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Sample records for affect body mass

  1. Does Body Mass Index Affect Mortality in Coronary Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Protopapas, Aristotle D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Body Mass Index (BMI) quantifies nutritional status and classifies humans as underweight, of normal weight, overweight, mildly obese, moderately obese or morbidly obese. Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat, defined as BMI higher than 30 kg/m2. Obesity is widely accepted to complicate anaesthesia and surgery, being a risk factor for mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought the evidence on operative mortality of CABG between standard BMI groups. Materials and Methodology: A simple literature review of papers presenting the mortality of CABG by BMI group: Underweight (BMI ≤ 18.49 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2), mild obesity (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2), moderate obesity (BMI 35.0–39.9 kg/m2), or morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2). Results: We identified 18 relevant studies with 1,027,711 patients in total. Their variability in size of samples and choice of BMI groups precluded us from attempting inferential statistics. The overall cumulative mortality was 2.7%. Underweight patients had by far the highest mortality (6.6%). Overweight patients had the lowest group mortality (2.1%). The group mortality for morbidly obese patients was 3.44%. Discussion: Patients with extreme BMI’s undergoing CABG (underweight ones more than morbidly obese) suffer increased crude mortality. This simple observation indicates that under nutrition and morbid obesity need be further explored as risk factors for coronary surgery. PMID:28217179

  2. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  3. Does body mass index and position of impacted lower third molar affect the postoperative pain intensity?

    PubMed

    Matijević, Marko; Uzarević, Zvonimir; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Leović, Dinko; Ivanisević, Zrinka; Matijević-Mikelić, Valentina; Bogut, Irella; Vcev, Aleksandar; Macan, Darko

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine to which extent body mass index and position of impacted lower third molar was affecting the pain intensity in the first seven postoperative days. The study was conducted following the extraction of the lower third molar in 108 patients. Depending on the type of information given to each particular patient, the patients were divided in two groups: the test group where patients were given detailed standard written and verbal instructions and the control group which received only standard written instructions about treatment after surgery. Using canonical discriminant analysis we investigated the influence of body mass index and the position of impacted lower third molar on postoperative pain intensity in two groups of patients. Results of this study showed that the body mass index or the tooth position did not have influence on intensity of postoperative pain. The body mass index and the position of impacted lower third molar do not affect the postoperative pain intensity.

  4. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  5. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  6. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  7. Facial affective reactions to bitter-tasting foods and body mass index in adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, D; Zamora, M C

    2013-12-01

    Differences in food consumption among body-weight statuses (e.g., higher fruit intake linked with lower body mass index (BMI) and energy-dense products with higher BMI) has raised the question of why people who are overweight or are at risk of becoming overweight eat differently from thinner people. One explanation, in terms of sensitivity to affective properties of food, suggests that palatability-driven consumption is likely to be an important contributor to food intake, and therefore body weight. Extending this approach to unpalatable tastes, we examined the relationship between aversive reactions to foods and BMI. We hypothesized that people who have a high BMI will show more negative affective reactions to bitter-tasting stimuli, even after controlling for sensory perception differences. Given that hedonic reactions may influence consumption even without conscious feelings of pleasure/displeasure, the facial expressions were included in order to provide more direct access to affective systems than subjective reports. Forty adults (28 females, 12 males) participated voluntarily. Their ages ranged from 18 to 46 years (M=24.2, SD=5.8). On the basis of BMI, participants were classified as low BMI (BMI<20; n=20) and high BMI (BMI>23; n=20). The mean BMI was 19.1 for low BMI (SD=0.7) and 25.2 for high BMI participants (SD=1.8). Each subject tasted 5 mL of a grapefruit juice drink and a bitter chocolate drink. Subjects rated the drinks' hedonic and incentive value, familiarity and bitter intensity immediately after each stimulus presentation. The results indicated that high BMI participants reacted to bitter stimuli showing more profound changes from baseline in neutral and disgust facial expressions compared with low BMI. No differences between groups were detected for the subjective pleasantness and familiarity. The research here is the first to examine how affective facial reactions to bitter food, apart from taste responsiveness, can predict differences in BMI.

  8. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  9. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  10. Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Costantini, David; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood. PMID:27759087

  11. Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Costantini, David; Abdelgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood.

  12. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women.

    PubMed

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis.

  13. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  14. Environmental variation at the onset of independent foraging affects full-grown body mass in the red fox.

    PubMed

    Soulsbury, Carl D; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen

    2008-10-22

    The period following the withdrawal of parental care has been highlighted as a key developmental period for juveniles. One reason for this is that juveniles cannot forage as competently as adults, potentially placing them at greater risk from environmentally-induced changes in food availability. However, no study has examined this topic. Using a long-term dataset on red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), we examined (i) dietary changes that occurred in the one-month period following the attainment of nutritional independence, (ii) diet composition in relation to climatic variation, and (iii) the effect of climatic variation on subsequent full-grown mass. Diet at nutritional independence contained increased quantities of easy-to-catch food items (earthworms and insects) when compared with pre-independence. Interannual variation in the volume of rainfall at nutritional independence was positively correlated to the proportion of earthworms in cub diet. Pre-independence cub mass and rainfall immediately following nutritional independence explained a significant proportion of variance in full-grown mass, with environmental variation affecting full-grown mass of the entire cohorts. Thus, weather-mediated availability of easy-to-catch food items at a key developmental stage has lifelong implications for the development of juvenile foxes by affecting full-grown mass, which in turn appears to be an important component of individual reproductive potential.

  15. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-09

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory.

  16. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (<22.5 kg/m(2)) and high BMI (>27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces.

  17. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental impairments in visual social cognition. PMID:21713180

  18. Chronic exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide and high-fat feeding increases body mass without affecting glucose tolerance in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Dudele, Anete; Fischer, Christina W; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers; Wang, Tobias; Lund, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-related inflammation may have a causal role in the development of diabetes and insulin resistance, and studies using animal models of chronic experimental endotoxemia have shown the link. However, many studies use only males, and much less is known about the role of obesity-related inflammation in females. Therefore, we addressed how experimentally induced chronic inflammation affects body mass, energy intake, and glucose metabolism in female rats. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with slow release pellets that delivered a constant daily dose of 53 or 207 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per rat for 60 days. Control rats were instrumented with vehicle pellets. Due to inflammatory nature of high-fat diet (HFD) half of the rats received HFD (60% of calories from lard), while the other half remained on control diet to detect possible interactions between two modes of induced inflammation. Our results showed that chronic LPS administration increased female rat body mass and calorie intake in a dose-dependent manner, and that HFD further exacerbated these effects. Despite these effects, no effects of LPS and HFD were evident on female rat glucose metabolism. Only LPS elevated expression of inflammatory markers in the hypothalamus. To conclude, female rats respond to experimentally induced chronic inflammation by increasing body mass, but do not develop glucose intolerance in the given period of time. PMID:26537342

  19. Gravity and body mass regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  20. Analysis of selected pharmaceuticals in fish and the fresh water bodies directly affected by reclaimed water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Gardinali, Piero R

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method for the analysis of 11 target pharmaceuticals representing multiple commonly used therapeutic classes was developed for biological tissues (fish), reclaimed water, and the surface water directly affected by irrigation with reclaimed water. One gram of fish tissue homogenate was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with methylene chloride followed by mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to previously reported methods, the protocol produces cleaner extracts resulting in lower method detection limits. Similarly, an SPE method based on Oasis HLB cartridges was used to concentrate and cleanup reclaimed and surface water samples. Among the 11 target compounds analyzed, trimethoprim, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, carbamazepine, erythromycin, and fluoxetine were consistently detected in reclaimed water. Caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine were consistently detected in fish and surface water samples. Bioaccumulation factors for caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine in mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki) were calculated at 29 ± 26, 821 ± 422, and 108 ± 144, respectively. This is the first report of potential accumulation of caffeine in fish from a water body directly influenced by reclaimed water. Figure The pharmaceuticals detected in reclaimed water and the fresh water directly affected by reclaimed water.

  1. Body Mass Measurement Chair - Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Skylab's Body Mass Measurement chair, the facility of the Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172), is shown here in this 1970 photograph. The M172 experiment determined the body mass of each crew member and observed changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight in significantly aided in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  2. Body Mass Measurement - Skylab Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This chart provides details on Skylab's Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172). The M172 experiment was a medical study to determine the body mass of each crew member and observe changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight aided significantly in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  3. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor lowers PPARγ agonist-induced body weight gain by affecting food intake, fat mass, and beige/brown fat but not fluid retention

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Fu, Yiling; Eguchi, Akiko; Czogalla, Jan; Rose, Michael A.; Kuczkowski, Alexander; Gerasimova, Maria; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Scadeng, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists like pioglitazone (PGZ) are effective antidiabetic drugs, but they induce fluid retention and body weight (BW) gain. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that enhance renal Na+ and fluid excretion. Therefore, we examined whether the DPP IV inhibitor alogliptin (ALG) ameliorates PGZ-induced BW gain. Male Sv129 mice were treated with vehicle (repelleted diet), PGZ (220 mg/kg diet), ALG (300 mg/kg diet), or a combination of PGZ and ALG (PGZ + ALG) for 14 days. PGZ + ALG prevented the increase in BW observed with PGZ but did not attenuate the increase in body fluid content determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS revealed that ALG alone had no effect on fat mass (FM) but enhanced the FM-lowering effect of PGZ; MRI analysis confirmed the latter and showed reductions in visceral and inguinal subcutaneous (sc) white adipose tissue (WAT). ALG but not PGZ decreased food intake and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Conversely, PGZ but not ALG increased mRNA expression of thermogenesis mediator uncoupling protein 1 in epididymal WAT. Adding ALG to PGZ treatment increased the abundance of multilocular cell islets in sc WAT, and PGZ + ALG increased the expression of brown-fat-like “beige” cell marker TMEM26 in sc WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue and increased rectal temperature vs. vehicle. In summary, DPP IV inhibition did not attenuate PPARγ agonist-induced fluid retention but prevented BW gain by reducing FM. This involved ALG inhibition of food intake and was associated with food intake-independent synergistic effects of PPARγ agonism and DPP-IV inhibition on beige/brown fat cells and thermogenesis. PMID:24347054

  4. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma Promoter Region (−359 to −260) Methylation in the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Casamadrid, VRE; Amaya, CA; Mendieta, ZH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (-359 to - 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and Methods: In this matched, cohort study 41 pregnant women were allocated into two groups: (a) Normal weight (n = 21) and (b) overweight (n = 20). DNA was extracted from maternal and neonatal leukocytes (4000-10,000 cells) in MagNA Pure (Roche) using MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit 1 (Roche, Germany). Treatment of DNA (2 μg) was performed with sodium bisulfite (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct™ Kit; Zymo Research). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in a LightCycler 2.0 (Roche) using the SYBR® Advantage® qPCR Premix Kit (Clontech). The primers used for PPARγ coactivator (PPARG) M3 were 5’- aagacggtttggtcgatc-3’ (forward), and5’- cgaaaaaaaatccgaaatttaa-3’ (reverse) and those for PPARG unmethylated were: 5’-gggaagatggtttggttgatt-3’ (forward) and 5’- ttccaaaaaaaaatccaaaatttaa-3’ (reverse). Intergroup differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and intragroup differences, with the Wilcoxon test (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Results: Significant differences were found in BMI, pregestational weight, and postdelivery weight between groups but not in the methylation status of the PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260). Conclusion: The PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260) in peripheral leukocytes is unlikely to get an obesity-induced methylation in pregnancy. PMID:27144075

  5. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  6. Influence of increased body mass and body composition on cycling anaerobic power.

    PubMed

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Wiecek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szygula, Zbigniew; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that not only body fat (BF) but high lean body mass (HLBM) adversely affects aerobic performance and may reduce aerobic endurance performance as well. However, the influence of body composition on anaerobic performance remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the effects of increased body mass (BM) and body composition on cycling anaerobic power. Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) measurements were conducted in 2 groups of men with similar total BM but different body compositions resulting from (a) high level of BF [HBF group] or (b) high level of lean body mass [HLBM group] and in a control group. Peak power and MP were calculated in absolute values, relative to BM and lean body mass (LBM), and using allometric scaling. Absolute PP and MP were significantly higher in the HLBM group compared with the control and HBF groups. However, PP and MP relative to BM and using allometric scaling were similar in the HLBM and control groups, yet significantly higher than in the HBF group. There were no significant differences between groups in PP and MP when presented relative to LBM. Therefore, it seems that it is not BM but rather body composition that affects PP. Increased BM, resulting from increased LBM, does not adversely affect cycling anaerobic power, but a BM increase resulting from an increase in BF may adversely affect PP. Therefore, coaches and athletes should avoid excess BF to maximize cycling anaerobic power.

  7. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  8. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  9. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  10. Paranormal belief, schizotypy, and Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.

  11. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... using three key measures: body mass index (BMI) waist circumference, and risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity. Waist Circumference Determine your waist circumference by placing a measuring ...

  12. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  13. Factish relations: Affective bodies in diabetes treatment.

    PubMed

    Danholt, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Chronic diseases pose a major challenge to contemporary western healthcare systems, and consequently there are numerous initiatives designed to meet these challenges. Patient empowerment is considered to be extremely important in chronic disease management. But what does it mean to become an 'active patient', managing a condition? This article argues that people are always active in shaping their agency and the agency of numerous others, and that we need to attend to these processes of configuration in order to better understand and conceptualize the problem of chronic disease management. This article analyses the daily practices of people with Type 2 Diabetes, with the use of what is described as the 'sociology of attachment' in the field of science and technology studies. The implications of seeing and analysing chronic conditions in this manner are that determinist understandings of chronic conditions are challenged. Accordingly, an experimental and constructive attitude towards the production and assembling of the chronically ill body is enabled. Such an attitude holds that relations with multiple other bodies and entities, such as technologies, the disease, medication and so on continuously and relentlessly affect how the condition unfolds and consequently, the room for interventional strategies and transformation of the chronically ill body is enlarged.

  14. Body Mass Index Measurement in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihiser, Allison J.; Lee, Sarah M.; Wechsler, Howell; McKenna, Mary; Odom, Erica; Reinold, Chris; Thompson, Diane; Grummer-Strawn, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) measurement has attracted much attention across the nation from researchers, school officials, legislators, and the media as a potential approach to address obesity among youth. Methods: An expert panel, convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2005, reviewed and provided…

  15. Body Mass Index and Mortality in CKD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse survival in the general population, but appears to confer a survival advantage in patients with kidney failure treated by hemodialysis. Data are limited on the relationship of BMI with mortality in patients in the earlier stages of c...

  16. Genetics of fat intake in the determination of body mass.

    PubMed

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Mlodzik, Monika A

    2017-03-15

    Body mass and fat intake are multifactorial traits that have genetic and environmental components. The gene with the greatest effect on body mass is FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated), but several studies have shown that the effect of FTO (and of other genes) on body mass can be modified by the intake of nutrients. The so-called gene-environment interactions may also be important for the effectiveness of weight-loss strategies. Food choices, and thus fat intake, depend to some extent on individual preferences. The most important biological component of food preference is taste, and the role of fat sensitivity in fat intake has recently been pointed out. Relatively few studies have analysed the genetic components of fat intake or fatty acid sensitivity in terms of their relation to obesity. It has been proposed that decreased oral fatty acid sensitivity leads to increased fat intake and thus increased body mass. One of the genes that affect fatty acid sensitivity is CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36). However, little is known so far about the genetic component of fat sensing. We performed a literature review to identify the state of knowledge regarding the genetics of fat intake and its relation to body-mass determination, and to identify the priorities for further investigations.

  17. The effects of exercise on body satisfaction and affect.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Marie L; Crowther, Janis H

    2010-03-01

    This research used ecological momentary assessment to examine the effects of exercise on state body dissatisfaction and affect in 33 undergraduate females with high trait body dissatisfaction and 28 with low trait body dissatisfaction who exercised at least three times weekly. Trait body dissatisfaction was investigated as a moderator of the effects of exercise as well as different motivations for exercise. Results indicated all participants experienced lower state body dissatisfaction and negative affect and greater positive affect post-exercise. Trait body dissatisfaction moderated the association between motivations and exercise effects. Appearance and weight motivations were related to higher state body dissatisfaction for all individuals. Fitness and health motivations were related to higher state body dissatisfaction for high trait body dissatisfied individuals and lower state body dissatisfaction for low trait body dissatisfied individuals. Thus, although exercise has positive effects on body dissatisfaction and affect for high frequency exercisers, their exercise motivations impact these effects.

  18. Gender dimorphism of body mass perception and regulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiedmer, Petra; Boschmann, Michael; Klaus, Susanne

    2004-07-01

    According to the set-point theory of body mass, changes in body mass are perceived by the body, leading to activation of compensatory feedback mechanisms, which in turn restores the set-point body mass. However, this theory is still under debate. To test if mass per se might be sensed and regulated, we implanted loads corresponding to 10% (HI) or 2% (LO, control) of body mass into mice in addition to sham-operated mice (SO). We recorded body mass, food intake, energy expenditure and body composition over 14 weeks. Both male and female mice showed an initial stress-induced loss of body mass, which was more pronounced in males. Subsequently, male HI mice displayed a permanently decreased biological body mass (MBB, body mass exclusive of the implant mass), equivalent to approximately half of the mass of the implant, and obtained by a decrease in fat mass compared to SO males. In contrast, female HI mice rapidly recovered and maintained their initial MBB and body composition following a mass load. Initial lean body mass was maintained in all male and female groups, and energy intake was similar in all male and female groups. Body mass changes could not be explained by measurable changes in energy intake or expenditure. We conclude that changes in body mass are perceived and partially compensated in male but not in female mice, suggesting that mass-specific regulation of body mass might not play a major role in overall body mass regulation. Different compartments of the body are possibly regulated by different signals and stimuli. Our results suggest that lean body mass rather than body mass per se seems to be tightly regulated. Higher efficiency of energy utilization in females compared to males could explain the gender-specific changes in energy balance.

  19. Body mass index in Serbian Roma.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Andrew; Cvorović, Jelena; Strkalj, Goran

    2009-01-01

    Stature and body mass were measured in 346 individuals belonging to three Roma groups from metropolitan Belgrade western Serbia. As with the majority of Serbian Roma, the participants in this study have been historically disadvantaged and their situation was further aggravated during the recent political crises. Surprisingly, the body mass index (BMI) of Serbian Roma is relatively high compared with western Europeans and is inconsistent with the view that Serbian Roma are predisposed to high rates of chronic energy deficiency ( approximately 4%). While the majority of individual Roma display BMI values within the normal range (WHO, 1995), certain groups have a moderate to high proportion of individuals ( approximately 35%) who could be classified as overweight and some who approach at-risk levels for clinical obesity.

  20. Effects of Rapid or Slow Body Mass Reduction on Body Composition in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Shinji; Tsurumi, Yasukimi; Yokota, Yukari; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Okamura, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Whether the speed of body mass (BM) reduction influences the body composition is uncertain. To investigate the effects of rapid vs slow body mass reduction on body composition, rats were divided into three groups; fed ad libitum for 16-day (Control, C); received restricted food intake during 16-day to decrease BM slowly (Slow, S); or fed ad libitum for 13-days and fasted for the last 3 days to rapidly reach a BM comparable to that of S (Rapid, R). Drinking water was restricted for R on day 16 to rapidly decrease their BM. All rats trained during the study. Final BM and adipose tissues mass were similar for R and S, and both were lesser than C. The skeletal muscle mass did not decrease in R and S. The liver mass was lower in R and S than C, and the decrease tended to be greater in R than S. Both the stomach and small intestine masses were significantly lower in R than C, but did not differ between S and C. In conclusion, differences of the speed of BM reduction affect the splanchnic tissues, and the decrease in splanchnic tissue mass was greater with rapid than slow BM reduction. PMID:19794927

  1. Body mass index and suicide methods.

    PubMed

    Wingren, Carl Johan; Ottosson, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with lower rates of suicide. However, little is known about the association with different suicide methods. We studied the association between groups of body mass index and suicide methods. We identified all medicolegal autopsy cases with a cause of death due to external causes in Sweden during 1999-2013 (N = 39,368) and included 11,715 suicides and 13,316 accidents or homicides as controls. We applied multinomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, year and season of death. Obesity was associated with suicidal intoxication, OR 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.30] and negatively associated with all other suicide methods studied. Underweight showed a negative association with suicidal drowning and there was an indication towards a negative association with hanging in men OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.01). We conclude that body mass index (BMI) is associated with the choice of suicide method. This may be of importance in a public health perspective, e.g. potential for prevention of intoxications. In the practice of forensic medicine, the physician's level of suspicion may rise if the apparent suicidal method is less common for the individual characteristics of the deceased, such as BMI.

  2. Impact of body mass on job quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2015-04-01

    The current study explores the association between body mass and job quality, a composite measurement of job characteristics, for adults. We use nationally representative data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study for the years 2005, 2007, and 2008 with 7282 person-year observations for men and 4611 for women. A Quality of Work Index (QWI) is calculated based on work content, job security, the possibilities for improvement, compensation, work conditions, and interpersonal relationships at work. The key independent variable is the body mass index (kg/m(2)) splined at 18.5, 25, and 30. For men, BMI is positively associated with the QWI only in the normal weight segment (+0.19 percentage points at the 10th, +0.28 at the 50th, +0.32 at the 75th, +0.34 at the 90th, and +0.48 at the 95th quantiles). A unit increase in the BMI for women is associated with a lower QWI at the lower quantiles in the normal weight segment (-0.28 at the 5th, -0.19 at the 10th, and -0.25 percentage points at the 25th quantiles) and at the upper quantiles in the overweight segment (-1.15 at the 90th and -1.66 percentage points at the 95th quantiles). The results imply a spill-over cost of overweight or obesity beyond its impact on health in terms of success in the labor market.

  3. Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

  4. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-03-13

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  5. Body position affects performance in untrained cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, M; Scroop, G; Frisken, P; Amery, C; Wilkins, M; Khan, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare cardiovascular and ventilatory variables in upright versus aero cycle ergometry at submaximal and maximal exercise intensities in untrained cyclists. Method: Ten physically active men (mean (SD) age 19.1 (1.10) years) who were unfamiliar with aerobars underwent maximal exercise testing and steady state cycling at 50, 100, and 150 W. Results: Participants had significantly greater maxima for oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation, heart rate, and workload maximum in the upright position. During steady state cycling at the three workloads, VO2 (ml/kg/min) and gross mechanical efficiency were significantly greater in the upright position. Conclusions: In untrained subjects performing with maximal effort, the upright position permits greater VO2, ventilation, heart rate, and workload maxima. Further, in the steady state, exercise cycling may be less costly in the upright position. For this reason, untrained cyclists need to weigh body position effects against the well known aerodynamic advantages of the aero position. PMID:14514538

  6. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  7. Pharmacology of manipulating lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Patricio V; Bush, Ernest D; Baar, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dysfunction and wasting of skeletal muscle as a consequence of illness decreases the length and quality of life. Currently, there are few, if any, effective treatments available to address these conditions. Hence, the existence of this unmet medical need has fuelled large scientific efforts.Fortunately, these efforts have shown many of the underlying mechanisms adversely affecting skeletal muscle health.With increased understanding have come breakthrough disease-specific and broad spectrum interventions, some progressing through clinical development.The present review focuses its attention on the role of the antagonistic process regulating skeletal muscle mass before branching into prospective promising therapeutic targets and interventions. Special attention is given to therapies in development against cancer cachexia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy before closing remarks on design and conceptualization of future therapies are presented to the reader. PMID:25311629

  8. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  9. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Relaxation methods, such as meditation, listening to music, listening to guided imagery CD's or mp3's, yoga, ... Article >>Mental HealthPostpartum Depression (PPD)Postpartum depression affects women after childbirth. It includes feelings of sadness, loneliness, ...

  10. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  11. Inequality of the passive gravitational mass and the inertial mass of an extended body

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V.I.; Chugreev, Y.V.; Logunov, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    In the framework of the problem of two extended bodies, a new definition of the passive gravitational mass of an extended, spherically symmetric body (the Earth) is given. If this mass is equal to the inertial mass, the equation of motion of the center of mass of the extended body becomes the equation of a geodesic of a point in the total gravitational field of the two extended bodies (the Earth and the Sun). It is shown that in general the passive gravitational mass is not equal to the inertial mass, and therefore the center of mass does not move along a geodesic.

  12. Stochastic modeling of uncertain mass characteristics in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Lanae A.; Mignolet, Marc P.

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on the formulation, assessment, and application of a modeling strategy of uncertainty on the mass characteristics of rigid bodies, i.e. mass, position of center of mass, and inertia tensor. These characteristics are regrouped into a 4×4 matrix the elements of which are represented as random variables with joint probability density function derived following the maximum entropy framework. This stochastic model is first shown to satisfy all properties expected of the mass and tensor of inertia of rigid bodies. Its usefulness and computational efficiency are next demonstrated on the behavior of a rigid body in pure rotation exhibiting significant uncertainty in mass distribution.

  13. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  14. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity.

  15. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  16. Body mass reconstruction on the basis of selected skeletal traits.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Anna; Piontek, Janusz; Vancata, Vaclav

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is: to estimate the body mass of the skeletons with the mechanical method (femoral head body mass estimation method--FH) and non-mechanical method (stature/living bi-iliac breadth body mass estimation method--ST/LBIB); to compare the reliability and potential use of results obtained with both methods. The material (46 skeletons, 26 males, 20 females) used in the study came from the medieval burial ground in Cedynia, Poland. Body mass reconstruction according to non-mechanical method was made using equations proposed by Ruff et al. (2005). Body mass estimation based on the mechanical method was calculated using formulas proposed by Ruff et al. (1995). In the mechanical body mass reconstruction method, femoral superoinferior breadth was used. Reconstruction of body weight using the non-mechanical method was based on maximum pelvic breadth and reconstructed body height. The correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height were also calculated. The significance of differences between the body mass of male and female individuals was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The significance of differences between body mass values obtained with the mechanical (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/ LBIB) was tested using Pearson's correlation. The same test was used for the calculation of the relationship between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and between femoral head and reconstructed body height. In contrast to females, in males there is no statistically significant correlation between body mass estimated with the mechanical method (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/LBIB). In both sexes there was not statistically significant correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements. Only in the females group the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height was statistically significant. It is worth to continue

  17. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  18. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats.

  19. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  20. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  1. Elevated Patient Body Mass Index Does Not Negatively Affect Self-Reported Outcomes of Thoracolumbar Surgery: Results of a Comparative Observational Study with Minimum 1-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Manson, Neil A; Green, Alana J; Abraham, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Quantify the effect of obesity on elective thoracolumbar spine surgery patients. Methods Five hundred consecutive adult patients undergoing thoracolumbar spine surgery to treat degenerative pathologies with minimum follow-up of at least 1 year were included. Primary outcome measures included Numerical Rating Scales for back and leg pain, the Short Form 36 Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary, the modified Oswestry Disability Index, and patient satisfaction scores collected preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included perioperative and postoperative adverse events, postoperative emergency department presentation, hospital readmission, and revision surgeries. Patients were grouped according to World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) guidelines to isolate the effect of obesity on primary and secondary outcome measures. Results Mean BMI was 30 kg/m(2), reflecting a significantly overweight population. Each BMI group reported statistically significant improvement on all self-reported outcome measures. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, there was no association between BMI group and primary outcome measures. Patients with BMI of 35 to 39.99 visited the emergency department with complaints of pain significantly more often than the other groups. Otherwise, we did not detect any differences in the secondary outcome measures between BMI groups. Conclusions Patients of all levels of obesity experienced significant improvement following elective thoracolumbar spine surgery. These outcomes were achieved without increased risk of postoperative complications such as infection and reoperation. A risk-benefit algorithm to assist with surgical decision making for obese patients would be valuable to surgeons and patients alike.

  2. Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments

    PubMed Central

    Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

    2014-01-01

    For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

  3. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  4. Adjusting powerlifting performances for differences in body mass.

    PubMed

    Cleather, Daniel John

    2006-05-01

    It has been established that, in the sports of Olympic weightlifting (OL) and powerlifting (PL), the relationship between lifting performance and body mass is not linear. This relationship has been frequently studied in OL, but the literature on PL is less extensive. In this study, PL performance and body mass, for both men and women, was examined by using data from the International Powerlifting Federation World Championships during 1995-2004. Nonlinear regression was used to apply 7 models (including allometric, polynomial, and power models) to the data. The results of this study indicate that the relationship between PL performance and body mass can be best modeled by the equation y = a - bx(-c), where y is the weight lifted (in kg) in the squat, bench press, or deadlift, x is the body mass of the lifter (in kg), and a, b, and c are constants. The constants a, b, and c are determined by the type of lift (squat, bench press, or deadlift) and the gender of the lifter and were obtained from the regression analysis. Inspection of the plots of raw residuals (actual performance minus predicted performance) vs. body mass revealed no body mass bias to this formula in contrast to research into other handicapping formulas. This study supports previous research that found a bias toward lifters in the intermediate weight categories in allometric fits to PL data.

  5. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  6. A New Body Shape Index Predicts Mortality Hazard Independently of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Krakauer, Jesse C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI), it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC) is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC. Methods and Findings We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults () from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths). We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI) based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: –]), whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. (–) of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to (–) for BMI and (–) for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity), and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up. Conclusions Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors. PMID:22815707

  7. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size. PMID:26063751

  8. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Falkingham, Peter L; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C R

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size.

  9. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  10. The scaling of eye size with body mass in birds

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, M. de L.; Hanley, S.; Laughlin, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a simple method that uses skulls to estimate the diameter, and hence the mass, of birds' eyes. Allometric analysis demonstrated that, within five orders (parrots, pigeons, petrels, raptors and owls) and across 104 families of flying birds, eye mass is proportional to (body mass)0.68 over a range of body masses (6 g to 11.3 kg). As expected from their habits and visual ecology, raptors and owls have enlarged eyes, with masses 1.4 and 2.2 times greater than average birds of the same weight. Taking existing relationships for flight speed on body mass, we find that resolution increases close to (flight speed)1.333. Consequently, large birds resolve objects at a longer time to contact than small birds. Eye radius and skull size co-vary in strict proportion, suggesting common physiological, aerodynamic and mechanical constraints. Because eye mass scales close to brain mass, metabolic rate and information processing could also be limiting, but the precise factors determining the scaling of eye to body have not been identified.

  11. Linking body mass and group dynamics in an obligate cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Bateman, Andrew W; English, Sinead; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-11-01

    Social and environmental factors influence key life-history processes and population dynamics by affecting fitness-related phenotypic traits such as body mass. The role of body mass is particularly pronounced in cooperative breeders due to variation in social status and consequent variation in access to resources. Investigating the mechanisms underlying variation in body mass and its demographic consequences can help elucidate how social and environmental factors affect the dynamics of cooperatively breeding populations. In this study, we present an analysis of the effect of individual variation in body mass on the temporal dynamics of group size and structure of a cooperatively breeding mongoose, the Kalahari meerkat, Suricata suricatta. First, we investigate how body mass interacts with social (dominance status and number of helpers) and environmental (rainfall and season) factors to influence key life-history processes (survival, growth, emigration and reproduction) in female meerkats. Next, using an individual-based population model, we show that the models explicitly including individual variation in body mass predict group dynamics better than those ignoring this morphological trait. Body mass influences group dynamics mainly through its effects on helper emigration and dominant reproduction. Rainfall has a trait-mediated, destabilizing effect on group dynamics, whereas the number of helpers has a direct and stabilizing effect. Counteracting effects of number of helpers on different demographic rates, despite generating temporal fluctuations, stabilizes group dynamics in the long term. Our study demonstrates that social and environmental factors interact to produce individual variation in body mass and accounting for this variation helps to explain group dynamics in this cooperatively breeding population.

  12. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  13. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-09

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  14. [Body mass regulation by estrogen and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Daniele L; Frankenfeld, Tamar G P; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Vaisman, Mário; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro Saar; Carvalho, Denise P

    2009-04-01

    Female steroid hormones deficiency leads to a significant increase in body mass, but the possible central and peripheral mechanisms involved in increased food ingestion and fat accumulation in this situation are still unknown. In animal models, the specific lack of estrogen or its action produce progressive body mass gain, clearly demonstrating the possible role of this hormone in overweight after menopause. Obesity and overweight correspond to a relevant human health problem that can lead to premature death. Therefore unraveling the mechanisms underlying body mass gain is of great relevance, as well as the development of strategies to prevent its establishment. Energy balance regulation is associated with the control of body mass, and physical exercise is an important modulator of this homeostatic parameter. However, the influence of physical exercise in mass gain development during estrogen deficiency is controversial and depends on the exercise protocol used. In this study, we intend to review the data on the effects of estrogen deficiency on body mass gain in humans and animal models.

  15. Regulation of body mass in rats exposed to chronic acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Female rats approximately 6 mo old were chronically centrifuged for up to 30 days at 2.76 G or 3.18 G and sacrificed at intervals for body-composition study. Both fat and the fat-free body mass (FFBM) were reduced during the 1st wk of centrifugation, with the fat showing considerably more variation both within and between groups. The FFBM was reduced below control level to the same extent in rats fed commercial chow, a high-fat diet, or a high-protein diet or in rats prefasted to produce a body-mass deficit at the start of centrifugation. There were no centrifugation-associated changes in body water content. It was concluded that body fat showed no evidence of regulation, FFBM is regulated at any constant level of acceleration between 1 and 4.15 G, and the change in FFBM induced by a change in acceleration is probably not regulated.

  16. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism. PMID:26978071

  17. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism.

  18. The Effect of Body Mass on Outdoor Adult Human Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Spencer, Jessica R; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2017-02-23

    Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6.0), TBS ≥12.5, advanced decomposition (TBS ≥19.0), TBS ≥23.0, and skeletonization (TBS ≥27.0). Results indicate no significant correlation between body mass and KADD at any TBS threshold. Body mass accounted for up to 24.0% of variation in decomposition rate depending on stage, and minor differences in decomposition pattern were observed. Body mass likely has a minimal impact on postmortem interval estimation.

