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Sample records for affect boiler performance

  1. Optimising boiler performance.

    PubMed

    Mayoh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Soaring fuel costs continue to put the squeeze on already tight health service budgets. Yet it is estimated that combining established good practice with improved technologies could save between 10% and 30% of fuel costs for boilers. Paul Mayoh, UK technical manager at Spirax Sarco, examines some of the practical measures that healthcare organisations can take to gain their share of these potential savings.

  2. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  3. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  4. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  5. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Control Strategies for Optimizing Performance and Comfort in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.

    2013-05-01

    The combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater has become a common option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. While there are many condensing boilers available on the market with rated efficiencies in the low to mid 90% efficient range, it is imperative to understand that if the control systems are not properly configured, these heaters will perform no better than their non-condensing counterparts. Based on previous research efforts, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency (Arena 2010). It was found that there is a significant lack of information for contractors on how to configure the control systems to optimize overall efficiency. For example, there is little advice on selecting the best settings for the boiler reset curve or how to measure and set flow rates in the system to ensure that the return temperatures are low enough to promote condensing. It has also been observed that recovery from setback can be extremely slow and, at times, not achieved. Recovery can be affected by the outdoor reset control, the differential setting on the boiler and over-sizing of the boiler itself. This guide is intended for designers and installers of hydronic heating systems interested in maximizing the overall system efficiency of condensing boilers when coupled with baseboard convectors. It is applicable to new and retrofit applications.

  7. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  8. The simulation of influence of different coals on the circulating fluidized bed Boiler's combustion performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yumei; Lu, Qinggang

    2003-05-01

    The combustion performance of the boiler largely depends on the coal type. Lots of experimental research shows that different fuels have different combustion characteristics. It is obvious that fuel will change the whole operating performance of Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC). We know even in a pilot-scale running boiler, the measurement of some parameters is difficult and costly. Therefore, we developed the way of simulation to evaluate the combustion performance of Chinese coals in CFB. The simulation results show that, different coals will result in different coal particle diameter and comminution depending on their mineral component and the change will affect the distribution of ash in CFBC system. In a word, the computational results are in accordance with experimental results qualitatively but there are some differences quantitatively.

  9. Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two Kraft recovery boilers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K; Hillamo, Risto; Makkonen, Ulla; Raukola, Antti; Rintanen, Jaakko; Saviharju, Kari

    2006-01-15

    Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration atthe ESP inlet was 11-24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30-40 mg/ Nm3 at boiler A and 12-15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 microm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6-99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3-3 microm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

  10. Cyclone performance; The key to feed utilization in circulating fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, T.R.; Herb, B.E.; Lewnard, J.J.; Wang, S.I. )

    1992-01-01

    High utilization of coal and limestone feedstock in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors is critical to minimize operating costs and solid waste generation. Pilot-scale test results typically indicate 50% calcium utilization (Ca/S = 1:1) and greater than 99% carbon burnout. Recent performance data taken for Stockton CFB indicates that a large fraction of the unburned carbon and unreacted limestone escapes the boiler with the fly ash particles smaller than 100 {mu}m in size. This observation was explained by the short residence times of fine particles in the CFB boiler. An analysis of the CFB system suggests that this problem is caused by the inability of the cyclone to capture smaller particles and return them to the boiler to be more completely utilized. This paper reports that a sensitivity study revealed that feedstock utilization is sensitive to cyclone grade efficiency for small particle sizes. in addition, the results show how bed particle size, fly-bottom ash split, solids recirculation rate, and heat transfer in CFB's are affected by cyclone performance.

  11. Prediction of performance for a fire-tube boiler with and without turbulators

    SciTech Connect

    Didion, D.; Chern, L.

    1984-08-01

    A series of computer runs were made using DEPAB2 (the boiler simulation computer program). They include the runs for a fire-tube boiler as is (i.e., without turbulators), with wire-coil type turbulators, and with twisted-tape type turbulators, respectively. Output from these runs are used to evaluate the boiler seasonal performance values under the Washington, D.C. weather conditions. Results show that the turbulator increases the boiler seasonal efficiency from 2.87 to 6.08%.

  12. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  13. Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

  14. Cleaning of Croweburg Seam coal to improve boiler performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dospoy, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recently an Oklahoma law was enacted that mandates that Oklahoma coal-fired utilities must burn a minimum of ten percent Oklahoma-mined coal. Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO), burning raw Croweburg Seam coal from Oklahoma as part of a blend, was interested in determining if cleaning the Croweburg Seam coal could reduce boiler slagging and fouling problems experienced at its Northeastern Station's Units 3 and 4. Studies of the Croweburg Seam coal performed at CQ Inc. in Homer City, Pennsylvania were used to determine the potential of physical cleaning for upgrading this coal. The test program involved commercial-scale cleaning tests with heavy-medium cyclones, two-stage water only cyclones, and froth flotation cells, well as extensive laboratory and pilot-scale tests. The coal evaluated during the test program responded well to cleaning. Results indicate the ash slagging and fouling can be significantly improved by cleaning. Significant reductions in ash, specific ash constituents, and trace element concentrations were also demonstrated along with increased heating value. Finally, although the raw coal tested can be classified as compliance'' prior to cleaning, the cleaning tests show that further reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions potential were possible, along with high energy recoveries and increased heating values and can be beneficial for improved plant performance.

  15. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt

  16. Design and performance of a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing stone coal

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Zhongyang; Li Xuantian; Fang Mengxiang; Luo Chuanqui; Cen Kefa; Ni Mingjiang; Cheng Leming

    1995-12-31

    The design and performance of a demonstrating 35 T/H circulating fluidized bed boiler firing stone coal are reported. The boiler features low recycle rate, unique downward gas exit cyclones in the medium temperature region between the superheater and the economizer to reduce the size of the cyclone separators, and to allow a more compact reversed U general arrangement. Based on computer-aided testing, some different anti-erosion components are employed to maintain acceptable lifetime of the heating surfaces. The boiler demonstrates high combustion efficiency and low emissions with staged combustion.

  17. Assessment of new sources performance standards (NSPS) for anthracite-fired industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Environmental Research and Technology, Inc. and Berger Associates, under separate contracts with the US Department of Energy, were requested to estimate the impact of various levels of industrial boiler new sources performance standards (NSPS) on potential future markets for anthracite use in industrial boilers and to analyze the impact of changes in anthracite use on the air quality, environment, and economics of the NE Pennsylvania anthracite region. The combined contractors' analyses presented here review the properties of anthracite as a fuel, primarily in industrial markets, as well as present use and trends for future use. This report focuses on the anticipated effect of an exemption for anthracite from the industrial boiler sulfur dioxide NSPS, currently under development by the Environmental Protection Agency. At present, on a national basis industrial bolers are not a major market for anthracite. In 1973, only 1.26 percent of the coal burned in major industrial boilers was anthracite. However, the market for anthracite is a highly regional one; more than half of the anthracite consumed in industrial boilers between 1973 and 1978 was in Pennsylvania. The major constraints to future use of anthracite are its cost relative to substitute fuels and feedstocks and its technical limitations which can be overcome in part by purchasing larger, more expensive, boilers. An exemption for anthracite from sulfur removal requirements in the upcoming NSPS for industrial boilers would make the more expensive but cleaner anthracite competitive with bituminous coal. This analysis estimates the 1995 annual anthracite consumption by industrial boilers. The best case estimate is 2.7 million tons; the worst case is 11,000 tons. Socio-economic factors related to the use of anthracite in Northeastern Pennsylvania are considered.

  18. Static and transient performance prediction for CFB boilers using a Bayesian-Gaussian Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Haiwen; Ni, Weidou

    1997-06-01

    A Bayesian-Gaussian Neural Network (BGNN) is put forward in this paper to predict the static and transient performance of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers. The advantages of this network over Back-Propagation Neural Networks (BPNNs), easier determination of topology, simpler and time saving in training process as well as self-organizing ability, make this network more practical in on-line performance prediction for complicated processes. Simulation shows that this network is comparable to the BPNNs in predicting the performance of CFB boilers. Good and practical on-line performance predictions are essential for operation guide and model predictive control of CFB boilers, which are under research by the authors.

  19. Performance Improvement of 235 MWe and 260 MWe Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, W.; Walkowiak, R.; Oztmowskt, T.; Jablonskr, J.; Trybala S, T.

    This article presents the results of studies on the operational performance of the first 235 MWe with hot cyclones and 260 MWe second-generation Compact circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler installed as part of the repowering of the Turow power plant in Poland with close to 1,500 MWe of new capacity based on CFB technology. The main characteristic distinguishing the second generation type of boiler is the use of an integrated solids separator rather than an external cyclone. The analysis of flue gas emissions showed that the standards relating to permissible concentrations of pollutants such as SO2, NOx and CO, have been met. SO2 levels have ranged from 157 mg/mn3 to 400 mg/mmn3, levels of NOx' from 120 mg/mmn3 to 342 mg/mmn3, and levels of CO from 7 to 45 mg/mmn3. The second-generation CFB boilers at the Turow power plant represent a major advance in CFB technology at this size. Studies on actual emissions indicated that the present standard related to permissible concentration of gas emissions and dust in flue gases have been met. The paper addresses also some performance improvements of the CFB boilers. In the boilers with external cyclones, erosion problems emerged after a time of 50 thousand hours. The problems have been quite precisely diagnosed recently and will be resolved on the occasion of the nearest shutdowns for major repairs.

  20. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Operation Experience and Performance of the First 300MWe CFB Boiler Developed by DBC in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Zheng, X. S.; Zhou, Q.; Nie, L.; Liu, T. S.; Hu, X. K.; Lu, J. F.

    In this paper, general layout, design, operational experience and performance of the first 300MWe circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler that developed by Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd China, are introduced. The furnace was with large width-depth ratio. The problems occurred during in commissioning were analyzed and the corresponding modifications were presented. Cold-state experiment and operation experience showed that both fluidization quality and circulating flow rate meet the designated value in the frunace. The imbalance of circulating material flow caused by asymmetric layout of three cyclones was very limited. Heating surfaces were safe except wing wall superheater located in upper part of the furnace was overheated at low load. After commissioning, the boiler was correspondingly modified and its performance was excellent.

  2. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  3. Performance of two identical 110 MWe high pressure PYROFLOW CFB boilers firing two different categories of waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.; Chelian, P.K.; Reed, K.

    1997-12-31

    Two identical 110 MWe high pressure FOSTER WHEELER PYROFLOW{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers went into commercial operation in 1995. Both boilers generate 98.91 kg/s (785,000 lb/hr) of main steam t 174 bar (2,525 psig) and 540 C (1,005 F) with reheat steam at 540 C (1,005 F). Both were built to burn waste fuels. One unit, located in Colver, Pennsylvania, burns bituminous gob and the other unit located in Northampton, Pennsylvania, burns anthracite culm with a 20% mix of silt. A different type of ammonia injection system for reducing NOx emissions was installed in each boiler. An anhydrous ammonia injection system is used in the Colver plant and an aqueous ammonia direct-injection system is used in the Northampton plant. A performance optimization test was performed on both boilers prior to the commercial operation at the direction of and in accordance with the requirements of the Pennsylvania Regulatory Authority. In addition, boiler performance tests were run on both units to confirm operation in accordance with performance guarantees. The results of these tests are provided in detail in this paper. The resultant data provides a comparison in boiler operation between the two different categories of waste fuels fired in identical CFB boilers. The data also provides insight into the low emissions levels and limestone utilization capabilities of the CFB boiler.

  4. Determining heat loss into the environment based on comprehensive investigation of boiler performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Malygin, P. V.; Popov, A. N.; Popova, E. I.

    2015-08-01

    A refined procedure for determining heat loss into the environment from heat-generating installations is presented that takes into account the state of their lining and heat insulation quality. The fraction of radiative component in the total amount of heat loss through the outer surfaces is determined. The results from experimental investigations of the thermal engineering and environmental performance characteristics of a foreign hot-water boiler in firing wood pellets are presented. A conclusion is drawn about the possibility of using such hot-water boilers for supplying heat to low-rise buildings, especially for the conditions of the North-Arctic region. The results from a thermal engineering investigation of wood pellets and furnace residue carried out on installations of a thermal analysis laboratory are presented together with the grain-size composition of fuel and indicators characterizing the mechanical strength of wood pellets. The velocity fields, flue gas flow rates, and soot particle concentrations are determined using the external filtration methods, and the composition of combustion products is investigated using a gas analyzer. The graphs of variation with time of boiler external surface temperature from the moment of achieving the nominal mode of operation and heat loss into the environment for stationary boilers are presented.

  5. Developing a coal quality expert: The prediction of ash deposit effects on boiler performance

    SciTech Connect

    Thornock, D.E.; Borio, R.W. ); Mehta, A.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the Coal Quality Expert (CQE) Clean Coal I Program is the development of a Coal Quality Expert -- a comprehensive PC based expert system for evaluating the potential for coal cleaning, blending and switching options to reduce emissions while producing the lowest cost electricity. A key part of the CQE model will be the development of a sub-model to predict the effects of ash deposition on boiler performance under various operating conditions. To facilitate sub-model development, a combination of full, pilot, and bench scale testing has been carried out on a series of coals and coal blends which were of interest to the Public Service of Oklahoma (PSO) at their Northeastern Station. A series of full-scale tests were also performed on PSO's Northeastern Unit {number sign}4 to characterize boiler performance when firing a baseline coal'' (their normal or desired fuel feed stock) and two blends comprised of the baseline coal blended with various amounts of an alternate coal. Actual furnace conditions were then closely matched during a series of tests performed in Combustion Engineering's pilot scale combustor, the Fireside Performance Test Facility (FPTF). Pilot scale testing allowed in-depth analyses of furnace deposits during and after formation under well-controlled conditions. Ash deposit properties were characterized during pilot scale furnace operation and in subsequent bench scale analyses. Determination of deposit behavior as a function of important operating parameters during the FPTF testing has permitted the prediction of expected performance for various coal/coal blends in PSO's Northeastern Units and allows a prediction of boiler performance for other units firing these fuels.

  6. Performance Analysis of Cofiring Densified Refuse Derived Fuel in a Military Boiler.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Occupational Health and Safety Implications of Firing dRDF on a Long Term Basis 44 High Load Rate Boiler Performance Tests on dRDF Blends and dRDF Alone...Literature 52 High Pressure Compaction and Baling of Solid Waste 54 Systems Analysis for the Development of Small Resource Recovery Systems 56 Evaluation of...is of conventional design with a high ceiling, suspended t-ar sihaker, roilup doors on either end and ,:ufficient length to accon-Irouate -- o

  7. Improving performance of CFB boiler by adopting end effect of bed exit of CFB combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q.Y.; Jin, Y.

    1997-12-31

    Experiments indicate that the end effect of the bed exit of a CFB strongly influences the bulk density profile and internal circulation of bed materials in a CFB combustor. A well designed geometry of the bed exit of CFBC can create abundant internal circulation of bed materials in furnace and reduce external circulation in circulating loop of CFBC, then consequently improves the comprehensive performance of CFB boiler. This paper is devoted to analyzing the mechanism of the end effect of the bed exit on the hydrodynamics in a CFB by presenting test results. Design criteria and a suggestion for getting the end effect will also be presented.

  8. Preliminary estimates of performance and cost of mercury emission control technology applications on electric utility boilers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed a reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. There are two broad approaches under development to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers. (1) powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection; and (2) multipollutant control, in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and new sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) control devices. To help inform the recent EPA rulemaking proposal, estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with the above mercury control approaches were developed. This work presents these estimates. Estimates of cost for PAC injection range from 0.003 to 3.096 mills/kWb. In general, the higher costs are associated with the plants using spray dryers and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) or plants using hot-side ESPs, which represent a minority of power plants. Excluding these plants, cost estimates range between 0.003 and 1.903 mills/kWh. At the low end of the cost ranges, 0.003 mills/kWb, it is assumed that no additional control technologies are needed, but mercury monitoring will be necessary. In these cases, high mercury removal may be the result of the type of NOx and SO{sub 2} control measures currently used, such as combinations of selective catalytic reduction and wet flue gas desulfurization or spray drier absorbers with fabric filters on bituminous coal-fired boilers. Because mercury control approaches are under development at present, cost and performance estimates are preliminary and are expected to be refined as mercury control technologies are matured to commercial status. Factors that may affect the performance of these technologies include speciation of mercury in flue gas, the characteristics of the sorbent, and the type(s) of PM, NOx, and SO, controls used.

  9. Performance improvement of a converted fluid bed boiler (from traveling grate type) for agro waste combustion -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Sethumadhavan, R.; Karthikeyan, G.; Raviprakash, A.V.; Vasudevan, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper investigates the operational difficulty encountered while operating a fluid bed boiler--which was earlier serving with a traveling grate for agrowaste combustion. This boiler, although operating on fluid bed technology principle, could not produce required combustion efficiency while burning any of the agrowastes such as rice husk, de-oiled bran, ground nut shell, etc. While carrying out the performance assessment study, it was found that, this inefficient combustion was mainly due to the improper operating parameters and partly due to incorrect furnace configuration. The drawbacks of the system have been attended to and set right incurring a very minor expenditure. This has led to an annual fuel saving of approximately US $40,000. The major results achieved are: (1) boiler thermal efficiency increased from 66--73%; (2) boiler was loaded uniformly and on-time operation has increased to 100% from earlier 60%; (3) boiler shut down time due to operational problems has come down from 35 hours per month to 15 hours per month; (4) very effective dust collection system was achieved resulting in reduced ID fan erosion; and (5) an annual saving of US $100,000 (both direct and indirect) was achieved.

  10. BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

    1992-06-01

    This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

  11. Quantum Tunneling Affects Engine Performance.

    PubMed

    Som, Sibendu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Dingyu D Y; Magnotti, Gina M; Sivaramakrishnan, Raghu; Longman, Douglas E; Skodje, Rex T; Davis, Michael J

    2013-06-20

    We study the role of individual reaction rates on engine performance, with an emphasis on the contribution of quantum tunneling. It is demonstrated that the effect of quantum tunneling corrections for the reaction HO2 + HO2 = H2O2 + O2 can have a noticeable impact on the performance of a high-fidelity model of a compression-ignition (e.g., diesel) engine, and that an accurate prediction of ignition delay time for the engine model requires an accurate estimation of the tunneling correction for this reaction. The three-dimensional model includes detailed descriptions of the chemistry of a surrogate for a biodiesel fuel, as well as all the features of the engine, such as the liquid fuel spray and turbulence. This study is part of a larger investigation of how the features of the dynamics and potential energy surfaces of key reactions, as well as their reaction rate uncertainties, affect engine performance, and results in these directions are also presented here.

  12. Measure Guideline. Condensing Boilers - Control Strategies for Optimizing Performance and Comfort in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.

    2013-05-01

    This guide is intended for designers and installers of hydronic heating systems interested in maximizing the overall system efficiency of condensing boilers when coupled with baseboard convectors. It is applicable to new and retrofit projects.

  13. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 1. Analysis of fuel use implications

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Heller, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the Industrial Fuel Choice Analysis Model (IFCAM) led to several concerns: first, the retirement rate used in the model seems to overestimate retirement levels, thus overstating the potential for coal penetration in the industrial sector. Also, the coal transportation rate is assumed to increase by 15% between 1978 and 1985 and remain constant thereafter. In light of recent rate increase approvals the expected price escalation of labor and materials used in railroad expansion, the currently assumed rail rate escalators seem too low. Additionally, the model does not deal with the issue of substitution of small boiler combinations for large boilers. Both promulgation and enforcement may provide incentives for installation of small boiler combinations. For IFCAM to reflect this phenomenon, alternative assumptions and model modifications are suggested. Fuel price projections, the capacity utilization distribution, boiler size distribution, and translation of costs into model algorithms are considered.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and then locked or tagged,...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and then locked or tagged,...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and then locked or tagged,...

  19. Foster Wheeler compact CFB boiler with INTREX

    SciTech Connect

    Hyppaenen, T.; Rainio, A.; Kauppinen, K.V.O.; Stone, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Foster Wheeler has introduced a new COMPACT Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler design based on the rectangular hot solids separator. The Compact design also enables easy implementation of new designs for INTREX fluid bed heat exchangers. These new products result in many benefits which affect the boiler economy and operation. After initial development of the Compact CFB design it has been applied in demonstration and industrial scale units. The performance of Compact CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB boilers with high availability. Several new Foster Wheeler Compact boilers are being built or already in operation. Operational experiences from different units will be discussed in this paper. There are currently Compact units with 100--150 MW{sub e} capacity under construction. With the scale-up experience with conventional CFB boilers and proven design approach and scale-up steps, Foster Wheeler will have the ability to provide large Compact CFB boilers up to 400--600 MW{sub e} capacity.

  20. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on completion of Phase I and Phase II activities. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. During this reporting period, optimization tests were performed to evaluate system performance and identify optimum operating conditions for the installed equipment. The overfire air system process design activities and preliminary engineering design were completed.

  1. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  2. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  7. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

    1980-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

  8. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  9. The potential of pulse-jet baghouses for utility boilers. Part 2: Performance of pulse-jet fabric filter pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C. ); Cushing, K.M. ); Chang, R.L. )

    1992-09-01

    Pulse-jet fabric filters (PJFFs) are widely used in U.S. industrial boiler applications and in utility and industrial boilers abroad. Their small size and reduced cost relative to more conventional reverse-gas baghouses makes the use of PJFFs appear to be an attractive particulate control option for utility boilers. This paper (Part 2 of a three-part series) summarizes the results of pilot PJFF studies sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute at different utility sites in the United States. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate PJFF performance for U.S. fossil-fuel fired applications. These data are also used to corroborate the results of a recent worldwide survey of PJFF user experience, as described in Part 1 of this series. Part 3 will provide a cost comparison of PJFFs to other particulate control options such as electrostatic precipitators and reverse-gas baghouses. 30 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. SNAP-8 refractory boiler development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Performance and endurance tests of the SNAP-8, SN-1 refractory metal boiler are described. The tests were successful and indicated that the boiler heat transfer area could be reduced significantly primarily because of the wetting characteristics of mercury on tantalum in a contaminant-free environment. A continuous endurance test of more than 10,000 hours was conducted without noticeable change in the thermal performance of the boiler. A conclusion of the metallographic examination of the boiler following the endurance test was that expected boiler life would be of the order of 40,000 hours at observed corrosion rates.

