ± 2.93% and 32.2 ± 3.19% (P = 0.79), respectively. Since there was no significant difference in the "pre" and "post" values, we conclude that rinseback can be used during RBC exchange without any concern for significantly affecting Post Exchange HbS and Hct and possibly not waste 53 mL of precious red cell mass in the rinseback.

  12. The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays.

    PubMed

    Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kögler, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation.

  13. Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Chikara; Konno, Kotaro; Wasano, Naoya; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2007-12-01

    Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both larvae diets containing different sugar sources (sucrose, glucose or none) with or without sugar-mimic alkaloids from mulberry latex. In S. ricini, addition of sugar-mimic alkaloids to the sucrose (the major sugar in mulberry leaves) diet reduced both growth and the absorption ratio of sugar, but it reduced neither in B. mori. The midgut soluble sucrase activity of S. ricini was low and inhibited by very low concentrations of sugar-mimic alkaloids (IC(50)=0.9-8.2microM), but that of B. mori was high and not inhibited even by very high concentrations (IC(50)>1000microM) of sugar-mimic alkaloids. In S. ricini, the addition of sugar-mimic alkaloids to the glucose diet still had considerable negative effects on growth, although it did not reduce the absorption ratio of glucose. The hemolymph of S. ricini fed sugar-mimic alkaloids contained sugar-mimic alkaloids. The trehalose concentration in the hemolymph increased significantly in S. ricini fed sugar-mimic alkaloids, but not in B. mori. The trehalase activities of S. ricini were lower and inhibited by lower concentrations of sugar-mimic alkaloids than those of B. mori. These results suggest that sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex exert toxicity to S. ricini larvae first by inhibiting midgut sucrase and digestion of sucrose, and secondly, after being absorbed into hemolymph, by inhibiting trehalase and utilization of trehalose, the major blood sugar. Further, our results reveal that B. mori larvae evolved enzymatic adaptation to mulberry defense by developing sucrase and

  14. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  19. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    SciTech Connect

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Ihle, Christoph; Mayer, Larissa; Braun, Bianca; Graeser, Jessica; Flesch, Ingo; and others

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy.

  20. The effect of honey compared to sucrose, mixed sugars, and a sugar-free diet on weight gain in young rats.

    PubMed

    Chepulis, L M

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether honey, sucrose, and mixed sugars as in honey have different effects on weight gain, 40 6-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a powdered diet that was either sugar free or contained 8% sucrose, 8% mixed sugars as in honey, or 10% honey freely for 6 wk. Weight gain and food intake were assessed weekly, and at completion of the study blood samples were removed for measurement of blood sugar (HbA1c) and a fasting lipid profile. The animals were then minced and total percentage body fat and protein measured. Overall percentage weight gain was significantly lower in honey-fed rats than those fed sucrose or mixed sugars, despite a similar food intake. Weight gains were comparable for rats fed honey and a sugar free diet although food intake was significantly higher in honey-fed rats. HbA1c and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in all sugar treatments compared with rats fed a sugar free diet, but no other differences in lipid profiles were reported. No differences in percentage body fat or protein levels were reported.

  1. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity.

  3. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  4. Effect of carbohydrates attached to polystyrene on hepatocyte morphology on sugar-derivatized polystyrene matrices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Heon; Hoshiba, Takashi; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2003-12-15

    Sugar-carrying polymers have been utilized as artificial matrices for cell adhesion in tissue engineering. We have developed sugar-derivatized polystyrenes (PV-sugars) as artificial matrices, which control hepatocyte adhesion and hepatic function. Hepatocytes adhere to PV-sugar matrices in a receptor-mediated manner. In this study, we designed a new galactose-derivatized PV-sugar, poly-(6-O-p-vinylbenzyl-alpha-D-galactose) (PV6Gal) and evaluated the role of carbohydrate attached to polystyrene (PS) backbone in the morphological difference of hepatocyte cultured on PV-sugar matrices. Hepatocytes spread on monosaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars but not on disaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars. The actin filament remained aggregated in the central area of the cell body on disaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars. Hepatocyte cell bodies fully were spread on collagen, and the actin filament was almost completely reorganized. Hepatocyte spreading on monosaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars, however, was caused by protrusive cell-matrix contact like lamellipodia and the actin filament was not completely reorganized. This indicated that hepatocyte spreading on PV-sugar matrices was restricted compared with ECM-mediated cell spreading. In addition, typical spheroid formation of hepatocytes was promoted on disaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars compared with monosaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars. Although hepatocytes adhered with different affinities to PV-sugar matrices, hepatocyte morphology was not affected by the adhesion affinity. We suggest that the type of carbohydrate attached to the PS backbone governs the morphology of hepatocyte cultured on PV-sugar matrices.

  5. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D. ...

  6. TANG1, Encoding a Symplekin_C Domain-Contained Protein, Influences Sugar Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiying; Shang, Li; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Yan; Smith, Caroline; Bevan, Michael W; Li, Yunhai; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Sugars not only serve as energy and cellular carbon skeleton but also function as signaling molecules regulating growth and development in plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in sugar signaling pathways will provide more information for improving plant growth and development. Here, we describe a sugar-hypersensitive recessive mutant, tang1. Light-grown tang1 mutants have short roots and increased starch and anthocyanin contents when grown on high-sugar concentration medium. Dark-grown tang1 plants exhibit sugar-hypersensitive hypocotyl elongation and enhanced dark development. The tang1 mutants also show an enhanced response to abscisic acid but reduced response to ethylene. Thus, tang1 displays a range of alterations in sugar signaling-related responses. The TANG1 gene was isolated by a map-based cloning approach and encodes a previously uncharacterized unique protein with a predicted Symplekin tight-junction protein C terminus. Expression analysis indicates that TANG1 is ubiquitously expressed at moderate levels in different organs and throughout the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) life cycle; however, its expression is not affected by high-sugar treatment. Genetic analysis shows that PRL1 and TANG1 have additive effects on sugar-related responses. Furthermore, the mutation of TANG1 does not affect the expression of genes involved in known sugar signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that TANG1, a unique gene, plays an important role in sugar responses in Arabidopsis.

  7. Dietary fiber-rich colloids from apple pomace extraction juices do not affect food intake and blood serum lipid levels, but enhance fecal excretion of steroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymatic liquefaction on food intake, levels of blood serum lipids, and fecal excretion of bile acids (BA) and neutral sterols (NS) in vivo. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets containing either no apple dietary fiber (DF) (control), a 5% supplementation with juice colloids, or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Apple DF in diets led to lower weight gain in rats fed with B-juice colloids (P< 0.05). For these rats, food intake was not affected but was highest with feeding AIS (10% more than control) to cover energy requirements. The supplementation of diet with apple DF from extraction juices or AIS had minor effects on blood serum lipids. In rats fed either juice colloids or AIS, up to 30% (5.31 micromol/g dry weight) and 88% (7.69 micromol/g dry weight) more primary BA were excreted in feces, respectively, as compared to that in the control group (4.10 micromol/g dry weight) (P < 0.05). In cecal contents, a 15% (juice colloids) to 37% (AIS) increase in primary BA was found. In contrast, concentrations of secondary BA were lower in feces of test groups (P < 0.05). Excretion of total BA and NS was higher in rats fed apple DF (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to prove that there are beneficial physiologic effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymatic liquefaction. These results may help to develop such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin for diminishing the lack of DF intake.

  8. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  9. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  10. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  11. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  12. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  13. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  14. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  15. Dehydration Processes of Sugar Glasses and Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The dehydration processes of sugar glasses and sugar crystals were studied by using Thermogravimetry — Differential Thermal Analysis method. We used three monosaccharide sugars (fructose, galactose, and glucose) and three disaccharide sugars (sucrose, maltose and trehalose). It was found that a trehalose showed different dehydration process compared to the other sugars. The amount of mass reductions in sugar glasses is larger than that in sugar crystals. However, in the case of trehalose, the amount of mass reduction in trehalose glasses is smaller than that in trehalose crystals. It seems to be possible that this unique dehydration property of trehalose glasses maybe relate to the cell protection ability during an anhydrobiosis process.

  16. Tight junctional abnormality in multiple sclerosis white matter affects all calibres of vessel and is associated with blood-brain barrier leakage and active demyelination.