  19. Body mass index and body fat distribution in newly-arrived Vietnamese refugees in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, M; Brock, K; Nguyen, D; Tran-Dinh, H

    1996-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI), body fat distribution and some behavioural variables were examined in an ethnic Vietnamese population newly arrived in Australia. The age range was 23 to 74 years for males (n = 246, mean = 38.8) and 24 to 66 for females (n = 165, mean = 36.4). Mean BMI was 20.62 +/- 2.65 (male) and 21.25 +/- 3.16 (female). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.844 (males) v 0.802 (females), p < 0.0001: waist was 73.7 cm (males) v 71.7 cm (females), (p = 0.007). Male smoking was 69%, female, 1%; the BMI of male non-smokers was higher than that of smokers 21.22 v 20.35 (p = 0.0017). Exercise patterns, diet or alcohol intake did not appear to affect BMI. The mean BMI of this refugee Vietnamese population is low by comparison with the Australian population. Vietnamese females although of lower mean BMI, have higher WHR than Australian females.

  20. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  1. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism. PMID:25431079

  2. Effect of body size and body mass on δ 13 C and δ 15 N in coastal fishes and cephalopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been widely used in the investigation of trophic relations, energy pathways, trophic levels and migrations, under the assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N occurs exclusively due to ontogenetic changes in diet and not body size increase per se. However, several studies have shown that these assumptions are uncertain. Data from food-webs containing an important number of species lack theoretical support on these assumptions because very few species have been tested for δ 13C and δ 15N variation in captivity. However, if sampling comprises a wide range of body sizes from various species, the variation of δ 13C and δ 15N with body size can be investigated. While correlation between body size and δ 13C and δ 15N can be due to ontogenetic diet shifts, stability in such values throughout the size spectrum can be considered an indication that δ 13C and δ 15N in muscle tissues of such species is independent of body size within that size range, and thus the basic assumptions can be applied in the interpretation of such food webs. The present study investigated the variation in muscle δ 13C and δ 15N with body size and body mass of coastal fishes and cephalopods. It was concluded that muscle δ 13C and δ 15N did not vary with body size or mass for all bony fishes with only one exception, the dragonet Callionymus lyra. Muscle δ 13C and δ 15N also did not vary with body size or mass in cartilaginous fishes and cephalopods, meaning that body size/mass per se have no effect on δ 13C or δ 15N, for most species analysed and within the size ranges sampled. The assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N is not affected by body size increase per se was upheld for most organisms and can be applied to the coastal food web studied taking into account that C. lyra is an exception.

  3. School Social Capital and Body Mass Index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Milliren, Carly; Walls, Courtney E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the influence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). Methods: Analyzing data…

  4. The Influence of Increased Body Fat or Lean Body Mass on Aerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Więcek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Wiecha, Szczepan; Cempla, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine aerobic performance in men with an increased body mass due to (a) high body fat (>21.5%) but with a average (59.0–64.3 kg) lean body mass (HBF group) and (b) high lean body mass (>66.3 kg), but with average body fat (14.0–18.5%) (HLBM group). Methods The men in the HBF and HLBM had similar absolute body mass and body mass index (BMI). The aerobic performance was also determined in control group. Methods: Study participants comprised 39 men aged 21.3±1.9 years who did not participate in competitive sports but were recreationally physically active. Participants were divided into three groups. Each group comprised 13 persons. The study involved anthropometric measurements, assessing aerobic performance (VO2max) using an incremental test on a mechanical treadmill. VO2max was expressed in absolute values, relative to body mass (VO2max⋅BM−1), relative to lean body mass (VO2max⋅LBM−1), and relative to BM raised by the exponents of 0.75 and 0.67. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results No statistically significant differences in relative values of VO2max were found between the HBF and HLBM groups, in VO2max⋅BM−1 (50.24±4.56 vs. 53.11±5.45 mL⋅kg−1), VO2max⋅LBM−1 (65.33±5.63 vs. 63.86±7.13 mL⋅kgLBM−1), and VO2max⋅BM−0.75 (150.29±13.5 vs. 160.39±16.15 mL⋅kg−0.75). Values of VO2max⋅BM−1 were significantly lower in the HBF and HLBM groups than in the control group (58.23±5.84 mL⋅kg−1). Conclusion High body mass, regardless of the cause decreases VO2max⋅BM−1. PMID:24752377

  5. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria

    PubMed Central

    Puttick, Mark N.; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2015-01-01

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:26674947

  6. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns.

  7. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  8. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  9. Mass measurement using energy spectra in three-body decays

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; Wardlow, Kyle

    2016-05-24

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this study, we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction of the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off -shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indistinguishable visible final states on both decay sides can be treated by an “event mixing” technique, the performance of which is discussed in detail. In conclusion, taking into account dominant backgrounds, we are able to show that the mass of the gluino and, in favorable cases, that of the neutralino can be determined by this mass measurement strategy.

  10. Mass measurement using energy spectra in three-body decays

    DOE PAGES

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; ...

    2016-05-24

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this study, we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction ofmore » the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off -shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indistinguishable visible final states on both decay sides can be treated by an “event mixing” technique, the performance of which is discussed in detail. In conclusion, taking into account dominant backgrounds, we are able to show that the mass of the gluino and, in favorable cases, that of the neutralino can be determined by this mass measurement strategy.« less

  11. Body Mass Index Measurement in Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As the United States continues to search for answers to the growing problem of obesity among children and adolescents, much attention has focused on body mass index (BMI) measurement programs in schools. The BMI is the ratio of weight to height squared. It is often used to assess weight status because it is relatively easy to measure and it…

  12. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  13. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  14. Influence of ingested lead on body mass of wintering canvasbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hohman, W.L.; Pritchert, R.D.; Pace, R.M. III; Woolington, D.W. ); Helm, R. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of lead shotgun pellets in gizzards of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at Catahoula Lake and the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana, during winter 1987-88 to assess the influence of ingested lead shot on canvasback body mass. The prevalence of ingested lead shot was significantly higher at Catahoula Lake (27%) than at the Mississippi River Delta (4%). Canvasbacks collected at Catahoula Lake showed significant differences in prevalence of ingested lead shot by age and month. The authors attributed age-related and seasonal variations to differences in foraging effort and exposure time. Body mass of canvasbacks at Catahoula Lake, after accounting for age, monthly variation, and body size, was significantly reduced (120 g or 10%) in birds that had lead shot in their gizzards.

  15. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass.

    PubMed

    Edison, Michele N; Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-08-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm.

  16. Analysis of Relationship between the Body Mass Composition and Physical Activity with Body Posture in Children

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Joanna; Czenczek-Lewandowska, Ewelina; Leszczak, Justyna; Mazur, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Excessive body mass in turn may contribute to the development of many health disorders including disorders of musculoskeletal system, which still develops intensively at that time. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between children's body mass composition and body posture. The relationship between physical activity level of children and the parameters characterizing their posture was also evaluated. Material and Methods. 120 school age children between 11 and 13 years were enrolled in the study, including 61 girls and 59 boys. Each study participant had the posture evaluated with the photogrammetric method using the projection moiré phenomenon. Moreover, body mass composition and the level of physical activity were evaluated. Results. Children with the lowest content of muscle tissue showed the highest difference in the height of the inferior angles of the scapulas in the coronal plane. Children with excessive body fat had less slope of the thoracic-lumbar spine, greater difference in the depth of the inferior angles of the scapula, and greater angle of the shoulder line. The individuals with higher level of physical activity have a smaller angle of body inclination. Conclusion. The content of muscle tissue, adipose tissue, and physical activity level determines the variability of the parameter characterizing the body posture. PMID:27761467

  17. Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait.

    PubMed

    Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R

    1986-05-01

    Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean height of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory height to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct height is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations.

  18. Contribution of tissues to body mass in elk

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, S.D.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for Reference Man has been developed to express the relative contribution of tissues and organs to total body mass in humans. The objectives of this study are to (1) develop a Reference Elk model for the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elophus nelsoni) and (2) compare the model developed with similar data for Reference Man and mule deer. Five female elk were collected from the eastern slope of the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Relative weights of tissue and organs were determined. Relative amounts of skeletal muscle, bone, and lung tissues are similar between the three species. Tissues showing the greatest differences in relative mass were the adrenals and brain. The brain of man contributed 13 times more to total body mass than did the brain of elk. Percentages for most other tissues and organs varied by a factor of about 2 to 3 between species. (RJC)

  19. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2013-01-22

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record--all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales.

  20. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Zanno, Lindsay E.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record—all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales. PMID:23193135

  1. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally ‘active’ individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID

  2. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins.

  3. Increase of total body water with decrease of body mass while running 100 km nonstop--formation of edema?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition, bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine total body water, and urinary (urinary specific gravity) and hematological parameters (hematocrit and plasma sodium) were measured in order to determine hydration status. Body mass decreased by 1.6 kg (p < .01), fat mass by 0.4 kg (p < .01), and skeletal muscle mass by 0.7 kg (p < .01), whereas total body water increased by 0.8 L (p < .05). Hematocrit and plasma sodium decreased significantly (p < .01), whereas plasma urea and urinary specific gravity (USG) increased significantly (p < .01). The decrease of 2.2% body mass and a USG of 1.020 refer to a minimal dehydration. Our athletes seem to have been relatively overhydrated (increase in total body water and plasma sodium) and dehydrated (decrease in body mass and increase in USG) during the race, as evidenced by the increased total body water and the fact that plasma sodium and hematocrit were lower postrace than prerace. The change of body mass was associated with the change of total body water (p < .05), and we presume the development of.

  4. Impact of a healthy body image program among adolescent boys on body image, negative affect, and body change strategies.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a healthy body image program. In total, 421 adolescent boys completed a five-session intervention program or a wait list control group. There were no differences between the intervention and the control group at post-intervention or any of the follow-up times. Boys in the intervention group who were one standard deviation above the mean on body dissatisfaction at baseline, demonstrated a reduction in negative affect in the intervention group at post-test and 6 months follow-up. Prevention programs need to target boys who are at risk of adopting health risk behaviors, rather than being universally applied.

  5. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses.

  6. Does smoking affect body weight and obesity in China?

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A

    2009-12-01

    An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.

  7. The association between the body composition and lifestyle affecting pulmonary function in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi Phn, Junko; Kato, Gohei; Kanzaki Rpt, Ryoko; Hiroshige Rpt, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Rpt; Nakano Rpt, Keisuke; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physical characteristics and lifestyle that affect pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety seven healthy male workers were recruited for this study, and basic information and details about lifestyle were collected. Body composition analyzer and visceral fat measuring device were conducted as measurements. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometer. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with pulmonary function as the dependent variable. Variables with a significant association with pulmonary function on univariate analysis were imputed as independent variables. [Results] Height, fat free mass, upper extremity muscle mass, lower extremity muscle mass, and trunk muscle mass had significant positive correlations with FEV1 and FVC. Age, percentage of body fat, and visceral fat area were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FVC. Regarding the association between pulmonary function and lifestyle, a significant difference was found between the smoking index and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome risk factors and both FEV1 and FVC. The multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with FEV1 as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and height, revealed that visceral fat area and fat free mass were significantly associated with FEV1. A similar analysis, FVC as the dependent variable identified visceral fat area. [Conclusion] FEV1 was independently associated with visceral fat area and fat free mass. FVC was independently associated with visceral fat area. These results may be valuable in preventing the decrease in respiratory function and, hence, in further preventing the onset of COPD.

  8. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  9. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  10. Gender and Reinforcing Associations between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Body Mass over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Reither, Eric; Logan, Ellis; Sherman-Wilkins, Kyler

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957–1993 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore reciprocal associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass in this 1939 birth cohort of non-Hispanic white men and women. We integrate the fundamental cause theory, the gender relations theory, and the life-course perspective to analyze gender differences in (a) the ways that early socioeconomic disadvantage launches bidirectional associations of body mass and SES, and (b) the extent to which these mutually-reinforcing effects generate socioeconomic disparities in midlife body mass. Using structural equation modeling, we find that socioeconomic disadvantage at age 18 is related to higher body mass index and a greater risk of obesity at age 54, and that this relationship is significantly stronger for women than men. Moreover, women are more adversely affected by two mechanisms underlying the focal association: the obesogenic effect of socioeconomic disadvantage and the SES-impeding effect of obesity. These patterns were also replicated in propensity score matching models. Gender and SES act synergistically over the life course to shape reciprocal chains of two disadvantaged statuses: heavier body mass and lower SES. PMID:25138198

  11. Foetus body mass prepartal assesment in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pavić Lugović, Lenija; Klarić, Petar; Lugović, Liborija

    2007-03-01

    The aim of study was to examine the importance of foetus body mass prepartal assessment in normal term pregnancy. The study comprised 254 pregnant women with single pregnancy, without congenital anomalies, residing in urban (Zagreb) and small towns (Samobor, Jastrebarsko). Higher birth mass was measured in male than in female newborns, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05%, p = 0.002). Older pregnant women more often gave birth by Cesarean section then vaginally and, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.005; p = 0.009). Smoking and parity did not influence birth mass. The results of the study showed good prepartal estimate of fetal mass in 207 (81.5%) and bad in 47 (18.5%) pregnant women. This study has confirmed the clinical value of ultrasound in prepartal treatment of pregnancy. Since the child gender was shown to have an impact on the assessment, it is well advised to determine the child gender as well.

  12. Leg tissue mass composition affects tibial acceleration response following impact.

    PubMed

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Burkhart, Timothy A; Andrews, David M

    2012-02-01

    To date, there has not been a direct examination of the effect that tissue composition (lean mass/muscle, fat mass, bone mineral content) differences between males and females has on how the tibia responds to impacts similar to those seen during running. To evaluate this, controlled heel impacts were imparted to 36 participants (6 M and 6 F in each of low, medium and high percent body fat [BF] groups) using a human pendulum. A skin-mounted accelerometer medial to the tibial tuberosity was used to determine the tibial response parameters (peak acceleration, acceleration slope and time to peak acceleration). There were no consistent effects of BF or specific tissue masses on the un-normalized tibial response parameters. However, females experienced 25% greater peak acceleration than males. When normalized to lean mass, wobbling mass, and bone mineral content, females experienced 50%, 62% and 70% greater peak acceleration, respectively, per gram of tissue than males. Higher magnitudes of lean mass and bone mass significantly contributed to decreased acceleration responses in general.

  13. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    PubMed

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  14. Estimating lean mass over a wide range of body composition: a calibration of deuterium dilution in the arctic ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Trixie N; Fridinger, Robert W; Barnes, Brian M; Loren Buck, C; O'Brien, Diane M

    2011-12-15

    Calculating body water through isotope dilution has become a useful way to nondestructively estimate body composition in many species. The most accurate estimates using this method require calibration against proximate chemical analysis of body composition for individual species, but no studies to our knowledge have calibrated this method on a hibernating mammal that seasonally undergoes dramatic changes in body composition. We use deuterium oxide to estimate total body water in captive arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, and compare two approaches of calculating lean mass from total body water, both calibrated against lean mass based on proximate analysis. The first method uses a single tissue hydration constant to calculate lean mass from total body water; the second method uses a predictive equation to calculate lean mass from total body water and body mass. We found that the predictive equation performs better over the large range of body composition common to this species. Distillation of blood samples did not affect lean mass estimates from either calculation method. These findings indicate that isotope dilution using a predictive equation should work well as an alternative to destructive methods in other small mammals that undergo radical changes in body composition across their annual cycle.

  15. Mode Selection Techniques in Variable Mass Flexible Body Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Frenkel, David; Huynh, An

    2010-01-01

    In developing a flexible body spacecraft simulation for the Launch Abort System of the Orion vehicle, when a rapid mass depletion takes place, the dynamics problem with time varying eigenmodes had to be addressed. Three different techniques were implemented, with different trade-offs made between performance and fidelity. A number of technical issues had to be solved in the process. This paper covers the background of the variable mass flexibility problem, the three approaches to simulating it, and the technical issues that were solved in formulating and implementing them.

  16. Four-body central configurations with adjacent equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiyang; Li, Bingyu; Zhang, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    For any convex non-collinear central configuration of the planar Newtonian 4-body problem with adjacent equal masses m1 =m2 ≠m3 =m4, with equal lengths for the two diagonals, we prove it must possess a symmetry and must be an isosceles trapezoid; furthermore, which is also an isosceles trapezoid when the length between m1 and m4 equals the length between m2 and m3.

  17. Home ranges, habitat and body mass: simple correlates of home range size in ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Herfindal, Ivar; Solberg, Erling Johan; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The spatial scale of animal space use, e.g. measured as individual home range size, is a key trait with important implications for ecological and evolutionary processes as well as management and conservation of populations and ecosystems. Explaining variation in home range size has therefore received great attention in ecological research. However, few studies have examined multiple hypotheses simultaneously, which is important provided the complex interactions between life history, social system and behaviour. Here, we review previous studies on home range size in ungulates, supplementing with a meta-analysis, to assess how differences in habitat use and species characteristics affect the relationship between body mass and home range size. Habitat type was the main factor explaining interspecific differences in home range size after accounting for species body mass and group size. Species using open habitats had larger home ranges for a given body mass than species using closed habitats, whereas species in open habitats showed a much weaker allometric relationship compared with species living in closed habitats. We found no support for relationships between home range size and species diet or mating system, or any sexual differences. These patterns suggest that the spatial scale of animal movement mainly is a combined effect of body mass, group size and the landscape structure. Accordingly, landscape management must acknowledge the influence of spatial distribution of habitat types on animal behaviour to ensure natural processes affecting demography and viability of ungulate populations. PMID:28003441

  18. Lumped mass formulations for modeling flexible body systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampalli, Rajiv

    1989-01-01

    The efforts of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. in obtaining a general formulation for flexible bodies in a multibody setting are discussed. The efforts being supported by MDI, both in house and externally are summarized. The feasibility of using lumped mass approaches to modeling flexibility in a multibody dynamics context is examined. The kinematics and kinetics for a simple system consisting of two rigid bodies connected together by an elastic beam are developed in detail. Accuracy, efficiency and ease of use using this approach are some of the issues that are then looked at. The formulation is then generalized to a superelement containing several nodes and connecting several bodies. Superelement kinematics and kinetics equations are developed. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method is illustrated by the use of some examples illustrating phenomena common in the context of spacecraft motions.

  19. The influence of body mass on foot dimensions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chiu, Hsin-Tzu; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a time-series approach was used to measure women's feet to accurately analyze changes in foot size and body mass during pregnancy. One-hundred women who were pregnant for the first time were asked to respond to questions on subjective complaints of foot discomfort listed in a questionnaire. Among these 100 women, a sample of 30 was obtained and used to measure the women's feet from the twentieth week of the gestation period until labor. The data (from 5 of the 30 women) were used to establish a prediction model for the influence of body mass on changes in foot size during pregnancy. The results indicate that the women subjectively complained that their shoes were too tight, resulting in foot discomfort. From the twentieth to the thirty-eighth week of pregnancy, the average increase in foot length, width, and back foot surface was 0.86 cm (3.6%), 0.25 cm (2.6%), and 18.36 cm(2) (11.9%), respectively. The height of the arch decreased by an average of 0.52 cm (-24.2%). Body mass accounted for more than 90% of the variation (R(2)) in foot dimensions during pregnancy and, thus indicated satisfactory predictive ability. The prediction model developed in this study can serve as a reference for clinical applications and shoe design to prevent women from experiencing extreme discomfort in their feet during pregnancy.

  20. Pendulum mass affects the measurement of articular friction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Akelman, Matthew R; Teeple, Erin; Machan, Jason T; Crisco, Joseph J; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C

    2013-02-01

    Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton's equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (μ) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton's model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating μ. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n=4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and μ was estimated using two models: Stanton's equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. μ estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that μ decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum μ values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as μ values are mass dependent.

  1. Sleep quality and body mass index: a co-twin study.

    PubMed

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2017-01-19

    There is a consistent relationship between body mass index and sleep quality. However, the directionality and possible confounding factors of this relationship are unclear. Our aim is to confirm the association between sleep quality and body mass index, independent of possible genetic confounding, as well as to provide some indirect inferences about the directionality of this association. The co-twin study design was used to analyse the body mass index-sleep relationship in a sample of 2150 twins. We selected two parallel sub-samples of twins discordant for body mass index (n = 430 pairs), or discordant for sleep quality (n = 316 pairs). Sleep quality and body mass index showed an inverse relationship (b = 0.056, P = 0.032) in the global sample. When twins discordant for body mass index were selected, this association maintained a similar effect size and statistical significance, at all levels of the case-control analysis (all discordant pairs b = 0.173, P < 0.001; dizygotic twins b = 0.174, P = 0.002; monozygotic twins b = 0.173, P = 0.050). Nevertheless, when twin pairs were selected on the basis of their discordance for sleep quality, the association between body mass index and sleep quality appeared weaker and lost significance (b = 0.021, P = 0.508). The analyses including only dizygotic (b = 0.028, P = 0.526) or monozygotic (b = 0.001, P = 0.984) pairs produced similar non-significant results. Our results confirm the relationship between sleep quality and body mass index, even after applying high levels of control, including genetic factors. Moreover, this study suggests a possible directionality of this relationship, such that sleep quality would strongly affect body mass index, while the opposite would be less robust and consistent in non-clinical samples.

  2. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  3. Gravity, Body Mass and Composition, and Metabolic Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic rate and body composition as a function of sex and age were defined in 5 species of common laboratory mammals, the mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig and rabbit. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates were measured individually in 6 male and 6 female animals for each of 8 age cohorts ranging from 1 month to 2 years, and for each of the species. From the results it is evident that among these small mammals there is no indication of scaling of muscularity to body size, despite the 100-fold difference in body mass represented by the skeletal musculature seems to reach a pronounced peak value at age 2 to 3 months and then declines, the fraction of the fat-free body represented by other body components in older animals must increase complementarily. Under normal gravity conditions muscularity in small laboratory mammals displays large, systematic variation as a function both of species and age. This variation must be considered when such animals are subjects of experiments to study the effects of altered gravitational loading on the skeletal musculature of the mammal.

  4. Relationship between perceived body image and recorded body mass index among Kuwaiti female university students.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Yearul; Zafar, Tasleem A; Waslien, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The associations between body image and attitudes toward obesity and thinness and their associations with measured body mass index (BMI) among female students of Kuwait University (n = 137) was examined in 2008. The body image perceptions were assessed using nine female silhouettes figures. The difference between current perceived body image (PBI) and ideal body image (IBI) was used as a measure of body image dissatisfaction (BID). Students tended to have a bigger PBI and smaller IBI than would be expected from their BMI category, leading to high levels of BID in each BMI category. PBI, IBI, BID, RBI were highly correlated with each other, and BMI was significantly correlated with each of them. The coefficients of these associations were not significantly altered in multiple regression analysis by the addition of potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, dieting behavior, parental education, and family size. These results suggest that PBI and a desire to be thinner were strongly related to BID and that thinness is becoming more desired in Kuwaiti society than the plump body image of the past.

  5. Low body mass index, physical work capacity and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1994-11-01

    In a normal population the distribution of body mass index (BMI) is such that a certain proportion of the population is likely to be at low values without necessarily being malnourished. However, although they may have low BMIs without being malnourished, they could certainly be physiologically and physically disadvantaged. An attempt is made to dissect out the probability of work capacity and physical activity being influenced by changes occurring in the human body with diminishing BMI. The conclusion reached is therefore that before physical activity is affected, the BMI would probably have to be 17 or less, although it is possible that work capacity might be reduced before this level is reached. In any case, work requiring the use of the body mass - such as carrying loads, digging or shovelling earth or coal, pulling or cycling a rickshaw, stone splitting etc.- would impose a greater stress on people of low BMI.

  6. Gravity, body mass and composition, and metabolic rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The scale effects of increased gravitational loading by chronic centrifugation on metabolic rate and body composition in metabolically mature mammals were investigated. Individual oxygen consumption rates in groups of 12 each, 8-month-old, hamster, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits were measured at weekly intervals at 1.0 g, then 2.0 g for 6 weeks. Metabolic rate was increased significantly in all species, and stabilized after 2 weeks at 2.0 g. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the larger the animal the greater was the increase in mass-specific metabolic rate, or metabolic intensity, over the 1.0 g value for the same animal, with the result that the interspecies allometric scaling relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is different at 2.0 g compared 10 1.0 g. Analysis of covariance shows that the postioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17% at 2.0 g at the P .001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8% at the P = 0.008 level. Thus, the hypothesis that augmented gravitational loading should shift the allometric relationship between metabolic rate and body size by an increase in both parameters is supported.

  7. Modeling of body mass index by Newton's second law.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Enrique

    2007-10-21

    Since laws of physics exists in nature, their possible relationship to terrestrial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an essentially weightless environment (i.e., aquatic) with a connection to the Laird-Gompertz formula for growth.

  8. Body mass and antler development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Carlson, E.; Schmitt, S.M.; Haufler, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    We documented mean and maximum body mass, mass accretion patterns and ander development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan. Mean body mass of bulls averaged 9-11% heavier, and maximum body mass 23-27% heavier, in Michigan than in other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Mean live body mass of cows averaged 11% heavier in Michigan, but mean eviscerated body mass did not differ. Maximum body mass of cows was 10-24% heavier in Michigan. Body mass peaked at age 7.5 for bulls and 8.5 for cows, similar to other Rocky Mountain elk populations despite the greater body mass achieved in Michigan. Sexual dimorphism in bull and cow body mass increased until peak body mass was attained, whereupon bulls were ???38% heavier than cows. Antler development of bull elk peaked at age 10.5, comparable to other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Relations between antler development and body mass within age classes were highly variable, but generally weak. Greater body mass seen in Michigan, and the peaking of antler development well after body mass in bulls, suggested a phenotypic response to nutritional conditions that allow Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan to maximize the species growth potential.

  9. Risk of Mortality According to Body Mass Index and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Nicholas, J. Skye; Ernst, Kacey C.; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Cauley, Jane A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Caan, Bette; Roe, Denise J.; Chen, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) of 30 or higher, has been associated with mortality, but age-related body composition changes can be masked by stable BMI. A subset of Women's Health Initiative participants (postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years) enrolled between 1993 and 1998 who had received dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for estimation of total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) (n = 10,525) were followed for 13.6 (standard deviation, 4.6) years to test associations between BMI, body composition, and incident mortality. Overall, BMI ≥35 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.82), while TBF and LBM were not. However, an interaction between age and body composition (P < 0.001) necessitated age stratification. Among women aged 50–59 years, higher %TBF increased risk of death (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.34) and higher %LBM decreased risk of death (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74), despite broad-ranging BMIs (16.4–69.1). However, the relationships were reversed among women aged 70–79 years (P < 0.05). BMI did not adequately capture mortality risk in this sample of postmenopausal women. Our data suggest the clinical utility of evaluating body composition by age group to more robustly assess mortality risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:26350478

  10. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  11. N -body modelling of globular clusters: masses, mass-to-light ratios and intermediate-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardt, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have determined the masses and mass-to-light ratios of 50 Galactic globular clusters by comparing their velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles against a large grid of 900 N-body simulations of star clusters of varying initial concentration, size and central black hole mass fraction. Our models follow the evolution of the clusters under the combined effects of stellar evolution and two-body relaxation allowing us to take the effects of mass segregation and energy equipartition between stars self-consistently into account. For a subset of 16 well-observed clusters, we also derive their kinematic distances. We find an average mass-to-light ratio of Galactic globular clusters of =1.98 ± 0.03, which agrees very well with the expected M/L ratio if the initial mass function (IMF) of the clusters was a standard Kroupa or Chabrier mass function. We do not find evidence for a decrease in the average mass-to-light ratio with metallicity. The surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of most globular clusters are incompatible with the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with more than a few thousand M⊙ in them. The only clear exception is ω Cen, where the velocity dispersion profile provides strong evidence for the presence of a ˜40 000 M⊙ IMBH in the centre of the cluster.

  12. Body mass evolution and diversification within horses (family Equidae).

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Lauren; Clauset, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Horses (family Equidae) are a classic example of adaptive radiation, exhibiting a nearly 60-fold increase in maximum body mass and a peak taxonomic diversity of nearly 100 species across four continents. Such patterns are commonly attributed to niche competition, in which increased taxonomic diversity drives increased size disparity. However, neutral processes, such as macroevolutionary 'diffusion', can produce similar increases in disparity without increased diversity. Using a comprehensive database of Equidae species size estimates and a common mathematical framework, we measure the contributions of diversity-driven and diffusion-driven mechanisms for increased disparity during the Equidae radiation. We find that more than 90% of changes in size disparity are attributable to diffusion alone. These results clarify the role of species competition in body size evolution, indicate that morphological disparity and species diversity may be only weakly coupled in general, and demonstrate that large species may evolve from neutral macroevolutionary diffusion processes alone.

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  14. Body mass index is reduced early in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, William P; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2005-01-01

    Mean body mass index (BMI) in 100 cases of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) was found to be 9% reduced in comparison to that in patients with either essential tremor or no neurologic disease. A similar reduction in BMI was also discovered among the 24 cases of PD in whom retrospective BMI data were available from their presymptomatic years. These results suggest that alterations in nutrient intake or metabolism could reflect early changes in the central autonomic network preceding the emergence of classical extrapyramidal manifestations of PD.

  15. Moose body mass variation revisited: disentangling effects of environmental conditions and genetics.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Haanes, Hallvard; Solberg, Erling J; Røed, Knut H; Høgda, Kjell Arild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-02-01

    Large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits within species is often correlated to local environmental conditions and population density. Such phenotypic variation has recently been shown to also be influenced by genetic structuring of populations. In ungulates, large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits, such as body mass, has been related to environmental conditions and population density, but little is known about the genetic influences. Research on the genetic structure of moose suggests two distinct genetic lineages in Norway, structured along a north-south gradient. This corresponds with many environmental gradients, thus genetic structuring provides an additional factor affecting geographical phenotypic variation in Norwegian moose. We investigated if genetic structure explained geographical variation in body mass in Norwegian moose while accounting for environmental conditions, age and sex, and if it captured some of the variance in body mass that previously was attributed to environmental factors. Genetic structuring of moose was the most important variable in explaining the geographic variation in body mass within age and sex classes. Several environmental variables also had strong explanatory power, related to habitat diversity, environmental seasonality and winter harshness. The results suggest that environmental conditions, landscape characteristics, and genetic structure should be evaluated together when explaining large-scale patterns in phenotypic characters or life history traits. However, to better understand the role of genetic and environmental effects on phenotypic traits in moose, an extended individual-based study of variation in fitness-related characters is needed, preferably in an area of convergence between different genetic lineages.

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H. W.; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths. PMID:26509531

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    PubMed

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  18. The association between the body composition and lifestyle affecting pulmonary function in Japanese workers

    PubMed Central

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi, Junko; Kato, Gohei; Kanzaki, Ryoko; Hiroshige, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Nakano, Keisuke; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physical characteristics and lifestyle that affect pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety seven healthy male workers were recruited for this study, and basic information and details about lifestyle were collected. Body composition analyzer and visceral fat measuring device were conducted as measurements. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometer. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with pulmonary function as the dependent variable. Variables with a significant association with pulmonary function on univariate analysis were imputed as independent variables. [Results] Height, fat free mass, upper extremity muscle mass, lower extremity muscle mass, and trunk muscle mass had significant positive correlations with FEV1 and FVC. Age, percentage of body fat, and visceral fat area were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FVC. Regarding the association between pulmonary function and lifestyle, a significant difference was found between the smoking index and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome risk factors and both FEV1 and FVC. The multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with FEV1 as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and height, revealed that visceral fat area and fat free mass were significantly associated with FEV1. A similar analysis, FVC as the dependent variable identified visceral fat area. [Conclusion] FEV1 was independently associated with visceral fat area and fat free mass. FVC was independently associated with visceral fat area. These results may be valuable in preventing the decrease in respiratory function and, hence, in further preventing the onset of COPD. PMID:27821955

  19. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. Methods. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in “food deserts” in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Results. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. Conclusions. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity. PMID:25521881

  20. Increased Body Mass Index Associated with Increased Risky Sexual Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Lonna P.; Diaz, Angela; Soghomonian, Christine; Nucci-Sack, Anne T.; Weiss, Jocelyn M.; Strickler, Howard D.; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Ochner, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective The increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity has led to consideration of the potential effect of obesity on risky sexual behaviors. The current study examined whether body mass index (BMI) was related to age at sexual debut, type of sexual behavior, partner number, and condom use in a population of adolescent women at high risk for obesity and risky sexual behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional examination of 860 sexually active, predominantly minority, adolescent women who received medical care at an urban health center from 2007 – 2013. Intervention Self-reported age at sexual debut, types of sexual intercourse, number of partners and condom use was compared to clinically – assessed BMI. Results Body mass index was positively associated with number of sexual partners (p = 0.001) and history of attempted anal intercourse (p = 0.002). An inverse association was observed with age at first anal intercourse (p = 0.040). Conclusions In this sample of adolescent women, increased BMI was associated with riskier sexual practices at a younger age. This study suggests that overweight and obese adolescents are a vulnerable population who may need targeted sexual health counseling. PMID:26358938

  1. Body mass index and musculoskeletal pain: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain is one of the most common complaints that patients report to physicians and two-thirds of the population has an elevated body mass index (BMI), indicating they are either overweight or obese. It was once assumed that extra body weight would stress the low back and lead to pain, however, researchers have reported inconsistencies association between body weight and back pain. In contrast, more recent studies do indicate that an elevated BMI is associated with back pain and other musculoskeletal pain syndromes due to the presence of a chronic systemic inflammatory state, suggesting that the relationship between BMI and musculoskeletal pains be considered in more detail. Objective To describe how an elevated BMI can be associated with chronic systemic inflammation and pain expression. To outline measurable risk factors for chronic inflammation that can be used in clinical practice and discuss basic treatment considerations. Discussion Adiposopathy, or “sick fat” syndrome, is a term that refers to an elevated BMI that is associated with a chronic systemic inflammatory state most commonly referred to as the metabolic syndrome. The best available evidence suggests that the presence of adiposopathy determines if an elevated BMI will contribute to musculoskeletal pain expression. It is not uncommon for physicians to fail to identify the presence of adiposopathy/metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Patients with an elevated BMI should be further examined to identify inflammatory factors associated with adiposopathy, such as the metabolic syndrome, which may be promoting back pain and other musculoskeletal pain syndromes. PMID:23687943

  2. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small.