  11. Development of a reburning boiler process model

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.T.

    1992-01-30

    The overall objective of this program is to integrate EER's expertise in boiler reburning performance evaluation into a package of analytical computer tools. Specific objectives of the program are to develop a computational capability with the following features: (1) can be used to predict the impact of gas reburning application on thermal conditions in the boiler radiant furnace, and on overall boiler performance; (2) can estimate gas reburning NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness based on specific reburning configurations and furnace/boiler configurations; (3) can be used as an analytical tool to evaluate the impact of boiler process parameters (e.g., fuel switching and changes in boiler operating conditions) on boiler thermal performance; (4) is adaptable to most boiler designs (tangential and wall fire boilers) and a variety of fuels (solid, liquid, gaseous and slurried fuels); (5) is sufficiently user friendly to be exercisable by engineers with a reasonable knowledge of boilers, and with reasonable computer skills. Here, user friendly'' means that the user will be guided by computer codes during the course of setting up individual input files for the boiler performance model.

  12. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Kish, Joseph; Singbeil, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  13. Co-firing coal and straw in PF boilers -- Performance impact of straw with emphasis on SCR catalyst for deNOx catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wieck-Hansen, K.

    1999-07-01

    A two year co-firing coal/straw program was carried out on a 150 MWel pulverized fired boiler at Studstrupvaerket in Denmark from January 1996 to January 1998. The reason for burning straw is based on a political decision where the Power utilities have accepted to burn 1 mill ton straw/year and 0.4-mill tons wood. This amount is about 5 % of the total fuel consumption for energy production in Denmark. Straw is found to be CO{sub 2} neutral and therefore an important factor in CO{sub 2} reduction. This full-scale long-term test was based on many years' experience with straw firing. Late 1980 tests with coal and straw co-combustion on a test CFB plant were carried out with such successful results, that a full scale plant of 80 MWth was built and commissioned in January 1992. In 1992 the first tests were performed on a grate fired boiler, where up to 30 % straw on energy basis, were co-fired with coal. The growing optimism lead to a short-term test with coal and straw on a pulverized fuel-fired 330th MW boiler in 1993. Limited corrosion was found and a long-term test was accepted on another full-scale boiler. To minimize the overall risk, the authors chose an old boiler, but with the intention of using the technique on new and modern plants equipped with desulfurization and DeNOx catalyst. A comprehensive test program was carried out in order to evaluate and quantify the impact of straw on corrosion, slagging and fouling, emissions and on SCR catalysts deactivation.

  14. Research and Development of Large Capacity CFB Boilers in TPRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianbin, Sun; Minhua, Jiang

    This paper presents an overview of advancements of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology in Thermal Power Research Institute (TPRI),including technologies and configuration and progress of scaling up. For devoloping large CFB boiler, the CFB combustion test facilities have been established, the key technologies of large capacity CFB boiler have been research systematically, the 100MW ˜330MW CFB boiler have been developed and manufactured. The first domestically designed 100MW and 210MW CFB boiler have been put into commericial operation and have good operating performance. Domestic 330MW CFB boiler demonstration project also has been put into commericial operation,which is H type CFB boiler with Compact heat exchanger. This boiler is China's largest CFB boiler. The technical plan of domestic 600MW supercritical CFB boiler are also briefly introduced.

  15. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY AND MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and multipollutant control technologies that may be useful in controlling mercury emissions. Based on currently available data, cost estimates for PAC injection range are 0.03-3.096 ...

  16. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection-based mercury control technologies and projections of costs for future applications. (NOTE: Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the U.S. EPA has to determine whether mer...

  17. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that regulation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants is appropriate and necessary. To aid in this determination, preliminary estimates of the performance and cost of powder...

  18. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  19. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  20. Preliminary Estimates of Performance and Cost of Mercury Control Technology Applications on Electric Utility Boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Sedman, Charles B; Kilgroe, James D; Smith, Dennis; Renninger, Scott

    2001-10-01

    Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that regulation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants is appropriate and necessary. To aid in this determination, preliminary estimates of the performance and cost of powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection-based mercury control technologies were developed. This paper presents these estimates and develops projections of costs for future applications. Cost estimates were developed using PAC to achieve a minimum of 80% mercury removal at plants using electrostatic precipitators and a minimum of 90% removal at plants using fabric filters. These estimates ranged from 0.305 to 3.783 mills/kWh. However, the higher costs were associated with a minority of plants using hot-side electrostatic precipitators (HESPs). If these costs are excluded, the estimates range from 0.305 to 1.915 mills/kWh. Cost projections developed using a composite lime-PAC sorbent for mercury removal ranged from 0.183 to 2.270 mills/kWh, with the higher costs being associated with a minority of plants that used HESPs.

  1. Preliminary estimates of performance and cost of mercury control technology applications on electric utility boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Sedman, C B; Kilgroe, J D; Smith, D; Renninger, S

    2001-10-01

    Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that regulation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants is appropriate and necessary. To aid in this determination, preliminary estimates of the performance and cost of powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection-based mercury control technologies were developed. This paper presents these estimates and develops projections of costs for future applications. Cost estimates were developed using PAC to achieve a minimum of 80% mercury removal at plants using electrostatic precipitators and a minimum of 90% removal at plants using fabric filters. These estimates ranged from 0.305 to 3.783 mills/kWh. However, the higher costs were associated with a minority of plants using hot-side electrostatic precipitators (HESPs). If these costs are excluded, the estimates range from 0.305 to 1.915 mills/kWh. Cost projections developed using a composite lime-PAC sorbent for mercury removal ranged from 0.183 to 2.270 mills/kWh, with the higher costs being associated with a minority of plants that used HESPs.

  2. Preliminary Estimates of Performance and Cost of Mercury Control Technology Applications on Electric Utility Boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Sedman, Charles B; Kilgroe, James D; Smith, Dennis; Renninger, Scott

    2001-10-01

    Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that regulation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants is appropriate and necessary. To aid in this determination, preliminary estimates of the performance and cost of powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection-based mercury control technologies were developed. This paper presents these estimates and develops projections of costs for future applications. Cost estimates were developed using PAC to achieve a minimum of 80% mercury removal at plants using electrostatic precipitators and a minimum of 90% removal at plants using fabric filters. These estimates ranged from 0.305 to 3.783 mills/kWh. However, the higher costs were associated with a minority of plants using hot-side electrostatic precipitators (HESPs). If these costs are excluded, the estimates range from 0.305 to 1.915 mills/kWh. Cost projections developed using a composite lime-PAC sor-bent for mercury removal ranged from 0.183 to 2.270 mills/kWh, with the higher costs being associated with a minority of plants that used HESPs.

  3. Boiler modeling optimizes sootblowing

    SciTech Connect

    Piboontum, S.J.; Swift, S.M.; Conrad, R.S.

    2005-10-01

    Controlling the cleanliness and limiting the fouling and slagging of heat transfer surfaces are absolutely necessary to optimize boiler performance. The traditional way to clean heat-transfer surfaces is by sootblowing using air, steam, or water at regular intervals. But with the advent of fuel-switching strategies, such as switching to PRB coal to reduce a plant's emissions, the control of heating surface cleanliness has become more problematic for many owners of steam generators. Boiler modeling can help solve that problem. The article describes Babcock & Wilcox's Powerclean modeling system which consists of heating surface models that produce real-time cleanliness indexes. The Heat Transfer Manager (HTM) program is the core of the system, which can be used on any make or model of boiler. A case study is described to show how the system was successfully used at the 1,350 MW Unit 2 of the American Electric Power's Rockport Power Plant in Indiana. The unit fires a blend of eastern bituminous and Powder River Basin coal. 5 figs.

  4. Attribution, Affect, and College Exam Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Robert M.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.

    1979-01-01

    College students attributed their own performance and the performance of the average student to ability, test difficulty, preparation, and luck. Successful students perceived internal factors and unsuccessful students perceived external factors as more important causes of their own performance. Students' anxiety and their ratings of the course and…

  5. Foster Wheeler's Solutions for Large Scale CFB Boiler Technology: Features and Operational Performance of Łagisza 460 MWe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Arto

    During recent years, once-through supercritical (OTSC) CFB technology has been developed, enabling the CFB technology to proceed to medium-scale (500 MWe) utility projects such as Łagisza Power Plant in Poland owned by Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA. (PKE), with net efficiency nearly 44%. Łagisza power plant is currently under commissioning and has reached full load operation in March 2009. The initial operation shows very good performance and confirms, that the CFB process has no problems with the scaling up to this size. Also the once-through steam cycle utilizing Siemens' vertical tube Benson technology has performed as predicted in the CFB process. Foster Wheeler has developed the CFB design further up to 800 MWe with net efficiency of ≥45%.

  6. Critical process parameters affecting zincrometal performance

    SciTech Connect

    Iezzi, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory study aimed at improving the corrosion resistance of Zincrometal has shown that excellent Zincrometal performance in laboratory corrosion tests can be obtained by achieving a trivalent (Cr+3) to hexavalent (Cr+6) Dacromet chromium ratio of at least 15. Increasing thermal energy input during curing increases the Cr+3/Cr+6 ratio and improves corrosion resistance in laboratory tests. Increasing curing energy input in production may be a viable approach to improve Zincrometal performance, provided that steels not susceptible to strain aging are used.

  7. Factors Affecting Information Literacy Perception and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehner, Drusilla Charlene Beecher

    2009-01-01

    Information literacy, defined as, "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information" (American Library Association, 2003, paragraph 1), is necessary for success in life. The present study will examine whether the factors of gender, race, and/or socioeconomic status impact information literacy performance and…

  8. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  9. Does posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect performance?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Vicki R; Regehr, Cheryl; Jelley, R Blake; Barath, Irene

    2007-08-01

    Research has increasingly identified alarming levels of traumatic stress symptoms in individuals working in emergency services and other high stress jobs. This study examined the effects of prior critical incident exposure and current posttraumatic symptoms on the performance of a nonpatient population, police recruits, during an acutely stressful event. A stressful policing situation was created through the use of a video simulator room that was responsive to actions of participants. The performance of participants to the simulated emergency was evaluated by 3 independent blinded raters. Prior exposure to critical incidents was measured using the Critical Incident History Questionnaire and current level of traumatic stress symptoms was measured using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised. Neither previous exposure to critical incidents nor trauma symptoms correlated with performance level. Recruits with high or severe levels of trauma symptoms did not demonstrate impairments in judgment, communication, or situation control compared with their colleagues with lesser or no trauma symptoms. On the basis of these findings, there is no reason to believe that police recruits with PTSD are prone to making errors of communication or judgment that would place them or others at increased risk.

  10. Numerical Simulation in a Supercirtical CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Gaol, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang; Jiang, Xiaoguo

    The dimension of the hot circulation loop of the supercritical CFB boiler is large, and there are many unknowns and challenges that should be identified and resolved during the development. In order to realize a reasonable and reliable design of the hot circulation loop, numerical simulation of gas-solid flow in a supercritical CFB boiler was conducted by using FLUENT software. The working condition of hot circulation loop flow field, gas-solid flow affected by three unsymmetrical cyclones, air distribution and pressure drop in furnace were analyzed. The simulation results showed that the general arrangement of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is reasonable.

  11. Body position affects performance in untrained cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, M; Scroop, G; Frisken, P; Amery, C; Wilkins, M; Khan, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare cardiovascular and ventilatory variables in upright versus aero cycle ergometry at submaximal and maximal exercise intensities in untrained cyclists. Method: Ten physically active men (mean (SD) age 19.1 (1.10) years) who were unfamiliar with aerobars underwent maximal exercise testing and steady state cycling at 50, 100, and 150 W. Results: Participants had significantly greater maxima for oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation, heart rate, and workload maximum in the upright position. During steady state cycling at the three workloads, VO2 (ml/kg/min) and gross mechanical efficiency were significantly greater in the upright position. Conclusions: In untrained subjects performing with maximal effort, the upright position permits greater VO2, ventilation, heart rate, and workload maxima. Further, in the steady state, exercise cycling may be less costly in the upright position. For this reason, untrained cyclists need to weigh body position effects against the well known aerodynamic advantages of the aero position. PMID:14514538

  12. 33. BOILER HOUSE FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BOILER HOUSE - FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of the Dorward Engineering Company furnace and boiler which provided steam to the cooking retorts in the adjacent room. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  13. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  14. Boiler control systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.

    2005-07-01

    The book provides in-depth coverage on how to safely and reliably control the firing of a boiler. Regardless of the capacity or fuel, certain fundamental control systems are required for boiler control. Large utility systems are more complex due to the number of burners and the overall capacity and equipment. This book covers engineering details on control systems and provides specific examples of boiler control including configuration and tuning. References to requirements are based on the 2004 NFPA 85 along with other ISA standards. Detailed chapters cover: Boiler fundamentals including piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and a design basis checklist; Control of boilers, from strategies and bumpless transfer to interlock circuitry and final control elements; Furnace draft; Feedwater; Coal-fired boilers; Fuel and air control; Steam temperature; Burner management systems; Environment; and Control valve sizing. 2 apps.

  15. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    PubMed

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided.

  16. Compartment B3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment B-3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 aft to forward from passing room B-25. (030A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Mathematics Anxiety and the Affective Drop in Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Moore, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a brief review of the history and assessment of math anxiety, its relationship to personal and educational consequences, and its important impact on measures of performance. Overall, math anxiety causes an "affective drop," a decline in performance when math is performed under timed, high-stakes conditions, both in laboratory…

  18. Thermal Effects by Firing Oil Shale Fuel in CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshumayev, D.; Ots, A.; Parve, T.; Pihu, T.; Plamus, K.; Prikk, A.

    It is well known that during firing of oil shale fuel the amount of heat released during its combustion per kg of fuel is significantly affected by the endothermic and exothermic processes taking place in mineral matter. These thermal effects are calcite and dolomite decomposing, marcasite FeS2 oxidising, CaO sulphation and formation of the new minerals. The given paper deals with the experimental study of the influence of these thermal effects of oil shale fuel having different heating value on total amount of heat released during combustion in calorimetric bomb, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and pulverized-firing boiler (PFB). The large-scale (250 MWth) experiments were performed in the K11-1 CFB boiler of the Balti Power Plant. During experiments low heating value of a fuel varied within the range 8.5-11 MJ/kg. At the end some conclusions were drawn.

  19. Design for a 350 MWe class CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes Foster Wheeler's design for a 350 MWe Class boiler. Foster Wheeler's experience with large CFB boilers and with large suspension fired boilers is summarized. A reference 350 MWe CFB boiler design is presented and major design features are described along with expected performance. Areas in the CFB boiler design which benefit from suspension from boiler experience are highlighted. CFB boilers are now proven in the 150--250 MWe size range, with several in operation and many others scheduled to begin operation this year. The next step for CFB boiler technology is the 300 - 400 MWe size range. This paper will describe Foster Wheeler's design for a 350 MWe class CFB boiler, including the major design features and anticipated performance. The authors will demonstrate how Foster Wheeler's experience in designing large suspension-fired boilers in sizes over 900 MWe has been applied to the 350 MWe class CFB, in order to minimize scale-up risk and ensure high reliability. This design will bring the benefits of CFB technology, which include flexibility and low emissions, to the 350 MWe size range.

  20. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  1. 68. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS ARE CA. 1945. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS ARE CA. 1945. SPACE HEATING BOILER S REPLACED ORIGINAL 8 VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE STEAM POWER BOILERS. THE ORIGINAL SHEET METAL FLUE IS IN THE UPPER CENTER. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  2. 39. (Credit JTL) Interior of boiler room looking east; boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. (Credit JTL) Interior of boiler room looking east; boiler casing in background, boiler feedwater pumps and feedwater heater in middle ground; hot well on columns in left foreground. Steam lines from boilers to high service engines pass overhead. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  3. Startup, Commissioning and Operation of Fenyi 100MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yu, Wugao; Bo, Shi

    The first 100MW CFB boiler, designed by the Thermal Power Research Institute and manufactured by Harbin Boiler Company Limited, has been successfully running in Jiangxi Fenyi Power Plant since 2003. Local high ash content anthracite and lean coal that are very difficult to burn out are used in the 100 MW CFB boiler. The results of the 100MW CFB boiler shows that the CFB boiler can run in 30% MCR and startup with two under bed burners, and the boiler efficiency higher than 88% can be got after the combustion modification test. The CFB boiler can be operated with full load and reaches design parameters. The emissions of NO, N2O and CO are less than 7Omg/m3, 30mg/m3, and 125mg/m3, respectively, and SO2 less than 400mg/m3 after limestone injection. The bottom ash temperature from bed ash coolers is less than 120°C after its modification. Coal blockage at the coal storage silo is the main problem influencing the CFB boiler continuous operation. The running experiences for 5 years proved that the CFB boiler performance is successful, and the results were applied in 210 MW and 330 MW CFB Boiler design of Fenyi Power Plant.

  4. Energy storage-boiler tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  5. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  6. Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

  7. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  8. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  9. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Quarterly technical progress report, November 15, 1989--February 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Elston, J.T.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1990-04-06

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in oil-designed industrial boilers without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, and (3) operations and disposition. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, slagging and fouling factors, erosion and corrosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits. Progress for this quarter is summarized.

  10. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  11. Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.

    PubMed

    Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

    2015-03-01

    Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly.

  12. Operational Status of 135MWe CFB Boilers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lit, J. F.; Yang, S.; Haot, J. H.; Mit, J. H.; Lu, J. F.; Jit, H. M.; Huang, H. T.; Yan, H. R.; Yu, G. X.

    CFB boiler technology has been rapidly developed in China and China has the largest installed number and capacity of CFB boiler in the world. The number of 135MWe CFB boilers is over 150. The operational performance of 135MWe CFB boilers was summarized in the article. And the reliability, economy, environmental protection index are also discussed in the article. It not only provides information of the development status of CFB industry, but also provides some experience and guidance to improve the operation and to further develop CFB combustion technology.

  13. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  14. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Boere, Julia J; Fellinger, Lizz; Huizinga, Duncan J H; Wong, Sebastiaan F; Bijleveld, Erik

    2016-02-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a modular arithmetic task. Performance pressure and caffeine intake were orthogonally manipulated. Findings indicated that pressure and caffeine both negatively impacted performance. However, (a) pressure vs. caffeine affected performance on different trial types, and (b) there was no hint of an interactive effect. So, though the evidence is indirect, findings suggest that pressure and caffeine shape performance via distinct mechanisms, rather than a shared one.

  15. A relevant study on characteristic parameters of coal combustion and boiler structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Wun, Y.; Lu, F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes over 40 power plant coal-fired utility boilers with capacities of more than 200MW and 300MW for its coal particle combustion characteristics, boiler structural parameters and actual condition of boiler performance. Two kinds of parameters of coal particle combustion characteristic and boiler structure are given. They are pulverized coal air jets ignition stability index (Mw), coal-ash slagging index (Mz), coal burn-out index (Mj) as well as boiler structural stability index (Lw), boiler structural slagging index (Lz), boiler structural burn-out index (Lj). The relevant relations between them of Mw-Lw, Mz-Lz and Mj-Lj are set up by interpolation function. This paper also describes a boiler design predicting expert system, with which the design parameters of power plant coal-fired utility boilers with large capacity may be calculated based on coal characteristics parameters and the boiler`s performance be predicted to guarantee power plant coal-fired utility boilers` stable combustion, less slagging and higher combustion efficiency. According to its application to an actual power plant coal-fired utility boiler, the result of prediction is accurate and reliable.

  16. The partitioning of calcium and sulfur between bottom ash and flyash in a commercial CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a program to examine the effect of sorbent properties on sulfation performance in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion process, a series of sorbents varying in chemical composition was tested under similar operating conditions in a 30 MW(e) CFB boiler. These sorbents ranged from 27.8 to 55.2 wt% CaO, and from 0.54 to 18.8 wt% MgO. The fuel used was a high ash content (68 wt%) coal refuse. Parameters of boiler operation were established from distributed control system data, used to screen test results, and data were eliminated from consideration where changes in boiler load or bed inventory levels were seen prior to sampling of bottom ash and flyash streams. This, and the development of a set of simultaneous equations for measuring individual ash stream flow rates, allowed the computation of calcium and sulfur material balances around the boiler for each sorbent test. The partitioning of calcium and sulfur to the bottom ash and flyash streams was examined. It was found that the majority of both calcium and sulfur fed to the boiler was removed with the flyash, regardless of the sorbent. It was further found that across the range of sorbent properties, the flow of sulfur as a solid with the flyash was relatively uniform (71 to 86 wt% of that fed to the boiler). Calcium to sulfur ratios in the bottom ash were uniformly higher than those found for the corresponding flyash streams, indicating that attrition may play a key role in overall sorbent performance. The calcium balance data also indicated that thermally induced fractures (TIFs) may affect attrition.

  17. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  18. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  19. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, B.

    1982-08-01

    Discusses atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boilers with regard to designs available, manufacturers involved, and operating experience. Proven fuel flexibility and satisfactory SO/sub 2/ control without scrubbers make AFB boilers a viable option for industrial steam generation worldwide. Technical concepts on which AFB application is based are a departure from the more familiar methods of burning solid fuels. Behind US thrust for AFB development is the need to burn coal within pollution regulations.

  20. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  1. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  2. Proven clean coal technology at work: The Provence 250 MW CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Lucat, P.; Jacquet, L.; Roulet, V.