    PubMed

    Kirk, John; Plumb, Jonnie; Mirakhur, Meenakshi; McQuaid, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with lesion pathogenesis and has been linked to pathology in microvascular tight junctions (TJs). This study quantifies the uneven distribution of TJ pathology and its association with BBB leakage. Frozen sections from plaque and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in 14 cases were studied together with white matter from six neurological and five normal controls. Using single and double immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the TJ-associated protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was examined across lesion types and tissue categories, and in relation to fibrinogen leakage. Confocal image data sets were analysed for 2198 MS and 1062 control vessels. Significant differences in the incidence of TJ abnormalities were detected between the different lesion types in MS and between MS and control white matter. These were frequent in oil-red O (ORO)(+) active plaques, affecting 42% of vessel segments, but less frequent in ORO(-) inactive plaques (23%), NAWM (13%), and normal (3.7%) and neurological controls (8%). A similar pattern was found irrespective of the vessel size, supporting a causal role for diffusible inflammatory mediators. In both NAWM and inactive lesions, dual labelling showed that vessels with the most TJ abnormality also showed most fibrinogen leakage. This was even more pronounced in active lesions, where 41% of vessels in the highest grade for TJ alteration showed severe leakage. It is concluded that disruption of TJs in MS, affecting both paracellular and transcellular paths, contributes to BBB leakage. TJ abnormality and BBB leakage in inactive lesions suggests either failure of TJ repair or a continuing pathological process. In NAWM, it suggests either pre-lesional change or secondary damage. Clinically inapparent TJ pathology has prognostic implications and should be considered when planning disease-modifying therapy.

  17. Feedstock Sugar Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    To access enough biomass to meet petroleum displacement goals, a variety of feedstock and delivery systems are needed. Selection of the feedstock and delivery system for a biorefinery is important because it can affect the physical and chemical properties of the biomass input.

  18. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  19. Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines Mediates trans-Infection of HIV-1 from Red Blood Cells to Target Cells and Affects HIV-AIDS Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    He, Weijing; Neil, Stuart; Kulkarni, Hemant; Wright, Edward; Agan, Brian K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Dolan, Matthew J.; Weiss, Robin A.; Ahuja, Sunil K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) expressed on red blood cells (RBCs) influences plasma levels of HIV-1-suppressive and proinflammatory chemokines such as CCL5/RANTES. DARC is also the RBC receptor for Plasmodium vivax. Africans with DARC −46C/C genotype, which confers a DARC-negative phenotype, are resistant to vivax malaria. Here, we show that HIV-1 attaches to RBCs via DARC, effecting trans-infection of target cells. In African Americans, DARC −46C/C is associated with 40% increase in the odds of acquiring HIV-1. If extrapolated to Africans, ∼11% of the HIV-1 burden in Africa may be linked to this genotype. After infection occurs, however, DARC-negative RBC status is associated with slower disease progression. Furthermore, the disease-accelerating effect of a previously described CCL5 polymorphism is evident only in DARC-expressing and not in DARC-negative HIV-infected individuals. Thus, DARC influences HIV/AIDS susceptibility by mediating trans-infection of HIV-1 and by affecting both chemokine-HIV interactions and chemokine-driven inflammation. PMID:18621010

  20. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation - description of a novel in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Ihle, Christoph; Mayer, Larissa; Braun, Bianca; Graeser, Jessica; Flesch, Ingo; Stöckle, Ulrich; Nussler, Andreas K; Pscherer, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts׳ maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients׳ sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients׳ serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients׳ blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β.

  1. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  2. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

  3. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  4. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. Rhizoctonia belly rot in cucumber fruit using Rhizoctonia solani isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are grown in rotation with sugar beets in some areas in Michigan but their interaction with important diseases affecting sugar beets is not well known. Cucumbers are known to be primarily susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, but little is known about their susceptibility to AG 2-2 isola...

  6. Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, J.W.; Clark, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    A positive selection procedure was devised for bacterial mutants incapable of producing acid from sugars by fermentation. The method relied on the production of elemental bromine from a mixture of bromide and bromate under acidic conditions. When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived. Among these mutants were those defective in (i) sugar uptake, (ii) the glycolytic pathway, and (iii) the excretion. There were also novel mutants with some presumed regulatory defects affecting fermentation.

  7. Foam formation in biogas plants caused by anaerobic digestion of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Lucie; Lehnig, Marcus; Schenk, Joachim; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The use of sugar beet in anaerobic digestion (AD) during biogas production can lead to process upsets such as excessive foaming in fermenters. In the present study, foam formation in sugar beet-fed digestates was studied in foaming tests. The increasing disintegration grade of sugar beet was observed to have a promoting effect on foaming in the digestate but did not affect the biogas yield. Chemical analysis of foam and digestate from sugar beet silage AD showed high concentrations of pectin, other carbohydrates and N-containing substances in the foam. Both pectin and sucrose showed little foaming in AD. Nevertheless, sucrose and calcium chloride had a promoting effect on foaming for pectin AD. Salts of divalent ions also enhanced the foam intensity in the case of sugar beet silage AD, whereas ammonium chloride and urea had a lessening effect on sugar beet-based foaming.

  8. Non-enzymatic modifications of prostaglandin H synthase 1 affect bifunctional enzyme activity - Implications for the sensitivity of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kassassir, Hassan; Siewiera, Karolina; Talar, Marcin; Stec-Martyna, Emilia; Pawlowska, Zofia; Watala, Cezary

    2016-06-25

    Due to its ability to inhibit the blood platelet PGHS-1, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin(®)) is widely used as a preventive agent in atherothrombotic diseases. However, its beneficial effects seem to be lower in diabetic patients, suggesting that protein glycation may impair effective ASA-mediated acetylation process. On the other hand, it is proposed that ASA can prevent some of the late complications of diabetes by lowering the extent of glycation at protein free amino groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the extents of non-enzymatic N-glycosylation (glycation) and acetylation of blood platelet PGHS-1 (COX-1) and the competition between glycation and acetylation was investigated in order to demonstrate how these two reactions may compete against platelet PGHS-1. When PGHS-1 was incubated with glycating/acetylating agents (glucose, Glu; 1,6-bisphosphofructose, 1,6-BPF; methylglyoxal, MGO, acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), the enzyme was modified in 13.4 ± 1.6, 5.3 ± 0.5, 10.7 ± 1.2 and 6.4 ± 1.1 mol/mol protein, respectively, and its activity was significantly reduced. The prior glycation/carbonylation of PGHS-1 with Glu, 1,6-BPF or MGO decreased the extent of acetylation from 6.4 ± 1.1 down to 2.5 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.2 mol/mol protein, respectively, but the enzyme still remained susceptible to the subsequent inhibition of its activity with ASA. When PGHS-1 was first acetylated with ASA and then incubated with glycating/carbonylating agents, we observed the following reductions in the enzyme modifications: from 13.4 ± 1.6 to 8.7 ± 0.6 mol/mol protein for Glu, from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 3.9 ± 0.3 mol/mol protein for 1,6-BPF and from 10.7 ± 1.2 to 7.5 ± 0.5 mol/mol protein for MGO, however subsequent glycation/carbonylation did not significantly affect PGHS-1 function. Overall, our outcomes allow to better understand the structural aspects of the chemical competition between glycation and acetylation of PGHS-1.

  9. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  10. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  11. Blood-sucking bugs as a gentle method for blood-collection in water budget studies using doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Michener, Robert; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kunz, Thomas H; von Helversen, Otto

    2005-11-01

    During doubly-labelled water (DLW) experiments, blood collection by venous puncture may traumatize animals and consequently affect the animals' behaviour and energy budget. Recent studies have shown that blood-sucking bugs (Triatominae; Heteroptera) can be used instead of conventional needles to obtain blood from animals. In this paper, we validate the bug method in captive nectar-feeding bats, Glossophaga soricina, for water budget analysis by comparing the daily water flux estimated with the DLW method with values measured by an energy balance method. As the mean daily water flux of the DLW method was not significantly deviating from the expected value, blood-sucking bugs may substitute more invasive methods of blood collection in DLW experiments. Based on the DLW estimates, daily energy and water intake rates were calculated and compared to values measured with the energy balance method. The DLW method and the energy balance method yielded on average similar results regarding the daily energy intake (DLW method: 48.8+/-14.2 kJ d(-1) versus energy balance method: 48.1+/-9.9 kJ d(-1)) and daily water intake (DLW method: 13.7+/-2.4 mL d(-1) versus energy balance method: 14.7+/-3.0 mL d(-1)). Based on the calculated water and sugar intake per day, we estimated the sugar concentration of ingested nectar to equal on average 16.2+/-2.4% (mass/mass), which fell close to the measured sugar concentration of 17% (mass/mass) bats fed on during the experiment. We conclude that it is possible to extrapolate mean daily energy and water intake for animal groups, populations and species based on DLW estimates, but due to the large variance of results (low accuracy), it seems inadequate to calculate values for single individuals.