  3. Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight, or both.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Neuschl, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2009-01-08

    Genetic loci for body weight and subphenotypes such as fat weight have been mapped repeatedly. However, the distinct effects of different loci and physiological interactions among different traits are often not accounted for in mapping studies. Here we used the method of structural equation modeling to identify the specific relationships between genetic loci and different phenotypes influencing body weight. Using this technique, we were able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect muscle growth. We examined the high body weight-selected mouse lines NMRI8 and DU6i and the intercross populations NMRI8 x DBA/2 and DU6i x DBA/2. Structural models help us understand whether genetic factors affect lean mass and fat mass pleiotropically or nonpleiotropically. Sex has direct effects on both fat and muscle weight but also influences fat weight indirectly via muscle weight. Three genetic loci identified in these two crosses showed exclusive effects on fat deposition, and five loci contributed exclusively to muscle weight. Two additional loci showed pleiotropic effects on fat and muscle weight, with one locus acting in both crosses. Fat weight and muscle weight were influenced by epistatic effects. We provide evidence that significant fat loci in strains selected for body weight contribute to fat weight both directly and indirectly via the influence on lean weight. These results shed new light on the action of genes in quantitative trait locus regions potentially influencing muscle and fat mass and thus controlling body weight as a composite trait.

  4. Does increased glucose exposure lead to increased body fat and reduced lean body mass in anuric peritoneal dialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Fan, S; Davenport, A

    2014-11-01

    Residual renal function has been reported to be a major determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique survival for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Anuria leads to increases in PD prescriptions designed to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes, resulting in greater exposure to hypertonic glucose dialysates. We reviewed the effect of developing anuria in a cohort of 136 PD patients followed for a median of 12 months, to determine whether increasing exposure to higher glucose dialysates affected body composition by increasing body fat and reducing muscle mass. Despite increasing prescription of 22.7 and 38.6 g/l glucose dialysates there was no increase in body fat (31.1±15.4 vs 30.9±16.3 kg) or loss of fat-free weight (36.4±12.1 vs 35.8±12.3 kg). Changing PD prescriptions to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes did not lead to detrimental changes in body composition in the short term.

  5. Body Mass Index, Perceived Health, and Happiness: Their Determinants and Structural Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith R.; Antonides, Gerrit; Van Ophem, Johan A. C.; Van Den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both education and smoking had a negative effect on…

  6. A delay in pubertal onset affects the covariation of body weight, estradiol, and bone size.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R

    2009-04-01

    The skeletal system functions as a locomotive organ and a mineral reservoir and combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the skeletal system. Although delayed puberty is associated with compromised bone mass, suppression of estrogen should be beneficial to cortical strength. The purpose was to employ path analysis to study bone strength and delayed puberty. Forty-five female rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 15) and an experimental group (n = 30) that received injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-a). Causal models were constructed by specifying directed paths between bone traits. The first model tested the hypothesis that the functional relationships between bone traits and body weight were altered by a delay in pubertal onset. GnRH-a injections during puberty altered the covariation between body weight and bone size. The second model was constructed to test the hypothesis that variability in stiffness was causally related to variability in body weight. The model also tested the relationship between the periosteal and endocortical surfaces and their relationship to stiffness. There was no change in the relationship between the surfaces in the GnRH-a group. The third model determined the effect of estradiol on both total area and relative cortical area in both groups. The relationship between periosteal surface and serum estradiol levels was only significant during estrogen suppression. These data suggest that increases in body weight during or prior to puberty may not be protective of bone strength.

  7. Effect of body composition methodology on estimates of fat mass heritability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Body fatness is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have produced a wide range of estimates for the heritability of body fatness, ranging from 0.34-0.90 for body mass index (BMI), 0.59-0.83 for percent body fat, and 0.45-0.71 for fat mass. Little atte...

  8. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities.

  9. Body mass change and ultraendurance performance: a decrease in body mass is associated with an increased running speed in male 100-km ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p < 0.0001). Running speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p < 0.05). Serum sodium concentration ([Na⁺]) and the concentration of aldosterone increased with increasing loss in body mass (p < 0.05). Urine-specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to postrace serum [Na⁺] (p < 0.05). Fluid intake was significantly and positively related to both running speed (r = 0.33, p = 0.0182) and the change in body mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.0014) and significantly and negatively to both postrace serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.42, p = 0.0022) and the change in serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.38, p = 0.0072). This field study showed that recreational, male, 100-km ultramarathoners dehydrated as evidenced by the decrease in >2 % body mass and the increase in urine-specific gravity. Race performance, however, was not impaired because of the loss in body mass. In contrast, faster athletes lost more body mass compared with slower athletes while also drinking more. The concept that a loss of >2% in body mass leads to dehydration and consequently impairs endurance performance must be questioned for ultraendurance athletes competing in the field. For practical applications, a loss in body mass during a 100-km ultramarathon was associated with a faster running speed.

  10. Alterations of Body Mass Gain of Neonates (P7&P14) During Certrifugation AT 2G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Corbin, B. J.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Previous research has shown animal body mass to be significantly affected by centrifugation. At the onset of centrifugation, animals have a selective loss of fat, causing an initial body mass loss. Body mass gain will resume at the same rate as uncentrifuged animals, but this subsequent gain will be lower. For this study, two different ages of Sprague Hawley neonate families were observed during centrifugation. Eight litters (dam with eight neonates) of postnatal day (PN) seven and four litters (dam with ten neonates) of PN 14 were separated into two separate groups each, centrifuge (+2G(sub z)) and environmental controls (EC) and placed into either the centrifuge or an animal holding unit in the centrifuge rotunda for a total of 16 days. P7: Total litter start mass of +2G(sub z) litter = 138.90 g/end = 311.0 g EC litter = 150.85 g/end = 516.9 g. P14: Total litter start mass of +2G(sub z) litter = 287.70 g/end = 762.5g; EC litter = 245 g/end = 942.9 g. An initial body mass loss was observed in both groups of +2G(sub z) animals for two days after the onset of centrifugation, but then an increase began to occur. Literature suggests adult animals at +2G(sub z), will have an initial loss, but will resume similar growth rates over time as compared to control animals. The P7 +2G(sub z) animals began to gain body mass, but showed a significantly slower growth rate than their EC animals for the duration of the test (pace). The P14 +2G(sub z) animals began to show similar growth rates to their EC after day nine. At day 16, both groups of +2Gz animals were significantly smaller than the EC animals (pace). At +2Gz, animals experience an initial body mass loss. Older animals are able to resume similar growth rates as their controls, but younger animals showed growth rates to be significantly reduced.

  11. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  12. Survival and pre-fledging body mass in juvenile emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    1993-01-01

    A positive relationship exists between fledgling body mass and juvenile survival for some altricial (Krementz et al. 1989, Magrath 1991, Linden et al. 1992) and precocial (Owen and Black 1989, Longcore et al. 1991, Francis et al. 1992) species. Because the energetic demands of migration are high, physiologic condition may be a proximate determinate of juvenile survival in geese. Owen and Black (1989) found that pre-fledging body mass of Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) was positively related to juvenile survival to winter. First-year survival in Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) was also affected by pre-fledging body mass (Francis et al. 1992). It is not clear, however, when such mass-related mortality occurs. Both species migrate >3,000 km to wintering areas, but make use of fall staging areas while en route (Owen 1980, Francis and Cooke 1992). Survival fo geese between fledging and staging areas has not been addressed. Measurement of survival during this interval could provide insight to the timing of juvenile mortality in arctic geese.

  13. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  14. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  15. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  16. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  17. Loving transgressions: Queer of color bodies, affective ties, transformative community.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Rowe, Aimee; Royster, Francesca T

    2016-09-12

    This introductory article considers the importance of queer woman of color theorizations of affect in thinking more fully the recent interdisciplinary turn to affect. The affective turn has vitally invited culture and feminist critics to interrogate emotion beyond the individual to examine the political and cultural production of emotion. Even as women of color are often associated with excessive affect, the theoretical contributions women of color make to the field of affect studies are often overlooked. Our introduction and this special issue more broadly examine how this solipsism shapes projects invested in critical knowledge production, as well as the stakes of centering a queer woman of color genealogy. For instance, we argue for the importance of retaining U.S. third-world feminist concepts-like interpellation, oppositional consciousness, and the generative force of negative affects-even as they fall out of favor within affect studies. Centering theory that emerges from the vexed spaces of queer women of color lived experiences generates a vital interdisciplinary conversation that contributes to the ongoing political task of mobilizing affect for social action as a critical praxis. In the articles that follow we see this critical praxis at work in the form of community organizing, music, poetry, and performance art.

  18. Measurement of lean body mass using bioelectrical impedance analysis: a consideration of the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; De Rui, Marina; Stubbs, Brendon; Veronese, Nicola; Manzato, Enzo

    2016-08-27

    The assessment of body composition has important applications in the evaluation of nutritional status and estimating potential health risks. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid method for the assessment of body composition. BIA is an alternative to more invasive and expensive methods like dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easy-to-use and low-cost method for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) in physiological and pathological conditions. The reliability of BIA measurements is influenced by various factors related to the instrument itself, including electrodes, operator, subject, and environment. BIA assumptions beyond its use for body composition are the human body is empirically composed of cylinders, FFM contains virtually all the water and conducting electrolytes in the body, and its hydration is constant. FFM can be predicted by BIA through equations developed using reference methods. Several BIA prediction equations exist for the estimation of FFM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM), or appendicular SMM. The BIA prediction models differ according to the characteristics of the sample in which they have been derived and validated in addition to the parameters included in the multiple regression analysis. In choosing BIA equations, it is important to consider the characteristics of the sample in which it has been developed and validated, since, for example, age- and ethnicity-related differences could sensitively affect BIA estimates.

  19. Parry–Romberg syndrome affecting one half of the body

    PubMed Central

    Pathi, Jugajyoti; Mishra, Pallavi; Kumar, Harish; Panda, Abikshyeet

    2016-01-01

    Parry-Romberg syndrome, which is also known as progressive hemifacial atrophy, is a poorly understood rare condition. In this condition, the face shows unilateral, slowly progressive atrophy. Disturbance in fat metabolism, viral infection, trauma, heredity, endocrinal disturbances, and autoimmunity are few possible factors in its pathogenesis. Rarely, only this syndrome progresses and involves one half of the body. Our attempt is to present a case of Parry–Romberg syndrome involving one half of the body, which is a rarity in itself. PMID:27583230

  20. A contemporary approach to body mass regulation mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Czkwianianc, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a lot of factors and mechanisms regulating body mass have been discovered, although there are still many unknowns. Their effect on the development of many diseases related to nutritional disorders (obesity, anorexia, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease) means that the understanding of these mechanisms will make it possible to determine new therapeutic goals and create new medicinal products. This is even more important because nowadays there is no effective medication to cure nutritional disorders. It is necessary to conduct further research to evaluate dependencies and relationships between particular hormones and to study newly discovered substances so that we could progress towards achieving the overall objectives while keeping the ultimate goals in mind. PMID:27350833

  1. High body mass index is associated with impaired cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and cognitive deficits concerning mental flexibility and inhibitory control efficiency. The present study aims at replicating and extending these observations. We compared cognitive control performance of normal weight (BMI < 25) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) university students on a task tapping either inhibitory control (Experiment 1) or interference control (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 replicated previous findings that found less efficient inhibitory control in overweight individuals. Experiment 2 complemented these findings by showing that cognitive control impairments associated with high BMI also extend to the ability to resolve stimulus-induced response conflict and to engage in conflict-driven control adaptation. The present results are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that high BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with less efficient cognitive control functioning.

  2. Effect of Body Mass Index on Left Ventricular Mass in Career Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Korre, Maria; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G.; Farioli, Andrea; Yang, Justin; Christiani, David C.; Christophi, Costas A.; Lombardi, David A.; Kovacs, Richard J.; Mastouri, Ronald; Abbasi, Siddique; Steigner, Michael; Moffatt, Steven; Smith, Denise; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; increased LV mass is common among US firefighters and plays a major role in firefighter sudden cardiac death. We aim to identify significant predictors of LV mass among firefighters. Cross-sectional study of 400 career male firefighters selected by an enriched randomization strategy. Weighted analyses were performed based on the total number of risk factors per subject with inverse probability weighting. LV mass was assessed by echocardiography (ECHO) and cardiac magnetic resonance, and normalized (indexed) for height. CVD risk parameters included vital signs at rest, body mass index (BMI)–defined obesity, obstructive sleep apnea risk, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and physical activity. Linear regression models were performed. In multivariate analyses, BMI was the only consistent significant independent predictor of LV mass indexes (all, p <0.001). A 1-unit decrease in BMI was associated with 1-unit (g/m1.7) reduction of LV mass/height1.7 after adjustment for age, obstructive sleep apnea risk, and cardiorespiratory fitness. In conclusion, after height-indexing ECHO-measured and cardiac magnetic resonance–measured LV mass, BMI was found to be a major driver of LV mass among firefighters. Our findings taken together with previous research suggest that reducing obesity will improve CVD risk profiles and decrease on-duty CVD and sudden cardiac death events in the fire service. Our results may also support targeted noninvasive screening for LV hypertrophy with ECHO among obese firefighters. PMID:27687051

  3. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  4. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, p<0.01), WC (r=0.858, p<0.01) and body fat percentage (r=0.757, <0.01). Body fat percentage also showed to have a high correlation with BMI (r=0.757, p<0.01) and WC (r=0.693, p<0.01). Furthermore, overweight and obesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of

  5. Effects of body mass index on plantar pressure and balance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Se-Won; Park, Woong-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To suggest physiotherapy programs and to determine foot stability based on the results of plantar pressure and spontaneity balance in the normal group and in the obesity group according to the body mass index (BMI). [Subjects and Methods] The plantar pressure and balance of 20 females college students in their 20s were measured according to their BMI. BMI was measured by using BMS 330. The peak plantar pressure was measured in a static position in the forefoot and hind-foot areas. To study balance, the spontaneity balance of each foot was measured on both stable and unstable surfaces. [Results] In terms of plantar pressure, no significant change was observed in the forefoot and hind-foot peak pressure. In terms of spontaneity balance, no significant difference in foot position interaction was observed on both stable and unstable surfaces, while a significant difference was observed in the foot position between the groups. [Conclusion] The index of hind-foot spontaneity balance was low, particularly in the obesity group. This meant significant hind-foot swaying. The forefoot body weight support percentage increased to reinforce the reduced spontaneity balance index. PMID:27942127

  6. Body mass index in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Marck, Marjolein A; Dicke, Heleen C; Uc, Ergun Y; Kentin, Zippora H A; Borm, George F; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Munneke, Marten

    2012-03-01

    Prior work suggested that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a lower Body Mass Index (BMI) than controls, but evidence is inconclusive. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis on BMI in PD. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl and Scopus to identify cohort studies on BMI in PD, published before February 2011. Studies that reported mean BMI for PD patients and healthy controls were eligible. Twelve studies were included, with a total of 871 patients and 736 controls (in three studies controls consisted of subjects from other published studies). Our primary aim was to assess differences in BMI between patients and controls; this was analyzed with random effects meta-analysis. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the relation with disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage) and disease duration, using random effects meta-regression. PD patients had a significantly lower BMI than controls (overall effect 1.73, 95% CI 1.11-2.35, P<0.001). Pooled data of seven studies showed that patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage 3 had a lower BMI than patients with stage 2 (3.9, 95% CI 0.1-7.7, P<0.05). Disease duration was not associated with BMI. Because a low body weight is associated with negative health effects and a poorer prognosis, monitoring weight and nutritional status should be part of PD management.

  7. Effects of body mass index on plantar pressure and balance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Se-Won; Park, Woong-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To suggest physiotherapy programs and to determine foot stability based on the results of plantar pressure and spontaneity balance in the normal group and in the obesity group according to the body mass index (BMI). [Subjects and Methods] The plantar pressure and balance of 20 females college students in their 20s were measured according to their BMI. BMI was measured by using BMS 330. The peak plantar pressure was measured in a static position in the forefoot and hind-foot areas. To study balance, the spontaneity balance of each foot was measured on both stable and unstable surfaces. [Results] In terms of plantar pressure, no significant change was observed in the forefoot and hind-foot peak pressure. In terms of spontaneity balance, no significant difference in foot position interaction was observed on both stable and unstable surfaces, while a significant difference was observed in the foot position between the groups. [Conclusion] The index of hind-foot spontaneity balance was low, particularly in the obesity group. This meant significant hind-foot swaying. The forefoot body weight support percentage increased to reinforce the reduced spontaneity balance index.

  8. Increases in body mass index following initiation of methadone treatment.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Jennifer M; Laurent, Jennifer S; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2015-04-01

    Despite the clear efficacy of methadone for opioid dependence, one less desirable phenomenon associated with methadone may be weight gain. We examined changes in body mass index (BMI) among patients entering methadone treatment. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 96 patients enrolled in an outpatient methadone clinic for ≥ 6 months. The primary outcome of BMI was assessed at intake and a subsequent physical examination approximately 1.8 ± 0.95 years later. Demographic, drug use and treatment characteristics were also examined. There was a significant increase in BMI following intake (p<0.001). Mean BMIs increased from 27.2 ± 6.8 to 30.1 ± 7.7 kg/m(2), translating to a 17.8-pound increase (10% increase in body weight) in the overall patient sample. Gender was the strongest predictor of BMI changes (p < 0.001), with significantly greater BMI increases in females than males (5.2 vs. 1.7 kg/m(2), respectively). This translates to a 28-pound (17.5%) increase in females vs. a 12-pound (6.4%) increase in males. In summary, methadone treatment enrollment was associated with clinically significant weight gain, particularly among female patients. This study highlights the importance of efforts to help patients mitigate weight gain during treatment, particularly considering the significant health and economic consequences of obesity for individuals and society more generally.

  9. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  10. Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting.

  11. Body mass index and colon cancer screening: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Kanwarpreet; Imam, Mohamad; Ismail, Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Castro, Fernando

    2015-02-07

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with a decreased incidence and mortality from CRC. However, patient adherence to screening is less than desirable and resources are limited even in developed countries. Better identification of individuals at a higher risk could result in improved screening efforts. Over the past few years, formulas have been developed to predict the likelihood of developing advanced colonic neoplasia in susceptible individuals but have yet to be utilized in mass screening practices. These models use a number of clinical factors that have been associated with colonic neoplasia including the body mass index (BMI). Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity contributes to colonic neoplasia as well as clinical studies on this subject have proven the association between BMI and colonic neoplasia. However, there are still controversies on this subject as some studies have arrived at different conclusions on the influence of BMI by gender. Future studies should aim at resolving these discrepancies in order to improve the efficiency of screening strategies.

  12. Body mass index and body fat status of men involved in sports, exercise, and sedentary activites.

    PubMed

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups with different physical activity levels. The height and weight of respondents were measured using the Seca weighing balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular regions, and suprailiac regions of each respondent were measured using Harpenden skinfold calipers. Percentage body fat was calculated as the sum of the four measurements of skinfold thickness. The results showed that the mean (± SD) BMIs in the athlete, exercise, and sedentary groups were 22.6 ± 2.9, 23.4 ± 3.5, and 24.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The combined prevalence of pre-obese (BMI 25.029.9) and obese (BMI ³ 30.0) subjects was 21.7% in the athlete group, 29.9% in the exercise group, and 47.5% in the sedentary group. The mean (± SD) percentage of body fat in athletes was 15.7 ± 5.4%, which was lower than in the exercise (18.9 ± 5.5%) and sedentary (20.6 ± 5.8%) groups. The study revealed that individuals who are actively involved in physical activity, particularly in sport activities, have lower BMIs and percentage body fat values compared to sedentary people. Therefore, to prevent obesity, all individuals are encouraged to perform regular physical activity, particularly sports activities.

  13. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  14. Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI.

  15. Seasonal variation in body mass, body temperature and thermogenesis in the Hwamei, Garrulax canorus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Xiu; Zhou, Li-Meng; Zhao, Li-Dan; Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    The basal thermogenesis of birds is beginning to be viewed as a highly flexible physiological trait influenced by environmental fluctuations, particularly changes in ambient temperature (Ta). Many birds living in regions with seasonal fluctuations in Ta typically respond to cold by increasing their insulation and adjusting their metabolic rate. To understand these metabolic adaptations, body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate (MR), thermal neutral zone (TNZ) and thermal conductance were measured within a range of temperatures from 5 to 40°C in free-living Hwamei, Garrulax canorus, in both winter and summer. Body mass was 61.2±0.3g in winter and 55.5±1.0g in summer, and mean Tb was 41.6±0.1°C in winter and 42.3±0.1°C in summer. TNZ was between 28.3 and 35.1°C in winter and between 28.7 and 33.2°C in summer. The mean basal metabolic rate (BMR) within TNZ was 203.32±11.81ml O2 h(-1) in winter and 168.99±6.45ml O2 h(-1) in summer. Minimum thermal conductance was 3.73±0.09joulesg(-1)h(-1)°C(-1) in winter and 3.26±0.06joulesg(-1)h(-1)°C(-1) in summer. Birds caught in winter had higher body mass, MR, and more variable TNZ than those in summer. The increased winter BMR indicates improved ability to cope with cold and maintenance of a high Tb. These results show that the Hwamei's metabolism is not constant, but exhibits pronounced seasonal phenotypic flexibility associated with maintenance of a high Tb.

  16. Primate extinction risk and historical patterns of speciation and extinction in relation to body mass.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Arnold, Christian; Machanda, Zarin; Nunn, Charles L

    2011-04-22

    Body mass is thought to influence diversification rates, but previous studies have produced ambiguous results. We investigated patterns of diversification across 100 trees obtained from a new Bayesian inference of primate phylogeny that sampled trees in proportion to their posterior probabilities. First, we used simulations to assess the validity of previous studies that used linear models to investigate the links between IUCN Red List status and body mass. These analyses support the use of linear models for ordinal ranked data on threat status, and phylogenetic generalized linear models revealed a significant positive correlation between current extinction risk and body mass across our tree block. We then investigated historical patterns of speciation and extinction rates using a recently developed maximum-likelihood method. Specifically, we predicted that body mass correlates positively with extinction rate because larger bodied organisms reproduce more slowly, and body mass correlates negatively with speciation rate because smaller bodied organisms are better able to partition niche space. We failed to find evidence that extinction rates covary with body mass across primate phylogeny. Similarly, the speciation rate was generally unrelated to body mass, except in some tests that indicated an increase in the speciation rate with increasing body mass. Importantly, we discovered that our data violated a key assumption of sample randomness with respect to body mass. After correcting for this bias, we found no association between diversification rates and mass.

  17. Evolutionary food web model based on body masses gives realistic networks with permanent species turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allhoff, K. T.; Ritterskamp, D.; Rall, B. C.; Drossel, B.; Guill, C.

    2015-06-01

    The networks of predator-prey interactions in ecological systems are remarkably complex, but nevertheless surprisingly stable in terms of long term persistence of the system as a whole. In order to understand the mechanism driving the complexity and stability of such food webs, we developed an eco-evolutionary model in which new species emerge as modifications of existing ones and dynamic ecological interactions determine which species are viable. The food-web structure thereby emerges from the dynamical interplay between speciation and trophic interactions. The proposed model is less abstract than earlier evolutionary food web models in the sense that all three evolving traits have a clear biological meaning, namely the average body mass of the individuals, the preferred prey body mass, and the width of their potential prey body mass spectrum. We observed networks with a wide range of sizes and structures and high similarity to natural food webs. The model networks exhibit a continuous species turnover, but massive extinction waves that affect more than 50% of the network are not observed.

  18. Evolutionary food web model based on body masses gives realistic networks with permanent species turnover

    PubMed Central

    Allhoff, K. T.; Ritterskamp, D.; Rall, B. C.; Drossel, B.; Guill, C.

    2015-01-01

    The networks of predator-prey interactions in ecological systems are remarkably complex, but nevertheless surprisingly stable in terms of long term persistence of the system as a whole. In order to understand the mechanism driving the complexity and stability of such food webs, we developed an eco-evolutionary model in which new species emerge as modifications of existing ones and dynamic ecological interactions determine which species are viable. The food-web structure thereby emerges from the dynamical interplay between speciation and trophic interactions. The proposed model is less abstract than earlier evolutionary food web models in the sense that all three evolving traits have a clear biological meaning, namely the average body mass of the individuals, the preferred prey body mass, and the width of their potential prey body mass spectrum. We observed networks with a wide range of sizes and structures and high similarity to natural food webs. The model networks exhibit a continuous species turnover, but massive extinction waves that affect more than 50% of the network are not observed. PMID:26042870

  19. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. 78 FR 7659 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... impairments that affect multiple body systems in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social... eligibility or filing for benefits, call our national toll-free number, 1-800-772-1213, or TTY 1-800-325-0778... the appropriate affected body system(s), such as musculoskeletal, special senses and...

  1. Evidence for a relationship between body mass and energy metabolism in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Schmoller, André; Hass, Torben; Strugovshchikova, Olga; Melchert, Uwe H; Scholand-Engler, Harald G; Peters, Achim; Schweiger, Ulrich; Hohagen, Fritz; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2010-07-01

    Cerebral energy metabolism has been suggested to have an important function in body weight regulation. We therefore examined whether there is a relationship between body mass and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism in the human brain. On the basis of our earlier findings indicating a neuroprotective preferential energy supply of the brain, as compared with peripheral muscle on experimentally induced hypoglycemia, we examined whether this physiological response is preserved also in low-weight and obese participants. We included 45 healthy male subjects with a body mass index (BMI) ranging from 17 to 44 kg/m(2). Each participant underwent a hypoglycemic glucose-clamp intervention, and the ATP metabolism, that is, the content of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP, was measured repeatedly by (31)phosphor magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in the cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle. Results show an inverse correlation between BMI and high-energy phosphate content in the brain (P<0.01), whereas there was no such relationship found between skeletal muscle and BMI. The hypoglycemic clamp intervention did not affect the ATP metabolism in both tissues. Our data show an inverse correlation between BMI and cerebral high-energy phosphate content in healthy humans, suggesting a close relationship between energetic supply of the brain and body weight regulation.

  2. Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance

  3. The effect of body mass index on perioperative thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Ayşe Belin; Yildiz Altun, Aysun; Erhan, Ömer Lütfi; Çatak, Tuba; Karatepe, Ümit; Demirel, İsmail; Çağlar Toprak, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) on thermoregulation in obese patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery with no pre-medication were included in the study. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to BMI <24.9, 25–39.9, 40–49.9, and >50. Anesthesia was provided with routine techniques. Tympanic and peripheral temperatures were recorded every 5 minutes starting with the induction of anesthesia. The mean skin temperature (MST), mean body temperature (MBT), vasoconstriction time, and vasoconstriction threshold that triggers core warming were calculated with the following formulas: MST = 0.3 (Tchest + Tarm) + 0.2 (Tthigh + Tcalf). MBT was calculated using the equation 0.64Tcore+0.36Tskin, and vasoconstriction was determined by calculating Tforearm−Tfinger. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, duration of operation, and room temperature. Compared to those with BMI <24.9, the tympanic temperature was significantly higher in those with BMI =25–39.9 in the 10th, 15th, 20th, and 50th minutes. In addition, BMI =40–49.9 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 40th, 45th, 50th, and 55th minutes and BMI >50 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 50th, and 55th minutes were less than those with BMI <24.9 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in terms of MST and MBT. Vasoconstriction occurred later, and that vasoconstriction threshold was significantly higher in patients with higher BMIs. Conclusion Under anesthesia, the core temperature was protected more easily in obese patients as compared to nonobese patients. Therefore, obesity decreases the negative effects of anesthesia on thermoregulation. PMID:27920541

  4. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Patrizia; Giannetti, Luigi Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments. Methods and results We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models. PMID:19777069

  5. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  6. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  7. Influencing Factors of the Body Mass Index of Elementary Students in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Li-Na; Chen, Min-Li

    2017-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of school children in Taiwan is markedly increasing. According to statistical data from the Taiwan Ministry of Education, the prevalence of obesity in school children from the southern part of the country is the highest in Taiwan. Thus, exploring the factors influencing BMI in elementary school children from southern Taiwan is crucial. This study investigated the influencing factors including physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits, and perceived body shape on the BMIs of elementary school children from southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used, and the participants consisted of 3251 fifth-grade students (1628 boys, 50.1%; 1623 girls, 49.9%). The average BMI values for boys and girls were 19.69 and 18.70 (kg/cm) respectively. Statistically significant associations were observed between BMI and sex, 31–60 min of daily vigorous or moderate physical activities levels, length of time spent watching television, time spent on video games or the computer, and intake of vegetable or meat gravy with rice (p < 0.001). Perceived body shape also affected the BMI of school children. The results of this study enable educational institutions in Taiwan to understand the factors affecting the BMI of school children and use this information as the basis for future healthy body weight policies. PMID:28241506

  8. Dietary sodium citrate supplementation enhances rehydration and recovery from rapid body mass loss in trained wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Timpmann, Saima; Burk, Andres; Medijainen, Luule; Tamm, Maria; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Vähi, Mare; Unt, Eve; Oöpik, Vahur

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary sodium citrate supplementation during a 16 h recovery from 5% rapid body mass loss (RBML) on physiological functions, affective state, and performance in trained wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers performed an upper body intermittent sprint performance (UBISP) test under three conditions: before RBML, after RBML, and after a 16 h recovery from RBML. During recovery, the subjects ate a prescribed diet supplemented with sodium citrate (600 mg·kg(-1); CIT group, N = 8) or placebo (PLC group, N = 8) and drank water ad libitum. RBML reduced (p < 0.05) UBISP mean power and increased urine specific gravity (USG). Reduction in mean power was associated with changes in plasma volume (PV) (r = 0.649, p = 0.006) and USG (r = -0.553, p = 0.026). During the 16 h recovery, increases in body mass (BM) and PV were greater (p < 0.05) in the CIT group than in the PLC group. BM gain was associated with water retention in the CIT group (r = 0.899, p = 0.002) but not in the PLC group (r = 0.335, p = 0.417). Blood pH, HCO(3)(-) concentration, and base excess increased (p < 0.05) only in the CIT group. Changes in UBISP, general negative affect, and general positive affect did not differ in the two groups. In conclusion, ingestion of sodium citrate increases blood buffering capacity and PV and stimulates BM regain during a 16 h recovery from RBML in trained wrestlers. However, sodium citrate does not improve UBISP nor does it have an impact on the affective state.

  9. Body size affects the evolution of eyespots in caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    Skelhorn, John; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a phylogenetically controlled analysis of hawkmoth caterpillars, we show that eyespots are associated with large body size. This relationship could arise because (i) large prey are innately conspicuous; (ii) large prey are more profitable, and thus face stronger selection to evolve such defenses; and/or (iii) eyespots are more effective on large-bodied prey. To evaluate these hypotheses, we exposed small and large caterpillar models with and without eyespots in a 2 × 2 factorial design to avian predators in the field. Overall, eyespots increased prey mortality, but the effect was particularly marked in small prey, and eyespots decreased mortality of large prey in some microhabitats. We then exposed artificial prey to naïve domestic chicks in a laboratory setting following a 2 × 3 design (small or large size × no, small, or large eyespots). Predators attacked small prey with eyespots more quickly, but were more wary of large caterpillars with large eyespots than those without eyespots or with small eyespots. Taken together, these data suggest that eyespots are effective deterrents only when both prey and eyespots are large, and that innate aversion toward eyespots is conditional. We conclude that the distribution of eyespots in nature likely results from selection against eyespots in small caterpillars and selection for eyespots in large caterpillars (at least in some microhabitats). PMID:25964333

  10. Body size affects the evolution of eyespots in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hossie, Thomas John; Skelhorn, John; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-05-26

    Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a phylogenetically controlled analysis of hawkmoth caterpillars, we show that eyespots are associated with large body size. This relationship could arise because (i) large prey are innately conspicuous; (ii) large prey are more profitable, and thus face stronger selection to evolve such defenses; and/or (iii) eyespots are more effective on large-bodied prey. To evaluate these hypotheses, we exposed small and large caterpillar models with and without eyespots in a 2 × 2 factorial design to avian predators in the field. Overall, eyespots increased prey mortality, but the effect was particularly marked in small prey, and eyespots decreased mortality of large prey in some microhabitats. We then exposed artificial prey to naïve domestic chicks in a laboratory setting following a 2 × 3 design (small or large size × no, small, or large eyespots). Predators attacked small prey with eyespots more quickly, but were more wary of large caterpillars with large eyespots than those without eyespots or with small eyespots. Taken together, these data suggest that eyespots are effective deterrents only when both prey and eyespots are large, and that innate aversion toward eyespots is conditional. We conclude that the distribution of eyespots in nature likely results from selection against eyespots in small caterpillars and selection for eyespots in large caterpillars (at least in some microhabitats).