    1997-12-31

    The successful start-up, in the last months of 1995, of the 250 MW Provence/Gardanne unit represents a significant milestone in the development of atmospheric Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers for power stations. This high performance unit (over 700 tonnes/hour of steam at 169 bar, 567 C, with reheat at 566 C) has been in operation since April 1996. It is the first CFB boiler in the world to reach such a capacity. CFB boilers, with their excellent SO{sub 2} and NOx emission control capability, are today recognized as a very attractive Clean Coal Technology, particularly because of their simplicity. The Provence/Gardanne project is part of a French development program for large CFB boilers which has been elaborated in the perspective of domestic applications (mainly future semi-base load units) and of the overseas market. It responds to the converging interests of Electricite de France (EDF), Charbonnages de France (CdF)and GEC ALSTHOM Stein Industrie. Besides comprehensive R and D-type investigations aiming at an in-depth understanding of the CFB process and preparing for future scale-up and development, this program has already been marked by two outstanding commercial repowering projects: a 125 MW unit, in operation since 1990 at the Emile Huchet Power Station, and the 250 MW Provence unit. These boilers have been designed and supplied by GEC ALSTHOM Stein Industrie in the framework of their long standing cooperation with Lurgi, a pioneer of the CFB process. The main components are: (1) Furnace; (2) Cyclone; (3) Back-pass; (4) Ash cooler; (5) External Heat Exchanger. However, a brief discussion of some key design options affecting bed performance is necessary to better understand this technology. The paper describes the design of the system, the retrofitting project at Emile Huchet/Carling, and then gives background information on the Provence/Gardanne retrofit, describing SO{sub 2} emissions, the 250 MW boiler, and results from the performance tests. The

  3. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes.

  4. How motivation affects academic performance: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; Vos, C M P; Westers, P; Croiset, G

    2013-03-01

    Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection. Data on motivation, study strategy and effort was collected from 383 medical students of VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and their academic performance results were obtained from the student administration. Structural Equation Modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high RAM would positively affect Good Study Strategy (GSS) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. This model fit well with the data, Chi square = 1.095, df = 3, p = 0.778, RMSEA model fit = 0.000. This model also fitted well for all tested subgroups of students. Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected. In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.

  5. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  6. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO sub x control demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Project to fully establish that the cola reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NO{sub x} emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  7. 4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  9. INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL, SHOWING BOILERS. BOILER AT LEFT HAS REPLACED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL, SHOWING BOILERS. BOILER AT LEFT HAS REPLACED BURNERS. CAMERA FACING NORTH. - New Haven Rail Yard, Central Steam Plant and Oil Storage, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Moller-Holst S.

    1998-11-01

    Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

  11. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER HOUSE WAS USED FOR HEATING THE MILL; HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER FOR PRODUCTION WAS PURCHASED FROM THE COLUMBUS LIGHT & POWER COMPANY. NORTH END OF 1924 MILL TO RIGHT, c. 1970 WINDOWLESS WEAVE ROOM ADDITION TO LEFT. - Stark Mill, Boiler House, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  12. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  13. Utilization of silt as CFB boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herb, B.; Tsao, T.R.; Bickley, D.

    1994-12-31

    Bituminous silt represents an enormous source of discarded energy that is polluting the environment. Although bituminous silt is a potential opportunity fuel for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, handling problems and uncertainties about the impact of this fuel on CFB boiler performance and operating economics have prevented its use. Under sponsorship of the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority, five different technologies having the potential to process silt into CFB boiler fuel were evaluated. The technologies evaluated include: washing, pelletizing, thermal drying, mulling and flaking. The desired goal was to process the silt into a form that can be fed to CFB boilers using conventional coal handling equipment and combusted in an environmentally acceptable manner. Criteria were developed for the product characteristics that are desired and tests were run to evaluate the technical feasibility of each silt processing technology. Based on these test results, the design and cost bases for a commercial silt processing facility were developed for each technology capable of achieving the desired product characteristics. As a result of considering both engineering and economic factors, the technology that best meets the objectives for use of processed silt as CFB boiler fuel was selected for further demonstration testing. This paper will present the results of this project up through the selection of the best silt processing technology.

  14. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: AN UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with controlling mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants using either powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection or multipollutant control in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and ne...

  15. Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Lane, J D; Kasian, S J; Owens, J E; Marsh, G R

    1998-01-01

    When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.

  16. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  17. Compact CFB: The next generation CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Utt, J.

    1996-12-31

    The next generation of compact circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is described in outline form. The following topics are discussed: compact CFB = pyroflow + compact separator; compact CFB; compact separator is a breakthrough design; advantages of CFB; new design with substantial development history; KUHMO: successful demo unit; KUHMO: good performance over load range with low emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; compact CFB installations; next generation CFB boiler; grid nozzle upgrades; cast segmented vortex finders; vortex finder installation; ceramic anchors; pre-cast vertical bullnose; refractory upgrades; and wet gunning.

  18. Error framing effects on performance: cognitive, motivational, and affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks.

  19. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  20. Tail regeneration affects the digestive performance of a Mediterranean lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Karambotsi, Niki; Bletsa, Aristoula; Reppa, Aikaterini; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D.

    2017-04-01

    In caudal autotomy, lizards shed their tail to escape from an attacking predator. Since the tail serves multiple functions, caudal regeneration is of pivotal importance. However, it is a demanding procedure that requires substantial energy and nutrients. Therefore, lizards have to increase energy income to fuel the extraordinary requirements of the regenerating tail. We presumed that autotomized lizards would adjust their digestion to acquire this additional energy. To clarify the effects of tail regeneration on digestion, we compared the digestive performance before autotomy, during regeneration, and after its completion. Tail regeneration indeed increased gut passage time but did not affect digestive performance in a uniform pattern: though protein income was maximized, lipid and sugar acquisition remained stable. This divergence in proteins may be attributed to their particular role in tail reconstruction, as they are the main building blocks for tissue formation.

  1. Can small shifts in circadian phase affect performance?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Legasto, Carlo S.; Fogg, Louis F.; Smith, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Small shifts in circadian timing occur frequently as a result of daylight saving time or later weekend sleep. These subtle shifts in circadian phase have been shown to influence subjective sleepiness, but it remains unclear if they can significantly affect performance. In a retrospective analysis we examined performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test before bedtime and after wake time in 11 healthy adults on fixed sleep schedules based on their habitual sleep times. The dim light melatonin onset, a marker of circadian timing, was measured on two occasions. An average 1.1 hour shift away from a proposed optimal circadian phase angle (6 hours between melatonin onset and midpoint of sleep) significantly slowed mean, median and fastest 10% reaction times before bedtime and after wake time (p<0.05). These results add to previous reports that suggest that humans may be sensitive to commonly occurring small shifts in circadian timing. PMID:22695081

  2. Can small shifts in circadian phase affect performance?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Helen J; Legasto, Carlo S; Fogg, Louis F; Smith, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Small shifts in circadian timing occur frequently as a result of daylight saving time or later weekend sleep. These subtle shifts in circadian phase have been shown to influence subjective sleepiness, but it remains unclear if they can significantly affect performance. In a retrospective analysis we examined performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test before bedtime and after wake time in 11 healthy adults on fixed sleep schedules based on their habitual sleep times. The dim light melatonin onset, a marker of circadian timing, was measured on two occasions. An average 1.1 h shift away from a proposed optimal circadian phase angle (6 h between melatonin onset and midpoint of sleep) significantly slowed mean, median and fastest 10% reaction times before bedtime and after wake time (p < 0.05). These results add to previous reports that suggest that humans may be sensitive to commonly occurring small shifts in circadian timing.

  3. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, B.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the current state of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. The fundamentals of fluidized-bed combustion and design considerations are first discussed. Tables provide details of manufacturers, worldwide, and of the boilers now installed. Eight plants in various countries and burning a variety of fuels, are described more fully.

  4. Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was

  5. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.

    PubMed

    Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

    2005-01-01

    This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training.

  6. Lithium-oxygen batteries-Limiting factors that affect performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padbury, Richard; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2011-05-01

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have recently received attention due to their extremely high theoretical energy densities, which far exceed that of any other existing energy storage technology. The significantly larger theoretical energy density of the lithium-oxygen batteries is due to the use of a pure lithium metal anode and the fact that the cathode oxidant, oxygen, is stored externally since it can be readily obtained from the surrounding air. Before the lithium-oxygen batteries can be realized as high performance, commercially viable products, there are still many challenges to overcome, from designing their cathode structure, to optimizing their electrolyte compositions and elucidating the complex chemical reactions that occur during charge and discharge. The scientific obstacles that are related to the performance of the lithium-oxygen batteries open up an exciting opportunity for researchers from many different backgrounds to utilize their unique knowledge and skills to bridge the knowledge gaps that exist in current research projects. This article is a summary of the most significant limiting factors that affect the performance of the lithium-oxygen batteries from the perspective of the authors. The article indicates the relationships that form between various limiting factors and highlights the complex yet captivating nature of the research within this field.

  7. Parents' job insecurity affects children's academic performance through cognitive difficulties.

    PubMed

    Barling, J; Zacharatos, A; Hepburn, C G

    1999-06-01

    The authors developed and tested a model in which children who perceive their parents to be insecure about their jobs are distracted cognitively, which in turn affects their academic performance negatively. Participants were 102 female and 18 male undergraduates (mean age = 18 years), their fathers (mean age = 49 years), and their mothers (mean age = 47 years). Students completed questionnaires measuring perceived parental job insecurity, identification with parents, and cognitive difficulties; 3 months later, they also reported their midyear grades. Fathers and mothers each completed questionnaires assessing their job insecurity. Support for the model was obtained using LISREL 8, and as predicted, children's identification with their mothers and fathers moderated the relationship between their perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' job insecurity and their own cognitive difficulties.

  8. Performance of Detonation Gun-Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on ASTM A213 TP347H Steel in a Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, G.; Singh, H.; Prakash, S.

    2012-09-01

    Detonation gun-sprayed coatings are known for their high density, high bond strength, moderate substrate heating, superior surface finish, better wear/corrosion resistance, and low cost. In this study, detonation gun-spraying technique was used to deposit Ni-20Cr coating on a commonly used boiler steel ASTM A213 TP347H. The specimens with and without coating were subjected to cyclic oxidation testing at an elevated temperature of 700 °C in actual boiler environment to ascertain the usefulness of the coating. The mass change technique was used to establish the kinetics of erosion-corrosion. XRD and SEM/EDS techniques were used to analyze the exposed samples. The uncoated sample suffered from erosion, and a significant mass loss was recorded. It was observed that overall mass loss was reduced by 83% and thickness loss by 53% after the application of the coating. The detonation gun-sprayed Ni-20 Cr coating was found to be suitable to impart erosion resistance to the given steel in the actual boiler environment.

  9. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Andrew J.; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-01-01

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters’ retrospective assessments of candidates’ performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved. PMID:20615955

  10. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Andrew J; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-07-20

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters' retrospective assessments of candidates' performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved.

  11. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low-NOx Burners on a Wall-Fired Boiler; a DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-02-28

    The results from the GR-LNB technology demonstrated by EER at Cherokee Station approached, but did not meet, the CCT project's performance objectives. Acceptable unit operability was achieved with both the GR and the LNB components. The gas reburning component of the process appears to be broadly applicable for retrofit NO{sub x} control to most utility boilers and, in particular, to wet-bottom cyclone boilers, which are high NO{sub x} emitters and are difficult to control (LNB technology is not applicable to cyclone boilers). GR-LNB can reduce NO{sub x} to mandated emissions levels under Title IV of the CAAA without significant, adverse boiler impacts. The GR-LNB process may be applicable to boilers significantly larger than the demonstration unit, provided there is adequate dispersion and mixing of injected natural gas. Major results of the demonstration project are summarized as follows: NO{sub x}-emissions reductions averaging 64% were achieved with 12.5% gas heat input in long-term tests on a 158-MWe (net) wall-fired unit. The target reduction level of 70% was achieved only on a short-term basis with higher gas consumption. The thermal performance of coal-fired boilers is not significantly affected by GR-LNB. Convective section steam temperatures can be controlled within acceptable limits. Thermal efficiency is decreased by a small amount (about 0.8%), because of increased dry gas loss and higher moisture in the flue gas as a result of the GR process. Furnace slagging and convective section fouling can be adequately controlled. Because of the higher hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio of natural gas compared with coal, use of the GR process results in a modest reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions are reduced in direct proportion to the fraction of heat supplied by natural gas.

  12. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  13. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  14. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  15. Factors affecting student performance in an undergraduate genetics course.

    PubMed

    Bormann, J Minick; Moser, D W; Bates, K E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some of the factors that affect student success in a genetics course. Genetics for the Kansas State University College of Agriculture is taught in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry and covers Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, and quantitative/population genetics. Data collected from 1,516 students over 7 yr included year and semester of the course; age; gender; state of residence; population of hometown; Kansas City metro resident or not; instructor of course; American College Testing Program (ACT) scores; number of transfer credits; major; college; preveterinary student or not; freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior grade point average (GPA); semester credits when taking genetics; class standing when enrolled in genetics; cumulative GPA before and after taking genetics; semester GPA in semester taking genetics, number of semesters between the biology prerequisite and genetics; grade in biology; location of biology course; and final percentage in genetics. Final percentage in genetics did not differ due to instructor, gender, state of residence, major, or college (P > 0.16). Transfer students tended to perform better than nontransfer students (P = 0.09), and students from the Kansas City metro outscored students from other areas (P = 0.03). Preveterinary option students scored higher in genetics than non-preveterinary students (P < 0.01). Seniors scored higher than juniors and sophomores, who scored higher than freshmen (P < 0.02). We observed a tendency for students with higher grades in biology to perform better in genetics (P = 0.06). Students who took biology at Kansas State University performed better in genetics than students who transferred the credit (P < 0.01). There was a negative regression of hometown population on score in genetics (P < 0.01), and positive regressions of ACT score, all measures of GPA, course load, and cumulative credits on final percentage in the course (P < 0.02). To

  16. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  17. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  18. Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are on right. HAER Engineer/Historian Donald C. Jackson on right is interviewing Garry Dobbins concerning operation of the facility. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  19. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    SciTech Connect

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  20. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  1. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  2. Item Context Factors Affecting Students' Performance on Mathematics Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgado, Felipe Almuna; Stacey, Kaye

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports how the context in which a mathematics item is embedded impacts on students' performance. The performance of Year 10 students on four PISA items was compared with performance on variants with more familiar contexts. Performance was not better when they solved items with more familiar contexts but there was some evidence that…

  3. Update of operating experience of B and W IR-CFB coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Walker, D.J.; Mandal, A.K.; Price, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper updates the operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois, USA, and is designed for 35 MW{sub th} output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries in Renukoot, India, and is designed for 81 MW{sub th} output for captive power requirement, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax of India. The choice of CFB technology was based on its fuel flexibility, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits for solid fuels. Based on the broad experience in designing utility and industrial boilers for operation worldwide, B and W has developed a cost effective and compact atmospheric pressure IR-CFB boiler. The B and W IR-CFB boiler design is distinctive in its use of U-beam particle separators. Worldwide, B and W offers IF-CFB boilers up to 175 MW{sub th}, both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 350 MW{sub th}. This paper reviews the general description of each IR-CFB boiler, design and performance aspects, as well as overall operating experiences. The boiler availabilities including maintenance aspects and emissions data will be presented.

  4. Stress-enhanced corrosion of boiler tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Esmacher, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    Five case histories are presented on the effect of residual stresses (from fabrication or welding) on the waterside corrosion performance of carbon steel boiler tubing. Specifically, cases are reviewed in which tube swaging or tube bending operations (producing high forming stresses in deformed zones) resulted in the formation of stress-enhanced corrosion cells. In addition, the phenomenon of accelerated corrosion in welded support zones, membrane-welded panel sections, and weld-repaired areas is discussed.

  5. Development of a reburning boiler process model. First quarterly progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.T.

    1992-01-30

    The overall objective of this program is to integrate EER`s expertise in boiler reburning performance evaluation into a package of analytical computer tools. Specific objectives of the program are to develop a computational capability with the following features: (1) can be used to predict the impact of gas reburning application on thermal conditions in the boiler radiant furnace, and on overall boiler performance; (2) can estimate gas reburning NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness based on specific reburning configurations and furnace/boiler configurations; (3) can be used as an analytical tool to evaluate the impact of boiler process parameters (e.g., fuel switching and changes in boiler operating conditions) on boiler thermal performance; (4) is adaptable to most boiler designs (tangential and wall fire boilers) and a variety of fuels (solid, liquid, gaseous and slurried fuels); (5) is sufficiently user friendly to be exercisable by engineers with a reasonable knowledge of boilers, and with reasonable computer skills. Here, ``user friendly`` means that the user will be guided by computer codes during the course of setting up individual input files for the boiler performance model.

  6. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  7. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  8. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  9. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  10. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  11. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  12. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  13. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  14. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  15. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  17. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  18. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  19. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  20. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  1. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  2. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  3. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  4. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  5. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  6. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  7. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  8. How Does Test Exemption Affect Schools' and Students' Academic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer L.; Beveridge, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing data from a large urban district in Texas, this study examines how high-stakes test exemptions alter officially reported scores and asks whether test exemption has implications for the academic achievement of special education students. Test exemption inflated overall passing rates but especially affected the passing rates of African…

  9. Selected Factors Affecting the Performance Assessment of Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott

    1990-01-01

    This study determined whether nontraditional assessment factors (principal's gender, choice of subject matter for demonstrating competence, or years of teacher experience) would affect elementary teachers' scores when completing the Leon County (Florida) Teacher Assessment Process. Principal's gender and subject selected were significant…

  10. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  11. Certain Organizational Characteristics Affect ACO Preventive Care Quality Performance.

    PubMed

    Ticse, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Key findings. (1) ACOs at provider workforce extremes--few primary care providers or many specialists--performed worse on measures of preventive care quality relative to those with more PCPs and fewer specialists. (2) Upfront investment in ACO formation is associated with higher performance in preventive care quality. (3) ACOs with a higher proportion of minority beneficiaries performed worse on disease prevention measures than did ACOs with a lower proportion of minority beneficiaries. (4) ACOs facing barriers to quality performance may benefit from organizational characteristics such as electronic health record capabilities and hospital inclusion in the ACO.

  12. Test research of bed ash coolers for a 50 MWe CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Lin, Z.J.; Liu, D.C.; Hu, L.L.; Xie, P.J.; Yan, H.X.; Liu, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    CFB boilers have been developed and commercialized in China. As one of the main auxiliaries of FBC boilers, the bed ash cooler plays an important role in regular operation of the boilers. A 50 MWe 2-shaped CFB boiler will be put into operation in North China. Many kinds of bed ash cooling systems for this boiler had been designed and compared. Then the optimum bed ash coolers were determined and made. Experimental research and pilot-scale test for the bed ash coolers were also carried out. The result indicates that the bed ash cooler can be operated reliably and can meet the demand for cooling bed ash of the 50 MWe CFB boiler. The test data are very useful for further improving the performance of ash coolers.

  13. Maximising safety in the boiler house.

    PubMed

    Derry, Carr

    2013-03-01

    Last month's HEJ featured an article, the second in our new series of guidance pieces aimed principally at Technician-level engineers, highlighting some of the key steps that boiler operators can take to maximise system performance and efficiency, and thus reduce running both costs and carbon footprint. In the third such article, Derry Carr, C.Env, I.Eng, BSc (Hons), M.I.Plant.E., M.S.O.E., technical manager & group gas manager at Dalkia, who is vice-chairman of the Combustion Engineering Association, examines the key regulatory and safety obligations for hospital energy managers and boiler technicians, a number of which have seen changes in recent years with revision to guidance and other documentation.

  14. Learners' Metalinguistic and Affective Performance in Blogging to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The documentation of the benefits of blog use in foreign language education has proliferated since 2006. In the field of blogging to write, most studies focus on learners' linguistic performance and perceptions. To provide an analysis of learners' writing performance by using blogs, in addition to the often-researched areas, this study examines…

  15. Young Children's Knowledge About Effects of Affect on Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jean W.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the issue of whether preschoolers are aware of the connection between their emotions, their performance on a task of eye-hand coordination, and their evaluation of the task and their performance. Results indicate a developmental trend that children's predictions conform more to mood congruity theory as they grow older. (Author/DST)

  16. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  17. Application of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid in boiler water for industrial boilers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Mao-Dong; Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The primary method used for boiler water treatment is the addition of chemicals to industrial boilers to prevent corrosion and scaling. The static scale inhibition method was used to evaluate the scale inhibition performance of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). Autoclave static experiments were used to study the corrosion inhibition properties of the main material for industrial boilers (20# carbon steel) with an HEDP additive in the industrial boiler water medium. The electrochemical behavior of HEDP on carbon steel corrosion control was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. Experimental results indicate that HEDP can have a good scale inhibition effect when added at a quantity of 5 to 7 mg/L at a test temperature of not more than 100 °C. To achieve a high scale inhibition rate, the HEDP dosage must be increased when the test temperature exceeds 100 °C. Electrochemical and autoclave static experimental results suggest that HEDP has a good corrosion inhibition effect on 20# carbon steel at a concentration of 25 mg/L. HEDP is an excellent water treatment agent.

  18. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    PARR

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  19. Factors affecting intrauterine contraceptive device performance. I. Endometrial cavity length.

    PubMed

    Hasson, H M; Berger, G S; Edelman, D A

    1976-12-15

    The relationship of endometrial cavity length to intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) performance was evaluated in 319 patients wearing three types of devices. The rate of events, defined as pregnancy, expulsion, or medical removal, increased significantly when the length of the IUD was equal to, exceeded, or was shorter by two or more centimeters than the length of the endometrial cavity. Total uterine length was found to be a less accurate prognostic indicator of IUD performance than endometrial cavity length alone.

  20. Aversive Pavlovian Responses Affect Human Instrumental Motor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology. PMID:23060738

  1. Environmental context change affects memory for performed actions.

    PubMed

    Sahakyan, Lili

    2010-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental context change between the study and test on the recall of action phrases that either were performed during encoding (subject-performed tasks, SPTs) or were verbally encoded (verbal tasks, VTs). Both SPTs and VTs showed the same magnitude of impaired recall when the study and test contexts mismatched. Furthermore, changing the context between the two study lists reduced cross-list intrusion errors compared to encoding the lists in the same context. Both SPTs and VTs benefited from studying the lists in different contexts as evidenced by reduced intrusions. Taken together, the results suggest that SPTs are integrated with their context because they suffered when context changed between the study and test, and they also benefited when they were performed in two environments versus the same environment.