  12. ABCB1 (MDR1)-type P-glycoproteins at the blood-brain barrier modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: implications for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marianne B; Keck, Martin E; Binder, Elisabeth B; Kresse, Adelheid E; Hagemeyer, Thomas P; Landgraf, Rainer; Holsboer, Florian; Uhr, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type P-glycoproteins (ABCB1-type P-gps) protect the brain against the accumulation of many toxic xenobiotics and drugs. We recently could show that the access of the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol to the brain are regulated by ABCB1-type P-gps in vivo. ABCB1-type P-gp function, therefore, is likely to exert a profound influence on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Hyperactivity of the HPA system is frequently observed in human affective disorder, and a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that normalization of the HPA system might be the final step necessary for stable remission of the disease. To examine whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) function influences neuroendocrine regulation, we investigated HPA system activity in abcb1ab (-/-) mice under basal conditions and following stress. Abcb1ab (-/-) mice showed consistently lower plasma ACTH levels and lower evening plasma corticosterone levels. CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was decreased and pituitary POMC mRNA expressing cells were significantly reduced in number in abcb1ab (-/-) mutants; however, they showed a normal activation of the HPA system following CRH stimulation. Lower doses of dexamethasone were required to suppress plasma corticosterone levels in mutants. Our data thus provide evidence for a sustained suppression of the HPA system at the hypothalamic level in abcb1ab (-/-) mice, suggesting that BBB function significantly regulates HPA system activity. Whether naturally occurring polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene might result in persistent changes in the responsiveness and regulation of the HPA system will be the subject of future investigations, correlating both genetic information with individual characteristics of the neuroendocrine phenotype.

  13. P-glycoprotein differentially affects escitalopram, levomilnacipran, vilazodone and vortioxetine transport at the mouse blood-brain barrier in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, Christoffer; Eneberg, Elin; Sánchez, Connie

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated brain efflux of xenobiotics is a well-known process, which may result in suboptimal target engagement and consequently reduced efficacy of drugs exerting their therapeutic effects in the central nervous system. In the present study the role of P-gp in transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was investigated with a series of newer antidepressants (levomilnacipran, vilazodone and vortioxetine) and a control substrate (escitalopram) using P-gp knock-out (KO) and P-gp competent wild-type (WT) mice. Brain and plasma exposure time-courses were measured after an acute subcutaneous dose and at steady-state obtained after subcutaneous drug infusion by osmotic minipumps. Following acute dosing, the brain-to-plasma KO/WT exposure enhancement ratios ((AUCbrain ko/AUCplasma ko)/(AUCbrain WT/AUCplasma WT)) were 5.8 (levomilnacipran), 5.4 (vilazodone), 3.1 (escitalopram) and 0.9 (vortioxetine), respectively. At steady-state, assessment of Kp,uu (unbound brain concentrations/unbound plasma concentrations) revealed a restriction in the brain distribution in WT mice for all compounds except vortioxetine. Levomilnacipran exhibited the most pronounced efflux with a Kp,uu-value of 0.038 in WT mice which was increased to 0.37 in KO mice. Based on both the acute and steady-state distribution data, the results suggest that levomilnacipran, vilazodone and escitalopram are susceptible to P-gp mediated efflux at the BBB in vivo in mice, whereas vortioxetine was practically devoid of being affected by P-gp in vivo. The functional impact of the drug transport-controlling role of P-gp at the BBB was demonstrated by in vivo cortical serotonin transporter occupancy of vilazodone, which exhibited a 20-fold higher plasma EC50 in WT mice compared to KOs.

  14. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  15. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  16. High level fructan accumulation in a transgenic sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Sévenier, R; Hall, R D; van der Meer, I M; Hakkert, H J; van Tunen, A J; Koops, A J

    1998-09-01

    We have transformed sugar beet into a crop that produces fructans. The gene encoding 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyl transferase (1-SST), which was isolated from Helianthus tuberosus, was introduced into sugar beet. In H. tuberosus, 1-SST mediates the first steps in fructan synthesis through the conversion of sucrose (GF) into low molecular weight fructans GF2, GF3, and GF4. In the taproot of sugar beet transformed with the 1-sst gene, the stored sucrose is almost totally converted into low molecular weight fructans. In contrast, 1-sst expression in the leaves resulted in only low levels of fructans. Despite the storage carbohydrate having been altered, the expression of the 1-sst gene did not have any visible effect on phenotype and did not affect the growth rate of the taproot as observed under greenhouse conditions.

  17. Stereoselective Syntheses of Pentose Sugars Under Realistic Prebiotic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-02-01

    Glycolaldehyde and dl-glyceraldehyde reacted in a water-buffered solution under mildly acidic conditions and in the presence of chiral dipeptide catalysts produced pentose sugars whose configuration is affected by the chirality of the catalyst. The chiral effect was found to vary between catalysts and to be largest for di-valine. Lyxose, arabinose, ribose and xylose are formed in different amounts, whose relative proportions do not change significantly with the varying of conditions. With LL-peptide catalysts, ribose was the only pentose sugar to have a significant D-enantiomeric excess ( ee) (≤44%), lyxose displayed an L- ee of ≤66%, arabinose a smaller L- ee of ≤8%, and xylose was about racemic. These data expand our previous findings for tetrose sugars and further substantiate the suggestion that interactions between simple molecules of prebiotic relevance on the early Earth might have included the transfer of chiral asymmetry and advanced molecular evolution.

  18. Enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for production of fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2016-08-01

    This study shows that high drying temperatures negatively affect the enzymatic saccharification yield of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. The optimal drying temperature of the seaweed in terms of enzymatic sugar release was found to be 30°C. The enzymatic saccharification process was optimized by investigating factors such as kinetics of sugar release, enzyme dose, solid loading and different blend ratios of cellulases and an alginate lyase. It was found that the seaweed biomass could be efficiently hydrolysed to fermentable sugars using a commercial cellulase cocktail. The inclusion of a mono-component alginate lyase was shown to improve the performance of the enzyme blend, in particular at high solid loadings. At 25% dry matter loading a combined glucose and mannitol concentration of 74g/L was achieved.

  19. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field.

  20. Probing protein-sugar interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented.

  1. Polyphenolic reductants in cane sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available to understand the chemical structure of cane sugar extracts responsible for the redox reactivity. This study employed Fremy’s salt to test the hypothesis that hydroquinone/catechol-semiquinone-quinone redox cycle is responsible for the antioxidant activity of sugarc...

  2. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marin E; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R; Chow, Jenny D Y; Byrne, Frances L; Breen, David S; Kenwood, Brandon M; Taddeo, Evan P; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2016-02-29

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity.

  4. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Marin E.; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Kenwood, Brandon M.; Taddeo, Evan P.; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2016-01-01

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity. PMID:26924712

  5. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process u...

  6. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  7. Sugar-sensitive neurone responses and sugar feeding preferences influence lifespan and biting behaviours of the Afrotropical malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Sébastien; Vlimant, Michèle; Guerin, Patrick M

    2015-03-01

    Floral nectar is the main source of carbohydrates for many insects including mosquitoes. Nonetheless, the physiological mechanisms underlying feeding on carbohydrates by the Afrotropical malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae remain poorly understood. Here, we tested whether sugar sensitivity and sugar feeding preferences correlate with longevity in A. gambiae. We also tested whether feeding females on different sugar diets influences their biting behaviours. Electrophysiological recordings show that sugar neurones on the labella of females are most sensitive to sucrose, mixtures of glucose and fructose, and to melezitose; other sugars tested, including glucose and fructose presented alone, only weakly activate these taste neurones. Mosquitoes survive longest on sucrose, the most preferred sugar. Whereas feeding on a mixture of glucose and fructose is preferred over fructose or glucose alone, fructose supports higher longevity than either glucose or the mixture of the two hexoses. Females that had previously fed on glucose show a stronger biting response than those fed on sucrose, perhaps in an effort to compensate for their lower energetic state. These findings contribute to our understanding of the physiological basis of sugar feeding in A. gambiae and indicate how the sugar diet can affect laboratory-reared A. gambiae biting behaviours.

  8. Environmental conditions that contribute to development and severity of Sugar Beet Fusarium Yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae: temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, continues to cause significant problems to sugar beet production by causing considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Environment plays a critical role in pathogen i...