  11. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, Laura N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  12. Individual Differences in Fornix Microstructure and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Baddeley, Roland J.; Jones, Derek K.; Aggleton, John P.; O’Sullivan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions is increasing in the developed world. Obesity is related to atrophy and dysfunction of the hippocampus and hippocampal lesions may lead to increased appetite and weight gain. The hippocampus is connected via the fornix tract to the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens, all key structures for homeostatic and reward related control of food intake. The present study employed diffusion MRI tractography to investigate the relationship between microstructural properties of the fornix and variation in Body Mass Index (BMI), within normal and overweight ranges, in a group of community-dwelling older adults (53–93 years old). Larger BMI was associated with larger axial and mean diffusivity in the fornix (r = 0.64 and r = 0.55 respectively), relationships that were most pronounced in overweight individuals. Moreover, controlling for age, education, cognitive performance, blood pressure and global brain volume increased these correlations. Similar associations were not found in the parahippocampal cingulum, a comparison temporal association pathway. Thus, microstructural changes in fornix white matter were observed in older adults with increasing BMI levels from within normal to overweight ranges, so are not exclusively related to obesity. We propose that hippocampal-hypothalamic-prefrontal interactions, mediated by the fornix, contribute to the healthy functioning of networks involved in food intake control. The fornix, in turn, may display alterations in microstructure that reflect weight gain. PMID:23555805

  13. Relationship between body mass index and incidence of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Tao; Han, Xing-Hua; Liu, Ying-Xin; Leng, Kai-Ming; Dong, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the breast cancer incidence, so as to making contribution to breast cancer screening in high-risk groups, to adjustment from passive medical treatment to active treatment Methods: BMI status of 206 breast cancer patients and that of 210 healthy subjects at different ages were compared and analyzed. Results: The mean BMI was significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy subjects 24.45±3.50 vs. 23.80±3.10 kg/m2, t=-2.189, P=0.001. When stratified by age, BMI were significantly higher in ≥60 age for breast cancer than that of control group (Z=-3.408, P=0.001) and no significant difference in <60 years old .Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI was a risk factor of breast cancer (OR=1.886, 95% CI: 1.122-3.009). Conclusion: BMI have a relationship with the occurrence of breast cancer, especially for ≥60 years old. PMID:26379979

  14. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, T J; Freeman, J V; Preece, M A

    1995-01-01

    Reference curves for stature and weight in British children have been available for the past 30 years, and have recently been updated. However weight by itself is a poor indicator of fatness or obesity, and there has never been a corresponding set of reference curves to assess weight for height. Body mass index (BMI) or weight/height has been popular for assessing obesity in adults for many years, but its use in children has developed only recently. Here centile curves for BMI in British children are presented, from birth to 23 years, based on the same large representative sample as used to update the stature and weight references. The charts were derived using Cole's LMS method, which adjusts the BMI distribution for skewness and allows BMI in individual subjects to be expressed as an exact centile or SD score. Use of the charts in clinical practice is aided by the provision of nine centiles, where the two extremes identify the fattest and thinnest four per 1000 of the population. PMID:7639544

  15. Dietary calcium and body mass index in a Mediterranean population.

    PubMed

    García-Lorda, P; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fernàndez Ballart, J; Murphy, M M; Bulló, M; Arija, V

    2007-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between daily calcium intake and body mass index (BMI) in 647 subjects from Reus, Spain. 261 men and 313 women, aged 18 to 70 years, were randomly selected from the population census. Food intake was quantified by the 24-hour recall method, for three non-consecutive days including one holiday. Weight and height were measured. The study sample was divided into quartiles of calcium intake adjusted for age, energy, and total fat and fiber intake in both men and women. Average calcium intake was low (557.6 +/- 234.0 mg/day). Calcium intake was significantly (p < 0.0001) and positively associated with energy intake (r = 0.50 for men; r = 0.49 for women; p < 0.0001) and dietary fiber consumption (r = 0.27 for men; r = 0.25 for women; p < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, energy intake, fat intake, and dietary fiber, the odds ratio of being in the highest quartile of BMI was significantly reduced in the highest quartile of calcium intake [men: 0.63 (0.30-1.29); women: 0.36 (0.17-0.79)] compared to the lowest quartile in both sexes. We conclude that our study showed a negative relationship between calcium intake and BMI in a Mediterranean community.

  16. Does Taste Perception Effect Body Mass Index in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Markam, Vandana; Singh, Garima; Chakravarthy, Kalyan; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eating trends established early in life leads to chronic life style disorders such as obesity, which is hard to overcome as child comes of age. Energy expenditure is less but caloric intake is high leading to disparity of energy balance in turn leading to obesity. Obesity is the outcome of a disparity between energy expenditure and caloric intake. Genes play a role in establishing eating habits, which is termed as genetic sensitivity to taste. Aim To determine taste perception effect on body mass index (BMI) in preschool central Indian urban children. Materials and Methods A total of 500 children of 3-6 years were selected and genetic taste perception was assessed using PROP sensitivity test. Anthropometric measurements were recorded to obtain BMI value. Categorical variables were analysed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results Non tasters were mostly in overweight category i.e. 73.30% where as more number of tasters i.e. 59.70% were in underweight category. A significant correlation is seen between BMI and taste perception. No statistically significant correlation was seen between oral hygiene and taste perception. Females were predominant in both the tasters and non tasters categories. Conclusion Taste perception showed significant relationship with BMI of children between 3-6-year-old children. PMID:26816983

  17. The Relationship of Body Mass Index and Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert H.; Houts, Renate; Nader, Philip R.; O’Brien, Marion; Belsky, Jay; Crosnoe, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine reciprocal relations between body mass index (BMI), internalizing problems and externalizing problems from infancy through middle childhood with a focus on sex and history of overweight. Study design Data from 1254 children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used to conduct longitudinal analyses of relations between BMI and scores on the Child Behavior Checklist from age two through 6th grade. Results BMI and behavior problems showed stability across the 7 measurement occasions. No consistent relation between BMI and behavior problems was evident prior to school entry; but being heavier was associated with later internalizing problems beginning in 1st grade for boys and girls. Higher BMI was not associated with increased conduct problems. Conclusions As children move into middle childhood, higher BMI is associated with increased likelihood of developing internalizing problems. Health care providers should monitor BMI as children enter school and to provide guidance to parents regarding emerging symptoms of anxiety and depression. PMID:18639889

  18. Increasing Body Mass Index Is Inversely Related to Groin Hernias.

    PubMed

    Ravanbakhsh, Samine; Batech, Michael; Tejirian, Talar

    2015-10-01

    Few studies describe the relationship between obesity and groin hernias. Our objective was to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and groin hernias in a large population. Patients with the diagnosis of inguinal or femoral hernia with and without incarceration or strangulation were identified using the Kaiser Permanente Southern California regional database including 14 hospitals over a 7-year period. Patients were stratified by BMI. There were 47,950 patients with a diagnosis of a groin hernia--a prevalence of 2.28 per cent. Relative to normal BMI (20-24.9 kg/m(2)), lower BMI was associated with an increased risk for hernia diagnosis. With increasing BMI, the risk of incarceration or strangulation increased. Additionally, increasing age, male gender, white race, history of hernia, tobacco use history, alcohol use, and higher comorbidity index increased the chance of a groin hernia diagnosis. Complications were higher for women, patients with comorbidities, black race, and alcohol users. Our study is the largest to date correlating obesity and groin hernias in a diverse United States population. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) is associated with a lower risk of groin hernia diagnosis, but an increased risk of complications. This inverse relationship may be due to limitations of physical exam in obese patients.

  19. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  20. The validity of mass body temperature screening with ear thermometers in a warm thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuhiko; Wada, Koji; Wada, Yuko; Kagitani, Hideaki; Arioka, Tetsuya; Maeda, Koji; Kida, Kenichi

    2010-10-01

    Identification of people who have a fever in public places during the occurrence of emerging infectious diseases is essential for controlling disease spread. The measurement of body temperature could identify infected persons. The environment affects body temperature, but little is known about the validity of measurements under different thermal environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the validity of measuring body temperature in cold and warm environments. We recruited 50 participants aged 18-69 years (26 males, 24 females) to measure body temperature using an axillary thermometer and an ear thermometer and by infrared thermal imaging (thermography). The body temperature obtained with an axillary thermometer was used as a reference; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to determine the validity of temperatures obtained by measurement with an ear thermometer and thermography at 36.7°C (median of the axillary body temperature). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicates the validity of measurements. The AUC for ear thermometers in a warm environment (mean temperature: 20.0°C) showed a fair accuracy (AUC: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.64-0.83]), while that (AUC: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.51-0.72]) in a cold environment (mean temperature: 12.6°C) and measurements with thermography used in both environments (AUC: 0.57 [95% CI: 0.45-0.68] in a warm environment and AUC: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.54-0.76] in a cold environment) showed a low accuracy. In conclusion, in a warm environment, measurement of body temperature with an ear thermometer is a valid procedure and effective for mass body temperature screening.

  1. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Noël P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstråle, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.

  2. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  3. A body composition model to estimate mammalian energy stores and metabolic rates from body mass and body length, with application to polar bears.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Péter K; Klanjscek, Tin; Derocher, Andrew E; Obbard, Martyn E; Lewis, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    Many species experience large fluctuations in food availability and depend on energy from fat and protein stores for survival, reproduction and growth. Body condition and, more specifically, energy stores thus constitute key variables in the life history of many species. Several indices exist to quantify body condition but none can provide the amount of stored energy. To estimate energy stores in mammals, we propose a body composition model that differentiates between structure and storage of an animal. We develop and parameterize the model specifically for polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps) but all concepts are general and the model could be easily adapted to other mammals. The model provides predictive equations to estimate structural mass, storage mass and storage energy from an appropriately chosen measure of body length and total body mass. The model also provides a means to estimate basal metabolic rates from body length and consecutive measurements of total body mass. Model estimates of body composition, structural mass, storage mass and energy density of 970 polar bears from Hudson Bay were consistent with the life history and physiology of polar bears. Metabolic rate estimates of fasting adult males derived from the body composition model corresponded closely to theoretically expected and experimentally measured metabolic rates. Our method is simple, non-invasive and provides considerably more information on the energetic status of individuals than currently available methods.

  4. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens.

    PubMed

    Aarnink, A J A; Schrama, J W; Heetkamp, M J W; Stefanowska, J; Huynh, T T T

    2006-08-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) was studied. Ten groups of 5 pigs were placed in partially slatted pens (60% solid concrete, 40% metal-slatted) in climate respiration chambers. After an adaptation period, temperatures were raised daily for 9 d. Results showed that above certain inflection temperatures (IT; mean 22.6 degrees C, SE = 0.78) the number of excretions (relative to the total number of excretions) on the solid floor increased with temperature (mean increase 9.7%/ degrees C, SE = 1.41). Below the IT, the number of excretions on the solid floor was low and not influenced by temperature (mean 13.2%, SE = 3.5). On average, the IT for excretion on the solid floor decreased with increasing BW, from approximately 25 degrees C at 25 kg to 20 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.05). Increasing temperature also affected the pattern and postural lying. The temperature at which a maximum number of pigs lay on the slatted floor (i.e., the IT for lying) decreased from approximately 27 degrees C at 25 kg to 23 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.001). At increasing temperatures, pigs lay more on their sides and less against other pigs (P < 0.001). Temperature affects lying and excreting behavior of growing-finishing pigs in partially slatted pens. Above certain IT, pen fouling increases linearly with temperature. Inflection temperatures decrease at increasing BW.

  5. Listening-touch, Affect and the Crafting of Medical Bodies through Percussion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The growing abundance of medical technologies has led to laments over doctors’ sensory de-skilling, technologies viewed as replacing diagnosis based on sensory acumen. The technique of percussion has become emblematic of the kinds of skills considered lost. While disappearing from wards, percussion is still taught in medical schools. By ethnographically following how percussion is taught to and learned by students, this article considers the kinds of bodies configured through this multisensory practice. I suggest that three kinds of bodies arise: skilled bodies; affected bodies; and resonating bodies. As these bodies are crafted, I argue that boundaries between bodies of novices and bodies they learn from blur. Attending to an overlooked dimension of bodily configurations in medicine, self-perception, I show that learning percussion functions not only to perpetuate diagnostic craft skills but also as a way of knowing of, and through, the resource always at hand; one’s own living breathing body. PMID:27390549

  6. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  7. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  8. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  9. Skeletal correlates for body mass estimation in modern and fossil flying birds.

    PubMed

    Field, Daniel J; Lynner, Colton; Brown, Christian; Darroch, Simon A F

    2013-01-01

    Scaling relationships between skeletal dimensions and body mass in extant birds are often used to estimate body mass in fossil crown-group birds, as well as in stem-group avialans. However, useful statistical measurements for constraining the precision and accuracy of fossil mass estimates are rarely provided, which prevents the quantification of robust upper and lower bound body mass estimates for fossils. Here, we generate thirteen body mass correlations and associated measures of statistical robustness using a sample of 863 extant flying birds. By providing robust body mass regressions with upper- and lower-bound prediction intervals for individual skeletal elements, we address the longstanding problem of body mass estimation for highly fragmentary fossil birds. We demonstrate that the most precise proxy for estimating body mass in the overall dataset, measured both as coefficient determination of ordinary least squares regression and percent prediction error, is the maximum diameter of the coracoid's humeral articulation facet (the glenoid). We further demonstrate that this result is consistent among the majority of investigated avian orders (10 out of 18). As a result, we suggest that, in the majority of cases, this proxy may provide the most accurate estimates of body mass for volant fossil birds. Additionally, by presenting statistical measurements of body mass prediction error for thirteen different body mass regressions, this study provides a much-needed quantitative framework for the accurate estimation of body mass and associated ecological correlates in fossil birds. The application of these regressions will enhance the precision and robustness of many mass-based inferences in future paleornithological studies.

  10. Skeletal Correlates for Body Mass Estimation in Modern and Fossil Flying Birds

    PubMed Central

    Field, Daniel J.; Lynner, Colton; Brown, Christian; Darroch, Simon A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Scaling relationships between skeletal dimensions and body mass in extant birds are often used to estimate body mass in fossil crown-group birds, as well as in stem-group avialans. However, useful statistical measurements for constraining the precision and accuracy of fossil mass estimates are rarely provided, which prevents the quantification of robust upper and lower bound body mass estimates for fossils. Here, we generate thirteen body mass correlations and associated measures of statistical robustness using a sample of 863 extant flying birds. By providing robust body mass regressions with upper- and lower-bound prediction intervals for individual skeletal elements, we address the longstanding problem of body mass estimation for highly fragmentary fossil birds. We demonstrate that the most precise proxy for estimating body mass in the overall dataset, measured both as coefficient determination of ordinary least squares regression and percent prediction error, is the maximum diameter of the coracoid’s humeral articulation facet (the glenoid). We further demonstrate that this result is consistent among the majority of investigated avian orders (10 out of 18). As a result, we suggest that, in the majority of cases, this proxy may provide the most accurate estimates of body mass for volant fossil birds. Additionally, by presenting statistical measurements of body mass prediction error for thirteen different body mass regressions, this study provides a much-needed quantitative framework for the accurate estimation of body mass and associated ecological correlates in fossil birds. The application of these regressions will enhance the precision and robustness of many mass-based inferences in future paleornithological studies. PMID:24312392

  11. Association of Body Mass Index and Body Mass Index Change with Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Liping; Cao, Shirong; Xu, Fenghua; Zhou, Qian; Fan, Li; Xu, Qingdong; Yu, Xueqing; Mao, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    Although high body mass index (BMI) appears to confer a survival advantage in hemodialysis patients, the association of BMI with mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is uncertain. We enrolled incident CAPD patients and BMI was categorized according to World Health Organization classification for Asian population. BMI at baseline and one year after the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment was assessed to calculate the BMI change (∆BMI). Patients were split into four categories according quartiles of ∆BMI. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were performed to assess the association of BMI on outcomes. A total of 1263 CAPD patients were included, with a mean age of 47.8 ± 15.0 years, a mean BMI of 21.58 ± 3.13 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 25.3 months, obesity was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) death (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 2.01; 95% CI 1.14, 3.54), but not all-cause mortality. Additionally, patients with more BMI decline (>0.80%) during the first year after CAPD initiation had an elevated risk for both all-cause (AHR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.23–3.95) and CVD mortality (AHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.11, 4.84), which was independent of baseline BMI values. PMID:26473916

  12. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  13. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition, associated with infections, remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between common anthropometric indices and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sample of 121 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Appendicular (arms and legs) lean mass was used to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess body composition, and especially for muscle mass as a proportion of lean mass, should be acknowledged.

  14. Running 338 Kilometres within Five Days has no Effect on Body Mass and Body Fat But Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mass - the Isarrun 2006.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Kohler, Götz

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the change of body composition in ultra- endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-endurance run, the Isarrun 2006 in Bavaria, Germany, where athletes had to run 338 km within 5 days. Body mass, skin fold thicknesses and circumferences of extremities were measured in 21 well-experienced extreme endurance male runners (mean ± SD, 41.5 ± 6.9 years, 72.6 ± 6.4 kg, 178 ± 5 cm, BMI 23.0 ± 2.0 kg·m(-2)), who finished mainly within the first half of the ranking, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass and body fat mass to prove changes after the race. Body mass and calculated fat mass did not change significantly (p>0.05), but, calculated skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race. The most apparent decline (p<0.01) of the calculated skeletal muscle mass was during the first stage, and no changes were observed during the last 4 stages. We conclude, that a multi- stage ultra-endurance run over 338 km within 5 days leads to no changes of body mass or body fat mass, but a statistically significant decrease of skeletal muscle mass of 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race in well-trained and well-experienced ultra-endurance runners. The change of skeletal muscle mass has to be evaluated in further studies at ultra-endurance races with suitable methods to detect changes in hydration status and water metabolism. Key pointsUltra-runners at the Isarrun 2006 suffered no loss of body mass.Skeletal muscle mass decreased highly significantly during the first stage but no significant changes of skeletal muscle mass were observed during the following 4 stages of the Isarrun 2006.Body fat mass remained stable during the Isarrun 2006.

  15. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, James F.; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick’s law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption. PMID:27118837

  16. Effects of body mass on exercise efficiency and VO2 during steady-state cycling.

    PubMed

    Berry, M J; Storsteen, J A; Woodard, C M

    1993-09-01

    Oxygen uptake (VO2) and exercise efficiency during cycle ergometer exercise are considered to be independent of body mass. To determine the validity of this assumption, 50 females ranging in body mass from 41.5-98.9 kg exercised on a cycle ergometer with no load at 60 rpm and at 25, 50, 75, and 100 W at 60 and 90 rpm. Gross VO2 and efficiency, net VO2 and efficiency, work VO2 and efficiency, and delta efficiency were computed. Gross and net VO2 were significantly and positively correlated with body mass at all work rates and pedal frequencies. Gross efficiency was significantly and negatively correlated with body mass at all work rates and pedal frequencies. Work VO2 and body mass were not significantly correlated. The correlations between work and delta efficiency and body mass were not significant. Since body mass was found to be significantly correlated with gross VO2, the following equation was developed using stepwise multiple regression to predict gross VO2: VO2 (ml.min-1) = 10.9 (work rate, W) + 8.2 (pedal rate, rpm) + 8.3 (body mass, kg) - 559.6. These data suggest that body mass should be considered when estimating the oxygen uptake during cycle ergometer exercise.

  17. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption.

  18. Of Mice, Men and Elephants: The Relation between Articular Cartilage Thickness and Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Malda, Jos; de Grauw, Janny C.; Benders, Kim E. M.; Kik, Marja J. L.; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Creemers, Laura B.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; van Weeren, P. René

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue’s thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse) to 4000 kg (African elephant). Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content) and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content) decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications. PMID:23437402

  19. Childhood body mass index growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate; Ulrich, Lian G.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer; however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial cancer and its sub‐types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6–14 years and born 1930–1989 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age‐specific z scores. Using linear spline multilevel models, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25–7.99, 8.0–10.99, 11.0–14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1,020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain in BMI during childhood was positively associated with endometrial cancer but no differences between the different growth periods were detected in models adjusted for baseline BMI. The hazard ratios for the associations with overall growth during childhood per 0.1 z score increase were 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.24) for all endometrial cancers, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04–1.21) for estrogen‐dependent cancers, 1.16 (95% CI: 1.06–1.26) for endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16–1.84) for non‐estrogen‐dependent cancers. Growth in BMI in early life is positively linked to later endometrial cancer risk. We did not identify any sensitive childhood growth period, which suggests that excess gain in BMI during the entire childhood period should be avoided. PMID:27718528

  20. Body mass index, lifetime smoking intensity and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Parent, Marie-Elise; Nicolau, Belinda; Koushik, Anita; Siemiatycki, Jack; Rousseau, Marie-Claude

    2013-10-01

    There is as yet no generally accepted explanation for the common finding that low body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. We investigated this association in a Canadian population-based case-control study (1996-2002) with a particular view to assessing the hypothesis that the observed association was due to residual confounding by smoking. Analyses were based on 1,076 cases and 1,439 controls who provided their height at enrollment and their weight at two points in time, at age 20 and 2 years before enrollment. BMI, in kg/m(2) , was classified into underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥30). Smoking history was synthesized into a comprehensive smoking index (CSI) that integrated duration, intensity and time since quitting. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI-lung cancer associations were estimated, adjusting for CSI as well as several sociodemographic, lifestyle and occupational factors. The normal BMI category was used as the reference. Among those who were underweight at age 20, there was a lower risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.95). Conversely, lung cancer risk was increased among those who were underweight 2 years before enrollment (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30-4.10). The results were almost identical when stratifying analyses based on smoking history into never/lighter and heavier smokers. The inverse association between recent BMI and lung cancer is unlikely to be largely attributable to residual confounding by smoking. Reverse causality or a true relationship between BMI and lung cancer remain plausible.

  1. Body mass as a determinant of seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M J; Bolton, A; Wade, G

    1989-04-01

    Prevention of death and injury from motor vehicle accidents depends in part on seat belt use. Understanding the determinants of seat belt use is important for developing strategies to increase seat belt use. The cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported seat belt use was analyzed using data from 3,140 Health Risk Appraisals completed by Tennessee residents during 1986. Persons in the lowest quintile BMI (less than or equal to 21.8 kg/m2) stated they use seat belts 63% (SD = 38%) of the time compared to persons in the highest BMI quintile (greater than or equal to 29.0 kg/m2) who reported using seat belts 50% (SD = 38%) of the time. BMI remained associated with seat belt use after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, cigarette use, alcohol use, drug use, urban/rural residence, state area of residence, miles driven per year, self-reported physical activity, and satisfaction with life. For a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI, seat belt use declined -0.73% (95% CI = -1.01, -0.46), and the relative odds of not being a frequent seat belt user increased 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05). BMI was the third variable selected in a step-wise multiple linear regression after education and race. The BMI/seat belt association, if causal, has implications for (1) targeting of education programs to likely nonusers by traffic safety agencies; (2) targeting health promotion messages to likely nonusers by primary care providers; and (3) design of automobile seats and restraint devices.

  2. Serotonergic mediated body mass index changes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Politis, Marios; Loane, Clare; Wu, Kit; Brooks, David J; Piccini, Paola

    2011-09-01

    More than 50% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are expected to show abnormalities with their weight in a process that starts several years before the diagnosis. The serotonergic (5-HT) system has been proposed to regulate appetite and the 5-HT transporter (SERT) is a key modulator of 5-HT metabolism. Here, we hypothesized that a dysfunctional 5-HT system could be responsible for alterations of weight in PD and we sought to investigate this in vivo. Thirty four PD patients had Body Mass Index (BMI) changes monitored over a 12-month period and one positron emission tomography (PET) brain scan with (11)C-DASB, a selective marker of SERT availability, during their second clinical assessment. Results were compared with those of a group of 10 normal controls. Half (17) of the PD patients showed abnormal BMI changes over the 12-month period; 12 lost while 5 gained weight. PD patients with abnormal BMI changes showed significantly raised (11)C-DASB binding in rostral raphe nuclei, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus and ventral striatum compared to cases with no significant BMI changes. (11)C-DASB binding in other regions was similarly decreased in the PD BMI subgroups compared to normal controls. BMI gainers showed significantly raised (11)C-DASB binding in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compared to BMI losers. Our findings suggest that abnormal BMI changes over a 12-month period are linked with relatively raised SERT availability in PD on an overall background of decreased 5-HT function. The regions implicated are the rostral raphe nuclei and its connections to limbic and cognitive areas. It is conceivable that 5-HT agents could help alleviate abnormal changes in BMI in PD.

  3. The association between body mass index and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled A.; Al-shehri, Abdullah D.; Aljuaid, Tariq A.; Alzaidi, Bassam A.; Alasmari, Hassan D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent’s education, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded. Result: A total of 14 schools included 424 students. 24.5% were either overweight or obese. The mean age was 15.44 year, 74.8% of the students were male, 53.8% were high school students, and 83.7% attended public schools. The mean overall GPA was 82.44% and the mean GPA for science subjects was 70.91%. No statically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved >90% of the overall grade compared with those who achieved <90%. Post hoc 1-way-analysis of variance showed that obese students were performing worse in physics than normal weight peers (p=0.049). Students who achieved >90% overall grade are more likely to attend private school (p<0.05), live with their parents (p=0.013), having educated parents (p=0.037), getting optimal sleep (p<0.05), and they rarely eat their food outside their home (p<0.05). Conclusion: There was no correlation between the BMI and school performance, except in physics results where obese students perform worse than normal-weight students. PMID:28133692

  4. Leptin and body mass index in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Nasrin; Haghnazari, Lida; Rasolinia, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with obesity. Human and animal studies showed a direct relationship between leptin level and obesity, however, results from different studies were mixed. This study investigated the status of leptin level in PCOS and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) in a group of Iranian women with PCOS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 women with PCOS and 36 healthy women were assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Those in the PCOS group were not prescribed any medications for 3 months prior to the study. Fasting blood samples were then collected during the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation for laboratory measurement of serum total leptin, blood glucose (fasting blood sugar), serum insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: Mean BMI of the PCOS and control groups were 26.62 ± 4.03 kg/m2 and 23.52 ± 2.52 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.006). The mean total leptin in the PCO group was also 10.69 ± 5.37 ng/mL and 5.73 ± 2.36 ng/mL in the control group (P = 0.0001). A significant relationship was found between leptin level and BMI as well as LH level among women with PCOS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between leptin and insulin (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated an increased leptin level among women with PCOS that positively associated with BMI and LH. PMID:27186548

  5. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad; Packianathan, Satya; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  6. BODY MASS INDEX AND SELF-EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTH KOREA.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-07-25

    This study assesses differential labour performance by body mass index (BMI), focusing on heterogeneity across three distinct employment statuses: unemployed, self-employed and salaried. Data were drawn from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. The final sample included 15,180 person-year observations (9645 men and 5535 women) between 20 and 65 years of age. The findings show that (i) overweight/obese women are less likely to have salaried jobs than underweight/normal weight women, whereas overweight/obese men are more likely to be employed in both the salaried and self-employed sectors than underweight/normal men, (ii) overweight/obese women have lower wages only in permanent salaried jobs than underweight/normal weight women, whereas overweight/obese men earn higher wages only in salaried temporary jobs than underweight/normal weight women, (iii) overweight/obese women earn lower wages only in service, sales, semi-professional and blue-collar jobs in the salaried sector than underweight/normal weight women, whereas overweight/obese men have lower wages only in sales jobs in the self-employed sector than underweight/normal weight women. The statistically significant BMI penalty in labour market outcomes, which occurs only in the salaried sector for women, implies that there is an employers' distaste for workers with a high BMI status and that it is a plausible mechanism for job market penalty related to BMI status. Thus, heterogeneous job characteristics across and within salaried versus self-employed sectors need to be accounted for when assessing the impact of BMI status on labour market outcomes.

  7. Body Mass Index and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bucholz, Emily M.; Rathore, Saif S.; Reid, Kimberly J.; Jones, Philip G.; Chan, Paul S.; Rich, Michael W.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have described an “obesity paradox” with heart failure, whereby higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the impact of obesity on survival after acute myocardial infarction. Methods Data from 2 registries of patients hospitalized in the United States with acute myocardial infarction between 2003–04 (PREMIER) and 2005–08 (TRIUMPH) were used to examine the association of BMI with mortality. Patients (n=6359) were categorized into BMI groups (kg/m2) using baseline measurements. Two sets of analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression with fractional polynomials to model BMI as categorical and continuous variables. To assess the independent association of BMI with mortality, analyses were repeated adjusting for 7 domains of patient and clinical characteristics. Results Median BMI was 28.6. BMI was inversely associated with crude 1-year mortality (normal, 9.2%; overweight, 6.1%; obese, 4.7%; morbidly obese; 4.6%; p<0.001), which persisted after multivariable adjustment. When BMI was examined as a continuous variable, the hazards curve declined with increasing BMI and then increased above a BMI of 40. Compared with patients with a BMI of 18.5, patients with higher BMIs had a 20% to 68% lower mortality at 1 year. No interactions between age (p=0.37), gender (p=0.87) or diabetes mellitus (p=0.55) were observed. Conclusions There appears to be an “obesity paradox” among acute myocardial infarction patients such that higher BMI is associated with lower mortality, an effect that was not modified by patient characteristics and was comparable across age, gender, and diabetes subgroups. PMID:22483510

  8. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  9. Increases in body mass of rats during spaceflight: models and measurements.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Ortiz, R M; Baer, L A

    2000-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the body mass of rats is increased during spaceflight, we developed two models from the literature and obtained mass measurements during spaceflight. From studies of centrifugation (hypergravity), there is a reduction in body mass of rats dependent on the exposure gravity level. From data in 18 publications on rats subjected to hypergravity by centrifugation, we developed a model that predicted a 27% increase in body mass during the microgravity of spaceflight. Following spaceflight, with an increase in gravity on return to Earth, there is a reduction in body mass of rats for over 3 d. We related the reduction in body mass after spaceflight to the time after landing that mass measurements were made. From data in 23 publications on rats returning from spaceflight, we developed a model that predicted a 19% increase in body mass during spaceflight. Measurement of body mass of rats on days 6 and 10 of spaceflight found a 7 and 9% increase compared with ground control animals. The increase in body mass during spaceflight suggests that the rat may provide a viable model for metabolic studies in which changes during spaceflight may be predicted in part by ground-based hypergravity studies.

  10. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  11. A general purpose nonlinear rigid body mass finite element for application to rotary wing dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, B. K.; Straub, F. K.; Ruzicka, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System employs the present formulation of the general-purpose nonlinear rigid body mass finite element, which represents the hub masses, blade tip masses, and pendulum vibration absorbers. The rigid body mass element has six degrees of freedom, and accounts for gravitational as well as dynamic effects. A consequence of deriving the element's equations from various physical principles is that, prior to the transformation which couples the rigid body mass element to the rotor blade finite element, the forces obtained for each element are fundamentally different; this is true notwithstanding the degrees-of-freedom of each element are parameterized using the same coordinates.

  12. Impulsivity mediates the association between borderline personality pathology and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Iacovino, Juliette M.; Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with obesity, a major risk factor for a number of chronic illnesses (e.g., cardiovascular disease). We examined whether impulsivity and affective instability mediate the association between BPD pathology and body mass index (BMI). Participants were a community sample of adults ages 55–64 and their informants. The Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality measured BPD symptoms and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory measured self- and informant-report impulsivity and affective instability. Mediation analyses demonstrated that only higher self-report impulsivity significantly mediated the association between greater BPD pathology and higher BMI. A subsequent model revealed that higher scores on the impulsiveness (lack of inhibitory control) and deliberation (planning) facets of impulsivity mediated the BPD–BMI association, with impulsiveness exerting a stronger mediation effect than deliberation. Obesity interventions that improve inhibitory control may be most effective for individuals with BPD pathology. PMID:24505165

  13. Impulsivity mediates the association between borderline personality pathology and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Iacovino, Juliette M; Powers, Abigail D; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with obesity, a major risk factor for a number of chronic illnesses (e.g., cardiovascular disease). We examined whether impulsivity and affective instability mediate the association between BPD pathology and body mass index (BMI). Participants were a community sample of adults ages 55-64 and their informants. The Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality measured BPD symptoms and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory measured self- and informant-report impulsivity and affective instability. Mediation analyses demonstrated that only higher self-report impulsivity significantly mediated the association between greater BPD pathology and higher BMI. A subsequent model revealed that higher scores on the impulsiveness (lack of inhibitory control) and deliberation (planning) facets of impulsivity mediated the BPD-BMI association, with impulsiveness exerting a stronger mediation effect than deliberation. Obesity interventions that improve inhibitory control may be most effective for individuals with BPD pathology.

  14. 3D measurement of the human body for apparel mass customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bugao; Lin, Sheng; Chen, Tong

    2000-12-01

    An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body-scanning system using the multi-line triangulation technique, and methods for body size extraction and body modeling. The scanning system can rapidly acquire the surface data of a body, provide accurate body dimensions, many of which are not measurable with conventional methods, and also construct a body form based on the scanned data as a digital model of the body for 3D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment.

  15. Errors in the estimation of hydration status from changes in body mass.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M; Leiper, John B

    2007-05-01

    Hydration status is not easily measured, but acute changes in hydration status are often estimated from body mass change. Changes in body mass are also often used as a proxy measure for sweat losses. There are, however, several sources of error that may give rise to misleading results, and our aim in this paper is to quantify these potential errors. Respiratory water losses can be substantial during hard work in dry environments. Mass loss also results from substrate oxidation, but this generates water of oxidation which is added to the body water pool, thus dissociating changes in body mass and hydration status: fat oxidation actually results in a net gain in body mass as the mass of carbon dioxide generated is less than the mass of oxygen consumed. Water stored with muscle glycogen is presumed to be made available as endogenous carbohydrate stores are oxidized. Fluid ingestion and sweat loss complicate the picture by altering body water distribution. Loss of hypotonic sweat results in increased osmolality of body fluids. Urine and faecal losses can be measured easily, but changes in the water content of the bladder and the gastrointestinal tract cannot. Body mass change is not always a reliable measure of changes in hydration status and substantial loss of mass may occur without an effective net negative fluid balance.

  16. Catecholamine responses to high intensity cycle ergometer exercise: body mass or body composition?

    PubMed

    Baker, J S; Bailey, D M; Dutton, J; Davies, B

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sympathoadrenergic and metabolic responses following 30 s of maximal high intensity cycle ergometry exercise when cradle resistive forces were derived from total-body mass (TBM) or fat-free mass (FFM). Increases in peak power output (PPO) and pedal velocity were recorded when resistive forces reflected FFM (953 +/- 114 W vs 1020 +/- 134 W; 134 +/- 8 rpm vs 141 +/- 7 rpm ; P < 0.05). No differences were observed between mean power output (MPO), fatigue index (FI%), work done (WD) or heart rate (HR) when the TBM and FFM protocols were compared. There were no differences between the TBM and FFM protocols for adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA) or blood lactate concentrations ([La-]B) recorded at rest, immediately post or 24 h post exercise. However, increases in blood concentrations of A and NA (P < 0.05) were recorded for both the TBM and FFM protocol immediately post exercise. Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were recorded between PPOs, immediate post- exercise NA and [La-]B for both the TBM and FFM protocols. [La-]B levels were also significantly elevated (P < 0.01) immediately post exercise for both the TBM and FFM protocols. The results from this study suggest that greater peak power outputs are obtainable with no subsequent differences in neurophysiological or metabolic stress as determined by plasma A, NA and [La-]B concentrations when resistive forces reflect FFM and not TBM during loading procedures. The findings also indicate that immediate post exercise concentrations return to resting levels 24 h post exercise.