  2. Wheat gluten hydrolysate affects race performance in the triathlon.

    PubMed

    Koikawa, Natsue; Aoki, Emi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Nagaoka, Isao; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimmura, Yuki; Sawaki, Keisuke

    2013-07-01

    Wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) is a food ingredient, prepared by partial enzymatic digestion of wheat gluten, which has been reported to suppress exercise-induced elevation of serum creatinine kinase (CK) activity. However, its effects on athletic performance have not yet been elucidated. This is the presentation of an experiment performed on five female college triathletes who completed an Olympic distance triathlon with or without ingestion of 21 g of WGH during the cycling leg. The experiment was performed in a crossover double-blind manner. The race time of the running leg and thus the total race time was significantly shorter when WGH was ingested. However, serum CK levels exhibited no apparent differences between the two WGH or placebo groups.

  3. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    PubMed

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research.

  4. Teacher Dispositions Affecting Self-Esteem and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Carroll

    2007-01-01

    Research supports several factors related to student success. Darling-Hammond (2000) indicated that the quality of teachers, as measured by whether the teachers were fully certified and had a major in their teaching field, was related to student performance. Measures of teacher preparation and certification were the strongest predictors of student…

  5. Factors Affecting Student Performance in Law School Economics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Noting the increasing role of economics in the law, many law schools have introduced formal economics instruction into their curricula. Several of the controversies surrounding liberal arts courses taught in law schools are examined. Prior formal coursework in the subject appeared to have no relationship to course performance. (MLW)

  6. Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

  7. Performativity and Affectivity: Lesson Observations in England's Further Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning observations (TLOs) are used in educational environments worldwide to measure and improve quality and support professional development. TLOs can be positive for teachers who enjoy opportunities to "perform" their craft and/or engage in professional dialogue. However, if this crucial, collaborative developmental…

  8. Does Participative Decision Making Affect Lecturer Performance in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukirno, D. S.; Siengthai, Sununta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between participation and job performance has captured the interest of not only business researchers but also education researchers. However, the topic has not gained significant attention in the educational management research arena. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of participation in…

  9. How Motivation Affects Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, R. A.; Ten Cate, Th. J.; Vos, C. M. P.; Westers, P.; Croiset, G.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous…

  10. Unit Cohesion and the Surface Navy: Does Cohesion Affect Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Relationship of Group Cohe- sion to Group Performance: A Research Integration Attempt, by L. W. Oliver, A199069, July 1988. Cartwright , D., "The Nature of...Group Cohesiveness," in Darwin Cart- wright and Alvin Zander, eds., Group Dynamics: Research and Theory, New York: Harper and Row, 1968. Gujarati, D. N

  11. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  12. Fuel sulfur and boiler fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; Butcher, T.

    1995-04-01

    Fouling of the heat transfer surfaces of boilers and furnaces by `soot` leads to reduced efficiency and increased service requirements. The average level of annual efficiency reduction as a result of fouling if generally accepted as 2% per year. Improving the efficiency of equipment in the field may be the most important oil heat conservation opportunity at present. Improvements can be realized by reducing fouling rates, promoting lower firing rates in existing equipment, and enabling excess air levels to be set lower without raising concerns about increased service requirements. In spite of the importance of efficiency in the field there is very little data available on efficiency degradation rates with modern equipment, actual field operating conditions (excess air and smoke number settings) and service problems which affect efficiency. During 1993-94 field tests were initiated to obtain such data and to obtain information that would compliment existing and current laboratory work. Experimental work conducted on a bench scale level have included tests with various advanced burners, fuel types, and different operating conditions which have been done at the BNL Rapid Fouling Test Facility. This report will focus on the field study of fouling effects on ten residential heating service problems at each site are summarized. In addition, the technical difficulties involved with conducting such a field study shall also be discussed as the findings should serve to improve future work in this area.

  13. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  14. Does familiarity with computers affect computerized neuropsychological test performance?

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Ashton, V Lynn; Johnson, Lynda G; Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported computer familiarity is related to performance on computerized neurocognitive testing. Participants were 130 healthy adults who self-reported whether their computer use was "some" (n = 65) or "frequent" (n = 65). The two groups were individually matched on age, education, sex, and race. All completed the CNS Vital Signs (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006b) computerized neurocognitive battery. There were significant differences on 6 of the 23 scores, including scores derived from the Symbol-Digit Coding Test, Stroop Test, and the Shifting Attention Test. The two groups were also significantly different on the Psychomotor Speed (Cohen's d = 0.37), Reaction Time (d = 0.68), Complex Attention (d = 0.40), and Cognitive Flexibility (d = 0.64) domain scores. People with "frequent" computer use performed better than people with "some" computer use on some tests requiring rapid visual scanning and keyboard work.

  15. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  16. Neuroticism Negatively Affects Multitasking Performance through State Anxiety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    interruptions, is greater than ever. As a result, multitasking has become a necessity in both home and work life for many individuals (e.g., Bühner...at work and at home . As such, researchers have begun to focus attention on understanding and predicting multitasking performance. Though past...technological innovation, and information overload, the pace of life is rapidly increasing. The pressure to do more in less time, often with frequent

  17. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    collected by personnel from Metrica , Inc., under Contract F33615-91-D-0010 (Delivery Order 0005) sponsored by the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory. The...authors would like to thank ’their colleagues at Metrica for their contributions to . this effort; in particular, Mr John Quebe and Mr Martin Dittmar...aircrew combat performance. San Antonio TX: Metrica Inc. 7 . Dolgin, D.L., & Gibb, G.D. (1988). Personality assessment in aviator selection (NAMRL

  18. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M. ); Fein, G. ); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. )

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  19. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M.; Fein, G.; Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F.

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  20. Factors That Affect Academic Performance Among Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433

  1. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  2. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  3. Characterization of titanium dioxide: Factors affecting photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    Titanium dioxide is being evaluated as a photocatalyst in the destruction of contaminants in aqueous waste streams. Commercial samples of TiO{sub 2} powder have been obtained for base line studies of the photocatalytic destruction of salicylic acid standards. These commercial samples have been prepared by flame hydrolysis and aerosol or spray pyrolysis. Additional samples of TiO{sub 2} have been prepared in house by precipitation from TiCl{sub 4} in aqueous solution, some with the addition of dopants. X-ray powder diffraction data analysis indicates the predominate phase of these commercial and prepared powders to be anatase. A minor amount of the rutile crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} was observed at various levels in some of these catalysts. The broadness of the x-ray diffraction bands varied among the samples analyzed and indicated the primary particle size to be within the 500 to 1,000 angstrom range with the product produced in house having the smallest crystallite size. Experiments were then performed to assess the photocatalytic performance of these various types of catalyst in the destruction of 30 ppm salicylic acid in deionized water.

  4. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerodynamic Performance of Nebulized Nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Hosein; Abbasi, Shayan; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Amani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to prepare a nanoemulsion preparation containing budesonide and assess its aerodynamic behavior in comparison with suspension of budesonide. In-vitro aerodynamic performance of the corresponding micellar solution (ie. nanoemulsion preparation without oil) was investigated too. Nanoemulsions of almond oil containing budesonide, as a hydrophobic model drug molecule, were prepared and optimized. Then, the effect of variation of surfactant/co-surfactant concentration on the aerodynamic properties of the nebulized aerosol was studied. The results indicated that the most physically stable formulation makes the smallest aerodynamic size. The concentration of co-surfactant was also shown to be critical in determination of aerodynamic size. Furthermore, the optimized sample, with 3% w/w almond oil, 20% w/w Tween 80+Span 80 and 2% w/w ethanol showed a smaller MMAD in comparison with the commercially available suspension and the micellar solution. PMID:28243265

  5. Prepartum nutritional strategy affects reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, F C; LeBlanc, S J; Murphy, M R; Drackley, J K

    2013-09-01

    Negative energy balance during early postpartum is associated with reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. A pooled statistical analysis of 7 studies completed in our group from 1993 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the association between prepartum energy feeding regimen and reproductive performance. The interval from calving to pregnancy (days to pregnancy, DTP) was the dependent variable to assess reproductive performance. Individual data for 408 cows (354 multiparous and 54 primiparous) were included in the analysis. The net energy for lactation (NEL) intake was determined from each cow's average dry matter intake and calculated dietary NEL density. Treatments applied prepartum were classified as either controlled-energy (CE; limited NEL intake to ≤100% of requirement) or high-energy (HE; cows were allowed to consume >100%) diets fed during the far-off (FO) or close-up (CU) dry periods. Cow was the experimental unit. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that days to pregnancy was shorter for CE (median=157 d) than HE (median=167 d) diets during the CU period [hazard ratio (HR)=0.70]. Cows fed HE diets during the last 4 wk prepartum lost more body condition score in the first 6 wk postpartum than those fed CE diets (-0.43 and -0.30, respectively). Cows fed CE diets during the FO period had lower nonesterified fatty acids concentrations in wk 1, 2, and 3 of lactation than cows fed HE diets. Higher nonesterified fatty acids concentration in wk 1 postpartum was associated with a greater probability of disease (n=251; odds ratio=1.18). Cows on the CE regimen during the FO period had greater plasma glucose concentrations during wk 1 and 3 after calving than cows fed the HE regimen. Higher plasma glucose (HG) concentration compared with lower glucose (LG) in wk 3 (HG: n=154; LG: n=206) and wk 4 (HG: n=71; LG: n=254) after calving was associated with shorter days to pregnancy (wk 3: median=151 and 171 d for HG and LG, respectively, and HR=1.3; wk 4

  6. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Harvey F; Patterson, William R; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m x 8 m x 3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  7. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Harvey F.; Patterson, William R.; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m×8 m×3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  8. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, David W.; Shingledecker, John P.

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation's power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country's total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760°C (1400°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  9. Environmental compliance through boiler operator training and certification

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    The power plant for the Opa City Electric Works and Boiler Gasket Emporium was having its usual Monday morning supervisors meeting when someone suggested removing the high pressure feedwater heater from service for the sole purpose of {open_quotes}getting more megawatts{close_quotes}. Since the feedwater heater was not considered to be {open_quotes}part of the boiler,{close_quotes} it was assumed that removal of the heater would not affect air pollution emissions. Fortunately, the suggestion was shot down when calculations revealed that removal of the heater would result in a 7.5% decrease in the overall boiler efficiency along with a 21 lb{sub m}/hr increase in SO{sub 2} emissions. This document discusses the interface between sound boiler operating practices and compliance with environmental regulations. Good operating practice is most often a combination of comprehensive training, experience, a strong work ethic, and common sense. We will also explore the various aspects operator certification requirements, with a focus on ASME certification standards for high capacity fossil fuel fired boilers.

  10. Startup, shutdown and malfunction plans coming for large industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kasarabada, A.N.

    2007-08-15

    The US Boiler MACT (maximum achievable control technology) regulations (codified under 40 CFR Part 63) in its current form requires existing large coal-fired industrial and utility boilers (under 25 MW) to meet emission limits for particulate matter or total selected metals, mercury and hydrogen chloride, as well as other operational limits. The MACT provision also requires affected facilities to develop startup, shutdown and malfunction plans (SSMP). The original date for Boiler MACT compliance for existing units had been 13 September 2007. However, on 8 June the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia issued an order effectively killing all existing MACT rules for industrial boilers. The Court instructed the US EPA to rewrite two sets of regulations. (Prior to April 2006 the MACT general provisions said the SSMPs needed to be 'developed and implemented'.) It seems unlikely that any new revision of the Boiler MACT by the EPA will take effect before mid-2008. Regardless of which direction the MACT rule is headed, now is the time to be prepared to comply with the SSMP requirements. The article sets out recommended steps for developing an effective SSMP.

  11. Noise Affects Performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Kate; Marchuk, Veronica; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effect of background noise on performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Two groups of older adults (one with clinically normal hearing, one with hearing loss) and a younger adult group with clinically normal hearing were administered two versions of the MoCA under headphones in low and high levels of background noise. Intensity levels used to present the test were customized based on the hearing abilities of participants with hearing loss to yield a uniform level of difficulty across listeners in the high-level noise condition. Both older groups had poorer MoCA scores in noise than the younger group. Importantly, all participants had poorer MoCA scores in the high-noise (M = 22.7/30) compared to the low-noise condition (M = 25.7/30, p < .001). Results suggest that background noise in the test environment should be considered when cognitive tests are conducted and results interpreted, especially when testing older adults.

  12. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  13. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  14. Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue

    2009-09-15

    In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. How neighbor canopy architecture affects target plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tremmel, D.C.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Plant competition occurs through the negative effects that individual plants have on resource availability to neighboring individuals. Therefore competition experiments need to examine how different species change resource availability to their neighbors, and how different species respond to these changes-allocationally, architecturally, and physiologically-through time. In a greenhouse study we used a model system of annuals to examine how canopies of species having differing morphologies differed in their architectures and light-interception abilities, and how different species performed when grown in these canopies. Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, and Polygonum pensylvanicum were grown as [open quotes]targets[close quotes]. Plants were grown in pots, with one target plant and four neighbor plants. Detailed measurements of neighbor canopy structure and target plant canopy architecture were made at five harvests. Species with different morphologies showed large differences in canopy structure, particularly when grass and forb species were compared. Setaria, a grass, had a more open canopy than the other species (all forbs), and was a consistently weak competitor. Overall, however, the relative effects of different neighbors on target biomass varied with target species. Target biomass was poorly correlated with neighbor biomass and leaf area, but was highly correlated with a measure of target light-interception ability that took into account both target leaf deployment and neighbor light interception. Despite clear differences among neighbor species in canopy structure and effect on light penetration, the results suggest no broad generalizations about the effects of different species as neighbors. Knowledge of morphological, physiological, and life history characteristics of both the target and neighbor species may be necessary to explain the results of their competition. 53 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  17. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  18. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  19. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  20. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  1. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  2. Application of PLC/PC based sootblower/waterlance control systems for optimizing boiler cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, J.; Goode, W.C. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    This paper concerns retrofitting and upgrading existing sootblowers and waterlance control systems with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Personal Computer (PC)-based control system. The PLC is used for front end data collection and processing, and the PC is used for operator interface, sequence control and data acquisition for optimizing sootblower and waterlance performance. The versatility of the PLC/PC based control system provides a number of options to optimize boiler cleaning. Efficient and reliable boiler cleaning has been and continues to be a requirement due to the use of various types of coal required to meet various environmental requirements, while maintaining proper heat transfer. This paper will discuss a Boiler Cleaning Control System (BCCS) incorporated at the St. Clair Power Plant in April 1994. Provisions were made as needed for future interface to a Distributed Control System (DCS) and for boiler cleaning based on boiler performance, e.g., steam temperature.

  3. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  4. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  5. Program to Train Boiler Operators Developed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This program initiated by Nalco Chemical, a major supplier of chemicals for boiler feedwater treatment, uses texts, audiovisual aids, and hands-on experience and is designed to boost the efficiency of boiler operators. (BB)

  6. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  7. Affective Responses to an Aerobic Dance Class: The Impact of Perceived Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, John B.; Miller, Bridget M.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the mastery hypothesis as an explanation for the affective benefits of acute exercise. Undergraduate women from a self-selected aerobic dance class rated their exercise performance following class. Affect questionnaires were completed before and at 5 and 20 minutes after the class. Results showed an overall improvement in affect following…

  8. ECUT energy data reference series: boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Chockie, A.D.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    Information on the population and fuel consumption of water-tube, fire-tube and cast iron boilers is summarized. The use of each boiler type in the industrial and commercial sector is examined. Specific information on each boiler type includes (for both 1980 and 2000) the average efficiency of the boiler, the capital stock, the amount of fuel consumed, and the activity level as measured by operational load factor.

  9. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Nnnnn of... - Performance Test Requirements for HCl Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance Test Requirements for HCl... Requirements for HCl Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.9020, you must comply with the following requirements for performance tests for HCl production for each affected source. For each HCl process vent...

  11. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-01-31

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

  12. Computer method for identification of boiler transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    An iterative computer method is described for identifying boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. An objective penalized performance measure and a nonlinear minimization technique are used to cause the locus of points generated by a transfer function to resemble the locus of points obtained from frequency response measurements. Different transfer functions can be tried until a satisfactory empirical transfer function to the system is found. To illustrate the method, some examples and some results from a study of a set of data consisting of measurements of the inlet impedance of a single tube forced flow boiler with inserts are given.

  13. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  14. Dioxin emissions from industrial boilers burning hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, C.; Olexsey, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory analyses for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF) were performed on waste fuels and stack gas emission samples from five industrial boiler test sites cofiring liquid hazardous wastes. Analytical results indicate that, apart from creosote sludge, chlorinated wastes were void of PCDD and PCDF compounds at detection limits in the range of 0.045 to 4.17 ppb. Creosote sludge cofired with wood waste in a stoker boiler was found to contain 7.4 ppm of total dioxins, primarily hepta and octa homologs.

  15. Operational Status of 300MWe CFB Boiler in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. F.; Mi, J. H.; Hao, J. H.; Yang, S.; Huang, H. T.; Ji, H. M.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    China has the largest number of 300MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in the word within, built in a short period of several years. Now, there are 13 CFB units in operating and other about 50 CFB boilers under construction or will be under construction soon. Summarization and analysis of the operational performance of the 300MWe CFB units are conducted. The reliability, economy and emission of these unite are introduced. The problems in these units are summarized. Some advices for improvement and future research are given.

  16. Identifying Affective Domains That Correlate and Predict Mathematics Performance in High-Performing Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have shown that distinct yet highly correlated sub-constructs of three broad mathematics affective variables: (a) motivation, (b) attitudes and (c) anxiety, have varying degree of correlation with mathematics achievement. The sub-constructs of these three affective constructs are as follows: (a) (i) amotivation, (ii) external…

  17. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOEpatents

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  18. USA B and W`s IR-CFB coal-fired boiler operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Kanoria, M.; Price, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper updates operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois and is designed for 35 MWt output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd. (KCIL) in Renukoot, India and is designed for 81 MWt output for captive power requirements, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W (TBW) Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax in India. The CFB technology is selected for these two units based on the fuel and environmental considerations. This paper discusses the various aspects of the two IR-CFB boilers` design features, performance, and operating experience including emissions.

  19. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    PubMed

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  20. Hydraulic turbine-driven boiler circulation pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the unique technical features and performance of an advanced Russian hydraulic turbine-driven boiler circulation pump. The major task was to test the pump at the supercritical 250 MW unit located at the Southern Power Plant, Lenenergo, in St. Petersburg, Russia. The field tests demonstrated that the circulation pump operates efficiently and reliably.

  1. Cleaning of boiler heating surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maidanik, M. N.; Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2006-09-15

    Basic methods and facilities for the external cleaning of the heating surfaces of boilers designed for the combustion of low-grade solid fuels are discussed. Water and steam blastings, which are the basic means of cleaning furnace shields, and semi-radiative and convective heating surfaces have the greatest range of application.

  2. Design features of first of its kind AFBC high pressure boiler for Kutch lignite fuel in Gujarat, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mokashi, A.; Diwakar, K.W.

    1998-07-01

    Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd. (GHCL) of Gujarat State in India is one of the largest manufacturers of Soda Ash with modern technology from Akzo of the Netherlands. GHCL with earlier experience in firing lignite on a travagrate boiler and with a converted fluidized bed boiler has very clearly identified the problem area for review, and with that rich experience awarded a contract to Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Ltd. (TBW), Pune, India. Accordingly, a boiler has been designed to suit Kutch Lignite and coal with AFBC technology. This paper discusses the complete design of the boiler, effects of Kutch Lignite, its composition, thermal efficiency on coal as well as lignite, various performance parameters and guarantees, sizing arrangements of pressure parts, feeding arrangement and specially designed fluidizing bed combustor, various instrumentation and control loops. This paper discusses all the above features of this high-pressure boiler which can be an ideal boiler for the Kutch lignite fuel.

  3. Does medical students’ clinical performance affect their actual performance during medical internship?

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study examines the relationship between the clinical performance of medical students and their performance as doctors during their internships. METHODS This retrospective study involved 63 applicants of a residency programme conducted at Chonnam National University Hospital, South Korea, in November 2012. We compared the performance of the applicants during their internship with their clinical performance during their fourth year of medical school. The performance of the applicants as interns was periodically evaluated by the faculty of each department, while their clinical performance as fourth-year medical students was assessed using the Clinical Performance Examination (CPX) and the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). RESULTS The performance of the applicants as interns was positively correlated with their clinical performance as fourth-year medical students, as measured by the CPX and OSCE. The performance of the applicants as interns was moderately correlated with the patient-physician interaction items addressing communication and interpersonal skills in the CPX. CONCLUSION The clinical performance of medical students during their fourth year in medical school was related to their performance as medical interns. Medical students should be trained to develop good clinical skills through actual encounters with patients or simulated encounters using manikins, to enable them to become more competent doctors. PMID:26768172

  4. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Performance-Based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA). Implementation and Supporting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; And Others

    This document contains two sections: implementation of the performance-based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA), and supporting research. Section 1 presents OABA, an analytic procedure designed to identify those affective behaviors important to success in an occupation, and gives directions on how to implement the procedure. The…

  6. Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective…

  7. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  8. Using a False Biofeedback Methodology to Explore Relationships between Learners' Affect, Metacognition, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Amber Chauncey; Azevedo, Roger; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2013-01-01

    We used a false-biofeedback methodology to manipulate physiological arousal in order to induce affective states that would influence learners' metacognitive judgments and learning performance. False-biofeedback is a method used to induce physiological arousal (and resultant affective states) by presenting learners with audio stimuli of false heart…

  9. Happy Places, Horrible Times, and Scary Learners: Affective Performances and Sticky Objects in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naraian, Srikala; Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from two studies conducted in US public schools, this paper traces the affective productions and performances of teachers to illustrate the role of affect in delineating (non)normative pedagogical practices in inclusive classrooms. Occupying a borderland space in narrative inquiry that permitted the straddling of differing…

  10. Post-test examination of a pool boiler receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, Robert L.; Moore, Thomas J.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    A subscale pool boiler test apparatus to evaluate boiling stability developed a leak after being operated with boiling NaK for 791.4 hr at temperatures from 700 to 750 C. The boiler was constructed using Inconel 625 with a type 304L stainless steel wick for the boiler and type 316 stainless steel for the condenser. The boiler assembly was metallurgically evaluated to determine the cause of the leak and to assess the effects of the NaK on the materials. It was found that the leak was caused by insufficient (about 30 pct.) joint penetration in a butt joint. There was no general corrosion of the construction materials, but the room temperature ductility of the Inconel 625 was only about 6.5 pct. A crack in the heat affected zone of the Inconel 625 near the Inconel 625 to type 316 stainless steel butt joint was probably caused by excessive heat input. The crack was observed to have a zone depleted of iron at the crack surface and porosity below that zone. The mechanism of the iron depletion was not conclusively determined.