  9. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  10. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  11. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    MedlinePlus

    ... sweetened with artificial sweeteners, rather than with higher calorie table sugar, may be an attractive option. On ... means that sugar alcohols can be considered lower calorie sweeteners, and they may aid weight-control efforts. ...

  12. Inter-Species Comparative Analysis of Components of Soluble Sugar Concentration in Fleshy Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhanwu; Wu, Huan; Baldazzi, Valentina; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Bertin, Nadia; Gautier, Hélène; Wu, Benhong; Duchêne, Eric; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lescourret, Françoise; Génard, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The soluble sugar concentration of fleshy fruit is a key determinant of fleshy fruit quality. It affects directly the sweetness of fresh fruits and indirectly the properties of processed products (e.g., alcohol content in wine). Despite considerable divergence among species, soluble sugar accumulation in a fruit results from the complex interplay of three main processes, namely sugar import, sugar metabolism, and water dilution. Therefore, inter-species comparison would help to identify common and/or species-specific modes of regulation in sugar accumulation. For this purpose, a process-based mathematical framework was used to compare soluble sugar accumulation in three fruits: grape, tomato, and peach. Representative datasets covering the time course of sugar accumulation during fruit development were collected. They encompassed 104 combinations of species (3), genotypes (30), and growing conditions (19 years and 16 nutrient and environmental treatments). At maturity, grape showed the highest soluble sugar concentrations (16.5–26.3 g/100 g FW), followed by peach (2.2 to 20 g/100 g FW) and tomato (1.4 to 5 g/100 g FW). Main processes determining soluble sugar concentration were decomposed into sugar importation, metabolism, and water dilution with the process-based analysis. Different regulation modes of soluble sugar concentration were then identified, showing either import-based, dilution-based, or import and dilution dual-based. Firstly, the higher soluble sugar concentration in grape than in tomato is a result of higher sugar importation. Secondly, the higher soluble sugar concentration in grape than in peach is due to a lower water dilution. The third mode of regulation is more complicated than the first two, with differences both in sugar importation and water dilution (grape vs. cherry tomato; cherry tomato vs. peach; peach vs. tomato). On the other hand, carbon utilization for synthesis of non-soluble sugar compounds (namely metabolism) was conserved

  13. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous solution of inverted...

  15. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  16. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  17. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  19. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  20. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  2. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  3. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  5. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  7. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  8. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  9. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  10. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  11. PET Studies on P-glycoprotein function in the blood-brain barrier: how it affects uptake and binding of drugs within the CNS.

    PubMed

    Elsinga, Philip H; Hendrikse, N Harry; Bart, Joost; Vaalburg, Willem; van Waarde, Aren

    2004-01-01

    Permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the factors determining the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs. The BBB only allows entry of lipophilic compounds with low molecular weights by passive diffusion. However, many lipophilic drugs show negligible brain uptake. They are substrates for transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). The action of these carrier systems results in rapid efflux of xenobiotics from the central nervous system (CNS). Classification of candidate drugs as substrates or inhibitors of such carrier proteins is of crucial importance in drug development. Positron emission tomography (PET) can play an important role in the screening process by providing in vivo information, after the putative drug has passed in vitro tests. Although radiolabeled probes for MRP and OATP function are not yet available, many radiotracers have been prepared to study P-glycoprotein function in vivo with PET. These include alkaloids ((11)C-colchicine), antineoplastic agents ((11)C-daunorubicin, (18)F-paclitaxel), modulators of L-type calcium channels ((11)C-(+/-)verapamil, (11)C-R(+)-verapamil), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ((11)C-(S)-carazolol, (18)F-(S)-1'-fluorocarazolol, (11)C-carvedilol), serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists ((18)F-MPPF), opioid receptor antagonists ((11)C-loperamide, (11)C-carfentanyl), and various (64)Cu-labeled copper complexes. Studies in experimental animals have indicated that it is possible to assess P-glycoprotein function in the BBB and its effect on the uptake and binding of drugs within the intact CNS, using suitable P-gp modulators labeled with positron emitters. Provided that radiopharmaceuticals (and P-gp modulators) can be developed for human use, several exciting fields of study may be explored, viz. (i) direct evaluation of the effect of modulators on the cerebral uptake of therapeutic drugs; (ii) assessment of

  12. Definition of the variables affecting efficacy of immunodepletion ex vivo of peripheral blood progenitor cell grafts by alemtuzumab (Campath in the bag).

    PubMed

    Novitzky, Nicolas; Davison, Glenda; Abdulla, Rygana; Mowla, Shaheen

    2013-12-01

    The immunodepleting effects of alemtuzumab on peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) grafts for stem cell transplantation need to be better defined. The optimal graft cell concentration, antibody dose, need for complement, and whether alemtuzumab is infused with the graft during transplantation remain unclear. PBPC from 6 normal allogeneic stem cell donors harvested by apheresis were first quantitated and the cellular content defined by flow cytometry. Mononuclear cells were then incubated with incremental concentrations of alemtuzumab (.00001, .0001, .001, and .01 mg/mL) for 30 minutes at 20°C or in cell dose responses with 1, 5, and 10 × 10(6) mononuclear cells/mL added to a fixed dose of .001 mg/mL of alemtuzumab with or without a source of complement. Cells were enumerated and analyzed by flow cytometry before and after exposure to alemtuzumab. To determine the presence of unbound anti-CD52, the supernatant of the cell dose responses were tested using the ELISA assay. Selected CD34+ lineage-negative cells were incubated with antibody at the same working concentrations and conditions and cultured in granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit assay. The colony numbers were compared with control cultures devoid of the antibody. Incremental concentrations of alemtuzumab led to a significant (2 log) reduction in CD3, CD4, and CD8 populations, which plateaued at .001 mg/mL. Addition of complement led to a further significant reduction in the CD4 and CD8 cells. The maximum CD4 (3 log) and CD8 (2 log) cell death was obtained at 10 × 10(6) cells/mL. Analysis of supernatants for soluble alemtuzumab by ELISA showed a significant reduction in the free antibody concentration when the cell number was increased from 1 to 10 × 10(6) cells/mL implying utilization/binding of the antibody by target cells. Incremental concentrations of alemtuzumab did not affect the number of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units. Alemtuzumab depletes all cells expressing the CD52

  13. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic

  14. Sustainability issues and opportunities in the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum...

  15. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the blood pressure control in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension - a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bagge, Carina N; Strandhave, Charlotte; Skov, Charlotte M; Svensson, My; Schmidt, Erik B; Christensen, Jeppe H

    2017-02-28

    Marine long-chained n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are recognized for their cardio-protective effects, including potential lowering of blood pressure. We hypothesized that higher habitual fish intake and n-3 PUFA plasma levels were associated with lower blood pressure and being less likely to receive antihypertensive medication after one-year follow-up. In this prospective study of 115 patients, we assessed 24 h ambulatory and central blood pressure, plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition using gas chromatography and participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, including fish-eating habits. All measurements were repeated at one-year follow-up. At baseline, patients consuming fish ≥2 times per month for dinner had significantly higher plasma levels of total marine n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as significantly lower central blood pressure and a trend towards lower peripheral blood pressure. At follow-up, 21 patients (18%) without antihypertensive medication had significantly higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as a higher, but still acceptable 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (137/85 mmHg) compared to subjects receiving antihypertensive medication. The untreated group was more prone to take fish oil capsules and increased their plasma levels of n-3 PUFA compared to baseline. In patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension, regular fish consumption was accompanied by lower blood pressure. After one year, patients without antihypertensive medication were characterized by a significant increase and higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA. This supports a blood pressure-lowering effect and suggests an increase in marine n-3 PUFA intake as part of non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension.

  16. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  17. [Sugar characterization of mini-watermelon and rapid sugar determination by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Xie, Jin-chun; Li, Xiao-yu; Feng, Le-ping

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the distribution of sugar level within the mini-watermelon was studied, a new sugar characterization method of mini-watermelon using average sugar level, the highest sugar level and the lowest sugar level index is proposed. Feasibility of nondestructive determination of mini-watermenlon sugar level using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy information was investigated by an experiment. PLS models for measuring the 3 sugar levels were established. The results obtained by near infrared spectroscopy agreed with that of the new method established above.