  17. Peanut protein reduces body protein mass and alters skeletal muscle contractile properties and lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Hélène; Leblanc, Nadine; Papineau, Roxanne; Richard, Denis; Côté, Claude H

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that diets high in nuts or peanuts favourably affect plasma lipid concentrations. However, few studies have examined the effects of nut and peanut protein (PP) on body composition and skeletal muscle properties. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary PP compared with two animal proteins, casein (C) and cod protein (CP) on body composition, skeletal muscle contractile properties and lipid metabolism in rats. Thirty-two male rats were assigned to one of the following four diets containing either C, CP, PP or C+peanut protein (CPP, 50:50) mixture. After 28 d of ad libitum feeding and after 12-h fast, blood, liver and muscle were collected for measurements of plasma and hepatic cholesterol and TAG, plasma glucose and insulin and contractile properties. Rats fed with the low-quality protein, PP, had lower body weight gain, body protein mass, soleus mass and liver weight than those fed with the high-quality dietary proteins, C and CP. PP also caused a deficit in contractile properties in soleus. Likewise, PP increased plasma cholesterol and body fat mass compared with CP. However, these elevations were accompanied with increased hepatic TAG concentrations and lowered intestinal fat excretion. These results show that PP intake alters body composition by reducing skeletal muscle mass and liver weight as well as muscle contractility and lipid metabolism. Adding a complete protein such as C might partially counteract these adverse effects.

  18. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  19. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial

  20. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  1. The Mind-Body Connection - Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? Past Issues / Winter ... traumatic life events. The categories ranged from traumatic stress to some stress to no significant stress. According ...

  2. Effect of environmental variables on body size evolution of crinoids between periods of mass extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, T.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size plays a major role in determining whether or not an organism can sustain in its local environment. The ecosystem of an animal has a major effect on the fitness of organisms, and it would be interesting to note the degree to which various environmental factors alter body size. In my project, I identify three environmental factors that seem to affect body size of crinoids, marine invertebrates from phylum Echinodermata, and explore how these variables play out in the intervals between the five mass extinctions. The particular factors I study include atmospheric CO2 concentration (proxy for temperature), O2 concentration, and sea level. Although the r and p values for all of these factors were statistically insignificant to definitively make any correlation, there was a visual correlation. For O2, I noted a generally positive correlation with body size over time. CO2 trends suggested a negative correlation until the K-T boundary, but a positive correlation afterwards. Correlation with sea level was a little more complicated: correlation was positive from the start of the Phanerozoic to the Permian extinction; it turned negative until the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; afterwards, it again became positive. However, for all three variables, statistical values are too low to say definitively mark any correlation. Out of all three factors, CO2 levels had the highest correlation and lowest p-values in the most time intervals: from the start of the Phanerozoic to Ordovician-Silurian Extinction, from the Late Devonian to the Permian Extinction, and from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary to the present. When considering first differences, CO2 levels also had the highest correlation from the Permian Extinction to Triassic-Jurassic Extinction and from the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction to Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Using PaleoTS, I found that body size evolution patterns either seemed to follow either an unbiased random walk (URW) or stasis in the intervals between

  3. Low-dose recombinant human growth hormone increases body weight and lean body mass in patients with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ellegård, L; Bosaeus, I; Nordgren, S; Bengtsson, B A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effects of low dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on body composition and absorptive capacity in patients with short bowel syndrome from Crohn's disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with short bowel syndrome usually are malnourished because of malabsorption. The anabolic effects of high doses of rhGH have been tested in different clinical catabolic conditions, recently including patients with short bowel syndrome. The authors have investigated the effects of low-dose rhGH in short bowel syndrome in a placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. METHODS: Ten patients were treated with daily subcutaneous doses of rhGH/placebo (0.5 international units/kg-1 per week-1 = 0.024 mg/kg-1 per day-1) for 8 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial with a minimum of 12 weeks wash-out. Absorptive capacity and biochemical parameters were investigated in a metabolic ward before treatment and during first and last week of treatment. Body composition was determined by DEXA-Scan (Lunar DPX, Scanexport Medical, Helsingborg, Sweden), impedance analysis, and whole body potassium counting. RESULTS: Low-dose rhGH doubled serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and increased body weight, lean body mass, and total body potassium by 5% (p < 0.05). Fat-free mass and total body water increased by 6% (p = 0.008). Increases in IGF-1 levels correlated with increases in fat-free mass (r = 0.77, p < 0.02). No significant changes in absorptive capacity of water, energy, or protein were detected. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of low-dose rhGH treatment leads to increases in body weight, lean body mass, and fat-free mass in patients with short bowel syndrome, correlated to increases in IGF-1 levels. PMID:8998124

  4. Association between body mass index and in-hospital outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Meng, Qingrui; Vin-Raviv, Neomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Importance: Over one-third of American adults (36%) are obese and more than two-thirds (69%) are overweight. The impact of obesity on hospitalization outcomes is not well understood. Objective: To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and overall, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific in-hospital mortality; postsurgical complications; and hospital length of stay (LOS). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Representative sample of US hospitals included in the Health Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Participants: We obtained data for patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of cancer, COPD, asthma, and CVD. Main Outcome: In-hospital mortality, postsurgical complications, and hospital LOS. Results: A total of 800,417 patients were included in this analysis. A higher proportion of Blacks (26.8%; 12.5%) and Whites (23.3%; 8.7%) had BMI of 40 to 49.9 and ≥50, respectively, compared with Hispanics (20.4%; 7.3%). Compared with normal BMI patients, the odds of in-hospital mortality increased 3.6-fold (odds ratio [OR] 3.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37–3.89) for preobese patients, 6.5-fold (OR: 6.52, 95% CI: 5.79–7.34) for patients with BMI: 30 to 31.9, 7.5-fold (OR: 7.57, 95% CI: 6.67–8.59) for patients with BMI: 34 to 35.9, and 1.6- fold (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.56–1.79) for patients with BMI ≥ 50. Compared with normal BMI patients, preobese and overweight patients had shorter hospital stays (β preobese: −1.58, 95% CI: −1.63, −1.52); however, no clear trends were observed for postsurgical complications. Conclusions: The majority of hospitalized patients in this analysis had a BMI > 30, and higher BMI was associated with increased risk of mortality and longer hospital stay. PMID:27428218

  5. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A.; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F.; Gómez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M.; Landa, Blanca B.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Clemente, José C.; López-Miranda, José

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI). Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P<0.001, Q = 0.002) when BMI was > 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001). However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019) and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026) in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041). Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:27228093

  6. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  7. Structural and interpersonal characteristics of family meals: associations with adolescent body mass index and dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth.

  8. Body mass and cognitive decline are indirectly associated via inflammation among aging adults.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Kyle; Sbarra, David A

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory models of neurodegeneration suggest that higher circulating levels of inflammation can lead to cognitive decline. Despite established independent associations between greater body mass, increased inflammation, and cognitive decline, no prior research has explored whether markers of systemic inflammation might mediate the association between body mass and changes in cognitive functioning. To test such a model, we used two longitudinal subsamples (ns=9066; 12,561) of aging adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) study, which included two cognitive measures components of memory and executive functioning, as well as measurements of body mass and systemic inflammation, assessed via C-reactive protein (CRP). Greater body mass was indirectly associated with declines in memory and executive functioning over 6years via relatively higher levels of CRP. Our results suggest that systemic inflammation is one biologically plausible mechanism through which differences in body mass might influence changes in cognitive functioning among aging adults.

  9. Environmental Light Exposure Is Associated with Increased Body Mass in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pattinson, Cassandra L.; Allan, Alicia C.; Staton, Sally L.; Thorpe, Karen J.; Smith, Simon S.

    2016-01-01

    The timing, intensity, and duration of exposure to both artificial and natural light have acute metabolic and physiological effects in mammals. Recent research in human adults suggests exposure to moderate intensity light later in the day is concurrently associated with increased body mass; however, no studies have investigated the effect of light exposure on body mass in young children. We examined objectively measured light exposure and body mass of 48 preschool-aged children at baseline, and measured their body mass again 12 months later. At baseline, moderate intensity light exposure earlier in the day was associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Increased duration of light exposure at baseline predicted increased BMI 12-months later, even after controlling for baseline sleep duration, sleep timing, BMI, and activity. The findings identify that light exposure may be a contributor to the obesogenic environment during early childhood. PMID:26735299

  10. A method for direct measurement of the first-order mass moments of human body segments.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yusaku; Shimada, Kazuhito; Maru, Koichi; Ozawa, Junichi; Lu, Rong-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple and direct method for measuring the first-order mass moment of a human body segment. With the proposed method, the first-order mass moment of the body segment can be directly measured by using only one precision scale and one digital camera. In the dummy mass experiment, the relative standard uncertainty of a single set of measurements of the first-order mass moment is estimated to be 1.7%. The measured value will be useful as a reference for evaluating the uncertainty of the body segment inertial parameters (BSPs) estimated using an indirect method.

  11. The effect of body mass index on post-vaccination maternal and neonatal pertussis antibody levels.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Manisha; Devaraj, Sridevi; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Mastrobattista, Joan

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine if there is an association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and maternal and neonatal pertussis antibody concentrations following vaccination. This is a nested cohort study of 123 women who received the Tdap vaccine during pregnancy. Women were stratified by BMI into three groups--normal, overweight, and obese, based on first trimester or pre-pregnancy BMI. Maternal and umbilical cord serum samples were tested for post-vaccination pertussis IgG antibody. The mean maternal pertussis antibody concentration was 167.5 U/mL for normal BMI (n=29), 169.8 U/mL for overweight BMI (n=54), and 175.5 U/mL for the obese BMI groups (n=40). The mean fetal pertussis antibody concentrations were 182.3 U/mL, 191.4 U/mL, and 197.7 U/mL for these groups respectively. Seroprotection was achieved in 89.7% of neonates (26/29) in the normal BMI group, 87.0% (47/54) in the overweight BMI group, and 97.5% (39/40) in the obese BMI group. None of these differences reached statistical significance. Maternal BMI does not affect the maternal or neonatal pertussis antibody response to the Tdap vaccine in women who receive the vaccine in pregnancy. Maternal BMI is unlikely to affect the neonatal protective effects of a standard dose of Tdap vaccine in pregnancy. PRéCIS: Maternal and umbilical cord antibody response to the pertussis vaccine is not affected by maternal body mass index.

  12. Relationship of Heath and Carter's Second Component to Lean Body Mass and Height in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, M. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Heath and Carter approach to determining somatotypes is less accurate than is regression analysis, mainly because of the lack of association between skeletal widths and lean body mass as measured by body density and whole-body fat percentage, holding constant muscle circumference. (Author)

  13. Body mass index and risk of Parkinson's disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Sesso, Howard D; Paffenbarger, Ralph S; Lee, I-Min

    2007-11-15

    High body mass index has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and, recently, Alzheimer's disease. There are few data on the association of body mass index with Parkinson's disease, and results have been inconsistent. The authors conducted a prospective study among 10,812 men in the Harvard Alumni Health Study, followed from 1988 to 1998 (mean age at baseline: 67.7 years), to test the hypothesis that body mass index is associated with Parkinson's disease risk. Among 106 incident cases of Parkinson's disease, body mass index at baseline was not associated with Parkinson's disease risk (for body mass index <22.5, 22.5-<24.9, and > or =25.0 kg/m2: multivariate relative risks = 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 2.40), 1.00 (referent), and 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.41)). The authors had information on body mass index during late adolescence, when men entered college; this was unrelated to Parkinson's disease risk as well. Subjects who lost at least 0.5 units of body mass index per decade between college entry and 1988 had a significantly increased Parkinson's disease risk, compared with men having stable body mass index (multivariate relative risk = 2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 6.10). The authors conclude that body mass index is unrelated to Parkinson's disease risk and speculate that the observation of increased risk with body mass index loss since late adolescence may reflect weight loss due to Parkinson's disease that preceded clinical diagnosis.

  14. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M.; Butler, David M.; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  15. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M; Butler, David M; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  16. Apparent Mass and Absorbed Power during Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MANSFIELD, N. J.; HOLMLUND, P.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.

    2001-11-01

    Exposure to mechanical shocks might pose a greater health risk than exposure to continuous vibration. Previous studies have investigated subjective responses, muscle activity or transmission of vibration to the spine or head during shock. If there is a difference between biomechanic responses of the seated body to shocks when compared to continuous vibration, then this may indicate a more, or less, hazardous vibration waveform. This paper presents measurements of apparent mass and absorbed power during exposure to random vibration, repeated shocks and combinations of shocks and random vibration. Eleven male and 13 female subjects were exposed to 15 vibration conditions generated using an electro-dynamic shaker. Subjects were exposed to five 20 s acceleration waveforms with nominally identical power spectra (random vibration, equally spaced shocks, unequally spaced shocks, random combined with equally spaced shocks, random combined with unequally spaced shocks) at each of 0·5, 1·0 and 1·5 m/s2r.m.s. The general shapes of the apparent mass or absorbed power curves were not affected by stimulus type, indicating that the biomechanical response of the body is fundamentally the same when exposed to shocks or random vibration. Two non-linear effects were observed: apparent mass resonance frequencies were slightly higher for exposure to shocks; apparent mass and absorbed power resonance frequencies decreased with increases in vibration magnitude for each stimulus type. It is concluded that the two non-linear mechanisms operate simultaneously: a stiffening effect during exposure to shocks and a softening effect as vibration magnitudes increase. Total absorbed powers were greatest for shock stimuli and least for random vibration.

  17. Validity of segmental multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition of adults across a range of body mass indexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Compare estimates of body composition using segmental, multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy adults across a range of body mass index (BMI). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF), fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) asses...

  18. Increased Body Mass Index may lead to Hyperferritinemia Irrespective of Body Iron Stores

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Faiza; Memon, Abdul Shakoor; Fatima, Syeda Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obesity causes subclinical inflammation which results in the secretion of various bioactive peptides that are key players in metabolic regulation of iron homeostasis. We sought to establish correlation of one such peptide (ferritin) with marker of subclinical inflammation (CRP) in various BMI. Methods: Total 150 subjects between the ages of 20-60 years were included in the cross-sectional study conducted at Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by weight (kg) /height (m2). The given values were used as reference for Group A: normal weight (18.0-22.9 kg/m2), Group B: overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), Group C: obese (>25.0 kg/m2) according to South Asian criteria. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, serum Transferrin Saturation, serum Ferritin and C-reactive protein were measured by commercially available kits. ANNOVA with Tukey’s minimum significant difference and Spearman Rho correlation were used considering p<0.05 significant. Results: The results identified an increased serum Ferritin and CRP in obese versus lean subjects (p < 0.001). BMI showed significantly positive correlation with serum CRP (r = 0.815; p-value < 0.01) and Ferritin (r = 0.584; p-value < 0.01). However, serum Iron levels and Transferrin saturation decreased in obese versus normal weight individuals (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This integrated new data reveals that individuals with high BMI had high levels of Serum Ferritin despite low levels of iron with high levels of C- reactive protein. This might be caused due to inflammatory conditions prevailing in the presence of increased adipose tissue. PMID:26870128

  19. Procedure to Measure Effect of Excess Body Mass on Musculoskeleture: II. Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2008-03-01

    There are a number of ways in which the musculoskeletal system can be affected by excess body mass. One representative quantity for these is the torque exerted on the spinal column about a horizontal lateral axis; hence, its use as an illustrative mechanical indicator in the research reported here. Values of the torque are determined for all subjects in an exceptionally broad adult population that was developed during a companion study. Increases in body mass index caused nearly uniform increases in torque for all height percentiles in both sexes. Overweight individuals had torques that were 35 and 30 percent greater (females and males, respectively) than those for healthy individuals of the same height. Corresponding increases for obese individuals occurred at the much higher levels of 75 and 66 percent. Any resulting musculosketal damage from this is in addition to other problems arising from obesity, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. However, whereas the latter can be treated or managed with medication, some facets of the former might be irreversible and/or irremediable.

  20. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  1. Effects of season, temperature, and body mass on the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae).

    PubMed

    Toledo, Luís F; Brito, Simone P; Milsom, William K; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study examined how the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards, a species that undergoes large ontogenetic changes in body weight with associated changes in life-history traits, is affected by changes in body mass, body temperature, season, and life-history traits. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) in 90 individuals ranging in body mass from 10.4 g to 3.75 kg at three experimental temperatures (17 degrees , 25 degrees , and 30 degrees C) over the four seasons. We found that standard metabolic rate scaled to the power of 0.84 of body mass at all experimental temperatures in all seasons and that thermal sensitivity of metabolism was relatively low (Q(10) approximately 2.0-2.5) over the range from 17 degrees to 30 degrees C regardless of body size or season. Metabolic rates did vary seasonally, being higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter at the same temperatures, and this was true regardless of animal size. Finally, in this study, the changes in life-history traits that occurred ontogenetically were not accompanied by significant changes in metabolic rate.

  2. N-body Simulation of Binary Star Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutyra, Taylor; Sumpter, William

    2017-01-01

    Over 70% of the stars in our galaxy are multiple star systems, many of which are two stars that orbit around a common center of mass. The masses of the individual stars can be found using Newton’s and Kepler’s Laws. This allows astronomers to use these systems as astrophysical laboratories to study properties and processes of stars and galaxies. Among the many types observed, the dynamics of contact systems are the most interesting because they exhibit mass transfer, which changes the composition and function of both stars. The process by which this mass exchange takes place is not well understood. The lack of extensive mass transfer analysis, inadequate theoretical models, and the large time scale of this process are reasons for our limited understanding. In this work, a model was made to give astronomers a method for gaining a deeper knowledge and visual intuition of how the mass transfer between binary stars takes place. We have built the foundations for a simulation of arbitrary systems, which we plan to elaborate on in the future to include thermodynamics and nuclear processes.

  3. Effects of body mass-based squat training in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Yuko; Fujita, Eiji; Mori, Hisashi; Yoshimoto, Takaya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36) or control (n = 58) groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions) for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2%) and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%), muscle thickness (3.2%) and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%), compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys. Key pointsAn 8-wk body mass-based squat exercise training decreased percent body fat in adolescent boys.The body mass-based squat exercise training increased muscle size and strength capability of the knee extensors in adolescent boys.The squat exercise training improves vertical jump height in adolescent boys.

  4. Effects of Body Mass-Based Squat Training in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Yuko; Fujita, Eiji; Mori, Hisashi; Yoshimoto, Takaya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36) or control (n = 58) groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions) for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2%) and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%), muscle thickness (3.2%) and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%), compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys. Key points An 8-wk body mass-based squat exercise training decreased percent body fat in adolescent boys. The body mass-based squat exercise training increased muscle size and strength capability of the knee extensors in adolescent boys. The squat exercise training improves vertical jump height in adolescent boys. PMID:24149726

  5. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Åsa; Bergström, Ulf; Donadi, Serena; Eriksson, Britas D.H.K.; Hansen, Joakim; Sundblad, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’) per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh) mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass) is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell)—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm) in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm), body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i) DM and (ii) AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2). Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs), body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate organism dry- and

  6. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  7. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (<2 weeks) exposure to DLAN are unspecified. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations would arise in response to just 2 weeks of DLAN. Specifically, we predicted that mice exposed to dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  8. Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass: effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A; Engel, Sophia; Visser, G Henk

    2008-08-01

    Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body mass, which was either applied immediately before the flight (LS) or at least 9 days in advance (LL). Energy expenditure during flight (ef in W) was measured with the Doubly Labelled Water method. Flight costs in L(S) and LL were not significantly different and therefore were pooled (L). The harness itself did not affect ef, i.e. U and C flights were not different. ef was allometrically related with body mass m (in g). The slopes were not significantly different between the treatments, but ef was increased by 5.4% in L compared to C flights (log10(ef) = 0.050 + 0.47 x log10(m) for C, and log10(ef) = 0.073 + 0.47 x log10(m) for L). The difference in ef between C, LS and LL was best explained by taking the transported mass m transp (in g) instead of m into account (log10(ef) = -0.08 + 0.54 x log10(m transp)). Flight costs increased to a lesser extent than expected from interspecific allometric comparison or aerodynamic theory, regardless of whether the increase in mass occurred naturally or artificially. We did not observe an effect of treatment on breast muscle size and wingbeat frequency. We propose that the relatively low costs at a high mass are rather a consequence of immediate adjustments in physiology and/or flight behaviour than of long-term adaptations.

  9. Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass: effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Sophia; Visser, G. Henk

    2008-01-01

    Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body mass, which was either applied immediately before the flight (LS) or at least 9 days in advance (LL). Energy expenditure during flight (ef in W) was measured with the Doubly Labelled Water method. Flight costs in LS and LL were not significantly different and therefore were pooled (L). The harness itself did not affect ef, i.e. U and C flights were not different. ef was allometrically related with body mass m (in g). The slopes were not significantly different between the treatments, but ef was increased by 5.4% in L compared to C flights (log10(ef) = 0.050 + 0.47 × log10(m) for C, and log10(ef) = 0.073 + 0.47 × log10(m) for L). The difference in ef between C, LS and LL was best explained by taking the transported mass mtransp (in g) instead of m into account (log10(ef) = −0.08 + 0.54 × log10(mtransp)). Flight costs increased to a lesser extent than expected from interspecific allometric comparison or aerodynamic theory, regardless of whether the increase in mass occurred naturally or artificially. We did not observe an effect of treatment on breast muscle size and wingbeat frequency. We propose that the relatively low costs at a high mass are rather a consequence of immediate adjustments in physiology and/or flight behaviour than of long-term adaptations. PMID:18481070

  10. Determinants of lifetime reproduction in female brown bears: early body mass, longevity, and hunting regulations.

    PubMed

    Zedrosser, Andreas; Pelletier, Fanie; Bischof, Richard; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Swenson, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    In iteroparous mammals, conditions experienced early in life may have long-lasting effects on lifetime reproductive success. Human-induced mortality is also an important demographic factor in many populations of large mammals and may influence lifetime reproductive success. Here, we explore the effects of early development, population density, and human hunting on survival and lifetime reproductive success in brown bear (Ursus arctos) females, using a 25-year database of individually marked bears in two populations in Sweden. Survival of yearlings to 2 years was not affected by population density or body mass. Yearlings that remained with their mother had higher survival than independent yearlings, partly because regulations prohibit the harvest of bears in family groups. Although mass as a yearling did not affect juvenile survival, it was positively associated with measures of lifetime reproductive success and individual fitness. The majority of adult female brown bear mortality (72%) in our study was due to human causes, mainly hunting, and many females were killed before they reproduced. Therefore, factors allowing females to survive several hunting seasons had a strong positive effect on lifetime reproductive success. We suggest that, in many hunted populations of large mammals, sport harvest is an important influence on both population dynamics and life histories.

  11. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Effect of a footrest and a steering wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, M. G. R.; Griffin, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    The apparent mass of the seated human body influences the vibration transmitted through a car seat. The apparent mass of the body is known to be influenced by sitting posture but the influence of the position of the hands and the feet is not well understood. This study was designed to quantify the influence of steering wheel location and the position of a footrest on the vertical apparent mass of the human body. The influences of the forces applied by the hands to a steering wheel and by the feet to a footrest were also investigated. Twelve subjects were exposed to whole-body vertical random vibration (1.0 m s -2 rms over the frequency range 0.13-40.0 Hz) while supported by a rigid seat with a backrest reclined to 15°. The apparent mass of the body was measured with five horizontal positions and three vertical positions of a steering wheel and also with hands in the lap, and with five horizontal positions of a footrest. The influence of five forward forces (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 N) applied separately to the 'steering wheel' and the footrest were also investigated as well as a 'no backrest' condition. With their hands in their laps, subjects exhibited a resonance around 6.7 Hz, compared to 4.8 Hz when sitting upright with no backrest. In the same posture holding a steering wheel, the mass supported on the seat surface decreased and there was an additional resonance at 4 Hz. Moving the steering wheel away from the body reduced the apparent mass at the primary resonance frequency and increased the apparent mass around the 4 Hz resonance. As the feet moved forward, the mass supported on the seat surface decreased, indicating that the backrest and footrest supported a greater proportion of the subject weight. Applying force to either the steering wheel or the footrest reduced the apparent mass at resonance and decreased the mass supported on the seat surface. It is concluded that the positions and contact conditions of the hands and the feet affect the biodynamic

  12. Stochastic and compensatory effects limit persistence of variation in body mass of young caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; Collins, W.B.; Joly, Kyle; Valkenburg, P.; Tobey, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional restriction during growth can have short- and long-term effects on fitness; however, animals inhabiting uncertain environments may exhibit adaptations to cope with variation in food availability. We examined changes in body mass in free-ranging female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) by measuring mass at birth and at 4, 11, and 16 months of age to evaluate the relative importance of seasonal nutrition to growth, the persistence of cohort-specific variation in body mass through time, and compensatory growth of individuals. Relative mean body mass of cohorts did not persist through time. Compensatory growth of smaller individuals was not observed in summer; however, small calves exhibited more positive change in body mass than did large calves. Compensation occurred during periods of nutritional restriction (winter) rather than during periods of rapid growth (summer) thus differing from the conventional view of compensatory growth. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  13. The Skinny on Success: Body Mass, Gender and Occupational Standing Across the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Christy M.; Haas, Steven A.; Reither, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have analyzed the impact of obesity on occupational standing. This study extends previous research by estimating the influence of body mass on occupational attainment over three decades of the career using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. In a series of covariance structure analyses, we considered three mechanisms that may alter the career trajectories of heavy individuals: (1. employment-based discrimination, (2. educational attainment, and (3. marriage market processes. Unlike previous studies, we found limited evidence that employment-based discrimination impaired the career trajectories of either men or women. Instead, we found that heavy women received less post-secondary schooling than their thinner peers, which in turn adversely affected their occupational standing at each point in their careers. PMID:20936045

  14. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body

    PubMed Central

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs’ somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants’ body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations. PMID:26842303

  15. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-02-04

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs' somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants' body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations.

  16. Effects of density, climate, and supplementary forage on body mass and pregnancy rates of female red deer in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, P; Gortazar, C; Tortosa, F S; Rodriguez-Vigal, C; Fierro, Y; Vicente, J

    2010-10-01

    The influence of short- and long-term (cohort) effects of climate and density on the life-histories of ungulates in temperate regions may vary with latitude, habitat, and management practices, but the life-histories of ungulates in the Mediterranean region are less well known. This study examined the short- and long-term effects of rainfall and absolute density on hinds in two of the southernmost populations of red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Europe. One population received supplementary forage. Unlike more northerly latitudes, where red deer hinds lose body mass in winter as a result of adverse weather, in the Spanish populations, hinds did not lose body mass. Hinds in the population that received supplementary forage were heavier and more likely to become pregnant than were the hinds in the unsupplemented population. The likelihood of pregnancy occurring was strongly influenced by hind body mass; the proportion of yearlings that became pregnant was consequently lower in the unsupplemented population than in the population that received supplementary forage. Cohort effects on hind body mass (negative for density and positive for rainfall at birth) and on the probability of pregnancy (negative for density at birth) were apparent only in the unsupplemented population, which implies that supplemental feeding may partially compensate for negative density-dependent factors during early growth, and that supplemented deer hinds may experience reduced selection pressures. These results reflect the particular seasonal variation in the abundance and quality of food in Mediterranean habitats. The delayed effects of climate and density at birth on adult hind body mass and the prevalence of pregnancy probably affects population dynamics and constitutes a mechanism by which cohort effects affect the population dynamics in Iberian red deer. The management of Iberian red deer populations should take into account cohort effects and supplemental feeding practices, which can

  17. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G G; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2014-04-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated blood plasma corticosterone levels through corticosterone feeding (20 mg/kg feed) for 14 days using 30 chicken hens in each of treatment and control groups and studied the primary offspring sex ratio (here defined as the proportion of male fertile eggs determined in freshly laid eggs, i.e., without egg incubation). Mean plasma corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group but were not associated with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate. Corticosterone treatment by itself did not affect egg sex but affected sex ratio as well as laying rate and fertility rate in interaction with hen body mass. Body mass had a negative association with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen in the corticosterone group, but a positive association with sex ratio in untreated hens. These interactions were already seen when taking the body mass at the beginning of the experiment, indicating intrinsic differences between light and heavy hens with regard to their reaction to corticosterone treatment. The effects on laying rate, fertility rate, and sex ratio suggest that some factor related to body mass act together with corticosterone to modulate ovarian functions. We propose that corticosterone treatment in conjunction with hen body mass can interfere with meiosis, which can lead to meiotic drive and to chromosomal aberrations resulting in postponed ovulation or infertile ova.

  18. Atmospheric composition affects heat- and mass-transfer processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, R. L.; Nelson, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    For environmental control system functions sensitive to atmospheric composition, components are test-operated in helium-oxygen and nitrogen-oxygen mixtures, pure oxygen, and air. Transient heat- and mass-transfer tests are conducted for carbon dioxide adsorption on molecular sieve and for water vapor adsorption on silica gel.

  19. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  20. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index.

    PubMed

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-01-15

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index.

  1. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Janine F.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Marsh, Julie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A.; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A.; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E.; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Murray, Clare S.; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H.; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S.; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pennell, Craig E.; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10−8) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10−10) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index. PMID:26604143

  2. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  3. Body Mass Bias in a Combat Fitness Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-07

    Scaling behaviour of VO2 in athletes and untrained individuals. Annals of Human Biology, 34, 315–328. McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L...and CFT 8 and v is velocity in m·min-1 (American College of Sports Medicine at www.acsm.org). The equation applies when v ≥ 120 m·min-1. This minimum...APPENDIX C VO2 Mass Coefficients Estimated from Run Times Mass coefficients were computed for oxygen uptake rates estimated from run times

  4. Reassessment of Phenylalanine Tolerance in Adults with Phenylketonuria is Needed as Body Mass Changes

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Gleason, Sally T.; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in 8 adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and 5 subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25–28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, 7 subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15–173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R2=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  5. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations.

  6. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  7. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard V; Walker, Ann C; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L; Leonard, Michael S; Miller, Ram R; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2014-06-15

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19-30 yr, 70-84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51-62 yr, 70-84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA.

  8. Genetic Effects of FTO and MC4R Polymorphisms on Body Mass in Constitutional Types.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seongwon; Koo, Imhoi; Park, Byung L; Jeong, Sangkyun; Choi, Sun M; Kim, Kil S; Shin, Hyoung D; Kim, Jong Y

    2011-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a Korean tailored medicine, categorizes human beings into four types through states of physiological imbalances and responsiveness to herbal medicine. One SCM type susceptible to obesity seems sensitive to energy intake due to an imbalance toward preserving energy. Common variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes have been associated with increased body mass index (BMI) by affecting energy intake. Here, we statistically examined the association of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms with BMI in two populations with 1370 Koreans before and after SCM typing, and with the lowering of BMI in 538 individuals who underwent a 1-month lifestyle intervention. The increased BMI replicated the association with FTO haplotypes (effect size ≃ 1.1 kg/m(2)) and MC4R variants (effect size ≃ 0.64 kg/m(2)). After the lifestyle intervention, the carriers of the haplotype represented by the minor allele of rs1075440 had a tendency to lose more waist-to-hip ratio (0.76%) than non-carriers. The constitutional discrepancy for the accumulation of body mass by the effects of FTO and/or MC4R variants seemed to reflect the physique differences shown in each group of SCM constitutional types. In conclusion, FTO and MC4R polymorphisms appear to play an important role in weight gain, while only FTO variants play a role in weight loss after lifestyle intervention. Different trends were observed among individuals of SCM types, especially for weight gain. Therefore, classification of individuals based on physiological imbalance would offer a good genetic stratification system in assessing the effects of obesity genes.

  9. The effects of food shortage during larval development on adult body size, body mass, physiology and developmental time in a tropical damselfly.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Cortés, J Guillermo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition--phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) "rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) "poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species.

  10. Effects of the exposure to self- and other-referential bodies on state body image and negative affect in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja; Düsing, Rainer; Waldorf, Manuel

    2017-03-09

    Previous body image research suggests that first, exposure to body stimuli can negatively affect men's body satisfaction and second, body concerns are associated with dysfunctional gaze behavior. To date, however, the effects of self- vs. other-referential body stimuli and of gaze behavior on body image in men under exposure conditions have not been investigated. Therefore, 49 weight-trained men were presented with pictures of their own and other bodies of different builds (i.e., normal, muscular, hyper-muscular) while being eye-tracked. Participants completed pre- and post-exposure measures of body image and affect. Results indicated that one's own and the muscular body negatively affected men's body image to a comparable degree. Exposure to one's own body also led to increased negative affect. Increased attention toward disliked own body parts was associated with a more negative post-exposure body image and affect. These results suggest a crucial role of critical self-examination in maintaining body dissatisfaction.

  11. Affective responses of high and low body satisfied men to viewing physique slides.

    PubMed

    Hausenblas, Heather A; Janelle, Christopher M; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute affective responses of high and low body satisfied (BS) men who viewed physique slides of the male ideal (model-slides), physique slides of themselves (self-slides), and nonphysique slides (control-slides). During three laboratory visits the participants viewed the slides from one of the three conditions, and they completed pre-, in-, and post-task affective measures. It was found that the: (a) high BS group reported less mood disturbance than the low BS group; (b) participants reported an increase in depression, anger, and body dissatisfaction after viewing the self-slides; (c) participants indicated a decrease in body dissatisfaction after viewing the model-slides; and (d) viewing the control-slides did not result in affective changes. Findings suggest that viewing physique slides results in increased mood disturbance, regardless of BS level.