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  13. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  15. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  16. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  17. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  18. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  19. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  20. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  1. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  2. Performing a secondary executive task with affective stimuli interferes with decision making under risk conditions.

    PubMed

    Gathmann, Bettina; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that executive functions are crucial for advantageous decision making under risk and that therefore decision making is disrupted when working memory capacity is demanded while working on a decision task. While some studies also showed that emotions can affect decision making under risk, it is unclear how affective processing and executive functions predict decision-making performance in interaction. The current experimental study used a between-subjects design to examine whether affective pictures (positive and negative pictures compared to neutral pictures), included in a parallel executive task (working memory 2-back task), have an impact on decision making under risk as assessed by the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Moreover, the performance GDT plus 2-back task was compared to the performance in the GDT without any additional task (GDT solely). The results show that the performance in the GDT differed between groups (positive, negative, neutral, and GDT solely). The groups with affective pictures, especially those with positive pictures in the 2-back task, showed more disadvantageous decisions in the GDT than the groups with neutral pictures and the group performing the GDT without any additional task. However, executive functions moderated the effect of the affective pictures. Regardless of affective influence, subjects with good executive functions performed advantageously in the GDT. These findings support the assumption that executive functions and emotional processing interact in predicting decision making under risk.

  3. Cold-side desulfurization by humidification of fly ash in CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, R.A.; Tang, J.T.; Capan, S.F.; Fioriti, G.A.; Taylor, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    It is expected that sulfur emission regulations for fluidized bed boilers will continue to become more stringent. By capturing sulfur in-situ with furnace limestone injection, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been quite successful in achieving capture efficiencies of up to 93%. However, CFB operating experience has shown that extending sulfur capture beyond this level results in a diminishing return relationship and requires a substantial increase in limestone consumption, especially for fuels with a relatively low (< 1.0%) sulfur content. Such an increase in limestone consumption can have numerous effects upon boiler design and performance, including: increased ash handling system requirements; higher operating cost of increased limestone consumption; increased NO{sub x} emissions; a detrimental effect upon SNCR performance, higher pH of ash leachate; and lower boiler efficiency. For future power generation projects, which are predicted to require increasingly higher sulfur capture efficiencies, the combination of the above listed conditions could result in a CFB boiler being cost-prohibitive in comparison to a pulverized coal boiler for a given coal. Clearly, CFB boilers will require a refined operating strategy, together with a consideration of auxiliary desulfurization technology, in order to remain competitive in the future energy equipment market.

  4. Overview and status of first 25 MW(e) IR-CFB boiler in India

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Bakshi, V.K.; Diwakar, K.K.

    1997-12-31

    The Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) internal recirculation CFB (IR-CFB) boiler is unique in design. Worldwide, B and W offers IR-CFB boilers up to 150 MW(e) both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 300 MW(e). This paper discusses an overview and status of the construction, commissioning, initial start-up operation and milestones of the ongoing 25 MW(e) IR-CFB boiler project at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd., Renukoot, India. This IR-CFB boiler is designed, supplied and installed by Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Ltd. (TBW), a joint venture company of the B and W and Thermax in India. The boiler parameters are, steam flow of 29.2 kg/s (23,420 lbs/hr), 6.4 MPa (925 psig), and 485 C (905 F) with feedwater temperature of 180 C (356 F). The boiler will utilize high-ash content (> 45%), subbituminous coal with a heating value of 3,500 KCal/kg (6,300 Btu/lb). This paper also discusses the various aspects of the boiler design, performance, auxiliary equipment, advantages and initial start-up operating performance.

  5. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    % reduction was met on many test runs, but at higher gas heat inputs. The impact on boiler equipment was determined to be very minimal. Toward the end of the testing, the flue gas recirculation (used to enhance gas penetration into the furnace) system was removed and new high pressure gas injectors were installed. Further, the low NOX burners were modified and gave better NO. reduction performance. These modifications resulted in a similar NO, reduction performance (64%) at a reduced level of gas heat input (-13Yo). In addition, the OFA injectors were re-designed to provide for better control of CO emissions. Although not a part of this project, the use of natural gas as the primary fuel with gas reburning was also tested. The gas/gas reburning tests demonstrated a reduction in NOX emissions of 43% (0.30 lb/1 OG Btu reduced to 0.17 lb/1 OG Btu) using 7% gas heat input. Economics are a key issue affecting technology development. Application of GR-LNB requires modifications to existing power plant equipment and as a result, the capital and operating costs depend largely on site-specific factors such as: gas availability at the site, gas to coal delivered price differential, sulfur dioxide removal requirements, windbox pressure, existing burner throat diameters, and reburn zone residence time available. Based on the results of this CCT project, EER expects that most GR-LNB installations will achieve at least 60% NOX control when firing 10-15% gas. The capital cost estimate for installing a GR-LNB system on a 300 MW, unit is approximately $25/kW. plus the cost of a gas pipeline (if required). Operating costs are almost entirely related to the differential cost of the natural gas compared to coal.

  6. 5. North/northwest elevations of boiler stack and boiler room. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. North/northwest elevations of boiler stack and boiler room. Note tires on roof to reduce impact of brick work falling from stack. - Lowe Mill, Eighth Avenue, Southwest, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. LPT. Low power test (TAN641) interior. Boiler room with boilers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Low power test (TAN-641) interior. Boiler room with boilers installed. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: November 21, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-5884 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  9. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  10. Some Factors That Affecting the Performance of Mathematics Teachers in Junior High School in Medan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manullang, Martua; Rajagukguk, Waminton

    2016-01-01

    Some Factor's That Affecting The Mathematic Teacher Performance For Junior High School In Medan. This research will examine the effect of direct and indirect of the Organizational Knowledge towards the achievement motivation, decision making, organizational commitment, the performance of mathematics teacher. The research method is a method of…

  11. Using Representations in Geometry: A Model of Students' Cognitive and Affective Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs in mathematics, as a dimension of the affective domain, are related with students' performance on solving tasks and mainly on overcoming cognitive obstacles. The present study investigated the interrelations of cognitive performance on geometry and young students' self-efficacy beliefs about using representations for solving…

  12. Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks "and" Attributions Affect Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.

    2011-01-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…

  13. The Developmental Dynamics of Children's Academic Performance and Mothers' Homework-Related Affect and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…

  14. Affective Cues and Processing Strategy: Color-Coded Examination Forms Influence Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Robert C.; Soldat, Alexander S.; Mark, Melvin M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that external cues provide affective information that influence processing strategy and, therefore, examination performance. Notes the differences in performance for two midterm examinations, identical, except that they were printed on blue and red paper. Discusses a method for appropriately adjusting scores to control for form effects.…

  15. Performance Assessment in CTE: Focusing on the Cognitive, Psychomotor ...and Affective Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori

    2012-01-01

    When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…

  16. The developmental dynamics of children's academic performance and mothers' homework-related affect and practices.

    PubMed

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children.

  17. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control demonstration. Quarterly report No. 6, July--September, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Project to fully establish that the cola reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NO{sub x} emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  18. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control demonstration. Quarterly report No. 7, October, November, and December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control Project to fully establish that the coal reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NOx emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NOx emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  19. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  20. 2. VIEW SOUTHWESTNORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST-NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 12. Forward end of Boiler Room showing open firing doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Forward end of Boiler Room showing open firing doors for boilers. Note ladderway retracted overhead by which firemen entered and left Boiler Room. Coal ejectors shown at extreme left of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  2. Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  3. 6. VIEW WESTINTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST-INTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 7. VIEW EASTINTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW EAST-INTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  5. Boiler Emission Compliance Survey, Norton AFB CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Norton AFB requested AFOEHL assistance to: (1) determine carbon monoxide emissions from each boiler as specified in 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Reference...Method 10, and (2) determine the oxides of nitrogen emissions from each boiler as specified in 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Reference Method 7, and for...additional information (3) determine perticulate emissions from each boiler as specified in 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Reference Methods 1-5. B. Site Description A

  6. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  7. Factors Affecting the Performance of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Marine Corps Enlistees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    THE PERFORMANCE OF HISPANIC AND NON-HISPANIC MARINE CORPS ENLISTEES by Matthew Curry March 2015 Thesis Advisor: Simona Tick Co-Advisor...March 20 15 Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF HISPANIC AND NON- HISPANIC MARINE CORPS ENLISTEES 6. AUTHOR...S) Matthew Cmw 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA:i\\tiE(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING

  8. Size, but not experience, affects the ontogeny of constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F

    2016-03-01

    Constriction is a prey-immobilization technique used by many snakes and is hypothesized to have been important to the evolution and diversification of snakes. However, very few studies have examined the factors that affect constriction performance. We investigated constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius) by evaluating how peak constriction pressure is affected by snake size, sex, and experience. In one experiment, we tested the ontogenetic scaling of constriction performance and found that snake diameter was the only significant factor determining peak constriction pressure. The number of loops applied in a coil and its interaction with snake diameter did not significantly affect constriction performance. Constriction performance in ball pythons scaled differently than in other snakes that have been studied, and medium to large ball pythons are capable of exerting significantly higher pressures than those shown to cause circulatory arrest in prey. In a second experiment, we tested the effects of experience on constriction performance in hatchling ball pythons over 10 feeding events. By allowing snakes in one test group to gain constriction experience, and manually feeding snakes under sedation in another test group, we showed that experience did not affect constriction performance. During their final (10th) feedings, all pythons constricted similarly and with sufficiently high pressures to kill prey rapidly. At the end of the 10 feeding trials, snakes that were allowed to constrict were significantly smaller than their non-constricting counterparts.

  9. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  10. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  11. Causal attribution and affective response as mediated by task performance and self-acceptance.

    PubMed

    Green, T D; Bailey, R C; Zinser, O; Williams, D E

    1994-12-01

    Predictions derived from cognitive consistency theories, self-esteem theories, and ego-serving-bias theory concerning how students would make attributional and affective responses to their academic performance were investigated. 202 university students completed a measure of self-acceptance of their college ability and made attributional and affective responses to an hypothetical examination performance. Analyses showed that students receiving positive feedback perceived greater internal causality and responded with greater positive affect than students receiving negative feedback. Self-acceptance did not moderate the attributions or affective reactions. The results supported the ego-serving-bias theory and provided partial support for self-esteem theory. Findings did not support predictions from cognitive-consistency theory.

  12. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure /Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  13. Tail autotomy affects bipedalism but not sprint performance in a cursorial Mediterranean lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvides, Pantelis; Stavrou, Maria; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Sfenthourakis, Spyros

    2017-02-01

    Running is essential in all terrestrial animals mainly for finding food and mates and escaping from predators. Lizards employ running in all their everyday functions, among which defense stands out. Besides flight, tail autotomy is another very common antipredatory strategy within most lizard families. The impact of tail loss to sprint performance seems to be species dependent. In some lizard species, tail shedding reduces sprint speed, in other species, increases it, and, in a few species, speed is not affected at all. Here, we aimed to clarify the effect of tail autotomy on the sprint performance of a cursorial lizard with particular adaptations for running, such as bipedalism and spike-like protruding scales (fringes) on the toepads that allow high speed on sandy substrates. We hypothesized that individuals that performed bipedalism, and have more and larger fringes, would achieve higher sprint performance. We also anticipated that tail shedding would affect sprint speed (though we were not able to define in what way because of the unpredictable effects that tail loss has on different species). According to our results, individuals that ran bipedally were faster; limb length and fringe size had limited effects on sprint performance whereas tail autotomy affected quadrupedal running only in females. Nonetheless, tail loss significantly affected bipedalism: the ability for running on hindlimbs was completely lost in all adult individuals and in 72.3% of juveniles.

  14. Tail autotomy affects bipedalism but not sprint performance in a cursorial Mediterranean lizard.

    PubMed

    Savvides, Pantelis; Stavrou, Maria; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Sfenthourakis, Spyros

    2017-02-01

    Running is essential in all terrestrial animals mainly for finding food and mates and escaping from predators. Lizards employ running in all their everyday functions, among which defense stands out. Besides flight, tail autotomy is another very common antipredatory strategy within most lizard families. The impact of tail loss to sprint performance seems to be species dependent. In some lizard species, tail shedding reduces sprint speed, in other species, increases it, and, in a few species, speed is not affected at all. Here, we aimed to clarify the effect of tail autotomy on the sprint performance of a cursorial lizard with particular adaptations for running, such as bipedalism and spike-like protruding scales (fringes) on the toepads that allow high speed on sandy substrates. We hypothesized that individuals that performed bipedalism, and have more and larger fringes, would achieve higher sprint performance. We also anticipated that tail shedding would affect sprint speed (though we were not able to define in what way because of the unpredictable effects that tail loss has on different species). According to our results, individuals that ran bipedally were faster; limb length and fringe size had limited effects on sprint performance whereas tail autotomy affected quadrupedal running only in females. Nonetheless, tail loss significantly affected bipedalism: the ability for running on hindlimbs was completely lost in all adult individuals and in 72.3% of juveniles.

  15. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  16. Malaysian and Singaporean students' affective characteristics and mathematics performance: evidence from PISA 2012.

    PubMed

    Thien, Lei Mee; Ong, Mei Yean

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the extent to which the affective characteristics of Malaysian and Singaporean students' attainment compared to the OECD average in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, and examine the influence of students' affective characteristics, gender, and their socioeconomic status on mathematics performance at both student and school levels. Sample consisted of 5197 and 5546 15-year-old Malaysian and Singaporean students. Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling approach with HLM 7.0 software. Results showed that the Index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS), mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics anxiety have significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia and Singapore at the student level. Proportion of boys at the school level has no significant effects on mathematics performance for both Malaysian and Singaporean students. ESCS mean at the school level has positive and significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia, but not in Singapore. Limitations, implications, and future studies were discussed.

  17. Oral impacts affecting daily performance in a low dental disease Thai population.

    PubMed

    Adulyanon, S; Vourapukjaru, J; Sheiham, A

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure incidence of oral impacts on daily performances and their related features in a low dental disease population. 501 people aged 35-44 years in 16 rural villages in Ban Phang district, Khon Kaen, Thailand, were interviewed about oral impacts on nine physical, psychological and social aspects of performance during the past 6 months, and then had an oral examination. The clinical and behavioural data showed that the sample had low caries (DMFT = 2.7) and a low utilization of dental services. 73.6% of all subjects had at least one daily performance affected by an oral impact. The highest incidence of performances affected were Eating (49.7%), Emotional stability (46.5%) and Smiling (26.1%). Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth performances had a high frequency or long duration of impacts, but a low severity. The low frequency performances; Physical activities, Major role activity and Sleeping were rated as high severity. Pain and discomfort were mainly perceived as the causes of impacts (40.1%) for almost every performance except Smiling. Toothache was the major causal oral condition (32.7%) of almost all aspects of performance. It was concluded that this low caries people have as high an incidence of oral impacts as industrialized, high dental disease populations. Frequency and severity presented the paradoxical effect on different performances and should both be taken into account for overall estimation of impacts.

  18. [Research on the performance comparing and building of affective computing database based on physiological parameters].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Du, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Ying, Lijuan; Li, Changwuz

    2014-08-01

    The validity and reasonableness of emotional data are the key issues in the cognitive affective computing research. Effects of the emotion recognition are decided by the quality of selected data directly. Therefore, it is an important part of affective computing research to build affective computing database with good performance, so that it is the hot spot of research in this field. In this paper, the performance of two classical cognitive affective computing databases, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) cognitive affective computing database and Germany Augsburg University emotion recognition database were compared, their data structure and data types were compared respectively, and emotional recognition effect based on the data were studied comparatively. The results indicated that the analysis based on the physical parameters could get the effective emotional recognition, and would be a feasible method of pressure emotional evaluation. Because of the lack of stress emotional evaluation data based on the physiological parameters domestically, there is not a public stress emotional database. We hereby built a dataset for the stress evaluation towards the high stress group in colleges, candidates of postgraduates of Ph. D and master as the subjects. We then acquired their physiological parameters, and performed the pressure analysis based on this database. The results indicated that this dataset had a certain reference value for the stress evaluation, and we hope this research can provide a reference and support for emotion evaluation and analysis.

  19. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  20. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  1. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  2. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  3. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  4. Baghouse cleans flyash from boiler exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    A large baghouse installation recently started up on the boilerhouse of the Avtex Fibers Inc. rayon plant in Front Royal, Virginia. The baghouse removes 99.7% of the flyash particulate from the combustion fumes of five coal-fired boilers. The boilers have a combined capacity of one million lb/h of steam. Emissions from the plant are well below EPA limitations.

  5. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  6. Internal Challenges Affecting Academic Performance of Student-Athletes in Ghanaian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apaak, Daniel; Sarpong, Emmanuel Osei

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined internal challenges affecting academic performance of student-athletes in Ghanaian public universities, using a descriptive survey research design. Proportionate random sampling technique was employed to select Three Hundred and Thirty-Two (332) respondents for the study. The instrument used in gathering data for the study was…

  7. ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE (UFCP) INHALATION AFFECTS CARDIOVASCULAR PERFORMANCE IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled UfCP affect cardiovascular performance in healthy rats (Harder et al. Inhal Toxicol 2005; 17:29-42) without apparent pulmonary damage. To assess whether geriatric cardiovascular compromised rats are more susceptible to UfCP effects, male adult (6months) and geriatric (13m...

  8. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  9. Students Perceptions on Factors That Affect Their Academic Performance: The Case of Great Zimbabwe University (GZU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapuranga, Barbra; Musingafi, Maxwell C. C.; Zebron, Shupikai

    2015-01-01

    Some educators argue that entry standards are the most important determinants of successful completion of a university programme; others maintain that non-academic factors must also be considered. In this study we sought to investigate open and distance learning students' perceptions of the factors affecting academic performance and successful…

  10. Motivating Factors that Affect Enrolment and Student Performance in an ODL Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadigamuwa, P. R.; Senanayake, Samans

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the motivating factors for enrolling in an engineering study programme in open and distance learning (ODL) and the factors that affect the students' performance. The study was conducted with two convenient samples of students following distance learning courses in engineering technology, conducted by…

  11. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  12. The first pilot compact CFB boiler with water cooled separator in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Guangxi; Li Yan; Lu Xiaoma; Zhang Yanguo; Liu Qing; Lu Junfu; Zhao Xiaoxing

    1997-12-31

    The square cyclone was experimentally investigated in Tsinghua University. The flow field in the cyclone was measured and numerically simulated. The investigation prove that the corner of square cyclone created turbulence to decrease the collection efficiency. The acceleration of solid particles at the inlet of the square cyclone was also a factor for good efficiency. The collection efficiency has been improved by a carefully designed curved inlet of the cyclone which received the patent in China. The patented water cooled cyclone was used in a design of improved 75 T/h CFB boiler. The demonstration of the boiler started test operation in April 1996 at Jianjiang Cement Co. in Sichuan Province. The first operation will be used for adjusting the boiler. Further tests will be done to confirm the performance of the boiler.

  13. Latest Development of CFB Boilers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. X.; Yang, H. R.; Lu, J. F.; Zhang, H.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) coal-fired boiler has being rapidly developed in China since 1980s and becomes a key clean coal technology used in thermal and power generation. In this paper, the development history and development status of the CFB boiler in China are introduced. The development history of the CFB boiler in China is divided into four periods and the important features of each period are given. Some latest research activities and important results on CFB boilers, and the typical achievements and newest development of the CFB boiler in China are also introduced. In addition, a few challenges and development directions including the capacity scaling up, SO2 removal and energy saving are discussed.

  14. [Predicting low NOx combustion property of a coal-fired boiler].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Mao, Jianbo; Chi, Zuohe; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Cen, Kefa

    2002-03-01

    More attention was paid to the low NOx combustion property of the high capacity tangential firing boiler, but the NOx emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash of coal burned boiler were complicated, they were affected by many factors, such as coal character, boiler's load, air distribution, boiler style, burner style, furnace temperature, excess air ratio, pulverized coal fineness and the uniformity of the air and coal distribution, etc. In this paper, the NOx emission property and unburned carbon content in fly ash of a 600 MW utility tangentially firing coal burned boiler was experimentally investigated, and taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics characteristics and self-learning characteristics of artificial neural network, an artificial neural network model on low NOx combustion property of the high capacity boiler was developed and verified. The results illustrated that such a model can predicate the NOx emission concentration and unburned carbon content under various operating conditions, if combined with the optimization algorithm, the operator can find the best operation condition of the low NOx combustion.

  15. Effect of Pellet Boiler Exhaust on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from α-Pinene.

    PubMed

    Kari, Eetu; Hao, Liqing; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Ari; Kortelainen, Miika; Grigonyte, Julija; Worsnop, Douglas R; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Sippula, Olli; Faiola, Celia L; Virtanen, Annele

    2017-02-07

    Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pinene and pellet boiler emissions as a model test system. The impact of pellet boiler emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene photo-oxidation was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in an environmental chamber. The aim of this study was to identify which of the major pellet exhaust components (including high nitrogen oxide (NOx), primary particles, or a combination of the two) affected SOA formation from α-pinene. Results demonstrated that high NOx concentrations emitted by the pellet boiler reduced SOA yields from α-pinene, whereas the chemical properties of the primary particles emitted by the pellet boiler had no effect on observed SOA yields. The maximum SOA yield of α-pinene in the presence of pellet boiler exhaust (under high-NOx conditions) was 18.7% and in the absence of pellet boiler exhaust (under low-NOx conditions) was 34.1%. The reduced SOA yield under high-NOx conditions was caused by changes in gas-phase chemistry that led to the formation of organonitrate compounds.