  18. Sugar uptake by intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wright, E M; van Os, C H; Mircheff, A K

    1980-03-27

    A high yield of membrane vesicles was prepared from the basolateral surface of rat intestinal cells using an N2 cavitation bomb and density gradient centrifugation. The membranes were enriched 10-fold and were free of significatn contamination by brush border membranes and mitochondria. The rate of D-E114C]glucose and L-E13H]glucose uptake into the vesicle was measured using a rapid filtration technique. D-Glucose equilibrated within the vesicles with a half-time 1/25th that for L-glucose. The stereospecific uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with a Km of approx. 44 mM and a V of approx. 110 nmol . mg-1 min-1 at 10 degrees C. The activation energy for the process was 14 kcal . mol-1 below 15 degrees C and it approached 3 kcal . mol-1 above 22 degrees C. Carrier-mediated uptake was eliminated in the presence of 1 mM HgCl2 and 0.5 mM phloretin. The rate of transport was unaffected by the absence or presence of sodium concentration gradients. Competition studies demonstrated that all sugars with the D-glucose pyranose ring chair conformation shared the transport system, and that, with the possible exception of the -OH group at carbon No. 1, there were no specific requirements for an equatorial -OH group at any position in the pyranose ring. In the case of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside its inability to share the D-glucose transport system may be due to steric hindrance posed by the -OCH3 group rather than by a specific requirement for a free hydroxyl group at the position in the ring. It is concluded that sugars are transported across the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelium by a facilitated diffusion system reminiscent of that in human red blood cells.

  19. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Mark L

    2015-02-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  20. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, J.; Ghafaripour, F.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Shojaei-fard, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀) were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. PMID:26688798

  1. Does the method of expression of venous blood affect ischaemia/reperfusion damage in tourniquet use? An experimental study on rabbits.

    PubMed

    Iltar, Serkan; Kılınç, Cem Yalın; Alemdaroğlu, Kadir Bahadır; Ozcan, Selahattin; Aydoğan, Nevres Hürriyet; Sürer, Hatice; Kılınç, Aytün Şadan

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the ischaemia and reperfusion phases of two tourniquet application models (Group 1: expressing the blood by a sterile rubber bandage and Group 2: elevation of the limb for several minutes) using an analysis of ischaemia/reperfusion parameters and blood pH. Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were used. Muscle samples were extracted from the triceps surae; at phase A (baseline: just before tourniquet application), phase B (ischaemia: 3h after tourniquet inflation) and phase C (2h after tourniquet deflation). Nitrite, nitrate, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, malondyaldehyde were measured in the samples. Blood pH was also measured at each phase. Group 2 had significantly decreased nitrite (p=0.007) and nitrate (p=0.01) levels compared to Group 1 while passing from phase A to phase B. The pH decrease through the phases was significant within Group 1 (p=0.006) and was not significant within Group 2 (p=0.052). Lower levels of NO metabolites nitrate and nitrite, result from tourniquet use with incomplete venous blood expression by elevation. Also, with this technique severe acidosis is less likely to occur than when a tourniquet is used with expression of the venous blood by rubber bandage. These findings may help in the decision of which tourniquet technique is to be used for potentially long operations which may exceed 2h.

  2. Alternatives to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Donat R; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2013-05-25

    The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias.

  3. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  8. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  9. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  10. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  11. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  12. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  13. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  14. What nutritional physiology tells us about diet, sugar and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tappy, L

    2016-03-01

    In this closing perspective, the author exposes why targeting a single nutrient like sugar is in his opinion unlikely to be efficient in preventing obesity and metabolic diseases. He defends the proposal that the concept of fructose toxicity is based on major misconceptions of nutritional physiology. He specifically proposes that (1) sugar being a non-essential nutrient does not obligatorily imply that it has no beneficial effect; (2) alterations of blood triglyceride concentration and hepatic glucose production within the normal range may merely reflect adaptations to a fructose-rich diet rather than early markers of diseases; (3) overfeeding is a normal physiological response to exposure to an energy-dense, palatable nutrient rather than the consequence of 'leptin resistance'; (4) we may presently overemphasize the role of biological regulations and of gene-related heredity when assessing the effects of fructose in particular, and the determinants of obesity in general.

  15. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  16. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  17. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  19. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  20. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  1. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  2. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  3. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  4. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  5. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  6. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  7. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  8. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  9. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products....

  10. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products....

  11. 78 FR 73234 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods ] and sugar-containing products of Chile... quantity of sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products for which the United States...

  12. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  13. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective...

  14. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the...

  15. 77 FR 74726 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of Chile... quantity of sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products for which the United States...

  16. Blood born miRNAs signatures that can serve as disease specific biomarkers are not significantly affected by overall fitness and exercise.

    PubMed

    Backes, Christina; Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Hart, Martin; Meyer, Tim; Meese, Eckart; Hecksteden, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Blood born micro(mi)RNA expression pattern have been reported for various human diseases with signatures specific for diseases. To evaluate these biomarkers, it is mandatory to know possible changes of miRNA signatures in healthy individuals under different physiological conditions. We analyzed the miRNA expression in peripheral blood of elite endurance athletes and moderatly active controls. Blood drawing was done before and after exhaustive exercise in each group. After Benjamini-Hochberg adjustment we did not find any miRNA with significant p-values when comparing miRNA expression between the different groups. We found, however, 24 different miRNAs with an expression fold change of minimum 1.5 in at least one of the comparisons (athletes before vs after exercise, athletes before exercise vs controls and athletes after exercise vs controls). The observed changes are not significant in contrast to the expression changes of the blood born miRNA expression reported for many human diseases. These data support the idea of disease associated miRNA patterns useful as biomarkers that are not readily altered by physiological conditions.

  17. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

  18. [Sugar Chain Construction of Functional Natural Products Using Plant Glucosyltransferases].

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Hajime

    2015-01-01

      Plant secondary product glycosyltransferases belong to family 1 of the glycosyltransferase superfamily and mediate the transfer of a glycosyl residue from activated nucleotide sugars to lipophilic small molecules, thus affecting the solubility, stability and pharmacological activities of the sugar-accepting compounds. The biotechnological application of plant glycosyltransferases in glycoside synthesis has attracted attention because enzymatic glycosylation offers several advantages over chemical methods, including (1) avoiding the use of harsh conditions and toxic catalysts, (2) providing strict control of regio-and stereo-selectivity and (3) high efficiency. This review describes the in vivo and in vitro glycosylation of natural organic compounds using glycosyltransferases, focusing on our investigation of enzymatic synthesis of curcumin glycosides. Our current efforts toward functional characterization of some glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of iridoids and crocin, as well as in the sugar chain elongation of quercetin glucosides, are described. Finally, I describe the relationship of the structure of sugar chains and the intestinal absorption which was investigated using chemoenzymatically synthesized quercetin glycosides.

  19. Blood Test: Lipid Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...

  20. Complete Blood Count (CBC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ...

  1. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake123

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world’s population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. PMID:26773022

  2. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice.

  3. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  4. Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-12-22

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  5. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  6. Effects of cutting orientation in poplar wood biomass size reduction on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Ju, Xiaohui; Song, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Xiao; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how cutting orientation in poplar wood biomass size reduction affects enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield of wood particles. A metal cutting (milling) machine was used to produce poplar wood particles from three cutting orientations. Results showed that cutting orientation significantly affected enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield of wood particles. In this study, size reduction from the optimum cutting orientation produced 50% more sugars than the other two cutting orientations. Particles from the cutting orientation with the highest sugar yield had a large enzyme accessible area (125 mg orange dye/g biomass, as evaluated by Simons' stain procedure) and low crystallinity (50% crystallinity index, as calculated by the Segal method). Furthermore, small particle size did not necessarily lead to improvement in enzymatic digestibility.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and....1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly called D-glucose or dextrose... by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes, followed...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  12. A Sugar-Inducible Protein Kinase, VvSK1, Regulates Hexose Transport and Sugar Accumulation in Grapevine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Lecourieux, David; Vignault, Céline; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), as in many crops, soluble sugar content is a major component of yield and economical value. This paper identifies and characterizes a Glycogen Synthase Kinase3 protein kinase, cloned from a cDNA library of grape Cabernet Sauvignon berries harvested at the ripening stage. This gene, called VvSK1, was mainly expressed in flowers, berries, and roots. In the berries, it was strongly expressed at postvéraison, when the berries accumulate glucose, fructose, and abscisic acid. In grapevine cell suspensions, VvSK1 transcript abundance is increased by sugars and abscisic acid. In transgenic grapevine cells overexpressing VvSK1, the expression of four monosaccharide transporters (VvHT3, VvHT4, VvHT5, and VvHT6) was up-regulated, the rate of glucose uptake was increased 3- to 5-fold, and the amount of glucose and sucrose accumulation was more than doubled, while the starch amount was not affected. This work provides, to our knowledge, the first example of the control of sugar uptake and accumulation by a sugar-inducible protein kinase. PMID:19923236