  12. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Thermal Stresses in Mass Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    ABAQUS , a finite-element program capable of performing complete incremental construction analyses of complex mass concrete structures during and...following construction. ’The report describes a user-defined aging creep material model, UMAT, used with ABAQUS to account for the changes in concrete...model to evolve the onset and effects of cracking. In addition to material aging, ABAQUS includes the (Continued) 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES

  13. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  14. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  15. The Effects of Body Mass on Dung Removal Efficiency in Dung Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Nervo, Beatrice; Tocco, Claudia; Caprio, Enrico; Palestrini, Claudia; Rolando, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the role of body mass in structural-functional relationships is pressing, particularly because species losses often occur non-randomly with respect to body size. Our study examined the effects of dung beetle body mass on dung removal at two levels. First, we used the lab experiment to evaluate the efficiency of eight dung beetle species belonging to two functional groups (tunnelers, dwellers) on dung removal. Second, the same species employed in the lab were used in field mesocosms to examine the effects of the two functional groups on dung removal maintaining realistic differences in the total body mass between tunneler and dweller assemblages. Furthermore, the experimental assemblages contained one and four species within each functional group, so the effect of body mass heterogeneity was examined. We used a statistical approach (offset method) which took into account a priori constraints due to the study design allowing us to analyse the effect of larger species in mesocosm style experiments. Body size played a crucial role in dung removal: large beetles were more efficient than small ones and the percentage of removed dung increased with higher body mass heterogeneity. Tunnelers were more efficient than dwellers over both short and long time periods (one month and one year). Significant effects of dwellers were found only after one year. Moreover, our study showed that not including the body mass as an offset in the model resulted in sometimes different results, as the offset expresses dung removal independently of the body mass. This approach confirmed that body size is likely a pivotal factor controlling dung removal efficiency at multiple levels, from single species to overall dung beetle assemblages. Even though other specific traits should be examined, this study has begun to address the consequences of losing individuals with specific traits that are especially sensitive to perturbations. PMID:25229237

  16. The effects of body mass on dung removal efficiency in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Nervo, Beatrice; Tocco, Claudia; Caprio, Enrico; Palestrini, Claudia; Rolando, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the role of body mass in structural-functional relationships is pressing, particularly because species losses often occur non-randomly with respect to body size. Our study examined the effects of dung beetle body mass on dung removal at two levels. First, we used the lab experiment to evaluate the efficiency of eight dung beetle species belonging to two functional groups (tunnelers, dwellers) on dung removal. Second, the same species employed in the lab were used in field mesocosms to examine the effects of the two functional groups on dung removal maintaining realistic differences in the total body mass between tunneler and dweller assemblages. Furthermore, the experimental assemblages contained one and four species within each functional group, so the effect of body mass heterogeneity was examined. We used a statistical approach (offset method) which took into account a priori constraints due to the study design allowing us to analyse the effect of larger species in mesocosm style experiments. Body size played a crucial role in dung removal: large beetles were more efficient than small ones and the percentage of removed dung increased with higher body mass heterogeneity. Tunnelers were more efficient than dwellers over both short and long time periods (one month and one year). Significant effects of dwellers were found only after one year. Moreover, our study showed that not including the body mass as an offset in the model resulted in sometimes different results, as the offset expresses dung removal independently of the body mass. This approach confirmed that body size is likely a pivotal factor controlling dung removal efficiency at multiple levels, from single species to overall dung beetle assemblages. Even though other specific traits should be examined, this study has begun to address the consequences of losing individuals with specific traits that are especially sensitive to perturbations.

  17. Oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, proton conductance and reactive oxygen species production of liver mitochondria correlates with body mass in frogs.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Damien; Salin, Karine; Dumet, Adeline; Romestaing, Caroline; Rey, Benjamin; Voituron, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Body size is a central biological parameter affecting most biological processes (especially energetics) and the mitochondrion is a key organelle controlling metabolism and is also the cell's main source of chemical energy. However, the link between body size and mitochondrial function is still unclear, especially in ectotherms. In this study, we investigated several parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of three closely related species of frog (the common frog Rana temporaria, the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus and the bull frog Lithobates catesbeiana). These particular species were chosen because of their differences in adult body mass. We found that mitochondrial coupling efficiency was markedly increased with animal size, which led to a higher ATP production (+70%) in the larger frogs (L. catesbeiana) compared with the smaller frogs (R. temporaria). This was essentially driven by a strong negative dependence of mitochondrial proton conductance on body mass. Liver mitochondria from the larger frogs (L. catesbeiana) displayed 50% of the proton conductance of mitochondria from the smaller frogs (R. temporaria). Contrary to our prediction, the low mitochondrial proton conductance measured in L. catesbeiana was not associated with higher reactive oxygen species production. Instead, liver mitochondria from the larger individuals produced significantly lower levels of radical oxygen species than those from the smaller frogs. Collectively, the data show that key bioenergetics parameters of mitochondria (proton leak, ATP production efficiency and radical oxygen species production) are correlated with body mass in frogs. This research expands our understanding of the relationship between mitochondrial function and the evolution of allometric scaling in ectotherms.

  18. Rhythm is it: effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sabine C.

    2014-01-01

    Body feedback is the proprioceptive feedback that denominates the afferent information from position and movement of the body to the central nervous system. It is crucial in experiencing emotions, in forming attitudes and in regulating emotions and behavior. This paper investigates effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes, focusing on the impact of movement rhythms with smooth vs. sharp reversals as one basic category of movement qualities. It relates those qualities to already explored effects of approach vs. avoidance motor behavior as one basic category of movement shape. Studies 1 and 2 tested the effects of one of two basic movement qualities (smooth vs. sharp rhythms) on affect and cognition. The third study tested those movement qualities in combination with movement shape (approach vs. avoidance motor behavior) and the effects of those combinations on affect and attitudes toward initially valence-free stimuli. Results suggest that movement rhythms influence affect (studies 1 and 2), and attitudes (study 3), and moderate the impact of approach and avoidance motor behavior on attitudes (study 3). Extending static body feedback research with a dynamic account, findings indicate that movement qualities – next to movement shape – play an important role, when movement of the lived body is an independent variable. PMID:24959153

  19. Stepping in Elton's footprints: a general scaling model for body masses and trophic levels across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Riede, Jens O; Brose, Ulrich; Ebenman, Bo; Jacob, Ute; Thompson, Ross; Townsend, Colin R; Jonsson, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Despite growing awareness of the significance of body-size and predator-prey body-mass ratios for the stability of ecological networks, our understanding of their distribution within ecosystems is incomplete. Here, we study the relationships between predator and prey size, body-mass ratios and predator trophic levels using body-mass estimates of 1313 predators (invertebrates, ectotherm and endotherm vertebrates) from 35 food-webs (marine, stream, lake and terrestrial). Across all ecosystem and predator types, except for streams (which appear to have a different size structure in their predator-prey interactions), we find that (1) geometric mean prey mass increases with predator mass with a power-law exponent greater than unity and (2) predator size increases with trophic level. Consistent with our theoretical derivations, we show that the quantitative nature of these relationships implies systematic decreases in predator-prey body-mass ratios with the trophic level of the predator. Thus, predators are, on an average, more similar in size to their prey at the top of food-webs than that closer to the base. These findings contradict the traditional Eltonian paradigm and have implications for our understanding of body-mass constraints on food-web topology, community dynamics and stability.

  20. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (p<.001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p=.031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r=-.408, p=.002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r=.267, p=.045) and DA/E (r=.271, p=.042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.

  1. Species, Diaspore Volume and Body Mass Matter in Gastropod Seed Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores) is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1) further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2) to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. Methodology and Principal Findings We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean) mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length) swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus) swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa) than smaller ones. Conclusions and Significance Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size. PMID:23844239

  2. I feel who I see: visual body identity affects visual-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Salomon, R; van Elk, M; Aspell, J E; Blanke, O

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of integrating multisensory information in the body representation for constituting self-consciousness. However, one idea that has received only scant attention is that our body representation is also constituted by knowledge of bodily visual characteristics (i.e. 'what I look like'). Here in two experiments we used a full body crossmodal congruency task in which visual distractors were presented on a photograph of the participant, another person, who was either familiar or unfamiliar, or an object. Results revealed that during the 'self-condition' CCEs were enhanced compared to the 'other condition'. The CCE was similar for unfamiliar and familiar others. CCEs for the object condition were significantly smaller. The results show that presentation of an irrelevant image of a body affects multimodal processing and that the effect is enhanced when that image is of the self. The results hold intriguing implications for body representation in social situations.

  3. Effect of body mass and clothing on decomposition of pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Konwerski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Szafałowicz, Michał

    2014-11-01

    Carcass mass and carcass clothing are factors of potential high forensic importance. In casework, corpses differ in mass and kind or extent of clothing; hence, a question arises whether methods for post-mortem interval estimation should take these differences into account. Unfortunately, effects of carcass mass and clothing on specific processes in decomposition and related entomological phenomena are unclear. In this article, simultaneous effects of these factors are analysed. The experiment followed a complete factorial block design with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed). Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into three blocks, which were separated in time. Generally, carcass mass revealed significant and frequently large effects in almost all analyses, whereas carcass clothing had only minor influence on some phenomena related to the advanced decay. Carcass mass differently affected particular gross processes in decomposition. Putrefaction was more efficient in larger carcasses, which manifested itself through earlier onset and longer duration of bloating. On the other hand, active decay was less efficient in these carcasses, with relatively low average rate, resulting in slower mass loss and later onset of advanced decay. The average rate of active decay showed a significant, logarithmic increase with an increase in carcass mass, but only in these carcasses on which active decay was driven solely by larval blowflies. If a blowfly-driven active decay was followed by active decay driven by larval Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae), which was regularly found in medium/large and large carcasses, the average rate showed only a slight and insignificant increase with an increase in carcass mass. These results indicate that lower efficiency of active decay in larger carcasses is a consequence

  4. Increased 2-hydroxylation of estrogen is associated with lower body fat and increased lean body mass in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Nicola; Vattikuti, Swapna; Yarramaneni, Jayasree; Giri, Tusar K; Nekkalapu, Srenath; Qualls, Clifford; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C

    2012-05-01

    Menopause is associated with changes in bone, muscle and fat mass. The importance of postmenopausal estrogen metabolism in bone health has been established. However, its relationship to body composition in postmenopausal women remains undetermined. The objective of this study is to determine the association between estrogen metabolism and body composition in postmenopausal women. This is a cross sectional study of 97 postmenopausal Caucasian women, 49-80 y.o., ≥1 year from the last normal menstrual period or those who have had oophorectomy. Inactive [2-hydroxyestrone (2OHE(1))] and active [16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE(1))] urinary metabolites of estrogen were measured by ELISA. The whole and regional body composition was measured by DXA. We have found that both 2OHE(1), and 2OHE(1)/16α-OHE(1) ratio were negatively correlated with % total fat, and % truncal fat but positively correlated with % total lean mass. Comparing the fat and lean parameters of body composition according to tertiles of 2OHE(1) and 2OHE(1)/16αOHE(1) ratio showed that subjects in the lowest tertiles, had the highest % total fat, and % truncal fat and the lowest % total lean mass. Multiple regression analysis also showed 2OHE(1) and calcium intake as statistically significant predictors of all body composition parameters. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women, an increase in the metabolism of estrogen towards the inactive metabolites is associated with lower body fat and higher lean mass than those with predominance of the metabolism towards the active metabolites.

  5. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, N; Chin A Paw, M J; de Groot, L C; Hiddink, G J; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. METHODS: A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design--(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither--was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6 +/- 5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. RESULTS: Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and non-exercisers: 0.5 kg +/- 1.2 kg; P < .02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density (+0.4%), bone mass (+0.6%), and bone calcium (+0.6%) compared with groups receiving non-enriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006 +/- 0.020 g/cm2; P = .08), total bone mass (19 +/- g; P = .04), and bone calcium (8 +/- 21 g; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons. PMID:10846514

  6. Carotenoids in bird testes: links to body carotenoid supplies, plumage coloration, body mass and testes mass in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Melissah; Tourville, Elizabeth A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments can be allocated to different parts of the body to serve specific functions. In contrast to other body tissues, studies of carotenoid resources in the testes of animals are relatively scarce. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the types and concentrations of carotenoids in the testes of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). Additionally, we examined the relationships between testes carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid pools in other body tissues, as well as body mass, testes mass and plumage coloration. We detected low concentrations of several carotenoids - lutein (the predominant carotenoid), zeaxanthin, anhydrolutein, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene and an unknown carotene - in the testes of wild house finches. We also found that testes lutein levels were significantly and positively associated with circulating lutein levels, while the concentration of zeaxanthin in testes was positively associated with zeaxanthin levels in liver, though in this instance the relationship was much weaker and only marginally significant. Furthermore, lutein levels in testes were significantly negatively associated with testes mass. Finally, plumage coloration was not associated with either the concentration of carotenoids in the testes or relative testes mass. These results suggest that testes carotenoids are reflective of the pool of circulating carotenoids in house finches, and that plumage coloration is unlikely to signal either the carotenoid content of testes tissue or a male's capacity for sperm production.

  7. Scaling of wingbeat frequency with body mass in bats and limits to maximum bat size.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Ulla M Lindhe; Norberg, R Åke

    2012-03-01

    The ability to fly opens up ecological opportunities but flight mechanics and muscle energetics impose constraints, one of which is that the maximum body size must be kept below a rather low limit. The muscle power available for flight increases in proportion to flight muscle mass and wingbeat frequency. The maximum wingbeat frequency attainable among increasingly large animals decreases faster than the minimum frequency required, so eventually they coincide, thereby defining the maximum body mass at which the available power just matches up to the power required for sustained aerobic flight. Here, we report new wingbeat frequency data for 27 morphologically diverse bat species representing nine families, and additional data from the literature for another 38 species, together spanning a range from 2.0 to 870 g. For these species, wingbeat frequency decreases with increasing body mass as M(b)(-0.26). We filmed 25 of our 27 species in free flight outdoors, and for these the wingbeat frequency varies as M(b)(-0.30). These exponents are strikingly similar to the body mass dependency M(b)(-0.27) among birds, but the wingbeat frequency is higher in birds than in bats for any given body mass. The downstroke muscle mass is also a larger proportion of the body mass in birds. We applied these empirically based scaling functions for wingbeat frequency in bats to biomechanical theories about how the power required for flight and the power available converge as animal size increases. To this end we estimated the muscle mass-specific power required for the largest flying extant bird (12-16 kg) and assumed that the largest potential bat would exert similar muscle mass-specific power. Given the observed scaling of wingbeat frequency and the proportion of the body mass that is made up by flight muscles in birds and bats, we estimated the maximum potential body mass for bats to be 1.1-2.3 kg. The largest bats, extinct or extant, weigh 1.6 kg. This is within the range expected if it

  8. Individual Consistency and Phenotypic Plasticity in Rockhopper Penguins: Female but Not Male Body Mass Links Environmental Conditions to Reproductive Investment

    PubMed Central

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment. PMID:26030824

  9. Individual consistency and phenotypic plasticity in rockhopper penguins: female but not male body mass links environmental conditions to reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment.

  10. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  11. [Body mass of pregnant females, as a risk factor for the development of obstetric complications].

    PubMed

    Shelia, G P; Beshkenadze, M G

    2012-10-01

    To elucidate the specific courses of the course of pregnancy and labor in patients with obesity and inadequate body mass. 280 women (pregnant females aged 17-38) clinically followed up for pregnancy and labor. The nutritional status was estimated by the Quetle index (QI). Complications of pregnancy were more common in females with insufficient and excessive body mass. There are gestational diabetes, gestoses,uterine inertia,fetal macrosomy and perinatal mortality was observed in 67 % of the obese women , total number of spontaneous abortions was 9 % cases, in females with inadequete body mass. The neonatal outcomes of pregnancy and complications of labor were better in the pregnant females, who had normal QI. Thus, insufficient and/or excersive body mass is premorbid negative background and risk factor for the development of obstetric complications. Further studies will allow us to get answers to some of the issues raised and to the management of pregnant women with obesity and low levels of IQ.

  12. An Investigation of the Effect of Body Mass on Resting Heart Rate in Dogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhead, Vanessa; Reiss, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A student project that investigated the relationship between resting heart beat frequency and body mass of adult dogs is described. The results are compared to those of other mammals and birds. The procedure and results are included. (KR)

  13. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-04-07

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of both cohort and habitat quality on adult mass (i.e. median body mass between 4 and 10 years of age) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Cohort strongly influenced the adult body mass of roe deer in both sexes: males born in 1994 were 5.2 kg heavier when aged between 4 and 10 years old than males born in 1986, while females born in 1995 were 4.7 kg heavier between 4 and 10 years old than females born in 1982. For a given cohort, adult males were, on average, 0.9 kg heavier in the rich oak forest than in the poor beech forest. A similar trend occurred for adult females (0.5 kg heavier in the oak forest). The effects of cohort and habitat were additive and accounted for ca. 40% of the variation observed in the adult mass of roe deer at Chizé (males: 41.2%; females: 40.2%). Population density during the spring of the birth accounted for about 35% of cohort variation, whereas rainfall in May-June had no effect. Such delayed effects of density at birth on adult body mass probably affect population dynamics, and might constitute a mechanism by which delayed density-dependence occurs in ungulate populations.

  14. Three-dimensional body scanning system for apparel mass-customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bugao; Huang, Yaxiong; Yu, Weiping; Chen, Tong

    2002-07-01

    Mass customization is a new manufacturing trend in which mass-market products (e.g., apparel) are quickly modified one at a time based on customers' needs. It is an effective competing strategy for maximizing customers' satisfaction and minimizing inventory costs. An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body scanning system, body size extraction methods, and body modeling algorithms. The scanning system utilizes the multiline triangulation technique to rapidly acquire surface data on a body, and provides accurate body measurements, many of which are not available with conventional methods. Cubic B-spline curves are used to connect and smooth body curves. From the scanned data, a body form can be constructed using linear Coons surfaces. The body form can be used as a digital model of the body for 3-D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment. This scanning system and its application software enable apparel manufacturers to provide custom design services to consumers seeking personal-fit garments.

  15. Effects of Parental Status on Male Body Mass in the Monogamous, Biparental California Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Harris, Breanna N.; de Jong, Trynke R.; Nguyen, Pauline P.; Cho, Julia T.; Hernandez, Mindy; Perea-Rodriguez, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of biparental mammals demonstrate that males may undergo systematic changes in body mass as a consequence of changes in reproductive status; however, these studies typically have not teased apart effects of specific social and reproductive factors, such as cohabitation with a female per se, cohabitation with a breeding female specifically, and engagement in paternal care. We aimed to determine whether California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers undergo systematic changes in body mass and if so, which specific social/reproductive factor(s) might contribute to these changes. We compared mean weekly body masses over a 5-week period in 1) males housed with another male vs. males housed with a non-reproductive (tubally ligated) female; 2) males housed with a tubally ligated female vs. males housed with a female that was undergoing her first pregnancy; and 3) experienced fathers housed with vs. without pups during their mate’s subsequent pregnancy. Body mass did not differ between males housed with another male and those housed with a non-reproductive female; however, males housed with a non-reproductive female were significantly heavier than those housed with a primiparous female. Among experienced fathers, those housed with pups from their previous litter underwent significant increases in body mass across their mates’ pregnancy, whereas fathers housed without pups did not. These results suggest that male body mass is reduced by cohabitation with a breeding (pregnant) female, but not by cohabitation with a non-reproductive female, and that increases in body mass across the mate’s pregnancy are associated with concurrent care of offspring rather than cohabitation with a pregnant female. Additional work is needed to determine the mechanisms and functional significance, if any, of these changes in male body mass with reproductive condition. PMID:26005292

  16. Rice body mass formation mimicking a neoplastic disease around the trochanteric bursae of the hip.

    PubMed

    Uludağ, Serkan; Seyahi, Aksel; Ege, Yaman; Tetik, Onur

    2010-01-01

    Multiple rice body formation is an uncommon inflammatory process. Sometimes it leads to a big mass in unusual locations. Although sometimes associated with bursitis and systemic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, the pathophysiology of this rare entity is still obscure. We present a 29-year-old woman with multiple rice body mass formation in the trochanteric bursa of the left hip. She was operated, and had no recurrence at 18 months after the surgery.

  17. Some Problems of Movement of Bodies with Variable Masses and Cases of Their Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammadli, A. H.

    2009-12-01

    Problems of movement of bodies with variable masses within the framework of the two-body problem are considered. It is shown, that under certain conditions by the method of spatial-time transformation the differential equations of movement with variable coefficients suppose autonomization, i.e. are transformed to the differential equations with constant coefficients, integrated in quadrature. The analogue of the Jacobi integral is found, surfaces of zero velocity and possible regions of motion are determined. As an example the problem of the motion of a star with a variable mass inside a globular cluster with a variable mass is considered. It has turned out, that the solution of differential equations in new variables represents elliptical epicycloids, and in initial variables it is a very complex trajectory. At the research of motion in the gravitating and resisting medium it is shown, that in the law change of Jeans mass the change of a body mass sign is admissible.

  18. Indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection in relation to body mass index or body fat in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Adamska, Karolina; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-10-01

    1. Obesity appears to influence vascular stiffness, an important cardiovascular risk factor. An accurate picture of arterial stiffness may be obtained when a combination of various techniques is used. 2. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the body mass index (BMI) and body fat content obtained by bioimpedance were of equal value in estimating the influence of body fatness on various indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection. 3. A total of 175 healthy subjects was studied. Anthropometric measurements and total body bio-impedance analysis were performed to assess fat mass as a proportion of total body composition. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed using digital volume pulse analysis and tonometric measurement of the wave reflection indices and central haemodynamics. 4. Significant differences in the stiffness index (SI(DVP); P < 0.0001), peripheral augmentation index (pAI(x); P < 0.0001), central augmentation index (cAI(x); P < 0.0001), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP; P = 0.026) and central pulse pressure (cPP; P < 0.0001) were found when the population examined was divided accordingly to tertile of body fat content. However, subdividing various indices of arterial stiffness according to the tertile of BMI did not reveal any significant differences between groups, except for pPP and cPP. 5. Body fat content was significantly correlated with SI(DVP), pAI(x), cAI(x), pPP and cPP. The BMI correlated weakly with SI(DVP), pPP and cPP. 6. In conclusion, the BMI is not very useful in predicting changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection due to obesity. However, stiffness and wave reflection indices derived from digital volume pulse analysis, the characteristics of radial and aortic pressure waveforms and peripheral and aortic pulse pressure are all related to body fat content, as estimated by bioimpedance.

  19. Body mass, composition, and food intake in rabbits during altered acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katovich, M. J.; Smith, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Mature male Polish rabbits were subjected to varying gravitational fields in an animal centrifuge in order to evaluate the effects of acceleration and deacceleration on body mass, body composition, and food intake. The acceleration field intensity was increased by 0.25-G increments to a maximum of 2.5 G at intervals which permitted physiological adaptation at each field. Control animals of the same age were maintained at earth gravity under identical conditions of constant-light environment at a room temperature of 23 + or - 5 C. It is shown that increasing the acceleration-field intensity leads to a decrease in body mass. The regulated nature of this decreased body mass is tested by the response to an additional three-day fasting of animals adapted physiologically to 2.5 G. Ad libitum food intake per kg body mass per day tends to increase in chronically accelerated animals above 1.75 G. Increase in water content in centrifuged animals after physiological adaptation to 2.5 G is the result of decreasing body fat. Body mass and food intake returned to the precentrifuged levels of control animals within six weeks after cessation of centrifugation.

  20. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  1. Myocyte androgen receptors increase metabolic rate and improve body composition by reducing fat mass.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Shannon M; Rao, Pengcheng; Niel, Lee; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Stagljar, Marijana; Monks, D Ashley

    2010-07-01

    Testosterone and other androgens are thought to increase lean body mass and reduce fat body mass in men by activating the androgen receptor. However, the clinical potential of androgens for improving body composition is hampered by our limited understanding of the tissues and cells that promote such changes. Here we show that selective overexpression of androgen receptor in muscle cells (myocytes) of transgenic male rats both increases lean mass percentage and reduces fat mass. Similar changes in body composition are observed in human skeletal actin promoter driving expression of androgen receptor (HSA-AR) transgenic mice and result from acute testosterone treatment of transgenic female HSA-AR rats. These shifts in body composition in HSA-AR transgenic male rats are associated with hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers and decreased size of adipocytes. Metabolic analyses of transgenic males show higher activity of mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle and increased O(2) consumption by the rats. These results indicate that androgen signaling in myocytes not only increases muscle mass but also reduces fat body mass, likely via increases in oxidative metabolism.

  2. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Yin; Huang, Yan; Du, Qing-Yun; Yao, Gui-Dong; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2017-01-01

    Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3%) had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m-0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B]) in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  3. Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

  4. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students.

  5. [Odds ratio between sociocultural factors, body dissatisfaction, and body mass index in university students of Hidalgo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza Cortes, Jessica; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Fernández Cortés, Trinidad Lorena

    2011-03-01

    After to identify risky factors involved in the prediction and prevention of eating disorders (ED), in a sample of university males and females students from an urban setting in Hidalgo. Mexico; the main purpose of this paper was to reaffirm the following assumptions: 1) Dissatisfaction with body shape is closely related to both, the influence of sociocultural factors as Body Mass Index (BMI); 2) The participating women reported more dissatisfaction with body shape, indicating greater influence of sociocultural factors than men.Transversal, descriptive and association field research was carried out in a sample of 490 students (57% females. 43% males), from 16 to 30 years old (X(-) = 19.63, SD = +/- 2.11). Multidimensional self-reported questionnaire were applied. BMI was obtained by measuring each subject's weight and height. Regarding the impact association measures obtained by Odds Ratio, there were significant association (p < 0.05) between high BMI and body image dissatisfaction. Also, statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) were found between body dissatisfaction and sociocultural factors (distress because of body image, influence of advertising, and influence of verbal messages), and between BMI and these latter, where men showed a higher risk. Findings suggest that body dissatisfaction in women, and BMI, specifically overweight in men, act like key agents of the impact of sociocultural factors in the researched sample.

  6. Pre-pregnancy BMI and body fat mass of 2 weeks old infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been previously demonstrated in animal studies. Clinical studies have also shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. This study reports for the first time infant body composition at 2 weeks us...

  7. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  8. Relationships between gray matter, body mass index, and waist circumference in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Florian; Levitt, Jennifer G; Phillips, Owen R; Luders, Eileen; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity and overweight are often defined by the body mass index (BMI), which associates with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and possibly with dementia as well as variations in brain volume. However, body fat distribution and abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference) is more strongly correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk than is BMI. While prior studies have revealed negative associations between gray matter tissue volumes and BMI, the relationship with respect to waist circumference remains largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effects of both BMI and waist circumference on local gray matter volumes in a group of 115 healthy subjects screened to exclude physical or mental disorders that might affect the central nervous system. Results revealed significant negative correlations for both BMI and waist circumference where regional gray matter effects were largest within the hypothalamus and further encompassed prefrontal, anterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum. However, associations were more widespread and pronounced for waist circumference than BMI. Follow-up analyses showed that these relationships differed significantly across gender. While associations were similar for both BMI and waist circumference for males, females showed more extensive correlations for waist circumference. Our observations suggest that waist circumference is a more sensitive indicator than BMI, particularly in females, for potentially determining the adverse effects of obesity and overweight on the brain and associated risks to health.

  9. Stability of libration points in the restricted four-body problem with variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Amit; Aggarwal, Rajiv; Suraj, Md. Sanam; Bisht, Virender Singh

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the stability of the Lagrangian solutions for the restricted four-body problem with variable mass. It has been assumed that the three primaries with masses m1, m2 and m3 form an equilateral triangle, wherein m2=m3. According to Jeans' law (Astronomy and Cosmogony, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1928), the infinitesimal body varies its mass m with time. The space-time transformations of Meshcherskii (Studies on the Mechanics of Bodies of Variable Mass, GITTL, Moscow, 1949) are used by taking the values of the parameters q=1/2, k=0, n=1. The equations of motion of the infinitesimal body with variable mass have been determined. The equations of motion of the current problem differ from the ones of the restricted four-body problem with constant mass. There exist eight libration points, out of which two are collinear with the primary m1 and the rest are non-collinear for a fixed value of parameters γ (m {at time} t/m {at initial time}, 0<γ≤1 ), α (the proportionality constant in Jeans' law (Astronomy and Cosmogony, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1928), 0≤α≤2.2) and μ=0.019 (the mass parameter). All the libration points are found to be unstable. The zero velocity surfaces (ZVS) are also drawn and regions of motion are discussed.

  10. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  11. Why bodies? Twelve reasons for including bodily expressions in affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-12-12

    Why bodies? It is rather puzzling that given the massive interest in affective neuroscience in the last decade, it still seems to make sense to raise the question 'Why bodies' and to try to provide an answer to it, as is the goal of this article. There are now hundreds of articles on human emotion perception ranging from behavioural studies to brain imaging experiments. These experimental studies complement decades of reports on affective disorders in neurological patients and clinical studies of psychiatric populations. The most cursory glance at the literature on emotion in humans, now referred to by the umbrella term of social and affective neuroscience, shows that over 95 per cent of them have used faces as stimuli. Of the remaining 5 per cent, a few have used scenes or auditory information including human voices, music or environmental sounds. But by far the smallest number has looked into whole-body expressions. As a rough estimate, a search on PubMed today, 1 May 2009, yields 3521 hits for emotion x faces, 1003 hits for emotion x music and 339 hits for emotion x bodies. When looking in more detail, the body x emotion category in fact yields a majority of papers on well-being, nursing, sexual violence or organ donation. But the number of cognitive and affective neuroscience studies of emotional body perception as of today is lower than 20. Why then have whole bodies and bodily expressions not attracted the attention of researchers so far? The goal of this article is to contribute some elements for an answer to this question. I believe that there is something to learn from the historical neglect of bodies and bodily expressions. I will next address some historical misconceptions about whole-body perception, and in the process I intend not only to provide an impetus for this kind of work but also to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the affective dimension of behaviour, mind and brain as seen from the vantage point of bodily

  12. Impact of Metacognitive Acceptance on Body Dissatisfaction and Negative Affect: Engagement and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Melissa J.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate engagement in metacognitive acceptance and subsequent efficacy with respect to decreasing 2 risk factors for disordered eating, body dissatisfaction (BD), and negative affect (NA). Method: In a pilot experiment, 20 female undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 24.35, SD = 9.79) underwent a BD induction procedure, received…

  13. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  14. Heat and mass transfer with condensation in capillary porous bodies.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Salah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this present work is related to wetting process analysis caused by condensation phenomena in capillary porous material by using a numerical simulation. Special emphasis is given to the study of the mechanism involved and the evaluation of classical theoretical models used as a predictive tool. A further discussion will be given for the distribution of the liquid phase for both its pendular and its funicular state and its consequence on diffusion coefficients of the mathematical model used. Beyond the complexity of the interaction effects between vaporisation-condensation processes on the gas-liquid interfaces, the comparison between experimental and numerical simulations permits to identify the specific contribution and the relative part of mass and energy transport parameters. This analysis allows us to understand the contribution of each part of the mathematical model used and to simplify the study.

  15. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Byks, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta

    2011-11-01

    Chromium(III) is considered as an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cr brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, carbohydrate, lipids and mineral indices in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty adult type 2 diabetic subjects (11 males and 9 females aged 37-63) were supplemented with Cr brewer's yeast in dosages of 500 μg Cr/person/day or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. It was found that supplemental Cr did not affect body mass, blood lipid profile, resistin levels, and the serum and hair Zn, Fe, and Cu levels, but increased serum Cr (by 116%) and hair Cr (by 20.6%) concentrations and improved some blood carbohydrate indices (significant increase in the β cell function index by 18.8%) in type 2 diabetic patients. In conclusion, Cr brewer's yeast has a weak hypoglycemic potential, but does not affect body mass, blood biochemical profile, and microelement levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  16. New body mass estimates of British Pleistocene wolves: Palaeoenvironmental implications and competitive interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, L. O. H.

    2016-10-01

    Body mass was reconstructed for early Middle Pleistocene Canis mosbachensis and late Middle to Late Pleistocene Canis lupus from key assemblages in Britain, to explore the presence of temporal size variability and whether size fluctuations were related to changes in climate and environment or to differences in Pleistocene carnivore community structure. Using the well-known body mass predictor of lower carnassial (m1) tooth length, combined with an extant canid dataset incorporating 25 species, least squares regression was used to assess allometric scaling prior to modelling the relationship between body mass and m1 length, producing a new predictive equation of Pleistocene canid body mass. The medium-sized C. mosbachensis had relatively stable body mass, with remarkable consistency in size compared to populations in the late Early Pleistocene of Europe. Periodical fluctuations in climatic conditions had a minimal effect on C. mosbachensis size over time, with the terrestrial connection between Britain and mainland Europe at this time key in promoting body mass stability by enabling movement away from less favourable conditions and to follow prey into refugia. Overall changes in carnivore guild structure were of minimal influence to C. mosbachensis in Britain, as the continued predominance of larger carnivores, in particular a larger canid, effectively constrained C. mosbachensis. In contrast, the body mass of larger-sized C. lupus was highly temporally varied, with an increasing size trend evident into the Devensian. Similar body size in the penultimate interglacial (MIS 7) and Middle Devensian (MIS 3) populations likely reflects palaeoenvironmental similarity and comparable carnivore community and prey spectrums, with larger predators effectively constraining C. lupus. However, the severely cold conditions of the Early Devensian (MIS 5a) may have caused a Bergmannian response in wolves, leading to their comparatively much larger size, with C. lupus further

  17. Density-dependent responses of fawn cohort body mass in two contrasting roe deer populations.

    PubMed

    Kjellander, Petter; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Hewison, A J Mark

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the influence of population density on juvenile body mass in two contrasting roe deer populations, in Sweden (Bogesund) and France (Chizé), in which density was monitored for >or=15 years. We investigated the effect of population density and climatic conditions on cohort performance. We predicted that: (1) body mass of growing fawns should be sensitive to environmental changes, showing marked between-year variation (i.e., cohort effects), (2) fawns in the less productive (weakly seasonal, weakly predictable summer weather) habitat of Chizé should show stronger density-dependent responses due to more severe food competition during summer than fawns in the more productive (markedly seasonal, moderately predictable summer weather) habitat of Bogesund, and (3) fawns at Bogesund should be heavier both in absolute terms and relative to their size than their conspecifics in Chizé due to a higher degree of fat accumulation in northern environments. In both study sites we found marked cohort variation and clear effects of density, with body mass varying by as much as 29% over years. While neither summer nor winter climate influenced fawn body mass at Bogesund, fawns tended to be lighter after summers with high temperatures at Chizé. In addition, fawns were heavier after acorn mast years experienced in utero at Bogesund. As expected, the strength of the density-dependent response of fawn body mass was greater at Chizé than at Bogesund. For a given density, male fawns were consistently heavier than females in both sites. Lastly, both sexes at Bogesund had higher absolute body mass and were larger for a given body size than in Chizé. Our results clearly demonstrate that absolute density is a poor predictor of roe deer performance and supports the view that habitat quality has an overwhelming importance for determining fawn body mass in roe deer populations.

  18. Melanocortin Receptor 4 Deficiency Affects Body Weight Regulation, Grooming Behavior, and Substrate Preference in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J.M.; Brans, Maike A.D.; Brakkee, Jan H.; Toonen, Pim W.; Garner, Keith M.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis–induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein79–129 (AgRP79–129), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function. PMID:21527895

  19. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  20. Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Thompson, William R; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S

    2013-05-31

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury.

  1. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-08-26

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  2. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  3. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.