  16. Predicting nitrogen loading with land-cover composition: how can watershed size affect model performance?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Watershed-wide land-cover proportions can be used to predict the in-stream non-point source pollutant loadings through regression modeling. However, the model performance can vary greatly across different study sites and among various watersheds. Existing literature has shown that this type of regression modeling tends to perform better for large watersheds than for small ones, and that such a performance variation has been largely linked with different interwatershed landscape heterogeneity levels. The purpose of this study is to further examine the previously mentioned empirical observation based on a set of watersheds in the northern part of Georgia (USA) to explore the underlying causes of the variation in model performance. Through the combined use of the neutral landscape modeling approach and a spatially explicit nutrient loading model, we tested whether the regression model performance variation over the watershed groups ranging in size is due to the different watershed landscape heterogeneity levels. We adopted three neutral landscape modeling criteria that were tied with different similarity levels in watershed landscape properties and used the nutrient loading model to estimate the nitrogen loads for these neutral watersheds. Then we compared the regression model performance for the real and neutral landscape scenarios, respectively. We found that watershed size can affect the regression model performance both directly and indirectly. Along with the indirect effect through interwatershed heterogeneity, watershed size can directly affect the model performance over the watersheds varying in size. We also found that the regression model performance can be more significantly affected by other physiographic properties shaping nitrogen delivery effectiveness than the watershed land-cover heterogeneity. This study contrasts with many existing studies because it goes beyond hypothesis formulation based on empirical observations and into hypothesis testing to

  17. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  18. Tuning of PID controllers for boiler-turbine units.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Liu, Jizhen; Fang, Fang; Chen, Yanqiao

    2004-10-01

    A simple two-by-two model for a boiler-turbine unit is demonstrated in this paper. The model can capture the essential dynamics of a unit. The design of a coordinated controller is discussed based on this model. A PID control structure is derived, and a tuning procedure is proposed. The examples show that the method is easy to apply and can achieve acceptable performance.

  19. Configuring the EPRI plant monitoring workstation for boiler section cleanliness at Texas Utilities`s Martin Lake Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cona, C.; Ulvog, P.

    1995-06-01

    T.U. Electric`s Martin Lake plant has a history of boiler slagging which is characteristic of the Texas lignite used as fuel. Using the capabilities of EPRI`s Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW) and enhanced performance monitoring instrumentation, Martin Lake has developed an on-line boiler cleanliness model that can be used to manage sootblowing. Testing of the model has been very positive, showing good correlation between blowers operated and cleanliness obtained. potential applications of this model are for (1) testing the effectiveness of revised combustion strategies and (2) development of an automatic sootblowing system. These two areas could result in heat rate improvements. This paper discusses how the PMW models were configured to represent Martin Lake`s boilers and the results of on-line tests. Critical to this technique is the calculation of boiler gas flow. A somewhat unique feature of Martin Lake`s model is the calculation of boiler gas flow based on the induction draft (ID) fan horsepower. Most boiler gas flow calculations are based on stack gas flow which would have been inaccurate because of the wet scrubbers and stack gas reheat on this unit. Using the ID fan horsepower to derive boiler gas flow has application in boiler efficiency calculations as well.

  20. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  1. A Quality Improvement Study on Avoidable Stressors and Countermeasures Affecting Surgical Motor Performance and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Claudius; Konuk, Yusuf; Werner, Paul D.; Cao, Caroline G.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Rattner, David W.; Stangenberg, Lars; Ott, Harald C.; Jones, Daniel B.; Miller, Diane L; Gee, Denise W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore how the two most important components of surgical performance - speed and accuracy - are influenced by different forms of stress and what the impact of music on these factors is. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Based on a recently published pilot study on surgical experts, we designed an experiment examining the effects of auditory stress, mental stress, and music on surgical performance and learning, and then correlated the data psychometric measures to the role of music in a novice surgeon’s life. METHODS 31 surgeons were recruited for a crossover study. Surgeons were randomized to four simple standardized tasks to be performed on the Surgical SIM VR laparoscopic simulator, allowing exact tracking of speed and accuracy. Tasks were performed under a variety of conditions, including silence, dichotic music (auditory stress), defined classical music (auditory relaxation), and mental loading (mental arithmetic tasks). Tasks were performed twice to test for memory consolidation and to accommodate for baseline variability. Performance was correlated to the Brief Musical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ). RESULTS Mental loading influences performance with respect to accuracy, speed, and recall more negatively than does auditory stress. Defined classical music might lead to minimally worse performance initially, but leads to significantly improved memory consolidation. Furthermore, psychologic testing of the volunteers suggests that surgeons with greater musical commitment, measured by the MEQ, perform worse under the mental loading condition. CONCLUSION Mental distraction and auditory stress negatively affect specific components of surgical learning and performance. If used appropriately, classical music may positively affect surgical memory consolidation. It also may be possible to predict surgeons’ performance and learning under stress through psychological tests on the role of music in a surgeon’s life. Further investigation is necessary to determine

  2. Looking east at the west wall of the boiler house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the west wall of the boiler house, boiler water treatment tank, and waste gas stack. Water tower is to the left of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  3. 24. VIEW OF FIRING AISLE OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF FIRING AISLE OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS 900 AND 901 ARE ON THE RIGHT, BOILERS 902, 903, AND 904 ARE ON THE LEFT. NOTE REMAINS OF THE LARRY CAR TRACK SYSTEM FOR TRANSFERRING COAL TO BOILER HOPPERS ABOVE THE AISLE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  5. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  6. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  7. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  8. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  9. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  10. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  11. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  12. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  13. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  14. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  15. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  16. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  17. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  18. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  19. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  20. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  1. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  2. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  3. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal units per hour) or greater. (ii) A boiler or process heater into which the vent stream is... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment...

  4. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely used in the preparation of steam that will... Total not to exceed 1.5 parts per million in boiler feed water. Copolymer contains not more than...

  5. Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet.

    PubMed

    Lowden, Arne; Holmbäck, Ulf; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Forslund, Jeanette; Lennernäs, Maria; Forslund, Anders

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet on cognitive performance, and subjective and objective sleepiness. Seven male participants were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic ward. Meals were given every 4h and cognitive performance and sleepiness ratings were assessed hourly. The Karolinska Drowsiness Test (KDT, EEG derived) was performed twice after meal. Performance in simple reaction time showed a significant interaction of diet and the post-prandial period, a slower reaction time was observed for the HC-diet 3.5 h after meal intake. Diet did not affect EEG measures but a general post-prandial increase of objective sleepiness was observed 3.5h after meal servings. The HC-diet was significantly associated with an increase of subjective sleepiness. The study demonstrated that the HC-diet caused larger oscillation in performance and increased sleepiness as compared to HF-diet throughout day and night.

  6. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Centrality and charisma: comparing how leader networks and attributions affect team performance.

    PubMed

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A

    2011-11-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model according to which the leader's charisma facilitates the occupation of a central position in the informal advice network. From this central position, the leader positively influences team performance. Second, we examined the centrality-to-charisma model according to which charisma is attributed to those leaders who are socially active in terms of giving and receiving advice. Attributed charisma facilitates increased team performance. We tested these 2 models in 2 different studies. In the first study, based on time-separated, multisource data emanating from members of 56 work teams, we found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. Formal leaders who were central within team advice networks were seen as charismatic by subordinates, and this charisma was associated with high team performance. To clarify how leader network centrality affected the emergence of charismatic leadership, we designed Study 2 in which, for 79 student teams, we measured leader networking activity and leader charisma at 2 different points in time and related these variables to team performance measured at a third point in time. On the basis of this temporally separated data set, we again found support for the centrality-to-charisma model.

  8. Results of the use of a system for continuous measurement of combustibles in the fly ash produced by burning of anthracite fines in a TPP-210A boiler

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Fil; L.V. Golyshev; I.S. Mysak

    2002-11-15

    Data on the use of RCA-2000 (Mark & Vedell, Denmark) stationary analyzers of the content of combustibles in fly ash for optimizing the furnace performance of a TPP-210A boiler and determining the effect of process switchings of the boiler equipment on the quality of the furnace performance are presented.

  9. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  10. NO{sub x} control using natural gas reburn on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, H.; Maringo, G.J.; Beard, C.T.; Weed, G.E.; Pratapas, J.

    1996-12-31

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, has been retrofitted with the gas reburn technology developed by the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Company to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the New York State regulations adopted in conformance with the Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. At the peak load, the ozone nonattainment required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit for cyclone boilers in this regulation is 56%. Eastman Kodak Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are co-sponsoring this project. Chevron has supplied the natural gas. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system was performed in a September 1995 outage. Boiler No. 43`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow (or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}). Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient furnace residence time to use coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Contingent upon successful completion of this gas reburn project, modification of Kodak`s other cyclone boilers to include reburn technology will be consideredd. The paper will describe B and W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B and W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn system design, manufacturing, and installation information specific to Kodak`s Unit No. 43. In addition, the paper will discuss numerical modeling and the full-scale commercial boiler test results.

  11. NO{sub x} control using natural gas reburn on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, H.; Maringo, G.J.; Beard, C.T.; Weed, G.E.; Pratapas, J.

    1997-07-01

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, has been retrofitted with the gas reburn. technology developed by the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the New York State regulations adopted in conformance with the Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. At the peak load, the ozone nonattainment required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit for cyclone boilers in this regulation is 56%. Eastman Kodak Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are co-sponsoring this project. Chevron has supplied the natural gas. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system was performed in a September 1995 outage. Boiler No. 43`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow (or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}). Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient furnace residence time to use coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Contingent upon successful completion of this gas reburn project, modification of Kodak`s other cyclone boilers to include reburn technology will be considered. The paper will describe B&W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B&W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn system design, manufacturing, and installation information specific to Kodak`s Unit No. 43. In addition, the paper will discuss numerical modeling and the full-scale commercial boiler test results.

  12. Steam driven centrifugal pump for low cost boiler feed service

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This article describes a steam driven centrifugal pump for boiler feed-water and other high pressure water applications, which was awarded Top Honors in the special pumps category of the 1982 Chemical processing Vaaler competition, because the simple design with turbine, pump and controls combined in an integral unit provides high operating efficiency and reliable performance with minimal maintenance. Single source responsibility for all components when the pump may have to be serviced is another advantage. These features meet the requirements for boiler feed pumps that are critical to maintaining a consistent steam supply in a process plant where downtime can be extremely expensive. The annual cost to operate the pump for 8000 hours is about $100,000, if electricity costs 5 cents/kwh. These pumps can be run for about $30,000 on steam, if natural gas costs $4.00/mcf. Cost savings are $70,000 annually.

  13. Abrasion-Resistant Technology and its Prospect for CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Li, Y. J.; Wang, L. J.; Liu, S. H.; Dou, Q. R.

    In recent years, CFB boilers (CFBB) have been widely used in the commercial power plants due to its environmental benefits, high combustion efficiency, wide coal flexibility, and some other advantages. At the same time, the abrasion problem, the greatest weakness of this kind of boiler, has been gradually exposed in its application process. The abrasion, particularly on key parts such as the heating surface of water-cooled wall, furnace corners, separator entrance, seriously restricts the long-period operation ability of the CFBB. This article discusses current development status for various abrasion resistant refractory materials used in a CFBB. Some comments are provided for developing new high-performance abrasion resistant refractory materials and rapid-repaired materials according to the abrasion principle and the abrasion on different parts, as well as the economical and environmental requirements for the material. The abrasion solution and operation period of CFBB can be better improved given realization.

  14. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu.

  15. New form of calcium carbonate improves SO{sub 2} removal from boilers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    As acid rain control regulations take effect, some utility companies are considering or have installed flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems using lime-based sorbents. With one type of FGD system, called furnace sorbent injection (FSI), sorbents are injected directly into the combustion chamber of a coal-fired boiler. Such systems have proven effective at reducing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from some types of boilers, especially those that operate at relatively low temperatures. However, FSI systems have generally not performed well with most types of conventional boilers. A New York company has patented a new FGD sorbent called thermally active marble (TAM). TAMs tend to fracture and expose new reaction surfaces - much like ice cubes in hot water. This enables such materials to neutralize SO{sub 2} more efficiently and at much higher temperatures than limestone. In fact, TAMs have shown the ability to neutralize SO{sub 2} even when injected into the hottest portion of many conventional boilers. TAMs have also been shown to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) formation and improve boiler efficiency by promoting more complete carbon combustion. Pilot- and full-scale tests of TAMs in several types of boilers are described in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Using representations in geometry: a model of students' cognitive and affective performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaoura, Areti

    2014-05-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs in mathematics, as a dimension of the affective domain, are related with students' performance on solving tasks and mainly on overcoming cognitive obstacles. The present study investigated the interrelations of cognitive performance on geometry and young students' self-efficacy beliefs about using representations for solving geometrical tasks. The emphasis was on confirming a theoretical model for the primary-school and secondary-school students and identifying the differences and similarities for the two ages. A quantitative study was developed and data were collected from 1086 students in Grades 5-8. Confirmatory factor analysis affirmed the existence of a coherent model of affective dimensions about the use of representations for understanding the geometrical concepts, which becomes more stable across the educational levels.

  17. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  18. The fat of the matter: how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Barbara J; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-11-01

    Fatty-acid composition of fat stores affects exercise performance in a variety of vertebrates although few such studies focus on flying vertebrates such as migratory birds, which are exceptional exercisers. We first discuss the natural variation in quality of fat available in natural foods eaten by migratory birds and their behavioral preferences for specific fatty acids in these foods. We then outline three proposed hypotheses for how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance, and some of the evidence to date that pertains to these hypotheses with special emphasis on the exercise performance of migratory birds. In theory, selectively feeding on certain long-chain unsaturated fatty acids may be advantageous because (1) such fatty acids may be metabolized more quickly and may stimulate key facets of aerobic metabolism (fuel hypothesis); (2) such fatty acids may affect composition and key functions of lipid-rich cell membranes (membrane hypothesis); and (3) such fatty acids may directly act as signaling molecules (signal hypothesis). Testing these hypotheses requires cleverly designed experiments that can distinguish between them by demonstrating that certain fatty acids stimulate oxidative capacity, including gene expression and activity of key oxidative enzymes, and that this stimulation changes during exercise.

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  20. Executive dysfunction affects word list recall performance: Evidence from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Monica; Rossi, Stefania; Cerami, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Iannaccone, Sandro; Francesco Cappa, Stefano; Perani, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is widely used in clinical practice to evaluate verbal episodic memory. While there is evidence that RAVLT performance can be influenced by executive dysfunction, the way executive disorders affect the serial position curve (SPC) has not been yet explored. To this aim, we analysed immediate and delayed recall performances of 13 non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with a specific mild executive dysfunction (ALSci) and compared their performances to those of 48 healthy controls (HC) and 13 cognitively normal patients with ALS. Moreover, to control for the impact of a severe dysexecutive syndrome and a genuine episodic memory deficit on the SPC, we enrolled 15 patients with a diagnosis of behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results documented that, compared to cognitively normal subjects, ALSci patients had a selective mid-list impairment for immediate recall scores. The bvFTD group obtained low performances with a selectively increased forgetting rate for terminal items, whereas the AD group showed a disproportionately large memory loss on the primary and middle part of the SPC for immediate recall scores and were severely impaired in the delayed recall trial. These results suggested that subtle executive dysfunctions might influence the recall of mid-list items, possibly reflecting deficiency in control strategies at retrieval of word lists, whereas severer dysexecutive syndrome might also affect the recall of terminal items possibly due to attention deficit or retroactive interference.

  1. Neural Efficiency in Expert Cognitive-Motor Performers During Affective Challenge.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Michelle E; VanMeter, John W; Janelle, Christopher M; Braun, Allen; Miller, Matthew W; Oldham, Jessica; Russell, Bartlett A H; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Skilled individuals demonstrate a spatially localized or relatively lower response in brain activity characterized as neural efficiency when performing within their domain of expertise. Elite athletes are experts in their chosen sport and thus must be not only adept in the motor domain but must be resilient to performing under the stress of high-level competition. Such stability of performance suggests this population processes emotion and mental stress in an adaptive and efficient manner. This study sought to determine if athletes with a history of successful performance under circumstances of mental stress demonstrate neural efficiency during affective challenges compared to age-matched controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the blood-oxygen level-dependent response was recorded during emotional challenge induced by sport-specific and general unpleasant images. The athletes demonstrated neural efficiency in brain regions critical to emotion regulation (prefrontal cortex) and affect (insula) independently of their domain of expertise, suggesting adaptive processing of negative events and less emotional reactivity to unpleasant stimuli.

  2. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  3. How explicit and implicit test instructions in an implicit learning task affect performance.

    PubMed

    Witt, Arnaud; Puspitawati, Ira; Vinter, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised.

  4. Exploiting the On-Campus Boiler House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Shows how a university utility building ("boiler house") is used in a chemical engineering course for computer simulations, mathematical modeling and process problem exercises. Student projects involving the facility are also discussed. (JN)

  5. New thinking for the boiler room.

    PubMed

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  6. Boiler scale prevention employing an organic chelant

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven L.; Griffin, Jr., Freddie; Tvedt, Jr., Thorwald J.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of treating boiler water which employs an oxygen scavenging compound and a compound to control pH together with a chelating agent, wherein the chelating agent is hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid.

  7. FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

    2002-07-01

    This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

  8. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A A; Hoo, E A

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65{degree}C to 160{degree}C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  9. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65[degree]C to 160[degree]C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  10. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  11. Distractions, distractions: does instant messaging affect college students' performance on a concurrent reading comprehension task?

    PubMed

    Fox, Annie Beth; Rosen, Jonathan; Crawford, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has become one of the most popular forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and is especially prevalent on college campuses. Previous research suggests that IM users often multitask while conversing online. To date, no one has yet examined the cognitive effect of concurrent IM use. Participants in the present study (N = 69) completed a reading comprehension task uninterrupted or while concurrently holding an IM conversation. Participants who IMed while performing the reading task took significantly longer to complete the task, indicating that concurrent IM use negatively affects efficiency. Concurrent IM use did not affect reading comprehension scores. Additional analyses revealed that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their reading comprehension scores. Finally, we found that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their self-reported GPA. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  12. Chemical cleaning clears San Miguel's boiler tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.; Wofford, J. ); Magel, R. )

    1994-06-01

    This article describes chemical cleaning of the San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) boiler, an opposed-fired, natural circulation, reheat unit. At maximum continuous rating, steam flow is 3,054,000 lb/hr at a pressure of 2,925 psig. The superheater and reheater design temperatures are both 1,005 F. Boiler volume is 69,000 gallons. The Unit 1 boiler had not been cleaned since 1980, its original start-up date. Tube sample analyses indicated deposit densities ranging from 12 to 26 grams/ft[sup 2]. Utility boiler tubes will, over time, accumulate an internal layer of iron oxides and other deposits that inhibit flow and heat transfer, even with well-controlled water chemistry. Tube deposits can speed up corrosion, cause tube overheating, and be a precursor to tube failure. Deposits can influence such phenomena as phosphate hideout, and reduce boiler efficiency. For many utility boilers, a periodic cleaning is necessary to remove internal deposits before they can cause serious problems. Regardless of the benefits, chemical cleanings often make plant managers, engineers, and operators anxious because the process has been known to cause equipment damage or extend the length of an outage.

  13. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions.

  14. Swimming performance of hatchling green turtles is affected by incubation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Booth, David T.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2006-08-01

    In an experiment repeated for two separate years, incubation temperature was found to affect the body size and swimming performance of hatchling green turtles ( Chelonia mydas). In the first year, hatchlings from eggs incubated at 26°C were larger in size than hatchlings from 28 and 30°C, whilst in the second year hatchlings from 25.5°C were similar in size to hatchings from 30°C. Clutch of origin influenced the size of hatchlings at all incubation temperatures even when differences in egg size were taken into account. In laboratory measurements of swimming performance, in seawater at 28°C, hatchlings from eggs incubated at 25.5 and 26°C had a lower stroke rate frequency and lower force output than hatchlings from 28 and 30°C. These differences appeared to be caused by the muscles of hatchlings from cooler temperatures fatiguing at a faster rate. Clutch of origin did not influence swimming performance. This finding that hatchling males incubated at lower temperature had reduced swimming ability may affect their survival whilst running the gauntlet of predators in shallow near-shore waters, prior to reaching the relative safety of the open sea.

  15. Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

  16. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run late-including sleep times-yet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects academic performance negatively. This constellation affects students' future career prospects. Our study correlates chronotype and examination performance. In total, 4734 grades were collected from 741 Dutch high school students (ages 11-18 years) who had completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire to estimate their internal time. Overall, the lowest grades were obtained by students who were very late chronotypes (MSFsc > 5.31 h) or slept very short on schooldays (SDw < 7.03 h). The effect of chronotype on examination performance depended on the time of day that examinations were taken. Opposed to late types, early chronotypes obtained significantly higher grades during the early (0815-0945 h) and late (1000-1215 h) morning. This group difference in grades disappeared in the early afternoon (1245-1500 h). Late types also obtained lower grades than early types when tested at the same internal time (hours after MSFsc), which may reflect general attention and learning disadvantages of late chronotypes during the early morning. Our results support delaying high school starting times as well as scheduling examinations in the early afternoon to avoid discrimination of late chronotypes and to give all high school students equal academic opportunities.