  13. Blood group change in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Rakul K.; Prakash, N. P.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood group antigens are either sugars or proteins found attached to the red blood cell membrane. ABO blood group antigens are the most clinically important antigens because they are the most immunogenic. As red blood cell antigens are inherited traits, they are usually not altered throughout the life of an individual. There have been occasional case reports of ABO blood group antigen change in malignant conditions. We report two such cases of ABO antigen alteration associated with acute myeloid leukemia. These patients had suppression of their blood group antigens during their leukemic phase, and the antigens were reexpressed when the patients attained remission. PMID:28127141

  14. The effect of different dietary sugars and honey on longevity and fecundity in two hyperparasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cloutier, Josianne; Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha; Wäckers, Felix L; Gols, Rieta

    2012-06-01

    In nature adult insects, such as parasitic wasps or 'parasitoids' often depend on supplemental nutritional sources, such as sugars and other carbohydrates, to maximize their life-expectancy and reproductive potential. These food resources are commonly obtained from animal secretions or plant exudates, including honeydew, fruit juices and both floral and extra-floral nectar. In addition to exogenous sources of nutrition, adult parasitoids obtain endogenous sources from their hosts through 'host-feeding' behavior, whereby blood is imbibed from the host. Resources obtained from the host contain lipids, proteins and sugars that are assumed to enhance longevity and/or fecundity. Here we conducted an experiment exploring the effects of naturally occurring sugars on longevity and fecundity in the solitary hyperparasitoids, Lysibia nana and Gelis agilis. Although both species are closely related, L. nana does not host-feed whereas G. agilis does. In a separate experiment, we compared reproduction and longevity in G. agilis reared on either honey, a honey-sugar 'mimic', and glucose. Reproductive success and longevity in both hyperparasitoids varied significantly when fed on different sugars. However, only mannose- and water-fed wasps performed significantly more poorly than wasps fed on four other sugar types. G. agilis females fed honey produced twice as many progeny as those reared on the honey-sugar mimic or on glucose, whereas female longevity was only reduced on the mimic mixture. This result shows not only that host feeding influences reproductive success in G. agilis, but also that non-sugar constituents in honey do. The importance of non-sugar nutrients in honey on parasitoid reproduction is discussed.

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  16. Drosophila Sugar Receptors in Sweet Taste Perception, Olfaction and Internal Nutrient Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Jesse; Jagge, Christopher; Song, Xiangyu; Amrein, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Identification of nutritious compounds is dependent on expression of specific taste receptors in appropriate taste cell types [1]. In contrast to mammals, which rely on a single, broadly tuned heterodimeric sugar receptor [2], the Drosophila genome harbors a small subfamily of eight, closely related gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, Gr5a, Gr61a and Gr64a-f, of which three have been proposed to mediate sweet taste [3-6]. However, expression and function of several of these putative sugar Gr genes are not known. Here we present a comprehensive expression and functional analysis using GrLEXA/GAL4 alleles that were generated through homologous recombination. We show that sugar Gr genes are expressed in a combinatorial manner to yield at least eight sets of sweet sensing neurons. Behavioral investigations show that most sugar Gr mutations affect taste responses to only a small number of sugars and that effective detection of most sugars is dependent on more than one Gr gene. Surprisingly, Gr64a, one of three Gr genes previously proposed to play a major role in sweet taste [3, 4], is not expressed in labellar taste neurons, and Gr64a mutant flies exhibit normal sugar responses elicited from the labellum. Our analysis provides a molecular rationale for distinct tuning profiles of sweet taste neurons, and it favors a model whereby all sugar Grs contribute to sweet taste. Furthermore, expression in olfactory organs and the brain implies novel roles for sugar Gr genes in olfaction and internal nutrient sensing, respectively. Thus, sugar receptors may contribute to feeding behavior via multiple sensory systems. PMID:25702577

  17. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride.

  18. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  19. Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population

    PubMed Central

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J.; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W.; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E.; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S.; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  20. Restoration of peripheral blood natural killer and B cell levels in patients affected by rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis during etanercept treatment.

    PubMed

    Conigliaro, P; Triggianese, P; Perricone, C; Chimenti, M S; Di Muzio, G; Ballanti, E; Guarino, M D; Kroegler, B; Gigliucci, G; Grelli, S; Perricone, R

    2014-07-01

    Etanercept (ETN) is an anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α agent used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Few studies focused on the effects of anti-TNF-α on peripheral blood cells. We aimed to evaluate peripheral blood cells in RA and PsA patients during ETN treatment and to explore their relationships with disease activity. RA (n = 82) and PsA (n = 32) patients who started ETN were included into the study and evaluated prospectively before the beginning of ETN therapy and after 14, 22, 54 and 102 weeks. Patients were studied in terms of disease activity score on 28 joints (DAS28), clinical response and laboratory findings. Natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells were characterized by immunophenotyping. Both the RA and the PsA patients showed reduced NK and B cell count before ETN treatment compared with controls. A negative correlation was demonstrated between DAS28 and B cell count in RA patients at baseline. Sustained significant increase of NK and B cells up to normal levels was observed in RA and PsA patients along ETN treatment. Increase of NK cell count was associated with a good-moderate clinical response to ETN in both RA and PsA patients. During ETN treatment peripheral blood NK and B cells levels were restored in RA and PsA patients. Correlations between NK and B cells with disease activity were observed, suggesting that those effects could be mediated by ETN treatment.

  1. Inhibition of glutamate receptors reduces the homocysteine-induced whole blood platelet aggregation but does not affect superoxide anion generation or platelet membrane fluidization.

    PubMed

    Karolczak, Kamil; Pieniazek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

    2017-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an excitotoxic amino acid. It is potentially possible to prevent Hcy-induced toxicity, including haemostatic impairments, by antagonizing glutaminergic receptors. Using impedance aggregometry with arachidonate and collagen as platelet agonists, we tested whether the blockade of platelet NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) and kainate receptors with their inhibitors: MK-801 (dizocilpine hydrogen maleate, [5R,10S]-[+]-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine), CNQX (7-nitro-2,3-dioxo-1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-6-carbonitrile) and UBP-302 (2-{[3-[(2S)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydropyrimidin 1(2H)-yl]methyl}benzoic acid) may hamper Hcy-dependent platelet aggregation. All the tested compounds significantly inhibited Hcy-augmented aggregation of blood platelets stimulated either with arachidonate or collagen. Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion in whole blood samples in a concentration-dependent manner; however, this process appeared as independent on ionotropic glutamate receptors, as well as on NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C, and was not apparently associated with the extent of either arachidonate- or collagen-dependent platelet aggregation. Moreover, Hcy acted as a significant fluidizer of surface (more hydrophilic) and inner (more hydrophobic) regions of platelet membrane lipid bilayer, when used at the concentration range from 10 to 50 µmol/l. However, this effect was independent on the Hcy action through glutamate ionotropic receptors, since there was no effects of MK-801, CNQX or UBP-302 on Hcy-mediated membrane fluidization. In conclusion, Hcy-induced changes in whole blood platelet aggregation are mediated through the ionotopic excitotoxic receptors, although the detailed mechanisms underlying such interactions remain to be elucidated.