    2014-10-20

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass-loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass loss and mass transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass loss and mass transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital changes due to mass-loss and/or mass-transfer processes can effectively transfer a triple system from one dynamical regime to another. In particular, mass loss/transfer can both induce and quench high-amplitude (Lidov-Kozai) variations in the eccentricity and inclination of the inner binaries of evolving triples. They can also change the system dynamics from an orderly periodic behavior to a chaotic one, and vice versa.

  4. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  5. [DYNAMICS OF INDICES OF BODY LENGTH AND MASS IN RURAL SCHOOLCHILDREN IN NIZHNIY NOVGOROD REGION].

    PubMed

    Kuzmichyov, Yu G; Kaliuzhniy, Ye A; Mikhailova, S V; Bogomolova, Ye S; Lavrov, A N; Zhulin, N V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the dynamics of the total body size of 4619 rural schoolchildren of both sexes aged 7-17 years, in Nizhniy Novgorod region, examined using the generalizing method for standardized anthropometric techniques that included measurement of body length and mass. It was found that during 1946-2012 period, there had been significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the relationship of body length and mass in rural schoolchildren, with the convergence of the mean values with those found the pupils of the regional center, and acceleration in the rate of physical development by 2-3 years.

  6. Lorentz Boosted Potential for a Two-Body System with Unequal Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, H.; Polyzou, W. N.; Witała, H.; Miyagawa, K.

    2014-04-01

    We produce a Lorentz boosted two-body potential for particles of different mass that is phase equivalent to a given realistic non-relativistic two-body potential. The relativistic potential is related to the nonrelativistic potential using the Coester-Pieper-Serduke scheme, which ensures that the same scattering wave functions are obtained from the relativistic and non-relativistic potentials. This implies that the phase shifts are identical functions of the relative momentum. To construct the potential we use an iterative scheme that generalizes one that has been applied successfully to two-body systems with equal masses.

  7. A rare cause of breast mass that mimics carcinoma: Foreign body reaction to amorphous surgical material.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Burhan; Sever, Ali Riza; Mills, Philippa; Fish, David; Jones, Susan; Jones, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A breast mass caused by foreign body type granulomatous reaction to surgical material is a very rare lesion and may mimic carcinoma. Reported foreign materials have included suture materials, silicone, paraffin, gunpowder and carbon particles used for localization of a nonpalpable breast lesions. To our knowledge, a foreign body reaction to gauze sponge has not been reported previously. A 58-year-old woman who had an enlarging mass that mimicked breast carcinoma, due to foreign body reaction to gauze sponge is presented here, and relevant literature is reviewed.

  8. Nutritional influences over the life course on lean body mass of individuals in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bharati; Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-03-01

    The double burden of childhood undernutrition and adult-onset adiposity in transitioning societies poses a significant public health challenge. The development of suboptimal lean body mass (LBM) could partly explain the link between these two forms of malnutrition. This review examines the evidence on both the role of nutrition in “developmental programming” of LBM and the nutritional influences that affect LBM throughout the life course. Studies from developing countries assessing the relationship of early nutrition with later LBM provide important insights. Overall, the evidence is consistent in suggesting a positive association of early nutritional status (indicated by birth weight and growth during first 2 years) with LBM in later life. Evidence on the impact of maternal nutritional supplementation during pregnancy on later LBM is inconsistent. In addition, the role of nutrients (protein, zinc, calcium, vitamin D) that can affect LBM throughout the life course is described. Promoting optimal intakes of these important nutrients throughout the life course is important for reducing childhood undernutrition as well as for improving the LBM of adults.

  9. Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Benjamin L.; Williams, Ivor D.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Williams, Gareth J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014

  10. Effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index and type of functional occlusion on bite force

    PubMed Central

    KOÇ, Duygu; DOĞAN, Arife; BEK, Bülent

    2011-01-01

    Objective Some factors such as gender, age, craniofacial morphology, body structure, occlusal contact patterns may affect the maximum bite force. Thus, the purposes of this study were to determine the mean maximum bite force in individuals with normal occlusion, and to examine the effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index (BMI), type of functional occlusion (canine guidance and group function occlusion) and balancing side interferences on it. Material and Methods Thirty-four individuals aged 19-20 years-old were selected for this study. Maximum bite force was measured with strain-gauge transducers at first molar region. Facial dimensions were defined by standardized frontal photographs as follows: anterior total facial height (ATFH), bizygomathic facial width (BFW) and intergonial width (IGW). BMI was calculated using the equation weight/height2. The type of functional occlusion and the balancing side interferences of the subjects were identified by clinical examination. Results Bite force was found to be significantly higher in men than women (p<0.05). While there was a negative correlation between the bite force and ATFH/BFW, ATFH/IGW ratios in men (p<0.05), women did not show any statistically significant correlation (p>0.05). BMI and bite force correlation was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The average bite force did not differ in subjects with canine guidance or group function occlusion and in the presence of balancing side interferences (p>0.05). Conclusions Data suggest that bite force is affected by gender. However, BMI, type of functional occlusion and the presence of balancing side interferences did not exert a meaningful influence on bite force. In addition, transverse facial dimensions showed correlation with bite force in only men. PMID:21625746

  11. Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M

    2015-03-01

    Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082-2256 kg) for this individual. By contrast, bivariate equations based on limb dimensions predict values between 2355 and 3751 kg and require implausible amounts of soft tissue and/or high body densities. When corrected for ontogenetic scaling, however, volumetric and linear equations are brought into close agreement. Our results raise concerns regarding the application of predictive equations to extinct taxa with no living analogues in terms of overall morphology and highlight the sensitivity of bivariate predictive equations to the ontogenetic status of the specimen. We emphasize the significance of rare, complete fossil skeletons in validating widely applied mass estimation equations based on incomplete skeletal material and stress the importance of accurately determining specimen age prior to further analyses.

  12. Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods

    PubMed Central

    Brassey, Charlotte A.; Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082–2256 kg) for this individual. By contrast, bivariate equations based on limb dimensions predict values between 2355 and 3751 kg and require implausible amounts of soft tissue and/or high body densities. When corrected for ontogenetic scaling, however, volumetric and linear equations are brought into close agreement. Our results raise concerns regarding the application of predictive equations to extinct taxa with no living analogues in terms of overall morphology and highlight the sensitivity of bivariate predictive equations to the ontogenetic status of the specimen. We emphasize the significance of rare, complete fossil skeletons in validating widely applied mass estimation equations based on incomplete skeletal material and stress the importance of accurately determining specimen age prior to further analyses. PMID:25740841

  13. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  14. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida) during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocker, Adam K

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  15. Fitness in animals correlates with proximity to discontinuities in body mass distributions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Almeida, David

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous structure in landscapes may cause discontinuous, aggregated species body-mass patterns, reflecting the scales of structure available to animal communities within a landscape. Empirical analyses have shown that the location of species within body mass aggregations, which reflect this scale-specific organization, is non-random with regard to several ecological phenomena, including species extinctions. The propensity of declining species to have body masses proximate to discontinuities suggests that transition zones between scaling regimes ultimately decreases the ecological fitness for some species. We test this proposition using vulnerable and unthreatened fish species in Mediterranean streams with differing levels of human impact. We show that the proximity to discontinuities in body mass aggregations (“distance-to-edge”) of more vs. less fit individuals within vulnerable and unthreatened populations differs. Specifically, regression analysis between the scaled mass index, a proxy of animal fitness, and distance-to-edge reveals negative and positive relationships for vulnerable and unthreatened species, respectively. That is, fitness is higher close to discontinuities in vulnerable populations and toward the center of body mass aggregation groups in unthreatened populations. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the discontinuity framework for scrutinizing non-random patterns of environmental impact in populations. Further exploration of the usefulness of this method across other ecosystems and organism groups is warranted.

  16. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2016-01-01

    Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  17. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Lemia H.; Sukhram, Shiryn D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value. PMID:28042301

  18. Quantitative Interpretation of Tracks for Determination of Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and gait analysis) for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight. PMID:24204890

  19. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ho-Pham, Lan T.; Lai, Thai Q.; Nguyen, Mai T. T.; Nguyen, Tuan V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF) in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI) in the Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women) aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr) who were randomly selected from the general population in Ho Chi Minh City. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). PBF was derived as FM over body weight. Results Based on BMI ≥30, the prevalence of obesity was 1.1% and 1.3% for men and women, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ≥25) was ~24% and ~19% in men and women, respectively. Based on the quadratic relationship between BMI and PBF, the approximate PBF corresponding to the BMI threshold of 30 (obese) was 30.5 in men and 41 in women. Using the criteria of PBF >30 in men and PBF >40 in women, approximately 15% of men and women were considered obese. Conclusion These data suggest that body mass index underestimates the prevalence of obesity. We suggest that a PBF >30 in men or PBF >40 in women is used as criteria for the diagnosis of obesity in Vietnamese adults. Using these criteria, 15% of Vietnamese adults in Ho Chi Minh City was considered obese. PMID:26018910

  20. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  1. Muscle Mass and Body Fat in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk Estimation and Lipid-Lowering Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2016-12-06

    This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to evaluate the relationships of muscle-mass and body-fat phenotypes to 10-yr risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and eligibility for lipid management. Participants were Korean adults (N = 7315; 3163 men, 4152 women) aged 40-79 yr, free from stroke and coronary heart disease, who provided complete data for estimating 10-yr CVD risk and body composition during the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010). Four levels of combined muscle mass and body fat were determined using sex-specific quintiles of appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared, and sex-specific quintiles of total body fat percentage. Ten-year CVD risk was calculated using Pooled Cohort Equations and Framingham risk scores. Lipid-lowering medication eligibility was determined using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. Compared with the reference group, the risk of CVD events was higher in men with low muscle mass, high body fat, or the 2 factors combined. CVD risk was lower in women with low muscle mass, higher in women with high body fat, and nonsignificant in women with the 2 factors. Participants with low muscle mass and high body fat had higher odds for medication eligibility using the ACC/AHA guidelines but not the ATP III guidelines. Higher estimated 10-yr CVD risk was associated with combined phenotypes of low muscle mass and high fat in men but not in women. Also, the relationship of these phenotypes to lipid-lowering medication eligibility was guideline-specific.

  2. The roles of body mass and gravity in determining the energy requirements of homoiotherms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Studies by Kleiber and by Brody in the 1930's established the 3/4 power of body weight as the unit of metabolic size for homoiotherms. Later Kleiber conceived of the energy requirement as a composite function, with a thermoregulatory component that is proportional to heat loss, and an antigravity component that is directly proportional to body weight. Maintenance feed requirements (F) have been measured with groups of small animals chronically exposed to several acceleration fields (G). Analysis of the results leads to an arithmetic relationship between the maintenance requirement and acceleration field strength: F sub G = F sub 0 + kG. When the equations are compared for groups of different body size, F sub 0 tends to vary between the 0.4 and 0.5 power of body mass - and k tends to be the same, irrespective of body mass. These findings tend to confirm the Kleiber concept of a composite nature of homoiotherm maintenance requirements.

  3. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  4. Physical Activity is Associated with Percent Body Fat and Body Composition but not Body Mass Index in White and Black College Students.

    PubMed

    Zanovec, Michael; Lakkakula, Anantha P; Johnson, Lisa G; Turri, Georgianna

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of self-reported physical activity (PA) with body composition in 290 college students (49% male, 60% White) 18-25 years of age. Outcome measures included: self-reported PA levels calculated in MET-hrs·wk(-1) from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); body mass index (BMI; in kg·m(-2)); and body composition variables estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean activity levels of the sample were 39.8 ± 23.8 MET-hrs·wk(-1). Participants were divided into quartiles of PA levels: ≥0 to <24.0, ≥24.0 to <34.0, ≥34.0 to <51.25, and ≥51.25 MET-hrs ·wk(-1) and body composition variables were compared by group. Chi-square analyses revealed a significant difference for gender by PA quartile [χ(2) (3, N=290) = 32.42, p < 0.0001], and for gender by race by PA quartile [χ(2) (9, N=290) = 37.82, p < 0.0001]. MET-hrs·wk(-1) was inversely correlated with %BF (r = -0.40, p < 0.0001) but not BMI (r = 0.05, p = 0.43). When comparing body composition variables across PA quartiles, no significant differences were observed for BMI; however, subjects in the highest quartile of PA had a lower percent body fat (%BF) and fat mass (FM), and a higher lean-tissue mass (LTM) compared to subjects in the other three groups. In this cohort of young adults, participants in the highest activity group had a more fit body composition profile (e.g., lower %BF, lower FM, and higher LTM) which was not reflected in BMI and was independent of gender and race.

  5. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  6. Dietary calcium is associated with body mass index and body fat in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Loria, Catherine; Mattil, Claudia; Goldbourt, Uri; Howard, Barbara V; Resnick, Helaine E

    2007-08-01

    American Indians have a high prevalence of obesity. Evidence supports a relationship between increased dietary calcium intake and lower body weight. This study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake, BMI, and percentage of body fat (PBF) in American Indians (ages 47-79 y) in the Strong Heart Study (SHS) (2nd exam, 1992-1995). SHS data were compared with data for the general U.S. adult population from the NHANES III (1988-1994). BMI was calculated as kg/m(2). PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance using an equation based on total body water. The clinical examination included measures of blood chemistry. Dietary data were collected using a 24-h dietary recall. Calcium intake was significantly lower in SHS participants than in age-matched NHANES III participants. Mean calcium intake in the SHS was 680 mg/d (range: 103-4574 mg/d) for men and 610 mg/d (range: 71-4093 mg/d) for women (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, BMI and PBF were lower by 0.80 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -1.53 to -0.08, P = 0.046) and 1.28% (95% CI: -2.10 to -0.47, P = 0.011) in SHS participants with higher (> or = 873 mg/d in the 5th quintile) vs. lower calcium intake (<313 mg/d in the 1st quintile). No relation between calcium intake and BMI or PBF was observed in NHANES III participants. Our data may be used to develop nutritional interventions aimed at weight control in culturally appropriate clinical trials.

  7. Dietary Calcium is Associated with Body Mass Index and Body Fat in American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Loria, Catherine; Mattil, Claudia; Goldbourt, Uri; Howard, Barbara V.; Resnick, Helaine E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indians have a high prevalence of obesity. Evidence exists to support a relationship between increased dietary calcium intake and lower body weight. This study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake, BMI, and percentage of body fat (PBF) in American Indians (ages 47–79 y) in the Strong Heart Study (SHS) (2nd exam: 1992–1995). SHS data were compared with data for the general U.S. adult population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988–1994). BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m2). PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance, using an equation based on total body water. The clinical examination included measures of blood chemistry. Dietary data were collected using a 24-h dietary recall. Calcium intake was significantly lower among SHS participants than among age-matched NHANES III participants. Mean calcium intake in the SHS was 680 mg/d (range: 103 – 4574 mg/d) for men and 610 mg/d (range: 71 – 4093 mg/d) for women (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, BMI and PBF were lower by 0.80 kg/m2 (95% CI: −1.53 to −0.08, P = 0.046) and 1.28% (95% CI: −2.10 to −0.47, P = 0.011) in SHS participants with higher (≥ 873 mg/d in the 5th quintile) versus lower calcium intake (< 313 mg/d in the 1st quintile). No relation between calcium intake and BMI or PBF was observed in NHANES III participants. Our data may be used to develop nutritional interventions aimed at weight control in culturally appropriate clinical trials. PMID:17634270

  8. Body weight divided by squared knee height as an alternative to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Weight/height(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. Height, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with height loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with height loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal height or height at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two heights has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate height from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee height (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated height=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current height by their equations. Maximal height cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal height does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-height ratio; weight/height(2); the Quetelet's index. Height is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current height could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with height loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.

  9. Spatial variation in springtime food resources influences the winter body mass of roe deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Dray, Stephane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Chessel, Daniel; Duncan, Patrick; Illius, Andrew; Guillon, Nadine; Klein, Francois; Van Laere, Guy

    2003-11-01

    It is well established that the dynamics of mammalian populations vary in time, in relation to density and weather, and often in interaction with phenotypic differences (sex, age and social status). Habitat quality has recently been identified as another significant source of individual variability in vital rates of deer, including roe deer where spatial variations in fawn body mass were found to be only about a tenth of temporal variations. The approach used was to classify the habitat into blocks a priori, and to analyse variation in animal performance among the predefined areas. In a fine-grained approach, here we use data collected over 24 years on 1,235 roe deer fawns captured at known locations and the plant species composition sampled in 2001 at 578 sites in the Chizé forest to determine the spatial structure at a fine scale of both vegetation and winter body mass of fawns, and then to determine links between the two. Space and time played a nearly equal role in determining fawn body masses of both sexes, each accounting for about 20% of variance and without any interaction between them. The spatial distribution of fawn body mass was perennial over the 24 years considered and predicted values showed a 2 kg range according to location in the reserve, which is much greater than suggested in previous work and is enough to have strong effects on fawn survival. The spatial distribution and the range of predicted body masses were closely similar in males and females. The result of this study is therefore consistent with the view that the life history traits of roe deer are only weakly influenced by sexual selection. The occurrence of three plant species that are known to be important food items in spring/summer roe deer diets, hornbeam ( Carpinus betulus), bluebell ( Hyacinthoides sp.) and Star of Bethlehem ( Ornithogalum sp.) was positively related to winter fawn body mass. The occurrence of species known to be avoided in spring/summer roe deer diets [e

  10. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  11. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  12. Procedure to Measure Effect of Excess Body Mass on Musculoskeleture: I. Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2008-03-01

    Increasing levels of obesity are having an increasingly adverse impact on individual and societal health. While much effort is directed to the harmful consequences of excess body mass on the cardiovascular system, there is relatively little research on how obesity compromises the response of the musculoskeletal system across the complete range of body types. This shortfall is addressed here by a comprehensive physics-based approach to produce a wide spectrum of representative adults, who are carefully chosen to cover both sexes, a full spread of percentiles for stature, and multiple weight levels. The latter encompass healthy, overweight and obese conditions defined by the standard parameter, body mass index (BMI). The distribution of body mass is computed for female and male subjects at all height percentiles and values of BMI to generate a detailed description of a diverse population. This cohort can then be examined for more advanced aspects of musculoskeleture, an important precursor for which is included here by calculating the extent of excess body mass at each body part as a function of BMI.

  13. Cellular metabolic rates from primary dermal fibroblast cells isolated from birds of different body masses.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-10-01

    The rate of metabolism is the speed at which organisms use energy, an integration of energy transformations within the body; it governs biological processes that influence rates of growth and reproduction. Progress at understanding functional linkages between whole organism metabolic rate and underlying mechanisms that influence its magnitude has been slow despite the central role this issue plays in evolutionary and physiological ecology. Previous studies that have attempted to relate how cellular processes translate into whole-organism physiology have done so over a range of body masses of subjects. However, the data still remains controversial when observing metabolic rates at the cellular level. To bridge the gap between these ideas, we examined cellular metabolic rate of primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from 49 species of birds representing a 32,000-fold range in body masses to test the hypothesis that metabolic rate of cultured cells scales with body size. We used a Seahorse XF-96 Extracellular flux analyzer to measure cellular respiration in fibroblasts. Additionally, we measured fibroblast size and mitochondrial content. We found no significant correlation between cellular metabolic rate, cell size, or mitochondrial content and body mass. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between cellular basal metabolic rate and proton leak in these cells. We conclude that metabolic rate of cells isolated in culture does not scale with body mass, but cellular metabolic rate is correlated to growth rate in birds.

  14. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  15. How large are the extinct giant insular rodents? New body mass estimations from teeth and bones.

    PubMed

    Moncunill-Solé, Blanca; Jordana, Xavier; Marín-Moratalla, Nekane; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Köhler, Meike

    2014-03-01

    The island rule entails a modification of the body size of insular mammals, a character related with numerous biological and ecological variables. From the Miocene to human colonization (Holocene), Mediterranean and Canary Islands were unaltered natural ecosystems, with paleofaunas formed with endemic giant rodents among other mammals. Our aim is to create methods to estimate the body masses of fossil island rodents and address the nature of ecological pressures driving the island rule. We created regression equations based on extant rodent data and used these to estimate the body masses of the extinct species. Our results show strong correlations between teeth, cranial and postcranial measurements and body mass, except for the length of the long bones, the transversal diameter of the distal tibia and the anteroposterior diameter of the proximal tibia, where the equations were less reliable. The use of equations obtained from a more homogeneous group (suborder and family) is preferable when analyzing the area of the first molar. The new regressions were applied to estimate the body masses of some Mediterranean and Canarian fossil rodents (Canariomys, C. bravoi 1.5 kg and C. tamarani 1 kg; Hypnomys, H. morpheus 230 g and H. onicensis 200 g; and Muscardinus cyclopeus 100 g). Our results indicate that under absence of predation, resource availability (island area) is the key factor that determines the size of the Canariomys sp. However, under presence of specialized predators (birds of prey), body size evolution is less pronounced (Hypnomys sp.).

  16. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  17. Associations between family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in obese youth.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the associations among family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in a sample of severely obese youth referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. The sample consisted of 43 obese youth (body mass index > 95th percentile) aged 6-16 years (mean age = 12.67 years). Approximately 93% of families endorsed their religious faith as Christian or Catholic. Parents of youth were administered a demographic questionnaire, religiosity questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist. Three multiple linear regression models were examined with body mass index percentile, Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Scale as outcome variables. A parent endorsing greater importance of religious faith in shaping family life was associated with lower child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05) in the present sample. Greater family attendance at religious services was associated with higher child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that church-based interventions may be one viable option for the delivery of lifestyle interventions in families of youth with severe obesity.

  18. Hematology, serum chemistry, and body mass of free-ranging and captive Canada lynx in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Moen, Ron; Rasmussen, James M; Burdett, Christopher L; Pelican, Katharine M

    2010-01-01

    Baseline blood chemistry data could be particularly valuable if reference values from free-ranging populations of rare or endangered species are not available. The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the conterminous United States, even though the species is managed as a furbearer in Alaska and in most provinces of Canada. Body mass, blood chemistry, and hematologic data for free-ranging lynx were collected from 2003 to 2007 and for captive lynx from 1984 to 2007. Up to 2 yr of age, captive lynx were consistently heavier than free-ranging lynx. Body mass of adult free-ranging lynx was similar to body mass of captive adult lynx. Some differences in blood chemistry between free-ranging and captive lynx were statistically significant, but most measured values were within reference ranges for domestic cats. Free-ranging lynx had higher concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen than did captive lynx, and these were outside the reference value ranges for domestic cats. Alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus were higher in juveniles (<12 mo when captured) as compared to adults. Free-ranging lynx maintained body mass between serial captures. Hematologic values, blood chemistry values, and body mass of free-ranging Canada lynx provide support for the hypothesis that Canada lynx in Minnesota, at the southern edge of their range, are in normal physical condition.

  19. Changes in body mass of expectant male cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Susana; Peláez, Fernando; Fidalgo, Ana; Morcillo, Ana; Caperos, José M

    2008-01-01

    It has been noted that expectant cotton-top tamarin males in captivity experience a body mass increase during the last months of their mates' pregnancies, and this has been explained as being a male physiological response. We studied the body mass of 4 inexperienced and 4 experienced expectant males, and we expected to observe a larger body mass increase among the experienced ones since they undergo multiple hormonal changes in comparison to inexperienced expectant males. However, while inexperienced expectant males gained body mass during months 4-6 of the pregnancy period by a mean +/-SD of 5.4 +/- 3.1% (i.e. 29 +/- 17 g), the experienced ones did not (mean +/- SD of months 4-6, 0.5 +/- 1.7%, i.e. 5 +/- 12 g). The results suggest that other factors, such as behavioural communication between pairs and feeding and resting behaviour, should be studied in order to clarify the basis of this body mass increase.

  20. Body Mass Index and Pressure Ulcers: Improved Predictability of Pressure Ulcers in Intensive Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Sookyung; Li, Xiaobai; Vermillion, Brenda; Newton, Cheryl; Fall, Monica; Kaewprag, Pacharmon; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan; Lenz, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity contributes to immobility and subsequent pressure on skin surfaces. Knowledge of the relationship between obesity and development of pressure ulcers in intensive care patients will provide better understanding of which patients are at high risk for pressure ulcers and allow more efficient prevention. Objectives To examine the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients who differ in body mass index and to determine whether inclusion of body mass index enhanced use of the Braden scale in the prediction of pressure ulcers. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from the medical records of 4 groups of patients with different body mass index values: underweight, normal weight, obese, and extremely obese. Data included patients’ demographics, body weight, score on the Braden scale, and occurrence of pressure ulcers. Results The incidence of pressure ulcers in the underweight, normal weight, obese, and extremely obese groups was 8.6%, 5.5%, 2.8%, and 9.9%, respectively. When both the score on the Braden scale and the body mass index were predictive of pressure ulcers, extremely obese patients were about 2 times more likely to experience an ulcer than were normal weight patients. In the final model, the area under the curve was 0.71. The baseline area under the curve for the Braden scale was 0.68. Conclusions Body mass index and incidence of pressure ulcers were related in intensive care patients. Addition of body mass index did not appreciably improve the accuracy of the Braden scale for predicting pressure ulcers. PMID:25362673

  1. Cajal body number and nucleolar size correlate with the cell body mass in human sensory ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Berciano, Maria T; Novell, Mariona; Villagra, Nuria T; Casafont, Iñigo; Bengoechea, Rocio; Val-Bernal, J Fernado; Lafarga, Miguel

    2007-06-01

    This paper studies the cell size-dependent organization of the nucleolus and Cajal bodies (CBs) in dissociated human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons from autopsy tissue samples of patients without neurological disease. The quantitative analysis of nucleoli with an anti-fibrillarin antibody showed that all neurons have only one nucleolus. However, the nucleolar volume and the number of fibrillar centers per nucleolus significantly increase as a function of cell body size. Immunostaining for coilin demonstrated the presence of numerous CBs in DRG neurons (up to 20 in large size neurons). The number of CBs per neuron correlated positively with the cell body volume. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemical analysis revealed the concentration of coilin, snRNPs, SMN and fibrillarin in CBs of DRG neurons. CBs were frequently associated with the nucleolus, active chromatin domains and PML bodies, but not with telomeres. Our results support the view that the nucleolar volume and number of both fibrillar centers and CBs depend on the cell body mass, a parameter closely related to transcriptional and synaptic activity in mammalian neurons. Moreover, the unusual large number of CBs could facilitate the transfer of RNA processing components from CBs to nucleolar and nucleoplasmic sites of RNA processing.

  2. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  3. The Relationship Between Body Fat Percentage and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Individuals in an Urban African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie S.; Igumbor, Ehimario U.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI), should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF)% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2%) in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9%) had low BF% while 291 (18.5%) had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3%) were underweight while 271 (17.3%) were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, P<0.01). The results show that there is a strong positive association between BMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association. PMID:28299149

  4. Body Fat and Body-Mass Index among a Multiethnic Sample of College-Age Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Catherine L.; Yan, Eric; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Arechiga, Adam; Kim, Woo S.; Deng, Max; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI) to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF) and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), weight by physicians' scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%), Caucasians (23%), Hispanics (7%), and Other (21%). Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m2; PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women). Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m2) but the second highest PBF (27.8%). Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest (r2 = 0.09) among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37%) to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition. PMID:23691288

  5. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males <50 years, males ≥ 50 years, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females). In males, the highest ASM was observed in the 20-29-year group and then showed a gradual decrease as age increased, and BM and BMD showed similar patterns of change, while in females, ASM, BMD, and BM reached the peak level in the 40-49-year group and then decreased. In multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, the results showed an independent association of ASM with an increase in BM and BMD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, total fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P < 0.05). These aforementioned relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women.

  6. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  7. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  8. Disturbance of Intentionality: A Phenomenological Study of Body-Affecting First-Rank Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Fuchs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In 1950, Kurt Schneider proposed that a considerable number of schizophrenia patients develop first-rank symptoms (FRS). In such cases, patients report made experiences, replaced control of will, thought insertion, broadcast or withdrawal and delusional perception, respectively. Although a number of recent studies tend to explain FRS in terms of neurobiological and neuropsychological processes, the origin of these symptoms still remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the subjective experience of patients with the following two FRS: (1) "made" impulses and (2) “made" volitional acts. Method The method applied for the study of two FRS consists first in the overview of psychiatric and philosophical literature and second in the further investigation of subjective experience in patients with FRS. Psychopathological and phenomenological aspects of FRS are discussed by means of patient cases. Results We discovered a profound transformation of intentionality and agency in schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS. This concept offers an insight into the interrelatedness between particular FRS. Conclusion We propose that the subjective experience of schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS is rooted in the disturbance of intentionality and diminished sense of agency. This theoretical account of body-affecting FRS will open up new directions in both phenomenological and neurobiological psychiatric research. PMID:24019932

  9. Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: cognitive and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J R; Eklund, R C; Williams, A C

    2003-12-01

    Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experiments the cognitive and affective consequences of skinfold caliper use in a 7th grade (155 boys, 177 girls, total N = 332) health/physical education context were examined. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the students could be taught to accurately measure a partner and/or significantly learn body fatness-related concepts compared to controls. It was also shown that inexpensive plastic Fat Control calipers produced accurate measurements. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate the significant cognitive outcome effects, and also to test the hypothesis that psychological damage is a likely consequence of skinfold caliper use-and that hypothesis was refuted. Specifically, knowledge scores, and outcome scores on adapted affect scales (e.g., PANAS, MAACL), physical self-esteem scales (CY-PSPP) and on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale supported the premise that skinfold calipers can be used in an educational context to facilitate cognitive learning without causing adverse affective consequences.

  10. Beetroot juice increase nitric oxide metabolites in both men and women regardless of body mass.

    PubMed

    Baião, Diego dos Santos; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-01-01

    The nitrate (NO3(-)) present in beetroot juice (BJ) has been studied for its effect on the cardiovascular system by converting to nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of BJ on the excretion of NO metabolites and its relationship with body mass in both men and women. NO metabolites - urinary NO3(-), nitrite (NO2(-)) and NOx were analyzed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography system. There were significant increases in urinary NO3(-), NO2(-) and NOx in BJ as compared to PLA (BJ without NO3(-)). No significant difference between men and women was observed in NO metabolites after BJ at any time point. There were no significant relationships between urinary NO3(-), NO2(-) and NOx and body mass in BJ intervention for both men and women. In conclusion, urinary NO metabolites after BJ consumption increases in similar manner between sexes regardless of body mass.

  11. Scaling of free-ranging primate energetics with body mass predicts low energy expenditure in humans.

    PubMed

    Simmen, Bruno; Darlu, Pierre; Hladik, Claude Marcel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Studies of how a mammal's daily energy expenditure scales with its body mass suggest that humans, whether Westerners, agro-pastoralists, or hunter-gatherers, all have much lower energy expenditures for their body mass than other mammals. However, non-human primates also differ from other mammals in several life history traits suggestive of low energy use. Judging by field metabolic rates of free-ranging strepsirhine and haplorhine primates with different lifestyle and body mass, estimated using doubly labeled water, primates have lower energy expenditure than other similar-sized eutherian mammals. Daily energy expenditure in humans fell along the regression line of non-human primates. The results suggest that thrifty energy use could be an ancient strategy of primates. Although physical activity is a major component of energy balance, our results suggest a need to revise the basis for establishing norms of energy expenditure in modern humans.

  12. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  13. Females are the ecological sex: sex-specific body mass ecogeography in wild sifaka populations (Propithecus spp.).

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam D; Johnson, Steig E; Louis, Edward E

    2013-05-01

    Previous work in primates has shown that body size often covaries with ecological parameters related to resource or energy availability in the environment. This relationship may differ for males and females as access to resources has greater importance for reproductive success in females. We test the hypotheses that (1) female body mass may be more tightly constrained than male body mass by ecological variables, and (2) female body mass may respond more strongly than male body mass to changes in ecological variables (i.e., population-specific female mass may vary more across an ecological gradient than male mass). Specifically, we investigate the relationship between climatic variables and sex-specific body mass in Propithecus, a genus in which species-specific body mass has already been demonstrated to covary significantly with climatic variables. Data from 733 wild sifakas are used to identify sex-specific body mass for 27 populations representing all nine described sifaka species, and climatic data for each population are derived from the WorldClim database. We use phylogenetic generalized least squares models to demonstrate that body mass in both sexes is significantly correlated with annual rainfall and number of dry months. Furthermore, coefficients of determination are always higher for female models, and coefficients for each climatic variable are higher for females in all significant models. These results support the two hypotheses tested, indicating that ecological forces can have a greater impact on female mass than on male mass in primates.

  14. The relationship between body mass index and sexual function in infertile women: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Zarei, Hossein; Rasekh Jahromi, Athar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility as the bitterest life experience can affect sexual function. Many studies have shown agitation, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and sexual dysfunction as the psychological outcomes resulting from infertility. Many factors, including body mass index, influence the female sexual function. Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and the relationship between sexual function and body mass index in the Iranian infertile women who had attended the infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 502 infertile women who had attended Honoree clinic, Jahrom in Iran between April 2012 and December 2012. The infertile cases were classified into three groups according to the body mass index: 20-24.9 (Group I), 25-29.9 (Group II), and >29.9 and above (Group III). In addition, Female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was used in order to assess the sexual problems. Finally, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Results: The mean age of women was 30.95±6.80 years. The results showed that 430 subjects (87.1%) had sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, the rate of sexual dysfunction among the infertile women was reported as 23.30%, 31.47%, and 45.23% in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Considering body mass index, FSFI score was 21.65±1.70 in the women with normal weight, 18.08±1.52 in overweight women, and 12.21±3.62 in obese women and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was quite high in infertile women, which might be due to the lack of knowledge about marital issues and lack of training in the society. If body mass index is too high, it can have a great effect on fertility. In this study, being overweight and obese based on body mass index had a negative effect on the infertile woman’s sexual function. PMID:24799879

  15. Effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard and active metabolic rate in vendace (Coregonus albula).

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Staaks, Georg; Hölker, Franz

    2007-11-01

    This study gives an integrated analysis of the effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard metabolism and aerobic swimming performance in vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)). The metabolic rate was investigated at 4, 8 and 15 degrees C using one flow-through respirometer and two intermittent-flow swim tunnels. We found that the standard metabolic rate (SMR), which increased significantly with temperature, accounted for up to 2/3 of the total swimming costs at optimum speed (U (opt)), although mean U (opt) was high, ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 body lengths per second. Net swimming costs increased with swimming speed, but showed no clear trend with temperature. The influence of body mass on the metabolic rate varied with temperature and activity level resulting in scaling exponents (b) of 0.71-0.94. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to integrate the effects of temperature, speed and mass (AMR = 0.82M (0.93) exp(0.07T) + 0.43M (0.93) U (2.03)). The regression analysis showed that temperature affects standard but not net active metabolic costs in this species. Further, we conclude that a low speed exponent, high optimum speeds and high ratios of standard to activity costs suggest a remarkably efficient swimming performance in vendace.