  17. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  18. Prolonged self-paced exercise in the heat – environmental factors affecting performance

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Nicklas; Jørgensen, Rasmus; Flouris, Andreas D.; Nybo, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this review we examine how self-paced performance is affected by environmental heat stress factors during cycling time trial performance as well as considering the effects of exercise mode and heat acclimatization. Mean power output during prolonged cycling time trials in the heat (≥30°C) was on average reduced by 15% in the 14 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Ambient temperature per se was a poor predictor of the integrated environmental heat stress and 2 of the prevailing heat stress indices (WBGT and UTCI) failed to predict the environmental influence on performance. The weighing of wind speed appears to be too low for predicting the effect for cycling in trained acclimatized subjects, where performance may be maintained in outdoor time trials at ambient temperatures as high as 36°C (36°C UTCI; 28°C WBGT). Power output during indoor trials may also be maintained with temperatures up to at least 27°C when humidity is modest and wind speed matches the movement speed generated during outdoor cycling, whereas marked reductions are observed when air movement is minimal. For running, representing an exercise mode with lower movement speed and higher heat production for a given metabolic rate, it appears that endurance is affected even at much lower ambient temperatures. On this basis we conclude that environmental heat stress impacts self-paced endurance performance. However, the effect is markedly modified by acclimatization status and exercise mode, as the wind generated by the exercise (movement speed) or the environment (natural or fan air movement) exerts a strong influence. PMID:28090557

  19. Prolonged self-paced exercise in the heat - environmental factors affecting performance.

    PubMed

    Junge, Nicklas; Jørgensen, Rasmus; Flouris, Andreas D; Nybo, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examine how self-paced performance is affected by environmental heat stress factors during cycling time trial performance as well as considering the effects of exercise mode and heat acclimatization. Mean power output during prolonged cycling time trials in the heat (≥30°C) was on average reduced by 15% in the 14 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Ambient temperature per se was a poor predictor of the integrated environmental heat stress and 2 of the prevailing heat stress indices (WBGT and UTCI) failed to predict the environmental influence on performance. The weighing of wind speed appears to be too low for predicting the effect for cycling in trained acclimatized subjects, where performance may be maintained in outdoor time trials at ambient temperatures as high as 36°C (36°C UTCI; 28°C WBGT). Power output during indoor trials may also be maintained with temperatures up to at least 27°C when humidity is modest and wind speed matches the movement speed generated during outdoor cycling, whereas marked reductions are observed when air movement is minimal. For running, representing an exercise mode with lower movement speed and higher heat production for a given metabolic rate, it appears that endurance is affected even at much lower ambient temperatures. On this basis we conclude that environmental heat stress impacts self-paced endurance performance. However, the effect is markedly modified by acclimatization status and exercise mode, as the wind generated by the exercise (movement speed) or the environment (natural or fan air movement) exerts a strong influence.

  20. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L. Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-01-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits. PMID:25240065

  1. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-12-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits.

  2. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  3. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  4. {open_quotes}The next generations of Tampella Power`s CFB boilers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The next generation of Tampella Power Corporation`s CFB boilers is discussed in outline form. The following topics are outlined: CFB boiler advantages, CFB boiler fuel flexibility and CYMIC boiler construction.

  5. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  6. School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-09-01

    It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans' school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration.

  7. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  8. 33. VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING TOWARD WEST BOILER ROOM BASEMENT THROUGH THE ASH TRANSFER TUNNEL. ASH HOPPER FOR BOILER 900 IS ON THE RIGHT. NOTE THE TRACKS ALONG THE FLOOR OF THE TUNNEL. A SMALL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE HAULED CARS FOR TRANSFERRING ASH FROM BOILERS TO DISPOSAL SITES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING. THIS SYSTEM BECAME OBSOLETE IN 1938 WHEN BOILERS IN THE WEST BOILER ROOM WERE REMOVED AND PULVERIZED COAL WAS ADOPTED AS THE FUEL. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. How Does the Driver’s Perception Reaction Time Affect the Performances of Crash Surrogate Measures?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Weng, Jinxian; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    With the merit on representing traffic conflict through examining the crash mechanism and causality proactively, crash surrogate measures have long been proposed and applied to evaluate the traffic safety. However, the driver’s Perception-Reaction Time (PRT), an important variable in crash mechanism, has not been considered widely into surrogate measures. In this regard, it is important to know how the PRT affects the performances of surrogate indicators. To this end, three widely used surrogate measures are firstly modified by involving the PRT into their crash mechanisms. Then, in order to examine the difference caused by the PRT, a comparative study is carried out on a freeway section of the Pacific Motorway, Australia. This result suggests that the surrogate indicators’ performances in representing rear-end crash risks are improved with the incorporating of the PRT for the investigated section. PMID:26398416

  10. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  11. Chemical and physical parameters affecting the performance of the Os-191/Ir-191m generator

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, A.B.; Treves, S.; O'Brien, G.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an Os-191/Ir-191m generator suitable for radionuclide angiography in humans has elicited much interest. This generator employs (OsO/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/)/sup 2 -/ on AG MP-1 anion exchange resin with a Dowex-2 scavenger column and is elute with normal saline at pH 1. The parent Os species is, however, neither well-defined nor homogeneous leading to less than optimal breakthrough of Os-191 (5 x 10/sup -3/%) and modest Ir-191m yield (10-15%). The effect of a range of parameters on generator performance has been evaluated as has been the way in which the assembly and loading process affects generator performance. In addition, a number of potential alternative generator systems have been evaluated. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  13. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  14. The effect of cognitive status and visuospatial performance on affective theory of mind in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    McKinlay, Audrey; Albicini, Michelle; Kavanagh, Phillip S

    2013-01-01

    It is now well accepted that theory of mind (ToM) functioning is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, what remain unknown are the functions that underlie this impairment. It has been suggested that cognitive skills may be key in this area of functioning; however, many of the cognitive tests used to assess this have relied on intact visuospatial abilities. This study aimed to examine whether deficits in ToM were generated by cognitive or visuospatial dysfunction and the mediating effect of visuospatial function on ToM performance. Fifty PD patients (31 male, 19 female; mean age = 66.34 years) and 49 healthy controls (16 male, 33 female; mean age = 67.29 years) completed a ToM task (reading the mind in the eyes) and visuospatial task (line orientation). The results revealed that current cognitive status was a significant predictor for performance on the ToM task, and that 54% of the total effect of cognitive status on ToM was mediated by visuospatial abilities. It was concluded that visuospatial functioning plays an important mediating role for the relationship between executive dysfunction and affective ToM deficits in PD patients, and that visuospatial deficits may directly contribute to the presence of affective ToM difficulties seen in individuals with PD.

  15. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  16. Altitude affects the reproductive performance in monoicous and dioicous bryophytes: examples from a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Maciel-Silva, Adaíses S.; Marques Valio, Ivany F.; Rydin, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Short life cycles and trade-offs linked to breeding systems make bryophytes good models for the study of plant reproductive strategies. Our aim was to test if differences in sexual reproductive performance of bryophytes in tropical rainforests are driven by the breeding system of the species (monoicous or dioicous) or are mainly affected by the habitat. Methodology The reproductive performance (sexual branches, gametangia (sex organs), fertilization and sporophyte production) of 11 species was repeatedly monitored and analysed from populations at sea-level and montane sites of a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest over 15 months. Principal results Monoicous species had the highest reproductive performance, particularly for sexual branches, fertilized gametangia and sporophyte production. Species at the sea-level site produced more sexual branches and had more female-biased sex ratios of gametangia than species in the montane site. Fertilizations were more frequent at the montane site, but sporophyte frequency was similar between the two sites. Fertilization tended to occur mostly in the periods of heavy rain (October to December). Conclusions Breeding system is not the only major influence on the reproductive performance of bryophytes. We show that habitat is also an important factor determining life-history differentiation. Female-biased sex ratios and low rates of fertilization are seen to be compensated for by high production of reproductive structures at the initial phases of the reproductive cycle. PMID:22822422

  17. Combustion of fuel with high fines in Ahlstrom Pyroflow{reg_sign} CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Chelian, P.K.; Gamble, R.

    1995-12-31

    Ahlstrom Pyroflow{reg_sign} boilers have demonstrated the ability of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers to successfully burn unconventional fuels. These boilers have played a major role in the utilization of waste fuels, like bituminous gob and anthracite culm. Many of the waste fuels are processed prior to combustion to increase their heating value. As the technology for combustion of these fuels advanced, so has the desire of the owners to utilize more of the waste fuel and minimize the rejects. In the past, a majority of the fines content (less than 150 microns) was rejected and returned to the piles along with other rejects. In some cases, pond settlings were found to have a reasonably useful heat content, and were a preferred supplement to the anthracite culm. The use of these rejects had one result in common, i.e., to increase the fines content in the fuel feed to the CFB boilers. Pyropower was involved in tests conducted at two boilers, one burning bituminous gob and the other burning processed anthracite culm and silt. These tests were aimed at studying the effect of the high fuel fines content on the CFB boiler performance to determine the maximum practical fines limit. There were concerns of high unburned carbon loss, high CO and high cyclone temperatures. The actual test data confirmed that these boilers could fire a high percent of fines without major concerns. This paper discusses in detail the results of the testing with anthracite culm and silt, and references similar observations made during the testing with high fines bituminous gob.

  18. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOEpatents

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A.; Hogle, Richard E.

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  19. Combustion of Schlamm in ACFB boilers -- The Charbonnages de France Group's experience

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, M.; Rollin, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Within the context of the rehabilitation of Emile Huchet Power Plant Unit 4 owned by the ``SNET'', a company of the CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE Group, a new CFB boiler with an electrical capacity of 125 MW has been commissioned in 1990 in replacement for an existing pulverized-coal boiler. This boiler constituted at the time an experimental unit on two accounts. It was an innovation through its size but also its specific design which allows to burn schlamm--a coal washing residue--in the form of pulp. The boiler design answered the CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE Group's need to eliminate old settling ponds containing schlamm which, from the technical and economic point of view, could not be burnt using conventional combustion techniques owing to its specific characteristics (fine, high-ash product with a very high moisture and clay content). This original method of injection as well as the pulp preparation process suited to this type of injection have been designed and developed by CdF INGENIERIE and the CERCHAR (CdF Group) after many investigations and tests. The experience gained at Emile Huchet Power Plant for more than 7 years confirms that the CFB boiler is a clean combustion technique which is perfectly suited to the combustion of schlamm injected in the form of pulp. The CFB unit burns exclusively schlamm conditioned in the form of pulp with 33% of moisture, and this with a high degree of efficiency, low emission values and a very good availability. This talk include a description of the CFB boiler and the pulp preparation plant as well as a presentation of the boiler performances and of the experience gained by the CHARBONANGES DE FRANCE Group since the new CFB unit has been commissioned.

  20. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  1. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and...

  2. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and...

  3. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and...

  4. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and...

  5. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and...

  6. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  7. Fuzzy control of a boiler steam drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.; Crockett, W.K.

    1995-10-01

    The authors controlled the inlet water flow to a dynamic model of a steam drum using fuzzy logic. The drum level varied little with step inputs in steam flow. The fuzzy logic controller performed at least as well as a well-tuned traditional PI (which is notoriously difficult to tune). Using plant data in the model provided further evidence that fuzzy logic control gave excellent results. The drum level is a function of inlet water, steam production, and blowdown. To compensate for upsets caused by steam production, independent variables used in the fuzzy controller were drum level and change in drum level. The dependent variable was the change required in the inlet flow. By modeling a 175,000 lb/hr Riley-Stoker boiler, they determined the universe of discourse for each of the three variables. Three triangular and two trapezoidal membership functions characterize each of these universes. The knowledge of experts provided the fuzzy associative memory (FAM) for the variables. The authors modeled the complete dynamic system using Tutsim (Tutsim Products, 200 California Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94306).

  8. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwani, A

    1990-12-31

    A spectral element method embodying Large Eddy Simulation based on Re- Normalization Group theory for simulating Sub Grid Scale viscosity was chosen for this work. This method is embodied in a computer code called NEKTON. NEKTON solves the unsteady, 2D or 3D,incompressible Navier Stokes equations by a spectral element method. The code was later extended to include the variable density and multiple reactive species effects at low Mach numbers, and to compute transport of large particles governed by inertia. Transport of small particles is computed by treating them as trace species. Code computations were performed for a number of test conditions typical of flow past a deep tube bank in a boiler. Results indicate qualitatively correct behavior. Predictions of deposition rates and deposit shape evolution also show correct qualitative behavior. These simulations are the first attempts to compute flow field results at realistic flow Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4}. Code validation was not done; comparison with experiment also could not be made as many phenomenological model parameters, e.g., sticking or erosion probabilities and their dependence on experimental conditions were not known. The predictions however demonstrate the capability to predict fouling from first principles. Further work is needed: use of large or massively parallel machine; code validation; parametric studies, etc.

  9. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of

  10. Advancement of 10 t/h fluidized bed boiler burning Fujian anthracite with extremely low volatile[ity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Duan, Y.; Chen, X.; Wu, X.; Wu, S.; Wang, W.; Huang, C.

    1999-07-01

    The anthracite in Fujian Province, China with extremely low volatile content about 2--4% is very difficult to burn in grate firing boilers, and operation conditions are very poor, such as steam output well below the nominal capacity and very low burning-out rate. Burning Fujian anthracite in specially designed bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boilers with capacities between 4 T/H and 20 T/H are still unsatisfactory. In order to increase boiler output and utilize local coal more efficiently, a 10 T/H BFB boiler burning Fujian anthracite was retrofitted with several special techniques, in terms of underbed feeding of recycling fly ash, vortexing secondary air injection, continuous bottom ash removal and adding immersed tube surface. The boiler performances before and after the retrofitting were measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that steam output of the boiler is boosted from 7--8 T/H to more than 14 T/H, unburned carbon content (UBC) in ash from the convective banks drops from 31.39% to 3.89%, UBC in ash from the multicyclone drops from 38.87% to 22.19%, and UBC in fly ash drops from 35.3% to 18.07%. The boiler thermal efficiency increases from 67.27% to 82.93%. Boiler operation becomes more stable. Particulate emission is substantially lessened because of separation by the vortexing secondary air. The retrofitting was completely successful. The technique used and experiences obtained in the retrofitting can be widely applied in industrial BFB boilers.

  11. Dietary electrolyte balance affects growth performance, amylase activity and metabolic response in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Leonardo J; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Peixoto, Maria-João; Pereira, Luis; Silva-Brito, Francisca; Fontinha, Filipa; Gonçalves, José F M; Wilson, Jonathan M; Schrama, Johan W; Ozório, Rodrigo O A

    2017-03-16

    Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish performance, gastric chyme characteristics, pH and ion concentrations in the bloodstream, digestive enzyme activities and metabolic rates were analyzed in meagre fed ad libitum two experimental diets (DEB 200 or DEB 700mEq/kg) differing in the Na2CO3 content for 69days. Fish fed the DEB 200 diet had 60-66% better growth performance than the DEB 700 group. Meagre consuming the DEB 200 diet were 90-96% more efficient than fish fed the DEB 700 diet at allocating energy from feed into somatic growth. The pH values in blood were significantly lower in the DEB 700 group 2h after feeding when compared to DEB 200, indicating that acid-base balance in meagre was affected by electrolyte balance in diet. Osmolality, and Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in plasma did not vary with the dietary treatment. Gastric chyme in the DEB 700 group had higher pH values, dry matter, protein and energy contents, but lower lipid content than in the DEB 200 group. Twenty-four hours after feeding, amylase activity was higher in the gastrointestinal tract of DEB 700 group when compared to the DEB 200 group. DEB 700 group had lower routine metabolic (RMR) and standard metabolic (SMR) rates, indicating a decrease in maintenance energy expenditure 48h after feeding the alkaline diet. The current study demonstrates that feeding meagre with an alkaline diet not only causes acid-base imbalance, but also negatively affects digestion and possibly nutrient assimilation, resulting in decreased growth performance.

  12. Decomposers (Lumbricidae, Collembola) affect plant performance in model grasslands of different diversity.

    PubMed

    Partsch, Stephan; Milcu, Alexandru; Scheu, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Decomposer invertebrates influence soil structure and nutrient mineralization as well as the activity and composition of the microbial community in soil and therefore likely affect plant performance and plant competition. We established model grassland communities in a greenhouse to study the interrelationship between two different functional groups of decomposer invertebrates, Lumbricidae and Collembola, and their effect on plant performance and plant nitrogen uptake in a plant diversity gradient. Common plant species of Central European Arrhenatherion grasslands were transplanted into microcosms with numbers of plant species varying from one to eight and plant functional groups varying from one to four. Separate and combined treatments with earthworms and collembolans were set up. Microcosms contained 15N labeled litter to track N fluxes into plant shoots. Presence of decomposers strongly increased total plant and plant shoot biomass. Root biomass decreased in the presence of collembolans and even more in the presence of earthworms. However, it increased when both animal groups were present. Also, presence of decomposers increased total N concentration and 15N enrichment of grasses, legumes, and small herbs. Small herbs were at a maximum in the combined treatment with earthworms and collembolans. The impact of earthworms and collembolans on plant performance strongly varied with plant functional group identity and plant species diversity and was modified when both decomposers were present. Both decomposer groups generally increased aboveground plant productivity through effects on litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization leading to an increased plant nutrient acquisition. The non-uniform effects of earthworms and collembolans suggest that functional diversity of soil decomposer animals matters and that the interactions between soil animal functional groups affect the structure of plant communities.

  13. Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Yue, Zengyuan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Warming-up (WU) is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU); 2. extensive WU (EWU); 3. intensive WU (IWU). Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB), plasma ([LA]plasma) and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC). Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU) and +60 Watt (IWU) higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a “higher preloading” with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility. Key points Warm-up significantly improves performance during 30

  14. Differences in Foliage Affect Performance of the Lappet Moth, Streblote panda: Implications for Species Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, D.; Molina, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

  15. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings.

  16. Performance of music elevates pain threshold and positive affect: implications for the evolutionary function of music.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, R I M; Kaskatis, Kostas; MacDonald, Ian; Barra, Vinnie

    2012-10-22

    It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance) in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative) affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making.

  17. Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on left, electric motor pump on right). - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  18. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  19. 20. FIREMAN'S END OF FIRETUBE BOILER. MANUFACTURED BY LUCEY. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. FIREMAN'S END OF FIRE-TUBE BOILER. MANUFACTURED BY LUCEY. THE BOILER CREATED APPROXIMATELY 150 POUNDS OF PRESSURE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 3. Partial view of SE sides of Boiler Building (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Partial view of SE sides of Boiler Building (left), Incineration Building (to right of stack) and Machine Shop (right). - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Boiler Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 2. EAST SIDE; COAL ASH FROM BOILERS WAS BLOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST SIDE; COAL ASH FROM BOILERS WAS BLOWN INTO TANK AT RIGHT, THEN DROPPED INTO RAIL CARS FOR REMOVAL - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL AT CENTER; BOXLIKE, RIVETED HOUSING AT TOP CENTER CONTAINED AUGER FOR COAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. Overview of Boiler House showing the Ibeam framework supporting the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Boiler House showing the I-beam framework supporting the chimney, view facing southwest - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  5. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  6. View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler house, behind the upper shops - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill furnace building in foreground. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Central Boiler House, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. Looking south at a chemical mixing tank for boiler feedwater. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at a chemical mixing tank for boiler feedwater. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  10. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  11. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  12. Factors affecting the performance of microbial fuel cells for sulfur pollutants removal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Rahunen, Nelli; Varcoe, John R; Roberts, Alexander J; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio; Thumser, Alfred E; Slade, Robert C T

    2009-03-15

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed for removal of sulfur-based pollutants and can be used for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation. This fuel cell uses an activated carbon cloth+carbon fibre veil composite anode, air-breathing dual cathodes and the sulfate-reducing species Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. 1.16gdm(-3) sulfite and 0.97gdm(-3) thiosulfate were removed from the wastewater at 22 degrees C, representing sulfite and thiosulfate removal conversions of 91% and 86%, respectively. The anode potential was controlled by the concentration of sulfide in the compartment. The performance of the cathode assembly was affected by the concentration of protons in the cation-exchanging ionomer with which the electrocatalyst is co-bound at the three-phase (air, catalyst and support) boundary.

  13. Experimental investigation of air pressure affecting filtration performance of fibrous filter sheet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Xiao; Wu, Ya; Lin, Zhongping

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the effect of air pressure on their filtration performance is important for assessing the effectiveness of fibrous filters under different practical circumstances. The effectiveness of three classes of air filter sheets were investigated in laboratory-based measurements at a wide range of air pressures (60-130 KPa). The filtration efficiency was found most sensitive to the air pressure change at smaller particle sizes. As the air pressure increased from 60 to 130 KPa, significant decrease in filtration efficiency (up to 15%) and increase in pressure drop (up to 90 Pa) were observed. The filtration efficiency of the filter sheet with largest fiber diameter and smallest solid volume fraction was affected most, while the pressure drop of the filter sheet with smallest fiber diameter and largest solid volume fraction was affected most. The effect of air pressure on the filtration efficiency was slightly larger at greater filter face air velocity. However, the effect of air pressure on the pressure drop was negligible. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop were explicitly expressed as functions of the air pressure. Two coefficients were empirically derived and successfully accounted for the effects of air pressure on filtration efficiency and pressure drop.

  14. Caterpillar abundance in the territory affects the breeding performance of great tit Parus major minor.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shin-Ichi; Takano, Hajime

    1998-05-01

    The effects of caterpillar food supply on the breeding performance of a population of the Japanese great tit Parus major minor were investigated. Since more than 90% of the food items in our study site were caterpillars living on trees, we estimated the food availability using 20 frass traps per hectare. The sampling error of this method was about 10% on average, which was accurate enough to detect differences between territories. Food abundance at laying in each territory affected the timing of egg laying. However, food amount after hatching was correlated with clutch size. No relationship was found between fledgling quality and food availability, probably because the effects of local variation in food abundance could be canceled out by parental effort such as extending the foraging area. There was a significant negative correlation between the length of the nestling period and food availability. We suggest that parent tits decide the timing of fledging at the point where two factors, predation risk before fledging and additional improvement of nestling quality, are balanced. Food availability just after fledging affected the length of post-fledging parental care; it seems that fledglings in "poor" territories would have had difficulty in finding food and hence needed to depend on their parents longer than those in "rich" territories.

  15. Do centrally programmed anticipatory postural adjustments in fast stepping affect performance of an associated "touche" movement?

    PubMed

    Do, M C; Yiou, E

    1999-12-01

    Ensuring maximum speed in executing a sequence of two voluntary movements requires the second movement to be triggered only after some delay. This is due to the existence of a "relative refractory period." If the second movement is initiated during the refractory period, its speed decreases (movement time increases). In the present study we tested the existence of a refractory period during the execution of a sequence of movements involving both the upper and the lower limbs. More precisely, we examined whether the maximal speed of the touche fencing movement is affected by the anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) preceding a voluntary lunge. The touche and the lunge are similar to a pointing task and a stepping forward movement, respectively. touche consists of hitting a target with a foil at maximal velocity. The results show that (a) when the touche was initiated prior to the onset of the APA of the lunge, the maximal foil velocity remains similar to that of an isolated touche, and (b) when the touche is initiated during the development of the APA of the lunge, the maximal foil velocity is lower than in the isolated touche. Furthermore, the maximal foil velocity decreases with the temporal progression of the APA and reaches its minimal value when initiated at the time of voluntary lunge execution ('foot off'). The discussion suggests that the centrally programmed APA that are elicited in the stepping forward movement induces a refractory period which affects performance of the pointing task.