  2. Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars. Results The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars. Conclusions With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process

  3. Pre-Operative Autologous Blood Donation Does Not Affect Pre-Incision Hematocrit in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients. A Retrospective Cohort of a Prospective Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Kushagra; Peters, Austin; Lonner, Baron S.; Errico, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-donation of autologous blood prior to spine fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been used in deformity surgery. The effect of pre-donation on pre-operative hematocrit (Hct) remains debated. Multiple factors may influence pre-operative Hct including intravascular volume status, patient factors, and timing of pre-operative blood donation. The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-donation significantly lowers pre-incision Hct in AIS patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study of a Level-1 prospective randomized trial was conducted. 125 patients from the homogeneous population were included. AIS patients undergoing a posterior only spinal fusion for AIS were separated into two groups based on their pre-operative blood donation history. Demographic variables, pre-incision Hct, and transfusion rates were compared between the two groups using the Student's T-test. Results Pre-donation and non pre-donation groups had 28 and 97 patients, respectively. Pre-donation group was 75% female (21F, 7M) and non pre-donation group was 78% female (76F, 21M). There was no difference between pre-donation and non pre-donation groups in mean age (15.6 ± 2.2 vs 14.8 ± 2.2, p = 0.081), BMI (23.1 ± 4.2 vs 21.7 ± 5.3, p = 0.219), and pre-incision Hct (32.8 ± 3.4 vs 33.8 ± 3.1, p = 0.628). The overall transfusion rates were equivalent (32.1± 48.0% vs 25.8 ± 44.0%, p = 0.509), however, the rate of allogenic transfusion for the pre-donation group was significantly lower (3.6 ± 18.9% vs 25.8 ± 44.0%, p = 0.011). Conclusions This study supports the use of pre-donation for AIS, without a significant drop in pre-incision Hct. Patients that donate are also much less likely to be exposed to allogenic blood. There may be a surgeon bias to recommend pre-donation in patients with a larger BMI and older age. Future studies are needed from a larger population of patients including those with non-AIS pathology. Level of evidence: Level III. PMID:27652198

  4. Source-to-sink transport of sugar and regulation by environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Remi; Camera, Sylvain La; Atanassova, Rossitza; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Allario, Thierry; Pourtau, Nathalie; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis; Laloi, Maryse; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Maurousset, Laurence; Faucher, Mireille; Girousse, Christine; Lemonnier, Pauline; Parrilla, Jonathan; Durand, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols) across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air, and soil pollutants) and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids, and parasitic plants) factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favored in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g., by callose deposition) and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses…) also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted. PMID:23898339

  5. Red blood cells affect the margination of microparticles in synthetic microcapillaries and intravital microcirculation as a function of their size and shape.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Rosa; Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Taraballi, Francesca; Minardi, Silvia; Kirui, Dickson; Liu, Xuewu; Cevenini, Armando; Palomba, Roberto; Ferrari, Mauro; Salvatore, Francesco; Tasciotti, Ennio; Guido, Stefano

    2015-11-10

    A key step in particle-based drug delivery throughmicrocirculation is particlemigration from blood flow to vesselwalls, also known as “margination”,which promotes particle contact and adhesion to the vesselwall. Margination and adhesion should be independently addressed as two distinct phenomena, considering that the former is a fundamental prerequisite to achieve particle adhesion and subsequent extravasation. Although margination has beenmodeled by numerical simulations and investigated inmodel systems in vitro, experimental studies including red blood cells (RBCs) are lacking. Here, we evaluate the effect of RBCs on margination through microfluidic studies in vitro and by intravital microscopy in vivo.We showthatmargination,which is almost absent when particles are suspended in a cell-free medium, is drastically enhanced by RBCs. This effect is size- and shape-dependent, larger spherical/discoid particles being more effectively marginated both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings can be explained by the collision of particles with RBCs that induces the drifting of the particles towards the vessel walls where they become trapped in the cell-free layer. These results are relevant for the design of drug delivery strategies based on systemically administered carriers.

  6. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  7. Physical properties of gluten-free sugar cookies made from amaranth-oat composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amaranth-oat composites were developed using gluten free amaranth flour containing essential amino acids and minerals with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol. Amaranth-oat composites were used in sugar cookies for improving their nutritional and physical qualities...

  8. Physical properties of gluten free sugar cookies containing teff and functional oat products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teff-oat composites were developed using gluten free teff flour containing essential 15 amino acids with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol and improving texture. The teff-oat composites were used in sugar cookies for improving nutritional and physical properties....

  9. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435.603... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar seller, the sugar seller must...

  11. Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a reactive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Zinc (Zn) deficiency affects approximately 30% of the world’s population. Zinc is a vital micronutrient and is important for the body’s ability to function. To date, accurate biological markers of the Zn subject’s status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chicken mod...

  12. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  13. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  14. Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  16. Sugar proximity and human grip strength.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, A F; Hill, T V

    1988-12-01

    In a double-blind experiment with 90 undergraduate students the hypothesis was tested that proximity to sugar reduces human grip strength. An earlier study indicated that sugar proximity does indeed significantly reduce human grip strength. When additional controls were added to this design to reduce random sampling error, the hypothesis was not supported.

  17. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  18. Polysaccharides from Sugar - A Range of Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known for many years that bacteria, most notably Leuconostoc spp., can convert sugar into a high-molecular weight glucan known as dextran. While problematic in the sugar industry due to its potential for forming biofilms, viscous slimes and for interfering with massecuite boiling and su...

  19. Caffeine dimerization: effects of sugar, salts, and water structure.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Seishi

    2015-10-01

    Sugars and salts strongly affect the dimerization of caffeine in water. Such a change of dimerization, considered to be crucial for bitter taste suppression, has long been rationalized by the change of "water structure" induced by the additives; "kosmotropic" (water structure enhancing) salts and sugars promote dimerization, whereas "chaotropic" (water structure breaking) salts suppress dimerization. Based on statistical thermodynamics, here we challenge this consensus; we combine the rigorous Kirkwood-Buff theory of solution with the classical isodesmic model of caffeine association. Instead of the change of water structure, we show that the enhancement of caffeine dimerization is due to the exclusion of additives from caffeine, and that the weakening of dimerization is due to the binding of additives on caffeine.

  20. Effects of feeding Fermenten on ruminal fermentation in lactating Holstein cows fed two dietary sugar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Penner, G B; Guan, L L; Oba, M

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding Fermenten (Church and Dwight Co., Princeton, NJ) with or without dietary sucrose on ruminal fermentation, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, and nutrient utilization. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (163 +/- 55 d in milk; mean +/- standard deviation) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experimental diets were formulated with and without Fermenten (0 vs. 3.3% of dietary DM) at 2 dietary sugar concentrations (2.8 vs. 5.7%). Dietary treatment did not affect dry matter intake or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. Feeding Fermenten did not affect ruminal pH, but high-sugar diets tended to increase the daily minimum pH (5.61 vs. 5.42) and mean pH (6.17 vs. 6.30) compared with low-sugar diets. Ruminal ammonia concentration tended to be greater for cows fed Fermenten compared with control (18.1 vs. 15.9 mg/dL), but was not affected by dietary sugar concentration. Significant interactions between Fermenten and dietary sugar concentration were detected for some milk production responses. Fermenten treatment numerically increased milk fat yield (0.92 vs. 0.82 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (24.3 vs. 21.9 kg/d), and milk energy output (18.2 vs. 16.4 Mcal/d) compared with control for cows fed low-sugar diets, but not for cows fed high-sugar diets. Increasing dietary sugar concentration did not enhance the effects of Fermenten, providing no support for the theory that synchronizing the availability of N and fermentable energy in the rumen improves nutrient utilization in lactating dairy cows.

  1. Apple Sucrose Transporter SUT1 and Sorbitol Transporter SOT6 Interact with Cytochrome b5 to Regulate Their Affinity for Substrate Sugars1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ren-Chun; Peng, Chang-Cao; Xu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Yan; Shang, Yi; Du, Shu-Yuan; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Sugar transporters are central machineries to mediate cross-membrane transport of sugars into the cells, and sugar availability may serve as a signal to regulate the sugar transporters. However, the mechanisms of sugar transport regulation by signal sugar availability remain unclear in plant and animal cells. Here, we report that a sucrose transporter, MdSUT1, and a sorbitol transporter, MdSOT6, both localized to plasma membrane, were identified from apple (Malus domestica) fruit. Using a combination of the split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid, immunocoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, the two distinct sugar transporters were shown to interact physically with an apple endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome b5 MdCYB5 in vitro and in vivo. In the yeast systems, the two different interaction complexes function to up-regulate the affinity of the sugar transporters, allowing cells to adapt to sugar starvation. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of MdCYB5, AtCYB5-A, also interacts with the two sugar transporters and functions similarly. The point mutations leucine-73 → proline in MdSUT1 and leucine-117 → proline in MdSOT6, disrupting the bimolecular interactions but without significantly affecting the transporter activities, abolish the stimulating effects of the sugar transporter-cytochrome b5 complex on the affinity of the sugar transporters. However, the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cytochrome b5 ScCYB5, an additional interacting partner of the two plant sugar transporters, has no function in the regulation of the sugar transporters, indicating that the observed biological functions in the yeast systems are specific to plant cytochrome b5s. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which the plant cells tailor sugar uptake to the surrounding sugar availability. PMID:19502355

  2. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose.