  16. Body-mass or sex-biased tick parasitism in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)? A GAMLSS approach.

    PubMed

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-03-01

    Macroparasites feeding on wildlife hosts follow skewed distributions for which basic statistical approaches are of limited use. To predict Ixodes spp. tick burden on roe deer, we applied Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) which allow incorporating a variable dispersion. We analysed tick burden of 78 roe deer, sampled in a forest region of Germany over a period of 20 months. Assuming a negative binomial error distribution and controlling for ambient temperature, we analysed whether host sex and body mass affected individual tick burdens. Models for larval and nymphal tick burden included host sex, with male hosts being more heavily infested than female ones. However, the influence of host sex on immature tick burden was associated with wide standard errors (nymphs) or the factor was marginally significant (larvae). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with host body mass. Thus, controlled for host body mass and ambient temperature, there is weak support for sex-biased parasitism in this system. Compared with models which assume linear relationships, GAMLSS provided a better fit. Adding a variable dispersion term improved only one of the four models. Yet, the potential of modelling dispersion as a function of variables appears promising for larger datasets.

  17. Body mass estimation in xenarthra: a predictive equation suitable for all quadrupedal terrestrial placentals?

    PubMed

    De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Mendoza, Manuel; De Renzi, Miquel

    2008-10-01

    The Magnorder Xenarthra includes strange extinct groups, like glyptodonts, similar to large armadillos, and ground sloths, terrestrial relatives of the extant tree sloths. They have created considerable paleobiological interest in the last decades; however, the ecology of most of these species is still controversial or unknown. The body mass estimation of extinct species has great importance for paleobiological reconstructions. The commonest way to estimate body mass from fossils is through linear regression. However, if the studied species does not have similar extant relatives, the allometric pattern described by the regression could differ from those shown by the extinct group. That is the case for glyptodonts and ground sloths. Thus, stepwise multiple regression were developed including extant xenarthrans (their taxonomic relatives) and ungulates (their size and ecological relatives). Cases were weighted to maximize the taxonomic evenness. Twenty-eight equations were obtained. The distribution of the percent of prediction error (%PE) was analyzed between taxonomic groups (Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Xenarthra) and size groups (0-20 kg, 20-300 kg, and more than 300 kg). To assess the predictive power of the functions, equations were applied to species not included in the regression development [test set cross validation, (TSCV)]. Only five equations had a homogeneous %PE between the aforementioned groups. These were applied to five extinct species. A mean body mass of 80 kg was estimated for Propalaehoplophorus australis (Cingulata: Glyptodontidae), 594 kg for Scelidotherium leptocephalum (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae), and 3,550.7 kg for Lestodon armatus (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae). The high scatter of the body mass estimations obtained for Catonyx tarijensis (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae) and Thalassocnus natans (Phyllophaga: Megatheriidae), probably due to different specializations, prevented us from predicting its body mass. Surprisingly, although obtained

  18. Association of Body Mass Index with Timing of Death during Tuberculosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yun-Ju; Yen, Yung-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background The association between body mass index and mortality in patients with tuberculosis has not been extensively studied, and the existing evidence is inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the impact of body mass index on timing of death in patients with tuberculosis. Methods All Taiwanese adults with tuberculosis in Taipei, Taiwan, were included in a retrospective cohort study in 2011–2012. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and timing of death in patients with tuberculosis. Results Among 1557 eligible patients, 84.1% (1310), 8.2% (128), and 7.6% (119) underwent successful treatment, early death, and late death, respectively. The mean age of the patients with tuberculosis was 64.2 years old, and 67.7% were male. After controlling for potential confounding variables, underweight with body mass index less than 18.5 kg/ m2 was significantly associated with elevated risk of all-cause mortality [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17–2.30]. Considering timing of death, underweight with body mass index less than 18.5 was significantly associated only with elevated risk of early mortality within the first 8 weeks of treatment onset (AOR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.45–3.40) Conclusions For patients with tuberculosis infection, underweight with body mass index less than 18.5 kg/ m2 is an independent predictor for early mortality within the first 8 weeks of treatment. PMID:28085951

  19. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  20. Relative bone mass decreased in mice fed high dietary fat despite an increase in body mass and bone formation markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis and obesity are interrelated health disorders. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from common mesenchymal stem cells and age-related osteoporosis is associated with increased bone marrow adipogenesis. To determine whether bone mass and osteoblast number and activity are affected by ...

  1. Fatty Acid Synthase Polymorphisms, Tumor Expression, Body Mass Index, Prostate Cancer Risk, and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Ma, Jing; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Lis, Rosina; Fedele, Giuseppe; Fiore, Christopher; Qiu, Weiliang; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Finn, Stephen; Penney, Kathryn L.; Eisenstein, Anna; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Giovannucci, Edward; Loda, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fatty acid synthase (FASN) regulates de novo lipogenesis, body weight, and tumor growth. We examined whether common germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FASN gene affect prostate cancer (PCa) risk or PCa-specific mortality and whether these effects vary by body mass index (BMI). Methods In a prospective nested case-control study of 1,331 white patients with PCa and 1,267 age-matched controls, we examined associations of five common SNPs within FASN (and 5 kb upstream/downstream, R2 > 0.8) with PCa incidence and, among patients, PCa-specific death and tested for an interaction with BMI. Survival analyses were repeated for tumor FASN expression (n = 909). Results Four of the five SNPs were associated with lethal PCa. SNP rs1127678 was significantly related to higher BMI and interacted with BMI for both PCa risk (Pinteraction = .004) and PCa mortality (Pinteraction = .056). Among overweight men (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), but not leaner men, the homozygous variant allele carried a relative risk of advanced PCa of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.00 to 6.23) compared with lean men with the wild type. Overweight patients carrying the variant allele had a 2.04 (95% CI, 1.31 to 3.17) times higher risk of PCa mortality. Similarly, overweight patients with elevated tumor FASN expression had a 2.73 (95% CI, 1.05 to 7.08) times higher risk of lethal PCa (Pinteraction = .02). Conclusion FASN germline polymorphisms were significantly associated with risk of lethal PCa. Significant interactions of BMI with FASN polymorphisms and FASN tumor expression suggest FASN as a potential link between obesity and poor PCa outcome and raise the possibility that FASN inhibition could reduce PCa-specific mortality, particularly in overweight men. PMID:20679621

  2. Oesophageal foreign bodies in dogs: factors affecting success of endoscopic retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oesophageal foreign bodies are common in dogs. Endoscopic removal is a viable treatment option but few studies have assessed the clinical and radiographic features that would be useful in decision-making and prognosis. Dogs (n = 44) with oesophageal foreign bodies presented to the University Veterinary Hospital were assessed. Terriers and West Highland White Terriers were significantly overrepresented (p < 0.0001) and in those breeds the foreign body was significantly (p < 0.0001) more likely to be located caudal to the heart base. The majority (88.6%) of foreign bodies were bones or bone fragments. Group 1 (n = 30) included animals where endoscopic removal was successful and Group 2 (n = 14) animals where it was unsuccessful or not attempted because of evidence of oesophageal rupture. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, body weight, type, location and size of foreign body, recovery rate, short-term complications and long-term outcome between the two groups. Duration of signs prior to presentation and time to spontaneous oral feeding were significantly longer (p < 0.01 in each case) in Group 2 (five days and 120 hours, respectively) compared to Group 1 (2 days and 24 hours, respectively). Mortality was 11.1%. Long-term follow-up of 29 dogs suggested oesophageal stricture formation manageable by feeding alone in seven (24.1%) cases. Terriers appear predisposed to oesophageal foreign bodies. Success of endoscopic removal is adversely affected by duration of signs prior to presentation. Surgical removal negatively influences time to recovery. Stricture formation appears to be a relatively common complication and alternate measures for its prevention should be sought. PMID:21851744

  3. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-01-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

 PMID:9659099

  4. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002–2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations.

  5. Effect of body mass on hibernation strategies of woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    PubMed

    Zervanos, Stam M; Maher, Christine R; Florant, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    The benefits of mammalian hibernation have been well documented. However, the physiological and ecological costs of torpor have been emphasized only recently as part of a hibernation-optimization hypothesis. This hypothesis predicts that hibernators with greater availability of energy minimize costs of torpor by less frequent utilization of torpor and by maintaining higher body temperatures (T(b)) during torpor. In order to further examine the relationship between body mass and other parameters of hibernation, we present data, collected over a 12-year period, on the hibernation patterns of free-living woodchucks (Marmota monax) in southeastern Pennsylvania. Body mass was positively correlated with T(b) and negatively correlated with percentage of the heterothermic period spent in torpor. Thus, woodchucks with greater mass exhibited less time in torpor as a proportion of their heterothermic period and at higher T(b) than those with lesser mass. This strategy potentially enhances the physiological and physical ability of woodchucks to defend territories, avoid predation, find mates, and complete the reproductive cycle upon emergence from hibernation. Our results further support the hibernation-optimization hypothesis by demonstrating the relationship between body mass and characteristics of torpor and contributing toward a fuller understanding of this concept.

  6. Effects of temperature acclimation on body mass and energy budget in the Chinese bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    WU, Yu-Nan; Lin, Lin; XIAO, Yu-Chao; Zhou, Li-Meng; WU, Meng-Si; Zhang, Hui-Ying; LIU, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) are small passerine birds that inhabit areas of central, southern and eastern China. Previous observations suggest that free-living individuals of this species may change their food intake in response to seasonal changes in ambient temperature. In the present study, we randomly assigned Chinese bulbuls to either a 30 ℃ or 10 ℃ group, and measured their body mass (BM), body temperature, gross energy intake (GEI), digestible energy intake (DEI), and the length and mass of their digestive tracts over 28 days of acclimation at these temperatures. As predicted, birds in the 30 ℃ group had lower body mass, GEI and DEI relative to those in the 10 ℃ group. The length and mass of the digestive tract was also lower in the 30 ℃ group and trends in these parameters were positively correlated with BM, GEI and DEI. These results suggest that Chinese bulbuls reduced their absolute energy demands at relatively high temperatures by decreasing their body mass, GEI and DEI, and digestive tract size. PMID:24470452

  7. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating.

    PubMed

    Chausse, Bruno; Solon, Carina; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Masselli Dos Reis, Ivan G; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B; Gobatto, Claudio A; Velloso, Licio A; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an often-used intervention to decrease body mass. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hour cycles of IF result in light caloric restriction, reduced body mass gain, and significant decreases in the efficiency of energy conversion. Here, we study the metabolic effects of IF in order to uncover mechanisms involved in this lower energy conversion efficiency. After 3 weeks, IF animals displayed overeating during fed periods and lower body mass, accompanied by alterations in energy-related tissue mass. The lower efficiency of energy use was not due to uncoupling of muscle mitochondria. Enhanced lipid oxidation was observed during fasting days, whereas fed days were accompanied by higher metabolic rates. Furthermore, an increased expression of orexigenic neurotransmitters AGRP and NPY in the hypothalamus of IF animals was found, even on feeding days, which could explain the overeating pattern. Together, these effects provide a mechanistic explanation for the lower efficiency of energy conversion observed. Overall, we find that IF promotes changes in hypothalamic function that explain differences in body mass and caloric intake.

  8. Body Mass Changes Associated With Hyper-Gravity are Independent of Adrenal Derived Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Wang, Tommy J.; Baer, Lisa A.; Yuan, Fang; Fung, Cyra K.; Stein, T. Peter; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to hyper-gravity results in a number of metabolic changes associated with increases in catecholamines and corticosterone. These changes result in a loss of body and fat mass. To assess the role of hormones derived from the adrenal gland in the changes we studied sham operated (SO) and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats exposed to hyper-gravity of 2 G for 14 days. Control groups at 1 G were also studied. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone (CORT) were reduced in ADX animals. In response to 2 G there was an increase in urinary EPI and CORT in SO rats, while levels were unchanged in ADX animals. Both groups of animals had similar increases in urinary norepinephrine levels. The reductions of body mass gain in response to 2 G were the same in both groups. The decrease in relative fat mass was greater in ADX. Energy intake and expenditure were not different between groups. In response of returning to 1 G for 24 hours and reexposure to hyper-gravity there were no differences between SO and ADX in the changes of food and water intake, body mass or activity. The changes in metabolism with exposure to hyper-gravity do not appear to require hormones derived from the adrenal gland. The increase in lypolysis and alterations body and fat mass appear to be modulated by sympathetically derived norepinehrine.

  9. Body mass index, muscle and fat in chronic kidney disease: questions about survival.

    PubMed

    Mafra, D; Guebre-Egziabher, F; Fouque, D

    2008-08-01

    The human body can be roughly divided into two major compartments, fat mass and lean body mass. Adipose tissue is now considered to be a highly active tissue and, in addition to storing calories as triglycerides, it also secretes a large variety of compounds, including cytokines, chemokines and hormone-like factors such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin. On the other hand, muscle plays a central role in whole-body protein metabolism by serving as the principal provider for amino acids to maintain protein synthesis in vital tissues and organs and by providing hepatic gluconeogenic precursors. Although not a good indicator of body composition, the Quetelet index, also called body mass index (BMI), is often used for practical reasons. It is well known that high BMI predicts mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. However, observational reports in the dialysis population have suggested that obesity is associated with improved survival, a phenomenon that is not well understood and subject to controversies. This review describes the characteristics of BMI in the general population and in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, as well as the respective role of muscle, whole body fat and fat distribution towards mortality, with particular emphasis on patients with CKD.

  10. Maternal insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, body mass index, and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, R.; Holly, J; Soothill, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To examine the hypothesis that the maternal insulin-like growth factor system may constrain fetal growth.
METHODS—A prospective observational study of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and fetal growth was undertaken in neonates with birthweights below the 5th centile. They had been classified either as having fetal growth restriction (FGR) due to placental dysfunction (increased umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI); n = 25) or as being small for gestational age (SGA; normal umbilical artery PI, growth velocity and amniotic fluid; n = 27). Eighty nine controls had normal birthweights (5th-95th centile), umbilical artery PI, growth velocity, and amniotic fluid. IGFBP-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—Among the controls, there was no significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and birthweight after allowing for body mass index (BMI). Maternal BMI was high in FGR and after adjusting for this, IGFBP-1 was increased (109 ng/ml) compared with SGA babies (69ng/ml) and controls (57 ng/ml) and correlated with the umbilical artery PI.
CONCLUSIONS—Maternal IGFBP-1 is probably not part of normal placental function. Its increase in FGR could be the cause or consequence of impaired placental perfusion, but high IGFBP-1 concentrations might further reduce the availability of maternal IGF-I to the placenta. This could worsen placental function and so adversely affect fetal growth.
 PMID:10685983

  11. Behavioral and Environmental Modification of the Genetic Influence on Body Mass Index: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Horn, Erin E; Turkheimer, Eric; Strachan, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has a strong genetic basis, with a heritability around 0.75, but is also influenced by numerous behavioral and environmental factors. Aspects of the built environment (e.g., environmental walkability) are hypothesized to influence obesity by directly affecting BMI, by facilitating or inhibiting behaviors such as physical activity that are related to BMI, or by suppressing genetic tendencies toward higher BMI. The present study investigated relative influences of physical activity and walkability on variance in BMI using 5079 same-sex adult twin pairs (70 % monozygotic, 65 % female). High activity and walkability levels independently suppressed genetic variance in BMI. Estimating their effects simultaneously, however, suggested that the walkability effect was mediated by activity. The suppressive effect of activity on variance in BMI was present even with a tendency for low-BMI individuals to select into environments that require higher activity levels. Overall, our results point to community- or macro-level interventions that facilitate individual-level behaviors as a plausible approach to addressing the obesity epidemic among US adults.

  12. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m2), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m2) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m2), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  13. Knee rotationplasty: motion of the body centre of mass during walking

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Viviana; Okita, Yusuke; Manfrini, Marco; Tesio, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Knee rotationplasty (KRP) is a type of surgery in which the rotated ankle serves as a new knee after being removed for bone tumor. Although this limb salvage surgery is rarely indicated in properly selected patients, it may offer functional advantages over transfemoral amputation, and more durable results compared with a prosthesis. The walking mechanics of adult patients after KRP is believed to be close to that of below-knee amputees. In this study, we evaluated steady-state walking of KRP patients from the viewpoint of the overall muscle power needed to keep the body centre of mass in motion. Three adult patients after KRP, all athletes, were evaluated. Ground reactions during walking were recorded during six subsequent strides on a force treadmill. The positive mechanical work and power sustaining the motion of the centre of mass and the recovery of muscle energy due to the pendulum-like mechanism of walking were computed and compared with those obtained in previous studies from above-knee, below-knee amputees and healthy individuals. In KRP patients, walking was sustained by a muscle power output which was 1.4–3.6 times lower during the step performed on the rotated limb than on the subsequent step. The recovery of muscle energy was slightly lower (0.9) or higher (1.3–1.4 times) on the affected side. In two out of the three KRP patients, our findings were more similar to those from above-knee amputees than to those from below-knee amputees. After KRP, the rotated limb does not necessarily provide the same power provided by below-knee amputation. This may have a relevance for the paralympic classification of KRP athletes. PMID:27685013

  14. The metabolic syndrome of omega3-depleted rats. II. Body weight, adipose tissue mass and glycemic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sener, Abdullah; Zhang, Ying; Bulur, Nurdan; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Carpentier, Yvon A

    2009-07-01

    Exposure of 7-week-old normal rats for 3-7 months to a diet deprived of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids was recently reported to induce changes in the fatty acid content and pattern of liver phospholipids and triglycerides similar to those otherwise found in second generation omega3-depleted rats. In the present study, the changes in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue mass, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance index were investigated in the same control and omega3-depleted rats, which were then given access for 2 to 4-5 weeks to either a flaxseed oil-enriched diet (control and omega3-depleted rats) or a soybean oil-enriched diet (control rats). The body weight failed to differ between control and omega3-depleted rats. The latter rats, however, displayed increases in adipose tissue mass, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance index. In the control rats given access to the soybean or flaxseed oil-enriched diet, body weight and adipose tissue mass were little affected, but both the plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance index decreased. In the omega3-depleted rats given access to the flaxseed oil-enriched diet, both body weight and adipose tissue mass underwent a rapid, pronounced and sustained increase, whilst the plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance index decreased similarly to those in the control rats. The present design of omega3 fatty acid dietary deprivation thus reproduces the visceral obesity and insulin resistance otherwise observed in second-generation omega3-depleted rats. However, the supply of exogenous omega3 fatty acids to the omega3-depleted rats failed to oppose visceral obesity, possibly as a result of the orexigenic effects of these omega3 fatty acids.

  15. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  16. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  17. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  18. Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas Stewart

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during active exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (scaling as M (1)). This dependence of b on activity level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.

  19. Dynamical mass and multiplicity constraints on co-orbital bodies around stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Marsh, Thomas R.; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2016-09-01

    Objects transiting near or within the disruption radius of both main-sequence (e.g. KOI 1843) and white dwarf (WD 1145+017) stars are now known. Upon fragmentation or disintegration, these planets or asteroids may produce co-orbital configurations of nearly equal mass objects. However, as evidenced by the co-orbital objects detected by transit photometry in the WD 1145+017 system, these bodies are largely unconstrained in size, mass, and total number (multiplicity). Motivated by potential future similar discoveries, we perform N-body simulations to demonstrate if and how debris masses and multiplicity may be bounded due to second-to-minute deviations and the resulting accumulated phase shifts in the osculating orbital period amongst multiple co-orbital equal point masses. We establish robust lower and upper mass bounds as a function of orbital period deviation, but find the constraints on multiplicity to be weak. We also quantify the fuzzy instability boundary, and show that mutual collisions occur in less than 5, 10, and 20 per cent of our simulations for masses of 1021, 1022, and 1023 kg. Our results may provide useful initial rough constraints on other stellar systems with multiple co-orbital bodies.

  20. Measurement of total RBC volume relative to lean body mass for diagnosis of polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Berlin, N I; Lewis, S M

    2000-12-01

    An elevated total RBC volume (TRCV) in milliliters per kilogram of body weight has been an essential criterion for determining whether a person is polycythemic. This may be misleading in obese subjects as the TRCV per kilogram of fat is only one-tenth that of the TRCV of the lean body mass (LBM). Various formulas based on surface area have been used to account for this difference, but they are not always reliable. Direct measurement of TRCV per kilogram of lean body mass was obtained originally in studies in which body composition was determined by the combined body density and total body water measurement method. This is impractical as a routine procedure, but simple-to-use instruments are now available for direct measurement of a person's body composition and percentage of fat by impedance technology. Thus, the TRCV can be obtained by a direct measurement that discounts the effects of fat, and a graph has been designed to normalize the TRCV to milliliters per kilogram of LBM. The TRCV for men and women has been established as 36 mL/kg LBM; when it is more than 43 mL/kg LBM, a diagnosis of polychthemia can be made with confidence.

  1. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    PubMed

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former.

  2. Gravity Anomalies of Arbitrary 3D Polyhedral Bodies with Horizontal and Vertical Mass Contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Chen, Chaojian; Pan, Kejia; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi; Tang, Jingtian

    2017-03-01

    During the last 15 years, more attention has been paid to derive analytic formulae for the gravitational potential and field of polyhedral mass bodies with complicated polynomial density contrasts, because such formulae can be more suitable to approximate the true mass density variations of the earth (e.g., sedimentary basins and bedrock topography) than methods that use finer volume discretization and constant density contrasts. In this study, we derive analytic formulae for gravity anomalies of arbitrary polyhedral bodies with complicated polynomial density contrasts in 3D space. The anomalous mass density is allowed to vary in both horizontal and vertical directions in a polynomial form of λ =ax^m+by^n+cz^t, where m, n, t are nonnegative integers and a, b, c are coefficients of mass density. First, the singular volume integrals of the gravity anomalies are transformed to regular or weakly singular surface integrals over each polygon of the polyhedral body. Then, in terms of the derived singularity-free analytic formulae of these surface integrals, singularity-free analytic formulae for gravity anomalies of arbitrary polyhedral bodies with horizontal and vertical polynomial density contrasts are obtained. For an arbitrary polyhedron, we successfully derived analytic formulae of the gravity potential and the gravity field in the case of m≤ 1, n≤ 1, t≤ 1, and an analytic formula of the gravity potential in the case of m=n=t=2. For a rectangular prism, we derive an analytic formula of the gravity potential for m≤ 3, n≤ 3 and t≤ 3 and closed forms of the gravity field are presented for m≤ 1, n≤ 1 and t≤ 4. Besides generalizing previously published closed-form solutions for cases of constant and linear mass density contrasts to higher polynomial order, to our best knowledge, this is the first time that closed-form solutions are presented for the gravitational potential of a general polyhedral body with quadratic density contrast in all spatial

  3. Gravity Anomalies of Arbitrary 3D Polyhedral Bodies with Horizontal and Vertical Mass Contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Chen, Chaojian; Pan, Kejia; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi; Tang, Jingtian

    2016-11-01

    During the last 15 years, more attention has been paid to derive analytic formulae for the gravitational potential and field of polyhedral mass bodies with complicated polynomial density contrasts, because such formulae can be more suitable to approximate the true mass density variations of the earth (e.g., sedimentary basins and bedrock topography) than methods that use finer volume discretization and constant density contrasts. In this study, we derive analytic formulae for gravity anomalies of arbitrary polyhedral bodies with complicated polynomial density contrasts in 3D space. The anomalous mass density is allowed to vary in both horizontal and vertical directions in a polynomial form of λ =ax^m+by^n+cz^t , where m, n, t are nonnegative integers and a, b, c are coefficients of mass density. First, the singular volume integrals of the gravity anomalies are transformed to regular or weakly singular surface integrals over each polygon of the polyhedral body. Then, in terms of the derived singularity-free analytic formulae of these surface integrals, singularity-free analytic formulae for gravity anomalies of arbitrary polyhedral bodies with horizontal and vertical polynomial density contrasts are obtained. For an arbitrary polyhedron, we successfully derived analytic formulae of the gravity potential and the gravity field in the case of m≤ 1 , n≤ 1 , t≤ 1 , and an analytic formula of the gravity potential in the case of m=n=t=2 . For a rectangular prism, we derive an analytic formula of the gravity potential for m≤ 3 , n≤ 3 and t≤ 3 and closed forms of the gravity field are presented for m≤ 1 , n≤ 1 and t≤ 4 . Besides generalizing previously published closed-form solutions for cases of constant and linear mass density contrasts to higher polynomial order, to our best knowledge, this is the first time that closed-form solutions are presented for the gravitational potential of a general polyhedral body with quadratic density contrast in all

  4. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  5. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  6. Body Size Reductions in Nonmammalian Eutheriodont Therapsids (Synapsida) during the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Huttenlocker, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the ‘Lilliput effect,’ a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns. PMID:24498335

  7. Deranged iron status in psoriasis: the impact of low body mass

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowska, Malgorzata; Tupikowska, Malgorzata; Kasztura, Monika; Jankowska, Ewa A; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2015-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) frequently complicates inflammatory-mediated chronic disorders, irrespective of anaemia. Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation; thus, these patients may be prone to develop ID. ID adversely affects immune cells function, which can further contribute to disease progression. This study investigates iron status in psoriasis. Methods Serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin saturation (Tsat), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hepcidin were assessed as the biomarkers of iron status in 39 patients with psoriasis (17 men, age: 47 ± 10 years) and 44 healthy subjects (30 men, age: 53 ± 6 years). Results Compared with healthy controls, patients with psoriasis demonstrated similar haematologic status but deranged iron status as evidenced by decreased Tsat and elevated sTfR (negative tissue iron balance) and low levels of hepcidin (depleted iron stores) (all P < 0.05 vs. controls). In patients, the levels of interleukin-6 (level of pro-inflammatory activation) significantly correlated with hepcidin (R = 0.54), but not with ferritin, Tsat, and sTfR. Biomarkers reflecting ID were not associated with the severity of the disease (assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) but significantly correlated low body mass index (BMI). Patients with BMI < 24 kg/m2 compared with those with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 demonstrated lower levels of ferritin (40 ± 30 vs. 186 ± 128 ng/mL, P < 0.001) and hepcidin (4.9 ± 2.3 vs. 10.7 ± 6.7 ng/mL, P = 0.03). Conclusion Psoriasis is associated with deranged iron status characterized by depleted iron stores with concomitant unmet cellular iron requirements. The magnitude of these abnormalities is particularly strong in patients with low body mass index. Whether iron deficiency may become a therapeutic target in psoriasis needs to be investigated. PMID:26673741

  8. Relationship of body mass status with running and jumping performances in young basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Asadi, Abbas; Santos, Eduardo J.A.M.; Calleja-González, Julio; Padulo, Johnny; Chtourou, Hamdi; Zemkova, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of body mass (BM) status with running and jumping performances in young male basketball players. Methods basketball players (n=72, age 12.9±2.8 yrs), who were grouped into U-12 (9–12 yrs), U-15 (12–15 yrs) and U-18 (15–18 yrs), performed a battery of anthropometric, running and jumping tests. We examined differences among age groups, and between normal weight and overweight players. Results the results indicated significant and large differences among age groups in BM, height, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, speed, endurance, standing long jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), mean power in 30 s jumping test (Pmean) (p<0.001, η2≥0.23) with older players presenting higher values. Within each age group, overweight players had higher BM, BMI, body fat percentage and FM (p<0.05) than their normal weight counterparts. Overweight players had worst performance in running (sprint and endurance) and jumping (CMJ and Pmean) in U-12, and worst endurance in U-18 (p<0.05, |d|≥0.82) than normal-weight players, whereas there was no difference in U-15. Conclusions it was concluded that the relationship of BMI with running and jumping performances varied according to age. Based on these findings, trainers and coaches should focus on special intervention exercise and nutrition programs targeting optimal body mass especially in young basketball players, where the excess of body mass seemed to have the most detrimental effect on running and jumping performances. PMID:26605193

  9. Circulating levels of irisin in patients with anorexia nervosa and different stages of obesity--correlation with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Hofmann, Tobias; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Elbelt, Ulf; Kobelt, Peter; Klapp, Burghard F

    2013-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as cleavage product of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and shown to increase energy expenditure in mice and humans and therefore was discussed as potential treatment option in obesity. However, the regulation of irisin under conditions of severely altered body weight such as anorexia nervosa and obesity remains to be investigated. We analyzed circulating irisin levels over a broad spectrum of body weight in 40 patients with anorexia nervosa (mean body mass index, BMI 12.6±0.7 kg/m(2)), normal weight controls (22.6±0.9 kg/m(2)) and obese patients with BMI of 30-40 (36.9±1.2 kg/m(2)), 40-50 (44.9±1.1 kg/m(2)) and >50 (70.1±2.7 kg/m(2), n=8/group). Correlation analyses were performed between irisin and different body indices, parameters of body composition and hormones involved in various homeostatic processes. Obese patients showed higher circulating irisin levels compared to normal weight and anorexic patients (p<0.05) resulting in a correlation of irisin with body weight (r=0.47, p<0.01) and BMI (r=0.50, p<0.001). Plasma irisin was also positively correlated with fat mass (r=0.48, p<0.01), body cell mass (r=0.45, p<0.01) and fat free mass (r=0.40, p<0.05). Insulin levels were positively correlated with irisin (r=0.45, p<0.01), whereas circulating ghrelin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone or C-reactive protein were not (p>0.05). These data indicate that circulating irisin is affected under conditions of altered BMI with highest levels in severely obese patients. The increase of irisin under conditions of obesity may indicate a physiological function to improve glucose tolerance which is often impaired in obese subjects.

  10. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Wheatley, Courtney M; Behnia, Mehrdad; Johnson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects.

  11. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  12. Is spinal excitability of the triceps surae mainly affected by muscle activity or body position?

    PubMed

    Cattagni, T; Martin, A; Scaglioni, G

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine how muscle activity and body orientation contribute to the triceps surae spinal transmission modulation, when moving from a sitting to a standing position. Maximal Hoffmann-reflex (Hmax) and motor potential (Mmax) were evoked in the soleus (SOL), medial and lateral gastrocnemius in 10 male subjects and in three conditions, passive sitting, active sitting and upright standing, with the same SOL activity in active sitting and upright standing. Moreover volitional wave (V) was evoked in the two active conditions (i.e., active sitting and upright standing). The results showed that SOL Hmax/Mmax was lower in active sitting than in passive sitting, while for the gastrocnemii it was not significantly altered. For the three plantar flexors, Hmax/Mmax was lower in upright standing than in active sitting, whereas V/Mmax was not modulated. SOL H-reflex is therefore affected by the increase in muscle activity and change in body orientation, while, in the gastrocnemii, it was only affected by a change in posture. In conclusion, passing from a sitting to a standing position affects the Hmax/Mmax of the whole triceps surae, but the mechanisms responsible for this change differ among the synergist muscles. The V/Mmax does not change when upright stance is assumed. This means that the increased inhibitory activity in orthostatic position is compensated by an increased excitatory inflow to the α-motoneurons of central and/or peripheral origin.

  13. Food Serving Size Knowledge in African American Women and the Relationship with Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Meena; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Elston, Elizabeth; Hubbard, Stacy; Carson, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine serving size knowledge in African Americans and how it is related to body mass index (BMI). Design: Serving size knowledge of food commonly consumed by African Americans was assessed by asking the subjects to select the amount of food considered to be a single serving size by the United States Department of Agriculture and…

  14. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  15. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  16. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  17. Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

  18. Predicting 1-Year Change in Body Mass Index among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy; Rini, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Despite beliefs about weight gain in college, few researchers have evaluated this phenomenon. Participants: Participants were 18- to 31-year-old students at a midwestern university. The dependent variable was body mass index (BMI) change. Methods: The authors extracted predictor variables from a Health Risk Appraisal. These included…

  19. Bioelectrical impedance vectorial analysis and nutritional status of older women according to body mass index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longitudinal studies, both epidemiological and clinical, have shown that elderly with high body mass index (BMI) are able to better face stressing factors, and have better survival rate as consequence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if higher BMI values were associated with improved nu...

  20. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  1. The Association between Short Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among South Korean Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunhee

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) in two South Korean samples: children and adolescents. Nationally representative secondary data (i.e., the Korean Survey on the Obesity of Youth and Children) collected in 2009 were analyzed ("N" = 2,499 for children and "N" = 7,431 for…

  2. The Relationship between Motor Skill Proficiency and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Modlesky, Christopher; Getchell, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Thirty-eight children ages 4-6 years had their BMI calculated and were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2; Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007). These data were analyzed in two…

  3. Ethnic Differences in Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Students: The Confounding Role of Body Mass Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Cecilia A.; Mann, Traci

    2001-01-01

    Explored the role of body mass index (BMI) in eating disorders among Hispanic, Asian American, and non-Hispanic white female college students. Data from student surveys indicated that after controlling for BMI, ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms of concern about weight and shape disappeared, but differences in restrained eating…

  4. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latty, Christopher; Carolan, Marsha T.; Jocks, Jodi E.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The substantial increase in youth obesity during the last two decades may have serious biological as well as behavioral/mental health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess how ecological factors and hence overall well-being were related to body mass index (BMI) in youths. Methods: Three BMI categories (normal;…

  5. Body Mass Index and the Use of the Internet for Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Smit, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Individuals who experience or anticipate negative interactions from medical providers related to conditions such as obesity may preferentially use the Internet for health information. Our objectives in this study were to (1) examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and Internet health information-seeking and (2) examine…

  6. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  7. Limb Body Wall Complex with Sacrococcygeal Mass and Agenesis of External Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Prabahita

    2013-01-01

    Limb body wall complex (LBWC) is a rare clinicopathological entity, characterized by the presence of an abdominal wall defect associated with variable spectrum of limb and visceral anomalies. A stillborn baby of LBWC with placentoabdominal phenotype is reported here. Kyphoscoliosis, sacrococcygeal mass and agenesis of external genitalia are the associated features. PMID:23970900