  16. Demonstration Of Selective Catalytic Reduction For The Control Of NOx Emissions From High-Sulfur Coal-Fired Boilers, Project Performance Summary. Clean Coal Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-11-30

    This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project is one of 16 selected from 55 proposals submitted in response to the CCTDP's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (Southern), a subsidiary of Southern Company, conducted the Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction for the Control of NOx Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers project. Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist provided the host site and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ontario Hydro co-funded the project and provided technical input. The project began in June 1990 and operational testing occurred between July 1993 and July 1995. In simplistic terms, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process consists of injecting ammonia (NH3) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and NH3 react to form water vapor and nitrogen (an element that comprises 78 percent of air).

  17. Grape variety affects larval performance and also female reproductive performance of the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Moreau, J; Benrey, B; Thiéry, D

    2006-04-01

    For insect herbivores, the quality of the larval host plant is a key determinant of fitness. Therefore, insect populations are supposed to be positively correlated with the nutritional quality of their host plant. This study aimed to determine if and how different varieties of grapes (including the wild grape Lambrusque) affect both larval and adult performance of the polyphagous European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Significant differences were found in larval development time, but not in pupal mass, adult emergence rate, or sex ratio. Although the fecundity of females is not different among varieties, females fed on some varieties produced eggs of different sizes which are correlated to their fertility. Thus, females adapt resource allocation to eggs depending on their diet as larvae. Using a fitness index, the average reproductive output was found to be highest for females reared on cv. Chardonnay. Females reared on wild grape produced a fitness index identical to the cultivated grapes. However, Lambrusque and Gewurztraminer separate themselves from the cultivated varieties according to our discriminant analyses. It is emphasized, through this study, that cultivars fed on by larvae should be considered in the population dynamics of L. botrana and that egg number is insufficient to determine host plant quality.

  18. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not

  19. Personality Traits Affect Teaching Performance of Attending Physicians: Results of a Multi-Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. Method We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Results Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P = 0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: −0.10, 95% CI: −0.15 to −0.05, P<0.001) and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p = 0.01). Conclusions Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of

  20. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  1. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Katherine S.; Parsons, Christine E.; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronized, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance) but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behavior in both an experimental and observational setting. Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviors of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND). Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1). Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries). Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2). Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest. PMID:25741255

  2. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    that of the sample cured at room temperature. The hydration reactions initiated during the mixing of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period in the vaults to produce the hardened waste form product. The heat generated from exothermic hydration reactions results in a temperature increase in the vaults that depends on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned, the grout formulation (mix design) and the pour frequency and volume. This heat generation is a contributing factor to the temperature increase in the vaults that leads to an increased cure temperature for the grout. This report will further investigate the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance properties (hydraulic conductivity, Young's modulus, porosity, etc.) over a range of aluminate concentration, water to premix (w/p) ratio and weight percent fly ash in the premix processed at the SPF. The three curing temperatures selected for this study were chosen to provide data at fixed cure temperatures that represent measured temperatures in the SDF vaults. This does not represent the conditions in the vault where the temperature of the saltstone is continually changing with time. For example, it may take several days for the saltstone to reach 60 C at a given elevation. Previous results demonstrated that the rates at which a selected curing temperature is reached affect the performance properties. The approach taken in this task, a rapid increase to the curing temperature, may be conservative with respect to decreased performance. Nevertheless, the data will provide a basis from which to determine the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance as a function of key variables. A statistical evaluation of the results for these mixes will be performed to provide the range, and associated uncertainties, of hydraulic conductivity and other properties over this factor space.

  3. Factors affecting animal performance during the grazing season in a mountain cattle production system.

    PubMed

    Casasús, I; Sanz, A; Villalba, D; Ferrer, R; Revilla, R

    2002-06-01

    The factors influencing weight changes during the grazing season of Brown Swiss autumn-calving cows and Brown Swiss and Pirenaica spring-calving cows and their calves were studied over an 8-yr period in Spanish mountain conditions. The data set comprised 552 annual production cycles of cows that calved in two consecutive years. The animals grazed on alpine ranges during the summer and on forest pastures in the spring and autumn. They were housed during the winter and fed at different feeding levels (83 to 117% of their energy requirements) throughout the years of study. Weights were recorded every 3 mo and corrected to account for changes of digestive content and fetal growth, using theoretical relationships. Cow weight gains both on forest pastures and high mountain ranges were higher in autumn- than in spring-calving Brown Swiss cows, and therefore also during the whole grazing season (52.1 vs 7.7 kg, respectively, P < 0.001). Therefore, weight at calving and thereafter was significantly higher in autumn- than in spring-calving cows, which was associated with better reproductive performance (35.5 vs 49.1 d from calving to first ovulation, P < 0.01). In the spring-calving herd, Pirenaica cows had slightly higher gains than Brown Swiss cows during the grazing period (18.5 vs 7.7 kg, P < 0.001), mainly due to their higher gains on forest pastures, but their reproductive performance was similar (44.5 vs 49.1 d from calving to first ovulation, respectively, not statistically significant). Gains were higher in multiparous than in primiparous cows (31.1 vs 14.1 kg, respectively, P < 0.001), especially in the case of Brown Swiss cows, which were younger at first calving. Gains were affected by year of study (P < 0.001) and previous weight changes during the housing period (r = -0.35 and r = -0.21 in autumn- and spring-calving cows respectively, P < 0.001). In the case of autumn-calving cows, performance on pasture was also affected by the stage of pregnancy at housing (r

  4. Results of heat tests of the TGE-435 main boiler in the PGU-190/220 combined-cycle plant of the Tyumen' TETs-2 cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect

    A.V. Kurochkin; A.L. Kovalenko; V.G. Kozlov; A.I. Krivobok

    2007-01-15

    Special features of operation of a boiler operating as a combined-cycle plant and having its own furnace and burner unit are descried. The flow of flue gases on the boiler is increased due to feeding of exhaust gases of the GTU into the furnace, which intensifies the convective heat exchange. In addition, it is not necessary to preheat air in the convective heating surfaces (the boiler has no air preheater). The convective heating surfaces of the boiler are used for heating the feed water, thus replacing the regeneration extractions of the steam turbine (HPP are absent in the circuit) and partially replacing the preheating of condensate (the LPP in the circuit of the unit are combined with preheaters of delivery water). Regeneration of the steam turbine is primarily used for the district cogeneration heating purposes. The furnace and burner unit of the exhaust-heat boiler (which is a new engineering solution for the given project) ensures utilization of not only the heat of the exhaust gases of the GTU but also of their excess volume, because the latter contains up to 15% oxygen that oxidizes the combustion process in the boiler. Thus, the gas temperature at the inlet to the boiler amounts to 580{sup o}C at an excess air factor a = 3.50; at the outlet these parameters are utilized to T{sub out} = 139{sup o}C and a{sub out} = 1.17. The proportions of the GTU/boiler loads that can actually be organized at the generating unit (and have been checked by testing) are presented and the proportions of loads recommended for the most efficient operation of the boiler are determined. The performance characteristics of the boiler are presented for various proportions of GTU/boiler loads. The operating conditions of the superheater and of the convective trailing heating surfaces are presented as well as the ecological parameters of the generating unit.

  5. Neijiang Power Plant -- Experiences with the largest CFB boiler in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Shenshou; Hotta, A.

    1997-12-31

    The 100 MWe Neijiang Thermal Power Plant owned by Sichuan Electric Power Administration (SEPA) started operation in June 1996. The power plant is equipped with Foster Wheeler CFB Boiler, which is designed to produce 114 kg/s of superheated steam at 98 bar pressure and 540 C temperature. The local Sichuan anthracite coal, which is burned in the boiler, features high ash and high sulphur content and has been difficult to burn in some PC or stoker fired boilers. The new CFB boiler has proven to be very suitable for this coal and large turn-down ratio and good load following capability have been achieved. The Neijiang CFB boiler has demonstrated that the stringent emission levels could be easily achieved with good overall economy. The construction of the project, which was done in a tight schedule jointly with Foster Wheeler and SEPA in close and excellent cooperation, is described in this paper in addition to some technical details of the power plant. Also the observations made during the commissioning as well as the performance data are presented.

  6. Oral contraceptive cycle phase does not affect 200-m swim time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Rechichi, Claire; Dawson, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether swimming performance was affected by acute hormonal fluctuation within a monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. Six competitive swimmers and water polo players completed a 200-m time trial at 3 time points of a single OC cycle: during the consumption phase (CONS), early (WITH1), and late in the withdrawal phase (WITH2). Split times and stroke rate were recorded during the time trial, and heart rate, blood lactate, glucose, and pH were measured after each performance test. Resting endogenous serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations were also assessed. No significant differences were observed between phases for body composition, 200-m swim time, mean stroke rate, peak heart rate, or blood glucose (p > 0.05). The mean peak blood lactate was significantly lower during WITH2 (9.9 ± 3.0 mmol·L(-1)) compared with that of CONS (12.5 ± 3.0 mmol·L(-1)) and mean pH higher during WITH2 (7.183 ± 0.111) compared with that of CONS (7.144 ± 0.092). Serum estradiol levels were significantly greater during WITH2 compared with that during WITH1 and CONS, but there was no difference in serum progesterone levels. These results demonstrate that for monophasic OC users, cycle phase does not impact the 200-m swimming performance. There was a reduction in blood lactate and an increase in pH during the withdrawal phase, possibly because of an increase in fluid retention, plasma volume, and cellular alkalosis. Therefore, female 200-m swimmers taking a monophasic OC need not be concerned by the phase of their cycle with regard to competition and optimizing performance. However, coaches and scientists should exercise caution when interpreting blood lactate results obtained from swimming tests and consider controlling for cycle phase for athletes taking an OC.

  7. Aging affects spatial reconstruction more than spatial pattern separation performance even after extended practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rachel; Tahan, Asli C; Watson, Patrick D; Severson, Joan; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Michelle

    2017-03-21

    Although the hippocampus experiences age-related anatomical and functional deterioration, the effects of aging vary across hippocampal-dependent cognitive processes. In particular, whether or not the hippocampus is known to be required for a spatial memory process is not an accurate predictor on its own of whether aging will affect performance. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of healthy aging on a test of spatial pattern separation and a test of spatial relational processing, which are two aspects of spatial memory that uniquely emphasize the use of multiple hippocampal-dependent processes. Spatial pattern separation supports spatial memory by preserving unique representations for distinct locations. Spatial relational processing forms relational representations of objects to locations or between objects and other objects in space. To test our primary objective, 30 young (18-30 years; 21F) and 30 older participants (60-80 years; 21F) all completed a spatial pattern separation task and a task designed to require spatial relational processing through spatial reconstruction. To ensure aging effects were not due to inadequate time to develop optimal strategies or become comfortable with the testing devices, a subset of participants had extended practice across three sessions on each task. Results showed that older adults performed more poorly than young on the spatial reconstruction task that emphasized the use of spatial relational processing, and that age effects persisted even after controlling for pattern separation performance. Further, older adults performed more poorly on spatial reconstruction than young adults even after three testing sessions each separated by 7-10 days, suggesting effects of aging are resistant to extended practice and likely reflect genuine decline in hippocampal memory abilities.

  8. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2004-01-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter October-December 2003. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed in the previous reporting period. In this reporting period, one week of combustion parameters optimization has been performed in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. Under full-oxy conditions (100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas) in 1.5MW{sub th} coal-fired boiler, the following parameters have been varied and their impact on combustion characteristics measured: the recirculated flue gas flow rate has been varied from 80% to 95% of total flue gas flow, and the total oxygen flow rate into the primary air zone of the boiler has been set to levels ranging from 15% to 25% of the total oxygen consumption in the overall combustion. In current reporting period, significant progress has also been made in Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: mass and energy balance calculations and cost assessment have been completed on plant capacity of 533MW{sub e} gross output while applying the methodology described in previous reporting periods. Air-fired PC Boiler and proposed Oxygen-fired PC Boiler have been assessed, both for retrofit application and new unit. The current work schedule is to review in more details the experimental data collected so far as well as the economics results obtained on the 533MWe cases, and to develop a work scope for the remainder of the project. Approximately one week of pilot testing is expected during the first quarter of 2004, including mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. The project was on hold from mid-November through December 2003 due to non-availability of funds. Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $497k have been spent to date ($480 reported so far), mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $330k has been cost-shared by the

  9. More than one year of operation of Provence SOPROLIF 250 Mwe CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Claret, P.; Ratti, G.; Jacob, T.; Levy, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The SOPROLIF 250 Mwe CFB boiler, installed in the Provence Power Plant located near Gardanne in the south of France, has been the largest CFB boiler in operation since April 1996. The purpose of the project was to repower with a CFB boiler 250 Mwe the existing unit 4 of pulverized coal in order to keep on burning the local high sulfur coal while ensuring an environmentally friendly operation. The erection was carried out according to the schedule. The full load was reached in November 1995 and commercial operation started in April 1996 with 5 months delay due to social and technical problems mainly relative to some boiler and steam turbine auxiliaries rather than to the CFB process itself. The training to prepare the transfer from pulverized coal to CFB boiler was carefully prepared and the new process was well accepted by the operators. The SOPROLIF CFB boiler performances which were carried out in May 97 are in accordance with the expected figures. During the first year of operation, the availability reached the contractual figure, which was determined according to such a prototype. The main operation difficulties were due to the coal moisture, which was higher than expected in winter season (problem never met with the existing PC unit due to the drier process in mills). In addition, to reduce NO{sub x} emission, cyclone modification has been performed during the first year of operation through a main overhaul, which impacted the availability of the first year. Since April 97, the availability has been very high. This paper presents the project, describes the technical experience that EDF got from the first year of operation and states the performance test results.

  10. 23. VIEW FROM CATWALK OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW FROM CATWALK OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING NORTH. BOILERS 900 AND 901 ARE ON THE LEFT, BOILERS 902 AND 903 ARE ON THE RIGHT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 26. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING EAST AT BOILER 904. BOILER 904 WAS MANUFACTURED BY RILEY STOKER AND INSTALLED IN 1944. ORIGINALLY FUELED BY PULVERIZED COAL, IT WAS CONVERTED TO GAS/OIL OPERATION IN 1978 AND OPERATED UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ROOM. CYLINDRICAL TANKS ARE WORTHINGTON DEAERATORS. THESE REMOVED AIR FROM BOILER FEED WATER TO MINIMIZE CORROSION AND PITTING OF THE BOILER TUBES. AIR REMOVAL ALSO HELPED AVOID THE FORMATION OF FOAM IN THE SYSTEM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  14. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  15. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  16. 46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested... testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in subchapter F of this chapter....

  17. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  18. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  19. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  20. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  1. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  2. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  3. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix G7 to Part 305 - Boilers (Oil)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Oil) G7 Appendix G7 to Part 305... RULEâ) Appendix G7 to Part 305—Boilers (Oil) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Oil Boilers Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE Regional Standards for...

  5. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  6. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  7. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  8. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  9. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  10. 16 CFR Appendix G8 to Part 305 - Boilers (Electric)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Electric) G8 Appendix G8 to Part... LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G8 to Part 305—Boilers (Electric) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Electric Boilers 100 100...

  11. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  13. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  14. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  15. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  16. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  17. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  18. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix G6 to Part 305 - Boilers (Gas)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Gas) G6 Appendix G6 to Part 305... RULEâ) Appendix G6 to Part 305—Boilers (Gas) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Gas (Except Steam) Boilers Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE Regional...

  20. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  1. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  2. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  3. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 79598, Dec. 31, 2013. The following...

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  5. Fluidized-bed boilers achieve commercial status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1985-02-01

    The author reviews the current status of commercial fluidized-bed boilers worldwide. Particular attention is given to circulating fluidised-bed systems. A number of detailed tables are presented providing details of manufacturers of afb boilers, and information on 88 installed boilers, their fuels, combustion systems and operational data. Less detailed information is given of a further 140 installations.

  6. Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops Building (center - with single large chimney), note the monitor on the original section of the Boiler House Building, view facing north - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  7. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  8. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  9. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  10. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  11. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    PubMed

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload.

  12. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  13. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1979-12-27

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  14. Factors affecting numerical typing performance of young adults in a hear-and-type task.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Jhe; Wu, Changxu

    2011-12-01

    Numerical hear-and-type tasks, i.e. making immediate keypresses according to verbally presented numbers, possess both practical and theoretical importance but received relatively little attention. Effects of speech rates (500-ms vs. 1000-ms interval), urgency (urgent condition: performance-based monetary incentive plus time limit vs. non-urgent condition: flat-rate compensation) and finger strategies (single vs. multi-finger typing) on typing speed and accuracy were investigated. Fast speech rate and multi-finger typing produced more errors and slower typing speed. Urgency improved typing speed but decreased accuracy. Errors were almost doubled under urgent condition, while urgency effect on speed was similar to that of speech rate. Examination of error patterns did not fully support Salthouse's (1986) speculations about error-making mechanisms. The results implied that urgency could play a more important role in error-making than task demands. Numerical keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial incidence of errors found in this study. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study revealed that classic speculations about error-making mechanisms in alphabetical typing do not necessarily translate to numerical typing. Factors other than external task demands such as urgency can affect typing performance to a similar or greater extent. Investigations of intrinsic error-making factors in non-traditional typing tasks are encouraged.

  15. Computer-Detected Attention Affects Foreign Language Listening but Not Reading Performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    No quantitative study has explored the influence of attention on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This study investigated whether computer-detected attention is associated with EFL reading and listening and reading and listening anxiety. Traditional paper-based English tests used as entrance examinations and tests of general trait anxiety, reading, listening, reading test state anxiety, and listening test state anxiety were administered in 252 Taiwan EFL college students who were divided into High Attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test, CPT < 50) and Low Attention (CPT ≥ 50) groups. No differences were found between the two groups for traditional paper-based English tests, trait anxieties, general English reading anxiety scales, and general English listening anxiety scales. The Low Attention group had higher test state anxiety and lower listening test scores than the High Attention group, but not in reading. State anxiety during listening tests for EFL students with computer-detected low attention tendency was elevated and their EFL listening performance was affected, but those differences were not found in reading.

  16. Factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide; fenoterol hydrobromide pressurized-metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Ninbovorl, Jenjira; Sawatdee, Somchai; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol hydrobromide in a pressurized-metered dose inhaler (pMDI). A factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of three parameters (propellant, water, and ethanol) on the performance of 27 designed formulations of a solution-based pMDI. The formulations that contained a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant lower than 72% v/v and an ethanol concentration higher than 27% v/v remained as clear solutions. Nine formulations that contained the HFA propellant higher than 74% v/v precipitated. The results indicated that it was not only the HFA propellant content of the formulations that was related to the formulation instability but also ethanol content. Only six formulations from the 18 formulations, that did not precipitate, produced drug contents that were within the acceptable range (80-120%). These six formulations generated aerosols with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of approximately 2 μm with a fine particle fraction (FPF; particle size, <6.4 μm) between 45% and 52%. The MMAD and FPF did not change significantly after 6 months of storage (P > 0.05).

  17. Energy-conserving heat pump-boiler systems for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, H.; Giedt, W.H.; Kasahara, K.; Kawamura, K.; Kudo, K.; Ohta, J.

    1983-08-01

    The energy saving potential of a proposed heat pump-boiler system for district heating is analyzed. Fuel is supplied to a boiler which generates steam to drive a turbine. The turbine output is used to power a heat pump which takes energy from the environment. Introduction of a screw type expander in place of the throttling valve in the heat pump cycle is planned to increase the system performance. District heating is provided by hot water which is heated as it flows through the condensers in the heat pump and turbine cycles. Both series and parallel connected condenser arrangements are considered. Results show that the heat supplied to the water for district heating can be as high as 200 percent of the heating that would be provided by use of the fuel supplied to a conventional boiler system with a thermal efficiency of 90 percent.

  18. Identification of boiler inlet transfer functions and estimation of system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    An iterative computer method is described for identifying boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. An objective penalized performance measure and a nonlinear minimization technique are used to cause the locus of points generated by a transfer function to resemble the locus of points obtained from frequency response measurements. Different transfer functions can be tried until a satisfactory empirical transfer function of the system is found. To illustrate the method, some examples and some results from a study of a set of data consisting of measurements of the inlet impedance of a single tube forced flow boiler with inserts are given.

  19. Affective judgment and beneficial decision making: ventromedial prefrontal activity correlates with performance in the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Schmidt, Conny; Bermpohl, Felix; Heinzel, Alexander; Hell, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Damasio proposes in his somatic marker theory that not only cognitive but also affective components are critical for decision making. Since affective judgment requires an interplay between affective and cognitive components, it might be considered a key process in decision making that has been linked to neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the relationship between VMPFC, emotionally (unexpected)- and cognitively (expected)-accentuated affective judgment, and beneficial decision making (Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) in healthy subjects. Neuronal activity in the VMPFC during unexpected affective judgment significantly correlated with both global and final performance in the IGT task. These findings suggest that the degree to which subjects recruit the VMPFC during affective judgment is related to beneficial performance in decision making in gambling.

  20. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetu; Webster, Premila; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita

    2014-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Design The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. The findings are based on 63 in-depth interviews with ASHAs, their co-workers and representatives from the two departments. The interviews were conducted using interview guides. An inductive approach with open coding was used for manual data analysis. Results This study shows that an ASHA's motivation and performance are affected by a variety of factors that emerge from the complex context in which she works. These include various personal (e.g. education), professional (e.g. training, job security), and organisational (e.g. infrastructure) factors along with others that emerge from external work environment. The participants suggested various ways to address these challenges. Conclusion In order to improve the performance of ASHAs, apart from taking corrective actions at the professional and organisational front on a priority basis, it is equally essential to promote cordial work relationships amongst ASHAs and other community-level workers from the two departments. This will also have a positive impact on community health. PMID:25319596