  3. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Guzman-Grenfell, Alberto Martin; Blanco-Jimenez, Salvador; Sepulveda-Sanchez, Jose David; Bernabe-Cabanillas, Rosa Maria; Cardenas-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Ceballos, Guillermo; Hicks, Juan Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5). Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises. PMID:19563660

  4. Deficient and excess dietary selenium levels affect growth performance, blood cells apoptosis and liver HSP70 expression in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun-Ru; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guo-Xia; Wu, Ying-Xia; Xian, Jian-An; Wang, An-Li; Cao, Jun-Ming

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of deficient and excess dietary selenium (Se) on growth, blood cells apoptosis and liver heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). After 8 weeks, yellow catfish (initial weight: 2.12 ± 0.01 g) fed isonitrogenous and isolipid diets containing <0.05 (deficient dietary Se) or 6.5 (excess dietary Se) mg Se/kg displayed a significantly lower weight gain ratio (WGR) than those fed a diet containing 0.23 (normal dietary Se) mg Se/kg. As dietary Se levels increased, liver Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase activity and the hepatosomatic index increased significantly. Plasma glucose concentration was highest in the normal treatment compared with the excess dietary Se treatment. Both deficient and excess dietary Se lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis ratio in blood cells, whereas only excess dietary Se increased their cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) (CF-Ca(2+)) concentration. Excess dietary Se also resulted in the highest level of HSP70 expression, thereby possibly providing a protective mechanism against oxidative stress. These results indicate that both deficient and excess dietary Se restrained the growth of juvenile yellow catfish and caused oxidative stress. The overproduction of ROS may act as a signal molecule mediate apoptosis when dietary Se deficiency. Both ROS and CF-Ca(2+) were recorded when dietary Se excess, suggesting that Ca(2+) may be activated by Se and play a major role during Se-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.

  5. 76 FR 81005 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of Chile, Morocco, Costa..., the level of a country's trade surplus in these goods relates to the quantity of sugar and syrup...

  6. 75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of Chile, Morocco, Costa..., the level of a country's trade surplus in these goods relates to the quantity of sugar and syrup...

  7. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ)...

  8. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar.

  9. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown.

  10. Measurement of concentration of sugar in solutions with laser speckle decorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Swapnil; Trivedi, Vismay; Chhaniwal, Vani; Prajapati, Mahendra; Zalevsky, Zeev; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2015-05-01

    Measurement of rotation of plane of polarization of linearly polarized light can provide information about the concentration of the optically active system with which it interacts. For substances containing sugar, accurate measurement of rotation of linearly polarized light can provide quantitative information about concentration of sugar in the material. Measurement of sugar concentration is important in areas ranging from blood sugar level measurement in body fluids to measurement of sugar concentrations in juices and other beverages. But in many of these cases, the changes introduced to the state of polarization considering a sample of practical proportion is low and the measurement of low optical rotations becomes necessary. So methods with higher sensitivity, accuracy and resolution need to be developed for the measurement of low optical rotations. Here we describe the development of a compact, low cost, field portable, device for rotation sensing leading to sugar concentration measurements, using speckle de-correlation technique. The developed device measures rotations by determining the changes occurring to a speckle pattern generated by a laser beam passing through the medium under investigation. The device consists of a sample chamber, a diode laser module, a ground glass diffuser and a digital sensor for recording of laser speckle patterns. The device was found to have high resolution and sensitivity.

  11. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  12. VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR BIN AND MILL IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  13. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  14. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  15. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  16. Effects of science and the media on consumer perceptions about dietary sugars.

    PubMed

    Borra, Susan T; Bouchoux, Ann

    2009-06-01

    Public attitudes about dietary sugars have varied over time, depending on numerous factors including consensus and emerging science, public policy, and consumer attention. The rise of obesity, the increasing concern over its associated health consequences, and the role of sugars in the diet continue to be examined by the scientific community. The media, which closely monitor scientific publications and policy development, endeavor to communicate these research findings, along with policy debates, as information for the general public. Because consumers tend to get most of their health and nutrition information from the media, they have been exposed to a significant amount of information on dietary sugars. This article describes how scientific findings and nutrition policy discussions affect media reports and, consequently, consumer perceptions about dietary sugars including obesity, low-carbohydrate diets, the glycemic index, and high-fructose corn syrup.

  17. The role of hydrogen-bonding interactions in acidic sugar reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xianghong; Johnson, David K; Himmel, Michael E; Nimlos, Mark R

    2010-09-03

    Previously, theoretical multiple sugar (beta-d-xylose and beta-d-glucose) reaction pathways were discovered that depended on the initial protonation site on the sugar molecules using Car-Parrinello-based molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations [Qian, X. H.; Nimlos, M. R.; Davis, M.; Johnson, D. K.; Himmel, M. E. Carbohydr. Res.2005, 340, 2319-2327]. In addition, simulation results showed that water molecules could participate in the sugar reactions, thus altering the reaction pathways. In the present study, the temperature and water density effects on the sugar degradation pathways were investigated with CPMD. We found that changes in both temperature and water density could profoundly affect the mechanisms and pathways. We attributed these effects to both the strength of hydrogen bonding and proton affinity of water.

  18. Environmental Setting of the Sugar Creek and Leary Weber Ditch Basins, Indiana, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates streamflow-gaging stations at Sugar Creek at New Palestine and at Leary Weber Ditch at Mohawk within the study area. Mean daily streamflow for Sugar Creek is higher than streamflow at Leary Weber Ditch. Through most of its length, Sugar Creek is a gaining stream and base flow is supported by ground-water sources. At Leary Weber Ditch, there is little to no streamflow when tile drains are dry. Modifications to the natural hydrology of the study area include a large system of tile drains, the intersection of Sugar Creek by several major roads, and outflows from nearby wastewater-treatment plants. Leary Weber Ditch is affected only by tile drains.

  19. Blood collection tubes as medical devices: The potential to affect assays and proposed verification and validation processes for the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Adcock, Dorothy M

    2016-12-01

    Blood collection tubes (BCTs) are an often under-recognized variable in the preanalytical phase of clinical laboratory testing. Unfortunately, even the best-designed and manufactured BCTs may not work well in all clinical settings. Clinical laboratories, in collaboration with healthcare providers, should carefully evaluate BCTs prior to putting them into clinical use to determine their limitations and ensure that patients are not placed at risk because of inaccuracies due to poor tube performance. Selection of the best BCTs can be achieved through comparing advertising materials, reviewing the literature, observing the device at a scientific meeting, receiving a demonstration, evaluating the device under simulated conditions, or testing the device with patient samples. Although many publications have discussed method validations, few detail how to perform experiments for tube verification and validation. This article highlights the most common and impactful variables related to BCTs and discusses the validation studies that a typical clinical laboratory should perform when selecting BCTs. We also present a brief review of how in vitro diagnostic devices, particularly BCTs, are regulated in the United States, the European Union, and Canada. The verification and validation of BCTs will help to avoid the economic and human costs associated with incorrect test results, including poor patient care, unnecessary testing, and delays in test results. We urge laboratorians, tube manufacturers, diagnostic companies, and other researchers to take all the necessary steps to protect against the adverse effects of BCT components and their additives on clinical assays.

  20. Periconceptional undernutrition affects in utero methyltransferase expression and steroid hormone concentrations in uterine flushings and blood plasma during the peri-implantation period in domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Franczak, A; Zglejc, K; Waszkiewicz, E; Wojciechowicz, B; Martyniak, M; Sobotka, W; Okrasa, S; Kotwica, G

    2016-08-18

    Female undernutrition during early pregnancy may affect the physiological pattern of genomic DNA methylation. We hypothesised that in utero DNA methylation may be impaired in females fed a restrictive diet in early pregnancy. In this study we evaluated whether poor maternal nutritional status, induced by applying a restricted diet during the peri-conceptional period, may influence: (1) the potential for in utero DNA methylation, expressed as changes in the mRNA expression and protein abundance of methyltransferases: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a in the endometrium and the myometrium, (2) the intrauterine microenvironment, measured as oestradiol 17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations in uterine flushings and (3) plasma concentration of E2 and P4 during the peri-implantation period. Our results indicate that maternal peri-conceptional undernutrition affects maintenance and de novo DNA methylation in the endometrium, de novo methylation in the myometrium and a results in a decrease in intrauterine E2 concentration during the peri-implantation period. The intrauterine concentration of P4 and plasma concentrations of E2 and P4 did not change. These findings suggest that undernutrition during the earliest period of pregnancy, and perhaps the pre-pregnancy period, may create changes in epigenetic mechanisms in the uterus and intrauterine milieu of E2 during the peri-implantation period.